WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmic-ray air showers

  1. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  2. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  3. Cosmic ray radio emission as air shower detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curutiu, Alexandru; Rusu, Mircea; Isar, Gina; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (within the 10 to 100 MHz range) are discussed. Currently, air showers are detected by various methods, mainly based on particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger) or optical detection (Cerenkov radiation). Recently,to detect radio emission from cosmic ray air showers a method using electromagnetic radiation in low frequency domain (LOFAR) was proposed. We are investigating this possibility, using simulation codes created to investigate electromagnetic radiation of intricate antennae structure, for example fractal antennas. Some of the preliminary results will be communicated in this session. (authors)

  4. Simple ADC unit for cosmic ray air shower experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, G C; Ghosh, B; Ghoshdastidar, M R; Sengupta, S K; Chaudhuri, N [North Bengal Univ., Darjeeling (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-02-01

    The design of a new low cost analog-to-digital converter system is described. It is based upon the method of linearising the charging process of a storage condenser and is controlled by logic gates. Its tested characteristics have been found to be reliable for application in cosmic ray air shower experiments.

  5. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning? : A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow,

  6. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  7. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  8. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  9. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  10. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution of the electrons in the shower core. This complements the information obtained from surface, fluorescence, and muon detectors and is very useful in getting a comprehensive picture of an air shower.

  11. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution

  12. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Buitink, Stijn; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered.

  13. Simulation of the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers using CORSIKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone [University of Siegen (Germany); Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya); Hashim, Nadir; Okumu, John [Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere produces, among other particles, pions and kaons. They decay to muons, which form an important component of extensive air showers. The ratio of positively to negatively charged muons, called the muon charge ratio, provides important information about the cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the theoretical hadronic interaction models in the cosmic ray simulation code CORSIKA have been used to study the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons simulated in extensive air showers. An East - West effect on the charge ratio of simulated cosmic ray muons is observed. It is more pronounced for inclined and low-energy muons (momentum less than 100 GeV/c and zenith angle greater than 80 ). Experimental data from ''MINOS Near'' experiment gives similar results.

  14. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  15. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio

  16. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving

  17. Influence of diffractive interactions on cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.; Zepeda, A.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sciutto, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commonly used hadronic collision simulation packages is presented. The characteristics of the products of hadron-nucleus collisions are analyzed from a general perspective, but focusing on their correlation with diffractive processes. One of the purposes of our work is to give quantitative estimations of the impact that different characteristics of the hadronic models have on air shower observables. Several sets of shower simulations using different settings for the parameters controlling the diffractive processes are used to analyze the correlations between diffractivity and shower observables. We find that the relative probability of diffractive processes during the shower development have a non-negligible influence over the longitudinal profile as well as the distribution of muons at ground level. The implications on experimental data analysis are discussed

  18. New measurements and analysis of high-energy muons in cosmic ray extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Ghose, B.; Murkherjee, N.; Sanyal, S.; Chaudhuri, N.; Chhetri, R.; Basak, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cosmic ray air shower structure measurements and measurement of density and energy of air shower muons of a wide energy range simultaneously in individual air showers by two magnet spectrographs are presented. The measured muon densities have been used to compare with some of the previous measurements on muon densities in air showers of nearly the same size. The measured muon densities have also been applied for distinguishing between various interaction models and between light and heavier air shower primaries. In the air shower size range 10 4 -10 6 particles the present measurements do not provide evidence for iron primaries and the different interaction models seem not to be distinguishable by air shower observations. (Author)

  19. Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km 2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p T ) spectrum of high p T muons can be determined. The production of the semuons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays

  20. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliescher, Stefan, E-mail: fliescher@physik.rwth-aachen.de [3. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, University (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km{sup 2} radio array.

  1. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  2. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans

    2017-06-01

    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  3. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  4. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: frank.schroeder@kit.edu [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  5. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  6. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  7. OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Baker, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A. [Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Altmann, D. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beattie, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bechet, S. [Science Faculty CP230, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tjus, J. Becker [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2013-03-01

    We report on the observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at PeV energies. The analysis is based on data taken between 2009 and 2012 with the IceTop air shower array at the south pole. IceTop, an integral part of the IceCube detector, is sensitive to cosmic rays between 100 TeV and 1 EeV. With the current size of the IceTop data set, searches for anisotropy at the 10{sup -3} level can, for the first time, be extended to PeV energies. We divide the data set into two parts with median energies of 400 TeV and 2 PeV, respectively. In the low energy band, we observe a strong deficit with an angular size of about 30 Degree-Sign and an amplitude of (- 1.58 {+-} 0.46{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at a location consistent with previous observations of cosmic rays with the IceCube neutrino detector. The study of the high energy band shows that the anisotropy persists to PeV energies and increases in amplitude to (- 3.11 {+-} 0.38{sub stat} {+-} 0.96{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}.

  8. Air shower array designed for cosmic ray variation measurements and high energy gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, C; Navarra, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1981-08-15

    We describe an array for performing measurements of counting rates and arrival directions of extensive air showers at primary energy E/sub 0/ approx. equal to 3 x 10/sup 9/ eV. The aim of the research is to study the time variations and the anisotropies of cosmic rays and the observable gamma ray sources in the high energy region. The installation, composed of four large area scintillation counters and completely controlled by a microcomputer system, operates at mountain altitude (3500 m a.s.l.). The preanalysis of data, stability tests and periodic calibrations are performed by on-line programs. The method for obtaining the required stability and the corrections on temperature and gain variations are also described.

  9. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: From Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciascio Giuseppe Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.. The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 1011 – 1018 eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  10. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2009-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E∼10 15 eV to 6x10 19 eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10 15 and ∼10 19 eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  11. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2009-06-15

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E{approx}10{sup 15} eV to 6x10{sup 19} eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10{sup 15} and {approx}10{sup 19} eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  12. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: analysis of extensive air showers and their associated electromagnetic signal in the MHz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenu, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes a review of the present results in the field of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. After a presentation of some results about the Fermi mechanism to accelerate cosmic rays, the author more particularly addresses the reconstruction of air showers, and the search for sources. He also addresses the radio signal emitted by air shower secondary positrons and electrons. He proposes an overview of the present knowledge on the basis of present experiments. Data show that the electric field is mainly due to the influence of the Earth magnetic field which acts on electrons and positrons, but more recently, the contribution due to electrons in excess seems to appear in data. The author reports the last advances in the field of simulation of the electric field, with notably the prediction of new signal produced by the disappearance of the air shower during its absorption by the soil [fr

  13. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector. The transmitter is under the direct control of experimenters, and in a radio-quiet area isolated from other radio frequency (RF) sources. The power and radiation pattern are known at all times. Forward power up to 40 kW and gain exceeding 20 dB maximize energy density in the radar field. Continuous wave (CW) transmission gives 100% duty cycle, as opposed to pulsed radar. TARA utilizes a high sample rate DAQ (250 MS/s). TARA is colocated with a large state-of-the-art conventional CR observatory, allowing the radar data stream to be sampled at the arrival times of known cosmic ray events. Each of these attributes of the TARA detector has been discussed in detail in the literature [8]. A map

  14. Receiver system for radio observation of high-energy cosmic ray air showers and its behaviour in self trigger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    The observation of high-energy cosmic rays is carried out by indirect measurements. Thereby the primary cosmic particle enters into the earth's atmosphere and generates a cosmic ray air shower by interactions with the air molecules. The secondary particles arriving at ground level are detected with particle detector arrays. The fluorescence light from the exited nitrogen molecules along the shower axis is observed with reflector telescopes in the near-ultraviolet range. In addition to these well-established detection methods, the radio observation of the geosynchrotron emission from cosmic ray air showers is investigated at present as a new observation method. Geosynchrotron emission is generated by the acceleration of the relativistic electron-positron-pairs contained in the air shower by Lorentz forces in the earth's magnetic field. At ground level this causes a single pulse of the electric field strength with a continuous frequency spectrum ranging from a few MHz to above 100 MHz. In this work, a suitable receiver concept is developed based on the signal properties of the geosynchrotron emission and the analysis of the superposed noise and radio frequency interferences. As the required receiver system was not commercially available, it was designed in the framework of this work and realised as system including the antenna, the receiver electronics and suitable data acquisition equipment. In this concept considerations for a large scale radio detector array have already been taken into account, like low power consumption to enable solar power supply and cost effectiveness. The result is a calibrated, multi-channel, digital wideband receiver for the complete range from 40 MHz to 80 MHz. Its inherent noise and RFI suppression essentially results from the antenna directional characteristic and frequency selectivity and allows effective radio observation of cosmic ray air showers also in populated environment. Several units of this receiver station have been deployed

  15. Self-triggering of radio signals from cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    LOPES STAR is a prototype detector for future experiments on the observation of radio emission of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Absolutely calibrated measurements of the electric field strength with the LOPES STAR detector were performed in coincidence with the well-established air shower detector KASCADE-Grande. The experinmental configuration allowed a simultaneous observation of east-west and north-south polarised components of the electric field per antenna used. This thesis discusses in detail the influence of background sources on the detector configuration as well as the resulting self-trigger system. The implemented trigger suppresses strong background signals from the industrial environment on the site of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (rejection >99.9 %) and is the basis for a hardware self-trigger. Therefore, the system is adequate for any other detector site. Two different calibration methods are performed and cross-checked to convert the measured raw data into an electric field strength. Both methods result in the same frequency dependent calibration values within their uncertainties. Furthermore, the probable scale parameter of d 0 =(137±18) m. The comparison of selected events with Monte Carlo simulations on an event-by-event basis points out a good correspondence within the given uncertainties and confirms the geosynchrotron model. The overall angular resolution of the arrival direction results in only a few degrees. The presented methods and algorithms are developed for the trigger system and the analysis and are now standard tools for the data analysis in the LOPES collaboration. (orig.)

  16. ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE MULTI-TeV COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY USING THE TIBET III AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Fan, C.; Feng Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; He, H. H.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu Haibing; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the large-scale two-dimensional sidereal anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays (CRs) by the Tibet Air Shower Array, with the data taken from 1999 November to 2008 December. To explore temporal variations of the anisotropy, the data set is divided into nine intervals, each with a time span of about one year. The sidereal anisotropy of magnitude, about 0.1%, appears fairly stable from year to year over the entire observation period of nine years. This indicates that the anisotropy of TeV Galactic CRs remains insensitive to solar activities since the observation period covers more than half of the 23rd solar cycle.

  17. Northern Sky Galactic Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 10 and 1000 TeV with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amenomori, M. [Department of Physics, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, D. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T. [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Feng, C. F. [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Z. Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Hibino, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Hotta, N. [Faculty of Education, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505 (Japan); Collaboration: Tibet AS γ Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-20

    We report on the analysis of the 10–1000 TeV large-scale sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the data collected by the Tibet Air Shower Array from 1995 October to 2010 February. In this analysis, we improve the energy estimate and extend the decl. range down to −30°. We find that the anisotropy maps above 100 TeV are distinct from that at a multi-TeV band. The so-called tail-in and loss-cone features identified at low energies get less significant, and a new component appears at ∼100 TeV. The spatial distribution of the GCR intensity with an excess (7.2 σ pre-trial, 5.2 σ post-trial) and a deficit (−5.8 σ pre-trial) are observed in the 300 TeV anisotropy map, in close agreement with IceCube’s results at 400 TeV. Combining the Tibet results in the northern sky with IceCube’s results in the southern sky, we establish a full-sky picture of the anisotropy in hundreds of TeV band. We further find that the amplitude of the first order anisotropy increases sharply above ∼100 TeV, indicating a new component of the anisotropy. All these results may shed new light on understanding the origin and propagation of GCRs.

  18. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  19. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 24 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 241101. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  20. On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.

  1. A combined cosmic ray muon spectrometer and high energy air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies in excess of 10 20 eV, and individual sources have been conclusively identified as intense emitters of gamma rays at energies up to 10 16 eV. There is clearly a great deal of exciting astrophysics to be learned from such studies, but it has been suggested that there may be particle physics to be learned from the cosmic beam as well. Based in particular on the reports of surprisingly high fluxes of underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 modulated by the known orbital period, there have been several suggestions recently invoking stable supersymmetric particles produced at Cygnus X-3, enhanced muon production from high energy photons, quark matter, and ''cygnets.'' Although the underground muon results have been questioned, it may still be worthwhile to consider the possibility of new physics beyond the standard model with energy scale (G/sub F/)/sup -1/2/ ≥ 0.25 TeV. For example, there have been recent discussions on the experimental signatures to be observed from new high energy photon couplings to matter, exchanges between constituent quarks and leptons, and stable gluinos and photinos mixed in with the cosmic gamma ray flux. We describe here a possible detector to search for such effects. We utilize the possibility that point sources like Cygnus X-3 can be used to provide a directional time-modulated ''tagged'' high energy photon beam

  2. Studies of Muons in Extensive Air Showers from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Surface Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, R.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takeda, M.; Nonaka, T.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Sakurai, N.; Okuda, T.; Ogio, S.; Matthews, J. N.; Stokes, B.

    The number of muons in the air shower induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been measured with surface detector (SD) arrays of various experiments. Monte Carlo (MC) prediction of the number of muons in air showers depends on hadronic interaction models and the primary cosmic ray composition. By comparing the measured number of muons with the MC prediction, hadronic interaction models can be tested. The Pierre Auger Observatory reported that the number of muons measured by water Cherenkov type SD is about 1.8 times larger than the MC prediction for proton with QGSJET II-03 model. The number of muons in the Auger data is also larger than the MC prediction for iron. The Telescope Array experiment adopts plastic scintillator type SD, which is sensitive to the electromagnetic component that is the major part of secondary particles in the air shower. To search for the high muon purity condition in air showers observed by the TA, we divided air shower events into subsets by the zenith angle θ, the azimuth angle ϕ relative to the shower arrival direction projected onto the ground, and the distance R from shower axis. As a result, we found subsets with the high muon purity 65%, and compared the charge density between observed data and MC. The typical ratios of the charge density of the data to that of the MC are 1.71 ± 0.10 at 1870 m muon purity. These results imply that the excess of the charge density in the data is partly explained by the muon excess.

  3. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  4. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, H; Villasenor, L

    2008-01-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV

  5. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, C.; Mejia, G.R.; Yoshii, H.; Toyoda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 10 16 eV to 10 19 eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  6. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  7. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    IceTop is a km 2 scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10 11 m 2 s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of the mixed

  8. The cosmic ray primary composition between $10^{15}$ and $10^{16}$ ev from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bergamasco, L; Bernardini, P; Bertaina, M; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiavassa, A; Choudhary, B C; Cini, G; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Di Sciascio, G; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fulgione, W; Fusco, P; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iacovacci, M; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mannocchi, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Morello, C; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Navarra, G; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Saavedra, O; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Stamerra, A; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Trinchero, G C; Vakili, M; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2003.10.004

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10/sup 15/ and 10/sup 16/ eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10/sup 5/ m/sup 2/ collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m/sup 2/ effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (N/sub e/) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (N /sub mu /) recorded by MACRO, The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees . The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual N/sub mu /-N/sub e/ studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming hea...

  9. Atmospheric showers reconstruction and air fluorescence measurement for the study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the framework of EUSO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The EUSO project (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is an innovative concept to measure the UHECR (Ultra High Energy Cosmic ray) spectrum by observing from space the light (air fluorescence and Cerenkov radiation) produced in the atmosphere by EAS (Extensive Air Shower). After an overview of the scientific context and an EUSO project description, a reconstruction method of EAS seen from space is presented. This new method enable one to reconstruct the UHECR parameters (Energy, direction, X_m_a_x) using only the fluorescence signal shape (without extra information). This method is very efficient for the horizontal EAS. The second part of this thesis deals with the study and the measurement of the air fluorescence with the MACFLY experiment (Measurement of Air Cerenkov and Fluorescence Light Yield). After a state of the art on the air fluorescence knowledge, a model of FLY (Florescence Light Yield) proportional to the Energy released in air is proposed. The experiment MACFLY and the data analysis method are described in detail. The experiment is composed of two devices. The first (Macfly1) which measures the fluorescence produced by only one particle measure the FLY of electron of 1.5 MeV (radioactive source), 20 GeV and 50 GeV (CERN test beam). The second (Macfly2) which measure the fluorescence produced by an electromagnetic shower, was the first experiment to measure the shower age dependence of the FLY. The pressure dependence was also measured by the two devices. Thanks to a GEANT4 simulation program, we compare our measurements with the FLY models. The assumption of the proportionality between the FLY and the energy deposited has been checked. One finds the same result with Macfly1 and Macfly2. In the air at 950 hPa, 23 deg. C and 0% of moisture one obtains: FLY=19 ± 4 photons/MeV. (author) [fr

  10. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, E.; Dawson, B.; Horváth, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J.N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, P.; Schovánek, Petr; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S.B.; Trávníček, Petr; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, Feb (2016), s. 64-72 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * fluorescence detector * extensive air shower Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  11. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-12-03

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  13. Depth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Air Shower Maxima Measured by the Telescope Array Black Rock and Long Ridge FADC Fluorescence Detectors and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; di Matteo, A.; Fujii, T.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Mayta, R.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Oda, H.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Omura, Y.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sahara, R.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhezher, Y.; Zundel, Z.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) observatory utilizes fluorescence detectors and surface detectors (SDs) to observe air showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays in Earth’s atmosphere. Cosmic-ray events observed in this way are termed hybrid data. The depth of air shower maximum is related to the mass of the primary particle that generates the shower. This paper reports on shower maxima data collected over 8.5 yr using the Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors in conjunction with the array of SDs. We compare the means and standard deviations of the observed {X}\\max distributions with Monte Carlo {X}\\max distributions of unmixed protons, helium, nitrogen, and iron, all generated using the QGSJet II-04 hadronic model. We also perform an unbinned maximum likelihood test of the observed data, which is subjected to variable systematic shifting of the data {X}\\max distributions to allow us to test the full distributions, and compare them to the Monte Carlo to see which elements are not compatible with the observed data. For all energy bins, QGSJet II-04 protons are found to be compatible with TA hybrid data at the 95% confidence level after some systematic {X}\\max shifting of the data. Three other QGSJet II-04 elements are found to be compatible using the same test procedure in an energy range limited to the highest energies where data statistics are sparse.

  14. Extensive air showers accompanied by gamma-families and fraction of protons in the primary cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamayasu, C.; Saito, To.; Sakata, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data of EAS accompanied by gamma-families with a total energy greater than 10 TeV are taken at Mt. Norikura in 1980 -- 1981 and in 1985. An EX (emulsion and/or x-ray film) chamber is used, which consists six sensitive layers and iron plates as the absorber. The iron absorber chamber can detect more hadron origin cascades than a lead absorber chamber for the same chamber thickness in radiation length, though disadvantageous for separation of gamma-ray origin cascades from hadron origin ones. Analysis is made of the single gamma-ray energy spectrum, integral spectrum of total energies of gamma-families, zenith angle distributions of gamma-families, the scatter plot of EAS size - ΣE γ,H correlation, arrival zenith angle distribution of general EAS, and depth dependence of absolute vertical intensities of EAS. The data obtained are compared by the Monte Carlo simulation technique with a moderate rising cross section proportional to the collision energy in the form E 0.04 for p-air nucleus collisions. The absolute intensity of size spectrum of such EAS is strongly affected by the fraction of primary protonsin the 10 15 -- 10 16 eV region. The experimental size spectrum agrees with the simulated spectrum for the p-poor (up to 15 %) primary composition but it disagrees with the p-rich (up to 40 %) one in the first half, at least, of this energy region. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.; van Kessel, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent

  16. GREX/COVER-PLASTEX: an experiment to analyze the space-time structure of extensive air showers produced by primary cosmic rays of 1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Ambrosio, M.; Beaman, J.; Barbarino, G.C.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Colesanti, L.; Dali, G.; Guarino, F.; Lauro, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Mangano, A.; Popova, L.; Watson, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    A novel experimental installation is described in which the traditional method of detecting extensive air showers with scintillation counters is significantly extended by the addition of limited streamer tube hodoscopes (LST) and layers of resistive plate counters (RPC). Runs with the scintillator array, GREX, at Haverah Park have demonstrated the power of the LST hodoscopes to determine the direction of arrival of muons, electrons and photons in air showers while the RPC system permits the relative arrival time of individual particles and the temporal thickness and structure of the shower disc to be obtained. The potential of these technical advances for studying the longitudinal profile of air showers produced by primaries of about 1000 TeV is briefly discussed. First measurements of thickness and time profile of EAS front are also reported. (orig.)

  17. A background-free detector for cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Resvanis, L.; Voulgaris, G.; Ypsilantis, T.; Tripp, R.; Torres, S.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Bartoli, B.; Sinnis, G.; Weekes, D.; Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Luksys, M.; Chuang, K.W.; Kerrick, A.; O'Neil, T.J.; Tumer, T.; Zych, A.D.; Bicchi, P.; Meucci, M.; Moi, L.; Paoletti, R.; Rigato, M.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Cence, R.J.; Hayes, C.; Hudson, J.; Kelley, L.; Learned, J.G.; Paluselli, D.; Stenger, V.J.

    1992-01-01

    A detector of new design is planned to detect Cherenkov light in high energy cosmic ray showers. It is based on the detection of the middle-UV radiation by TMAE photosensitive chambers, giving detailed imaging of the shower, combined with the beneficial background screening of the ozone in the upper atmosphere. This allows us to greatly improve the duty-cycle, the sensitivity and the range of observations with respect to traditional Cherenkov experiments in the visible. A further advantage is the achievable big angular aperture which makes it possible to search for new sources with an efficiency similar to extensive air shower experiments. Details of the technique and achievable physics goals are presented. (orig.)

  18. A method to measure the γ-ray content in VHE cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Menzione, A.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Bartoli, B.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Luksys, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine the effectiveness of methods to tag photon initiated air showers and reject hadron initiated ones. The technique is based on the rate reduction in the Moon direction. With a photon energy threshold below or equal to 1 TeV, with an angular resolution of a few mrad and being insensitive to visible light, the proposed CLUE detector allows a wide and original physics program. In particular the direct measurement of the fraction of primary photons in the continuum of the cosmic ray flux is feasible with adequate statistics in a few months of data taking. (orig.)

  19. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  20. Calculation of the TeV prompt muon component in very high energy cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bloise, C.; Forti, C.; Tanzini, A.

    1995-07-01

    HEMAS-DPM is a Monte Carlo for the simulation of very high energy cosmic ray showers, which includes the DPMJET-II code based on the two component Dual Parton Model. DPMJET-II provides also charm production in agreement with data and, for p exceeding 5 GeV/c, with perturbative QCD results in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. In this respect, a new scheme has been considered for the inclusive production of D mesons at large p in hadronic collisions in the frame work of perturbative fragmentation functions, allowing an analysis at the NLO (next to leading order) level which goes beyond the fixed O(α s 3 ) perturbative theory of open charm production. HEMAS-DPM has been applied to the calculation of the prompt muon component for E μ ≥1 TeV in air showers considering the two extreme cases of primary protons and Fe nuclei

  1. An air shower array for LOFAR: LORA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Aar, G. V.; Akker, M. V. D.; Bähren, L.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; James, C.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Ter Veen, S.

    2011-01-01

    LOFAR is a new form of radio telescope which can detect radio emission from air showers induced by very high-energy cosmic rays. It can also look for radio emission from particle cascades on the Moon induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays or neutrinos. To complement the radio detection, we are

  2. Results on the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays from the IceTop air shower array of the IceCube Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilav Serap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays above 1 PeV with the data taken during the construction phase of the IceTop and IceCube detectors. We discuss our current systematics and observation of a structure in the energy spectrum above 20 PeV where the mass composition gets heavier than iron nuclei.

  3. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic γ-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10 16 eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy γ-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  4. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegan, David J., E-mail: david.fegan@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2012-01-11

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic {gamma}-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10{sup 16} eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy {gamma}-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  5. Cosmic ray muons and their associated shower particles underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleonic contamination of the underwater cosmic ray muon flux is studied as a function of depth. Stacks of Ilford G-5 photographic emulsions were assembled and processed in an underground laboratory (9 hg/cm 2 below sea level). In between the assembly and the development they were exposed, stored in small pressure chambers, at various depths underwater for periods of time up to six months. At each depth approximately 10 cm 3 of emulsion were scanned for stopping particles and nuclear disintegrations. Altogether approximately 2000 stopping muons, 50 stopping mesons, and 200 recoil protons were found and analyzed. Comparison with theories as to how the underground cosmic ray muon beam produces a secondary flux of nuclearly active particles are made. Additionally measurements on the residue flux at 440mwe underground are made. Projected rates from the shallow depth studies are used to analyze the results at large depth. Anomalous particle production is observed at the large depth

  6. Air shower measurements with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneffer, A.; Bähren, L.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Nigl, A.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Air showers from cosmic rays emit short, intense radio pulses. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a new radio telescope, that is being built in the Netherlands and Europe. Designed primarily as a radio interferometer, the core of LOFAR will have a high density of radio antennas, which will be

  7. The Effect of a Non-Isotropic Flux of Very High Energy Cosmic Rays on the values of Mean Shower Maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudifar, Pantea; Tabari, Keihanak Rowshan

    2015-01-01

    In our previous works we described a statistical method to interpret the results of extensive air shower simulations. For an isotropically distributed flux of cosmic rays, we used this method to deduce diagrams of mean values of shower maxima versus energy decades. To have a more realistic result, we considered the effect of a non-isotropic flux of cosmic rays at different energy ranges. This effect was considered as a weight factor deduced from a set of observed data. We discussed about the effect of this weight factor on our final resulted diagrams of mean shower maxima and for different interaction models compared the resulted distributions of very high energy cosmic ray's mass composition

  8. Detection of ultraviolet Cherenkov light from high energy cosmic ray atmospheric showers: A field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Sartori, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a test with a prototype apparatus aimed to detect the ultraviolet Cherenkov light in the wavelenght range 2000-2300A, emitted by high energy cosmic ray showers. The system consists of a gas proportional chamber, with TMAE vapour as the photosensitive element, placed on the focal plane of a 1.5 m diameter parabolic mirror. The test was done during the summer of 1989 with cosmic ray showers seen in coincidence with the EAS-TOP experiment, an extended atmospheric shower charged particle array now being exploited at Campo Imperatore, 1900 m above sea level, on top of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory of INFN. The results were positive and show that a full scale ultraviolet Cherenkov experiment with good sensitivity, angular resolution and virtually no background from moonlight or even daylight can be envisaged. (orig.)

  9. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  10. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for UHE Cosmic Rays Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2011), 266-276 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : trigger * cosmic ray shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.216, year: 2011 http://www.auger.org/technical_info/pdfs/PerroneLTP_Published.pdf

  11. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  12. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  13. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  14. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  15. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers : A tool to extract shower parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the

  16. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, D.; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, Mar (2016), s. 9-18 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * extensive air showers * cosmic ray composition Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  17. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  18. Cosmic ray investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, Georgii T; Roganova, Tat'yana M

    2009-01-01

    The history of cosmic ray research at the Lebedev Institute beginning with the first work and continuing up to now is reviewed. The milestones and main avenues of research are outlined. Pioneering studies on the nuclear cascade process in extensive air showers, investigations of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, and some work on the origin of cosmic rays are discussed. Recent data on ultrahigh-energy particle detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments are presented. (conferences and symposia)

  19. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  20. Radio detection of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandel, J. R.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N G

    2015-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays (ionized atomic nuclei) impinge on the atmosphere of the Earth they interact with atomic nuclei and initiate cascades of secondary particles - the extensive air showers. Many of the secondary particles in the air showers are electrons and positrons. They cause radiation

  1. New air Cherenkov light detectors to study mass composition of cosmic rays with energies above knee region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki, E-mail: tsunesada@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Katsuya, Ryoichi, E-mail: katsuya@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Mitsumori, Yu; Nakayama, Keisuke; Kakimoto, Fumio; Tokuno, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan (Japan); Tajima, Norio [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miranda, Pedro; Salinas, Juan; Tavera, Wilfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-11-01

    We have installed a hybrid detection system for air showers generated by cosmic rays with energies greater than 3×10{sup 15}eV at Mount Chacaltaya (5200 m above the sea level), in order to study the mass composition of cosmic rays above the knee region. This detection system comprises an air shower array with 49 scintillation counters in an area of 500 m×650 m, and seven new Cherenkov light detectors installed in a radial direction from the center of the air shower array with a separation of 50 m. It is known that the longitudinal development of a particle cascade in the atmosphere strongly depends on the type of the primary nucleus, and an air shower initiated by a heavier nucleus develops faster than that by a lighter primary of the same energy, because of the differences in the interaction cross-section and the energy per nucleon. This can be measured by detecting the Cherenkov radiation emitted from charged particles in air showers at higher altitudes. In this paper we describe the design and performance of our new non-imaging Cherenkov light detectors at Mount Chacaltaya that are operated in conjunction with the air shower array. The arrival directions and energies of air showers are determined by the shower array, and information about the primary masses is obtained from the Cherenkov light data including the time profiles and lateral distributions. The detector consists of photomultiplier tube (PMT), high-speed ADCs, other control modules, and data storage device. The Cherenkov light signals from an air shower are typically 10–100 ns long, and the waveforms are digitized with a sampling frequency of 1 GHz and recorded in situ without long-distance analog signal transfers. All the Cherenkov light detectors record their time-series data by receiving a triggering signal transmitted from the trigger module of the air shower array, which is fired by a coincidence of shower signals in four neighboring scintillation counters. The optical characteristics of the

  2. Cosmic Ray Studies with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    In this contribution we will give an overview of the cosmic ray studies conducted within the IceCube collaboration. The IceCube detector in the geographical south pole can be used to measure various characteristics of the extensive air showers induced by high energy cosmic rays. With IceTop, the surface component of the detector, we detect the electromagnetic and muon components of the air showers, while with the deep detector we detect the high energy muons. We have measured the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58PeV and 1.26 EeV. A combined analysis of the high energy muon bundles in the ice and the air shower footprint in IceTop provides a measure of primary composition. We will also discuss how the sensitivity to low energy muons in the air showers has the potential to produce additional measures of primary composition.

  3. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  4. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy and primary particle mass composition. Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. In September we have started registration of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope. We registered 3 decreases of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. Variations of primary cosmic ray of energies up to about 100 GeV were responsible for our registrations. These set the upper limits for geometrical size of geomagnetic disturbances in interplanetary space. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments, the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University (Sweden). We have organised (together with the Physics Department of the University of Lodz) the 17 th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (24-?8 July 2000) in which about 150 physicists participated (about 100 from abroad). (author)

  5. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L.C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  6. Cosmic Ray Physics with the IceCube Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory with its 1-km 3 in-ice detector and the 1-km 2 surface detector (IceTop) constitutes a three-dimensional cosmic ray detector well suited for general cosmic ray physics. Various measurements of cosmic ray properties, such as energy spectra, mass composition and anisotropies, have been obtained from analyses of air showers at the surface and/or atmospheric muons in the ice.

  7. Energy determination of cosmic ray showers in surface arrays using signal inference at a single distance from the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, G. [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain)], E-mail: germanrosmagan@yahoo.es; Medina-Tanco, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exteriror S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Peral, L. del [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain); D' Olivo, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exteriror S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Arqueros, F. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria 28040, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Frias, M.D. [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain)

    2009-09-21

    In most high energy cosmic ray surface arrays, the primary energy is currently determined from the value of the lateral distribution function at a fixed distance from the shower core, r{sub 0}. The value of r{sub 0} is mainly related to the geometry of the array and is, therefore, considered as fixed independently of the shower energy or direction. We argue, however, that the dependence of r{sub 0} on energy and zenith angle is not negligible. Therefore, in the present work we propose a new characteristic distance, which we call r{sub opt}, specifically determined for each individual shower, with the objective of optimizing the energy reconstruction. This parameter may not only improve the energy determination, but also allow a more reliable reconstruction of the shape and position of rapidly varying spectral features. We show that the use of a specific r{sub opt} determined on a shower-to-shower basis, instead of using a fixed characteristic value, is of particular benefit in dealing with the energy reconstruction of events with saturated detectors, which are in general a large fraction of all the events detected by an array as energy increases. Furthermore, the r{sub opt} approach has the additional advantage of applying the same unified treatment for all detected events, regardless of whether they have saturated detectors or not.

  8. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers: A tool to extract shower parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the plasma cloud, the longitudinal shower structure, is determined by interesting physics which one would like to extract, such as the location and multiplicity of the primary cosmic-ray collision or the values of electric fields in the atmosphere during thunderstorms. To extract the structure of a shower from its footprint requires solving a complicated inverse problem. For this purpose we have developed a code that semianalytically calculates the radio footprint of an extensive air shower given an arbitrary longitudinal structure. This code can be used in an optimization procedure to extract the optimal longitudinal shower structure given a radio footprint. On the basis of air-shower universality we propose a simple parametrization of the structure of the plasma cloud. This parametrization is based on the results of Monte Carlo shower simulations. Deriving the parametrization also teaches which aspects of the plasma cloud are important for understanding the features seen in the radio-emission footprint. The calculated radio footprints are compared with microscopic CoREAS simulations.

  9. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  10. Status of the UMC cosmic ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitz, D.

    1989-01-01

    The UMC Ultra High Energy cosmic ray experiment is a collaboration among the University of Utah, the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago. It is located at the site of the Fly's Eye II experiment at Dugway, Utah, at latitude 40.2 0 and an atmospheric depth of 850 gm/cm 2 . Extensive air shower (EAS) surface arrays, a large area muon counter array, tracking Cerenkov telescopes, and the Fly's Eye detector constitute the elements of a versatile cosmic ray observatory for > or approx. 10 14 eV extensive air showers. (orig.)

  11. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  12. Dhajala meteorite shower: atmospheric fragmentation and ablation based on cosmic ray track studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagolia, C; Doshi, N; Gupta, S K; Kumar, S; Lal, D; Trivedi, J R [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)

    1977-06-01

    Cosmic-ray track studies have been carried out in more than 250 fragments of Dhajala meteorite comprising greater than 70% of the recovered mass. In the case of larger fragments (namely, those with mass exceeding 250 g) several faces of each fragment have been analysed for track densities. Track densities are low, and fall generally in the range (10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/)cm/sup -2/, indicating appreciable ablation losses since the cosmic ray exposure age of Dhajala is about 7 m.y. (track measurements were confined to large olivine grains to minimize contributions to tracks due to the fission of uranium and extinct radionuclides). Attempts have been made to deduce information about fragmentation dynamics and the preatmospheric mass/radius of Dhajala, based on the present comprehensive study of track densities in the fragments. Correlations between the position of a fragment in the strewnfield and its track density have provided an approximate scenario for the fragmentation/ablation of the meteorite during its atmospheric flight. Observation of minimum track density in the fragments lead to a value of (38 +- 2)cm for the preatmospheric radius of the meteorite. It is estimated from these data that the collection of fragments was made with an overall efficiency of approximately 60% and that the ablation amounts to (86.7 +- 2.1)%. Estimated amounts of ablation for shells of different radii are also presented.

  13. The mass composition of cosmic rays measured with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandel, Jörg R.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Winchen, T.

    2017-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays, impinging on the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles, the extensive air showers. The electrons and positrons in the air shower emit electromagnetic radiation. This emission is detected with the LOFAR radio telescope in the frequency range from 30

  14. The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernloehr, K.; Gamp, S.; Hermann, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Knoeppler, J.; Leffers, G.; Matheis, V.; Panter, M.; Trunk, U.; Ulrich, M.; Wolf, T.; Zink, R.; Heintze, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) project represents a study on the use of tracking detectors of the time projection chamber type to detect secondary cosmic ray particles in extensive air showers. In reconstructing the arrival direction of the primary cosmic ray particles, the CRT detectors take advantage of the angular correlation of secondary particles with the cosmic rays leading to these air showers. In this paper, the detector hardware including the custom-designed electronics system is described in detail. A CRT detector module provides an active area of 2.5 m 2 and allows to measure track directions with a precision of 0.4 circle . It consists of two circular drift chambers of 1.8 m diameter with six sense wires each, and a 10 cm thick iron plate between the two chambers. Each detector has a local electronics box with a readout, trigger, and monitoring system. The detectors can distinguish penetrating muons from other types of charged secondaries. A large detector array could be used to search for γ-ray point sources at energies above several TeV and for studies of the cosmic-ray composition. Ten detectors are in operation at the site of the HEGRA air shower array. (orig.)

  15. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: - Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles - Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. - Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly basing on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. Neutron transport simulations were performed in collaboration with JINR in Dubna. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on over the year 2001. We have detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registrations of muon counting rate in the on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to the solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, JINR in Dubna (Russia), Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a

  16. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: * Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. * Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles * Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. * Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. * Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on during 2001. We detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registration of the muon counting rate in on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a project of large air shower array for studies of cosmic rays up to 10 20 eV. Detectors would be placed on the roofs of high

  17. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis...

  18. Free-air ionization intensity in the lower atmosphere due to cosmic-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Katsurayama, Kousuke

    1979-01-01

    Being able to be determined by subtracting the gamma-ray ionization intensity from that obtained with ionization chamber, cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated by using with 15l air-filled ionization chamber and 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Optimum applied voltage to 15l air-filled ionization chamber was determined in accordance with Scott and Greening's formula to obtain the ionization intensity caused by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays. Pulse-height distribution of cosmic-rays created in 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was investigated for the precise determination of gamma-ray ionization intensity. Field measurements were carried out by using with these two instruments at about 1.5 meter above the ground in the several locations around Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated from the results obtained with air-filled ionization chamber and was 3.33 +- 0.15 μR/hr equivalent in natural environment near Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. (author)

  19. Cosmic Ray Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, C; Jost, B; Maciuc, F; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2008-01-01

    CosmoALEPH is an experiment operated in conjunction with the ALEPH detector. The ALEPH experiment took data from 1989 until the year 2000 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at CERN. It provides, among others, high resolution tracking and calorimetry. CosmoALEPH used this e+e− detector for cosmic ray studies. In addition, six scintillator telescopes were installed in the ALEPH pit and the LEP tunnel. The whole experiment operated underground at a vertical depth of 320 meter water equivalent. Data from ALEPH and the scintillator telescopes provide informaton on the lateral distribution of energetic cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers. The decoherence curve of these remnant air shower muons is sensitive to the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays and to the interaction characteristics of energetic hadrons in the atmosphere. An attempt is made to extract the various interdependencies in describing the propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays through the atmosphere and the rock ov...

  20. Study of multi-muon bundles in cosmic ray showers detected with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Boonekamp, M.; Jarry, P.; Lutz, P.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A.; Pierre, F.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Turluer, M.L.; Vilanova, D.

    2007-01-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP has been used to measure multi-muon bundles originating from cosmic ray interactions with air. The cosmic events were recorded in 'parasitic mode' between individual e + e - interactions and the total live time of this data taking is equivalent to 1.6 * 10 6 s. The DELPHI apparatus is located about 100 m underground and the 84 metres rock overburden imposes a cutoff of about 52 GeV/c on muon momenta. The data from the large volume Hadron Calorimeter allowed the muon multiplicity of 54,201 events to be reconstructed. The resulting muon multiplicity distribution is compared with the prediction of the Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJETOI. The model fails to describe the abundance of high multiplicity events. The impact of QGSJET internal parameters on the results is also studied. (authors)

  1. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  2. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  4. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 1013 - 1014 eV primaries (COALA project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, A.G.; Fenton, K.B.; Humble, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers (median primary energy: 5.10 13 eV) in Tasmania have been planned to start during 1981. The observations will be carried out through collaboration of the Hobart and Nagoya groups, in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a somewhat stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere (Mt. Norikura). The air shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4 m 2 proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m. The shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per hour

  5. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E 0 ≥5x10 17 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  6. Cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will review results of cosmic ray observations at the highest energies. This year the new results on energy spectra, composition and the study of arrival directions of cosmic ray primaries came from the Telescope Array collaboration. I present these results in comparison with measurements done by other recent experiments and discuss their implications for the search of cosmic ray sources. Some related results in gamma-ray astronomy and selected recent advances in theory are also covered. (author)

  7. The new South Pole air shower experiment - SPASE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Gaisser, T K; Gill, J R; Hart, S P; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Martello, D; Miller, T C; Ogden, P A; Patel, M; Rochester, K; Spiczak, G M; Stanev, T; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new coincidence experiment designed to improve understanding of the composition of the primary cosmic-ray beam around the knee of the spectrum. The experiment consists of an air shower array on the surface (SPASE-2), which works in coincidence with an array of air-Cherenkov detectors (VULCAN), and the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) deep in the ice. The experiment must cover the energy range from approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 to approx 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 eV to overlap with direct measurements at lower energy and encompass the regions of the knee and beyond in the cosmic ray spectrum.

  8. The air shower maximum probed by Cherenkov effects from radio emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray-induced air showers has come to a flight the last decade. Along with the experimental efforts, several theoretical models were developed. The main radio-emission mechanisms are established to be the geomagnetic emission due to deflection of electrons and positrons in

  9. Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of ...

  10. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS)

  11. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; Zilles, A.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's

  12. Cherenkov light based measurement of extensive air showers around the knee with the HEGRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Barrio, J.A.; Belgarian, A.S.; Bernloehr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Daum, A.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzales, J.C.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hemberger, M.; Hermann, G.; Hess, M.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Koehler, C.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Prosch, C.; Puehlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Renault, C.; Rhode, W.; Roehring, A.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schroeder, F.; Stamm, W.; Voelk, H.J.; Wiebel-Sooth, B

    1999-03-01

    Data of the wide angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air shower detector complex are combined to determine the energy spectrum and coarse composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 300 TeV to 10 PeV.

  13. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2015-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence

  14. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  15. Elemental composition of cosmic rays using a maximum likelihood method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddick, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present a progress report on our attempts to determine the composition of cosmic rays in the knee region of the energy spectrum. We have used three different devices to measure properties of the extensive air showers produced by primary cosmic rays: the Soudan 2 underground detector measures the muon flux deep underground, a proportional tube array samples shower density at the surface of the earth, and a Cherenkov array observes light produced high in the atmosphere. We have begun maximum likelihood fits to these measurements with the hope of determining the nuclear mass number A on an event by event basis. (orig.)

  16. Creation of the NUR mountain-level installation aimed at registration of super-high-energy showers in cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chubenko, A P; Martyanov, I S; Sadykov, K; Zastrozhnova, N N

    2002-01-01

    Description of the NUR installation aimed at registration of extensive air showers (EAS) is presented. The installation is sited near Almaty at a height of 3340 m above sea level at the Jusaly Kezen pass to the Tien Shan foothills. The distinctive characteristic of the installation from other similar existing ones is its location at a mountain slope under a 30 deg. angle relative to the horizon. Due to this orientation, the accuracy of measurement of EAS incidence angles exceeding 40 deg. increases significantly.

  17. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 10 to the 13th - 10 to the 14th eV primaries /COALA project/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Jacklyn, R. M.; Vrana, A.; Murakami, K.; Fujii, Z.; Yamada, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Ueno, H.; Nagashima, K.; Kondo, I.

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers in Tasmania beginning in 1981 are discussed. The shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4-sq m proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m, and showers around a median primary energy of 5 x 10 to the 13th are to be observed. The observations are carried out in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere, and the shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per year.

  18. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  19. Search for tachyonomonopoles in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.F.; Nauenberg, U.

    1977-05-01

    Two of the most speculative particles are the magnetic monopole and the tachyon. One conjectures that these particles exist in cosmic rays as a combined ''tachyon monopole''. The fringing magnetic field of Fermilab's 15-foot bubble chamber is used to ''accelerate'' the tachyon to sufficiently high energy that it can emit visible Cherenkov radiation. This radiation is detected by 8 photomultiplier tubes mounted on the corners of a room-sized box which is suspended from the ceiling above the bubble chamber. Two small plastic scintillator counters placed inside the box differentiate between extensive air showers and tachyon monopoles. The detector was exposed to cosmic rays for 50 days. During that time we have not recorded any tachyon monopoles. The flux of such particles in cosmic rays cannot exceed 2.5 x 10 -15 cm -2 sec -1 if they follow the earth's magnetic field lines or 1.2 x 10 -12 cm -2 sec -1 if they do not. In either event this limit is at least 400 times lower than that inferred from a previous measurement. One did record counts from extensive air showers at a rate consistent with previous experiment. This rate was halved when the bubble chamber's magnetic field was turned off. This phenomenon was likely caused by focusing of the shower electrons in the fringing magnetic field of the bubble chamber

  20. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  1. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  2. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays: facts, myths and legends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics and theoretical/experimental particle physics. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > or approx. 10 8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic-ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multiparticle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos that should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic-ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from collider data to ultrahigh energies, and describe the prospects for insights into forward physics at the Large Hadron Collider. We also explain the main electromagnetic processes that govern the longitudinal shower evolution. Armed with these two principal shower ingredients and motivation from the underlying physics, we describe the different methods proposed to distinguish primary species. In the last part, we outline how ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions can be used to probe new physics beyond the electroweak scale. (author)

  3. A Macroscopic Description of Coherent Geo-Magnetic Radiation from Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Werner, K.; Caballero, Rogelio; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Nellen, Lukas; Sánchez, Federico A.; Valdés-Galicia, José F.

    2008-01-01

    In an air shower induced by a cosmic ray, due to the high velocities, most of the particles are concentrated in the relatively thin shower front, which, for obvious reasons, is called the 'pancake'. This pancake, which for the present discussion is assumed to be charge neutral, contains large

  4. Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.

    2013-02-01

    To interpret the mean depth of cosmic ray air shower maximum and its dispersion, we parametrize those two observables as functions of the first two moments of the ln A distribution. We examine the goodness of this simple method through simulations of test mass distributions. The application of the parameterization to Pierre Auger Observatory data allows one to study the energy dependence of the mean ln A and of its variance under the assumption of selected hadronic interaction models. We discuss possible implications of these dependences in term of interaction models and astrophysical cosmic ray sources.

  5. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems such as: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of particles (up to about 10 20 eV/particle), - estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or a search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energies available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - ''cosmic weather'' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejections); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main theme of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In the Lodz Department we run an Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are registered. We concentrate our experimental research on the explanation of particle detection delayed by hundreds of microseconds with respect to the main EAS signals. In the underground (I5 meters) laboratory we continuously register muon (5 GeV energy threshold) flux with the multidirectional telescope. We have observed several disturbances (Forbush Decreases) in muon counting rates. The interpretation of these events for ''cosmic weather'' and for Cosmic Ray transport models in the interplanetary plasma are on going in collaboration with

  6. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The 31 st International Cosmic Ray Conference (31.ICRC) was held in Lodz on 7-15 July 2009. The Conference was organized by the University of Lodz (Department of High Energy Astrophysics and Department of Astrophysics) and IPJ (Department of Cosmic Ray Physics). ICRCs are held every two years and are the largest forums to present and discuss the current status of Cosmic Ray studies. The Conference we co-organized gathered about 750 scientists (including about 50 from Poland). This was a remarkable event. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the field of high energy Cosmic Rays. Cosmic Rays are energetic panicles from outside the Solar System. Most studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles. - experimental search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - studies of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites, - properties of particle interactions at very high energies. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students has become a popular way to introduce panicle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people, in Lodz and Poznan we organize workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is part of the European activity: EPPOG Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of panicles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EASs and their properties is the main means of studying experimentally high energy Cosmic Rays: · The satellite experiment JEM-EUSO will observe EASs from the International Space Station. The main target is to find Cosmic Ray Sources for the highest energy Cosmic Rays. JEM-EUSO will collect a large number of events since it will observe a large area of the atmosphere. We are participating in the preparation of this mission. · The KASCADE-Grande addresses

  7. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelling, M; Grupen, C; Luitz, S; Maciuc, F; Mailov, A; Müller, A -S; Sander, H -G; Schmeling, S; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

  8. Composition of cosmic rays in the knee region of the primary energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das Gupta, U.

    1989-01-01

    The Soudan Surface-Underground Cosmic Ray Telescope is located at the Soudan iron mine in northern Minnesota. It consists of a coincidence arrangement of two detectors-one installed at the surface of the mine and the other located underground, at a vertical depth of 600 meters. Using such an arrangement, the energy and composition of a primary cosmic ray particle can be determined independently of one another. When a high energy cosmic ray enters the Earth's atmosphere, secondary particles are produced in successive interactions, creating an extensive air shower. Using the surface detector, the number of particles in the shower at the surface of the Earth can be counted and the energy of the primary particle estimated. Of all the particles that are created in a cosmic ray air shower, only the energetic muons are able to penetrate underground. The separations of the muons below ground are measured by the Soudan 1 detector and this serves as an indicator of the type of nucleus that initiated the shower. The Soudan surface-underground detector is sensitive to primary cosmic rays of energies between 10 14 and 10 18 eV. The data from the experiment were compared to the predictions of various cosmic ray composition models, within this energy range. The data supported a composition model that was proton dominated up to the highest energies measured. There was no indication of a shift in the composition towards heavier primaries as would be expected on the basis of some models

  9. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  10. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles (up to about 1020 eV/particle), · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g.: · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. Back in 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors

  11. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies. Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: EPPOG's Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with four 1m 2 detectors and GPS. The network is

  12. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10(18) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Barbosa, A. F.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X-max, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are

  13. Numerical study of the electron and muon lateral distribution in atmospheric showers of high energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Atreidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral distribution of an atmospheric shower depends on the characteristics of the high energy interactions and the type of the primary particle. The influence of the primary particle in the secondary development of the shower into the atmosphere, is studied by analyzing the lateral distribution of electron and muon showers having as primary particle, proton, photon or iron nucleus. This study of the lateral distribution can provide useful conclusions for the mass and energy of the primary particle. This paper compares the data that we get from simulations with CORSIKA program with experimental data and the theoretical NKG function expressing lateral electron and muon distribution. Then we modify the original NKG function to fit better to the simulation data and propose a method for determining the mass of the original particle started the atmospheric shower.

  14. Measurement of the Muon Content of Air Showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, JG; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has measured the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.6 PeV and 1.3 EeV. IceTop can also be used to measure the average density of GeV muons in the shower front at large radial distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. Wei present the measurement of the muon lateral distribution function for primary cosmic rays with energies between 1.6 PeV and about 0.1 EeV, and compare it to proton and iron simulations. We also discuss how this information can be exploited in the reconstruction of single air shower events. By combining the information on the muon component with that of the electromagnetic component of the air shower, we expect to reduce systematic uncertainties in the inferred mass composition of cosmic rays arising from theoretical uncertainties in hadronic interaction models.

  15. Determining of the nuclear composition of primary cosmic rays from the experimental distributions of multiple muons in atmospheric showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1993-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for determining the nuclear composition of the primary cosmic radiation from the distributions of multiple muons. Results are presented of calculations of the distributions of multiple muons for A 1 , A 4 , A 14 , A 26 , A 56 nuclei for an infinite plane and for the underground scintillation telescope of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Russia.The most suitable technique for determination of the primary nuclear composition of cosmic rays from the distribution of multiple muons is shown to be the approximate solution of a set of N equations, in which the respective coefficients of the contributions of various nuclei A i (i=1-N) to the primary composition serve as variables, while the remaining parts of these equations are the distributions of multiple muons obtained experimentally. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. ATLAS and ultra high energy cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction to extended air shower cosmic ray physics the current and future deployment of forward detectors at ATLAS is discussed along with the various aspects of the current and future ATLAS programs to explore hadronic physics. The emphasis is placed on those results and future plans that have particular relevance for high-energy, and ultra high-energy, cosmic ray physics. The possible use of ATLAS as an “underground” cosmic muon observatory is briefly considered.

  17. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitink Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution. For high-quality detections, the statistical uncertainty on Xmax is smaller than 20 g/cm2. We present results of cosmic-ray mass analysis in the energy regime of 1017 - 1017.5 eV. This range is of particular interest as it may harbor the transition from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

  18. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2014), "012012-1"-"012012-15" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * muons * air shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  19. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: mean number in highly inclined events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), , "032003-1"-"032003-12" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air shower s * ultrahigh energies * cosmic rays * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  20. A computerised recording and monitoring system for extensive air shower experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranan, S.; Rao, M.V.S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Subramaniam, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer, TDC-12, with a memory capacity of 8 K 12-bit words and memory cycle time of 2 μs has been installed at the Cosmic Ray Laboratory at Kolar Gold Fields, India for real time operation with the KGF Air Shower Experiment. The computer system records the selected events and monitors and calibrates all the 90 detectors of various types in real time. (orig./WL) [de

  1. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  2. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles (up to about 10 20 eV/particle), - estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in laboratories). - Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - ''cosmic weather'' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students is a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering the EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In our Lodz Department we run an Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz's budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with

  3. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · The nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles (up to about 1020 eV/particle), · An estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. · 'cosmic weather' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In the Lodz Department we run the Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004, we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with four 1 m

  4. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  5. Results of fractal analysis of the Kiel extensive air shower data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Samorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    For years there has been a problem in cosmic ray studies of how to distinguish individual extensive air showers (EAS) originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei or primary photons. In this paper results of experimental data obtained from the fractal analysis of particle density distributions in individual EAS detected in the range of shower sizes N e between 1.4x10 5 -5x10 6 by the old Kiel experiment are presented. The Lipschitz-Hoelder exponent distributions of EAS detected by the Kiel experiment are discussed. The examples of EAS most probably originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei and high-energy gamma-rays are presented. The lateral distributions of charged particle densities at small distances, angular and size spectra and the mass composition of primary cosmic ray particles around the 'knee' of the energy spectrum are discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation data illustrating the problem of interest are also shown. (author)

  6. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haungs, Andreas

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  7. QGSJET-II: physics, recent improvements, and results for air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions by the QGSJET-II generator is discussed. Recent updates related to the treatment of nonlinear effects inthe interaction dynamics and to the model calibration with new LHC data are described. A special attention is devoted to the predictions of the new model version forcharacteristics of extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays. In particular, an improved description of charge exchange processes in pion collisionsis discussed and the respective enhancement of the shower muon content is analyzed.

  8. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier G.

    2015-08-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  9. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  10. Fluctuations of approximatelly 1014 eV cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, G.; Gombosi, T.; Kota, J.; Owens, A.J.; Somogyi, A.J.; Varga, A.

    1977-06-01

    It is shown that the approximately 6x10 13 eV primary cosmic ray flux, as observed in the Extensive Air Shower experiment on Musala Peak, has unexplained broad-band aperiodic fluctuations with an amplitude of 0.5%, a spectrum of 1/f, and time scales from days through a year. Possible sources of these fluctuations are discussed: instrumental drifts, data analysis techniques, meteorological effects, and scattering by interstellar electromagnetic field irregularities. (Sz.N.Z.)

  11. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  12. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  13. Radio reconstruction of the mass of ultra-high cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosti, Qader [Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays can reveal the processes of the most violent sources in the Universe, which yet has to be determined. Interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere results in cascades of secondary particles, i.e. air showers. Many of such particles are electrons and positrons. The induced electrons and positrons interact with the geomagnetic field and induce radio emissions. Detection of air showers along with the detection of induced radio emissions can furnish a precise measurement of the direction, energy and mass of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array consists of 124 radio stations measuring radio emission from air showers, in order to reconstruct the energy, direction and mass of cosmic rays. In this contribution, we present a method which employs a reduced hyperbolic model to describe the shape of radio wave front. We have investigated that the parameters of the reduced hyperbolic model are sensitive to the mass of cosmic rays. The obtained results are presented in this talk.

  14. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  15. Radar detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Isaac J.

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment co-located with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, UT. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW transmitter and high gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and in the FD field of view to a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. Data collection began in August, 2013. TARA stands apart from other cosmic ray radar experiments in that radar data is directly compared with conventional cosmic ray detector events. The transmitter is also directly controlled by TARA researchers. Waveforms from the FD-triggered data stream are time-matched with TA events and searched for signal using a novel signal search technique in which the expected (simulated) radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to radio waveforms. This technique is used to calculate the radar cross-section (RCS) upper-limit on all triggers that correspond to well-reconstructed TA FD monocular events. Our lowest cosmic ray RCS upper-limit is 42 cm2 for an 11 EeV event. An introduction to cosmic rays is presented with the evolution of detection and the necessity of new detection techniques, of which radar detection is a candidate. The software simulation of radar scattering from cosmic rays follows. The TARA detector, including transmitter and receiver systems, are discussed in detail. Our search algorithm and methodology for calculating RCS is presented for the purpose of being repeatable. Search results are explained in context of the usefulness and future of cosmic ray radar detection.

  16. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high-energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles - an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or the search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high-energy particle interactions at very high energies. Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - '' cosmic weather '' forecasting - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares/Coronal Mass Ejection events); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipelines, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students has become a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz and Poznan workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of the European activity: EPPOG's Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimentally study's very high energy Cosmic Rays. Locally in Lodz we concentrate on methodological studies of the detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and the interpretation of this phenomenon. We have also performed two series of neutron background measurements in the deep underground Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy (within the ILIAS-TA Project). In 2004, we began the Roland Maze Project, a network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. The pilot project is to equip 10 high schools, each with four 1m

  17. The Data Acquisition System of the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofverberg, P.; Johansson, H.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Wikstrom, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA) project is deploying an array of plastic scintillator detector stations on school roofs in the Stockholm area. Signals from GPS satellites are used to time synchronise signals from the widely separated detector stations, allowing cosmic ray air showers to be identified and studied. A low-cost and highly scalable data acquisition system has been produced using embedded Linux processors which communicate station data to a central server running a MySQL database. Air shower data can be visualised in real-time using a Java-applet client. It is also possible to query the database and manage detector stations from the client. In this paper, the design and performance of the system are described

  18. From radio signals to cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, C.

    2009-12-01

    Radio detection of high energy cosmic rays is currently being reinvested, both on the experimental and theoretical sides. The question is to know whether radio-detection is a competitive technique compared or in addition to usual detection techniques; in order to increase statistics at the highest energies (around 10 20 eV - where particle astronomy should be possible) or to characterize precisely the cosmic rays at lower energies (some 10 18 eV). During this work, we tried to progress towards the answer, using radio emission models, experimental data analysis and preparing the next generation of detectors. On the theoretical side, geo-synchrotron emission of the particles of the showers has been computed analytically using a simplified shower model as well as using the Monte Carlo simulation AIRES to have a realistic shower development. Various dependencies of the electric field have been extracted, among which a proportionality of the field with the -v → * B → vector under certain conditions. Experimentally, the analysis of CODALEMA data enabled to characterise more precisely the electric field produced by air showers, in particular the topology of the field at ground level, the energy dependency and the coherence with a -v → * B → proportionality. These results are summarised in an overall parametrization of the electric field. More data are probably required in order to give a definitive statement on the interest of the radio-detection technique. The CODALEMA parametrization has finally been used to extrapolate CODALEMA's results to a future larger array, extrapolation applied in particular to the AERA detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. (author)

  19. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km2. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the underground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60° zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62° to 80° will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km2 for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determination of horizontal showers in the future and the radio detection of neutrino induced showers is possible.

  20. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  1. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletoile, A.

    2007-10-01

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  2. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  3. Measurement of muon content in inclined air showers above 4 x 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans; Roth, Markus [IKP, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarguee, Argentina, is sensitive to air showers up to almost horizontal angles of incidence. Air showers with zenith angles between 60 and 80 degrees are suited to measure the muon component of the shower with the Auger Surface Detector since the primary electromagnetic component gets absorbed in the atmosphere before the shower reaches ground. Some of those events are also observed by the Fluorescence Detector which allows us to determine the total energy of the shower independent of the Surface Detector. Based on these hybrids events the size of muon component for a given cosmic ray energy is determined, which can then be compared to model predictions. We present an update of this analysis.

  4. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  5. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  6. Solar panels as air Cherenkov detectors for extremely high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, S.; D'Antone, I.; Degli Esposti, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Guerra, M.; Lax, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Parretta, A.; Sarno, A.; Schioppo, R.; Sorel, M.; Spurio, M.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing interest towards the observation of the highest energy cosmic rays has motivated the development of new detection techniques. The properties of the Cherenkov photon pulse emitted in the atmosphere by these very rare particles indicate low-cost semiconductor detectors as good candidates for their optical read-out. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the viability of solar panels for this purpose. The experimental framework resulting from measurements performed with suitably-designed solar cells and large conventional photovoltaic areas is presented. A discussion on the obtained and achievable sensitivities follows

  7. Extensive air showers and diffused Cherenkov light detection: The ULTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Uv Light Transmission and Reflection in the Atmosphere (ULTRA) experiment has been designed to provide quantitative measurements of the backscattered Cherenkov signal associated to the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at the impact point on the Earth surface. The knowledge of such information will test the possibility to detect the diffused Cherenkov light spot from space within the Ultra high-energy cosmic ray observation. The Cherenkov signal is necessary to give an absolute reference for the track, allowing the measurement of the shower maximum and easing the separation between neutrino and hadronic showers. In this paper we discuss the experimental set-up with detailed information on the detection method; the in situ and laboratory calibrations; the simulation of the expected detector response and finally the preliminary results on the detector performance

  8. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  9. Application of an image intensifier to the study on hadrons in air shower, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Itsuro; Kawasumi, Norio; Hashimoto, Katsumi; Machida, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    As the apparatus for observing cosmic ray air shower, the particle detection apparatus combining spark chamber, scintillator and photomultiplier tube is frequently used, but the exact detection of particle number is impossible with it when particle density is large. The authors have carried out the experiment to measure nuclear active particles in air shower and to grasp the central part of air shower as energy flow by utilizing an image intensifier tube. On the roof of building S, a laboratory was built, and a core detector of 2 m x 2 m area, 13 AS detectors of 0.25 m 2 and an AS detector of 1 m 2 were installed. The gate of the II was opened by utilizing coincidence pulses, and the position and amount of scintillation in the core detector was taken into a camera through the II. The time of observation was 289 hours, and the time of II operation was 113 hours. Total number of air shower recorded was 218 cases, and the centers of 120 cases among them were determined in the AS detectors at four corners. The centers of 39 cases were within the area of the core detector. In the coincident counting of air shower and burst carried out in the present experiment, the total delay time from the arrival of air shower to the gate pulse actuating the II was 1.6 sec. The core of air shower of about 10 6 size and 1.3 age was caught by this method. The problems for future are the determination of core position for the air shower of smaller size, and the meaning of spot images of II. (Kako, I.)

  10. EMMA: A new underground cosmic-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T; Foehr, V; Joutsenvaara, J; Jaemsen, T; Keraenen, P; Kuusiniemi, P; Laitala, H; Lehtola, M; Mattila, A; Narkilahti, J; Peltoniemi, J; Remes, H; Reponen, M; Raeihae, T; Sarkamo, J; Shen, C; Vaittinen, M; Zhang, Z; Ding, L; Zhu, Q; Roos, M; Dzaparova, I; Karpov, S; Kurenya, A; Petkov, V; Yanin, A; Fynbo, H

    2006-01-01

    A cosmic-ray experiment of new type is under construction in the Pyhaesalmi mine in the underground laboratory of the University of Oulu, Finland. It aims to study the composition of cosmic rays at and above the knee region (energy above 1 PeV). The experiment, called EMMA, covers about 150 m 2 of detector area, and the setup is capable of measuring the multiplicity and the lateral distribution of underground muons, and the arrival direction of the air shower. The detector is placed at the depth of about 85 metres (corresponding about 240 mwe) which gives a threshold energy of muons of about 45 GeV. The rock overburden filters out all other particles of the air shower except the high-energy muons. These high-energy muons originate at high altitudes close to the first interaction of the primary cosmic ray and they carry more information about the primary than low-energy muons. The full-size detector is supposed to run by the end of 2007

  11. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (η) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10 19.5 eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis

  12. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Vankov, H.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgaria Academy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-01-15

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution ({eta}) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10{sup 19.5}eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  13. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Facts, Myths, and Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-06-27

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics/particle theory/particle experiment. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > 10^8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos which should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from ...

  14. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3 x 10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √s nn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  15. The water Cherenkov detector array for studies of cosmic rays at the University of Puebla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Murrieta, T.; Palma, B.; Perez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 - bar N, 90 - bar W, 800g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1PeV, i.e., around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. The array consists of 3 water Cherenkov detectors of 1.86m 2 cross-section and 12 liquid scintillator detectors of 1m 2 distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20m over an area of 4000m 2 . We discuss the calibration and stability of the array for both sets of detectors and report on preliminary measurements and reconstruction of the lateral distributions for the electromagnetic (EM) and muonic components of extensive air showers. We also discuss how the hybrid character of the array can be used to measure mass composition of the primary cosmic rays by estimating the relative contents of muons with respect to the EM component of extensive air showers. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays

  16. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  17. Anisotropy of TeV and PeV cosmic rays with IceCube and IceTop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santander, M., E-mail: santander@icecube.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53703 (United States)

    2013-10-11

    The interaction of high energy cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere produces extensive air showers of secondary particles with a large muon component. By exploiting the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to high energy muons, it is possible to use these detectors for precision cosmic ray studies. The high rate of cosmic-ray muon events provides a high-statistics data sample that can be used to look for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the parent particles at the per-mille level. This paper will report on the observation of anisotropy in the cosmic ray data collected with the IceCube neutrino telescope in the 20-400 TeV energy range at multiple angular scales. New data from the IceTop air shower array, located on the ice surface above IceCube, shows an anisotropy that is consistent with the high-energy IceCube results. The sensitivity of IceTop to all the components of the extensive air shower will allow us to explore in more detail the characteristics of the primary cosmic rays associated with the observed anisotropy.

  18. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured with the HEAT extension at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Nils Sven Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the calculation of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, that is the absolute flux of cosmic rays as a function of energy, from data of air showers observed with the HEAT (High Elevation Auger Telescopes) extension and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest observatory for the study of cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Observatory observes air showers, that are cascades of particles that were instigated by cosmic rays hitting the Earth's atmosphere, with two different detection concepts. The surface detector samples the secondary particles of air showers that hit the ground with an array of surface detector stations, whereas the fluorescence detector measures the energy loss profile of air showers by detecting fluorescence light, produced by the air showers when they travel through the atmosphere, with optical telescopes. The properties of the cosmic rays are not directly measurable but have to be reconstructed from the observed air shower parameters. Properties of particular interest are the type of the primary cosmic ray particle, its energy and its arrival direction. HEAT is an extension to the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is designed to lower the energy threshold by one order of magnitude down to 10 17 eV or lower. HEAT is taking data since 2010. The calculation of the absolute flux of cosmic rays needs two ingredients: the number of detected air showers as a function of shower energy and the exposure of the detector as a function of energy. The studied air shower class are hybrid events, which are events that have been detected by a fluorescence detector and at least one surface detector station. The used air showers were observed in a time period of fifteen month starting from June 2010. A first step of the analysis is the reconstruction of air showers and cosmic ray parameters from raw data. To calculate the exposure, the uptime, that is the integral

  19. The Cosmic-ray Spectrum: from the knee to the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T K

    2006-01-01

    This talk addresses the question, 'Where is the transition from cosmic rays of galactic origin to extra-galactic cosmic-rays?' I have addressed the background of this topic recently in lectures at Erice and, with Todor Stanev, in a collection of papers on various aspects of nuclear astrophysics. Here I concentrate on primary composition as a signature of the transition and mention some new air-shower experiments aimed at the energy region from the knee to the ankle (PeV to 10 EeV)

  20. Milagro Contributions to XXVI International Cosmic Ray Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Haines, T.J.; Sinnis, G.; Miller, R.S.; Thompson, N.T.

    1999-08-01

    Milagrito, a prototype for the Milagro detector, operated for 15 months in 1997--8 and collected 8.9 x 10{sup 9} events. It was the first extensive air shower (EAS) array sensitive to showers initiated by primaries with energy below 1 TeV. The shadows of the sun and moon observed with cosmic rays can be used to study systematic pointing shifts and measure the angular resolution of EAS arrays. Below a few TeV, the paths of cosmic rays coming toward the earth are bent by the helio- and geo-magnetic fields. This is expected to distort and displace the shadows of the sun and the moon. The moon shadow, offset from the nominal (unreflected) position, has been observed with high statistical significance in Milagrito. This can be used to establish energy calibrations, as well as to search for the anti-matter content of the VHE cosmic ray flux. The shadow of the sun has also been observed with high significance.

  1. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  2. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2012-01-11

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  3. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d’Orfeuil, B.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20 ° ×10 ° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  4. Primary Cosmic Rays Composition: Simulations and Detector Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supanitsky, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector system for the detection of very high energy cosmic rays. A most difficult and important problem in these studies is the determination of the primary cosmic ray composition for which muon content in air showers appears to be one of the best parameters to discriminate between different composition types.Although the Pierre Auger surface detectors, which consist of water Cherenkov tanks, are sensitive to muon content they are not able to measure the number of muons directly. In this work we study using simulations the information that can be gained by adding muon detectors to the Auger surface detectors. We consider muon counters with two alternative areas

  5. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  6. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  7. New test of Lorentz symmetry using ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Soriano, Jorge F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose an innovative test of Lorentz symmetry by observing pairs of simultaneous parallel extensive air showers produced by the fragments of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray nuclei which disintegrated in collisions with solar photons. We show that the search for a cross-correlation of showers in arrival time and direction becomes background free for an angular scale ≲3 ° and a time window O (10 s ) . We also show that if the solar photo-disintegration probability of helium is O (10-5.5) then the hunt for spatiotemporal coincident showers could be within range of existing cosmic ray facilities, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that the actual observation of a few events can be used to constrain Lorentz violating dispersion relations of the nucleon.

  8. Simulating TGF and gamma ray emission above and within stormclouds due to the interaction of TeV cosmic ray shower electrons/positrons/photons with plausible electric field geometries generated in stormclouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate lepton and photon scattering in any kind of media with a variable density, and permeated by electric/magnetic fields of any geometry, and which can handle an exponential runaway avalanche. Here we show results of simulating the interaction of electrons/positrons/photons in an incoming TeV cosmic ray shower with the kind of electric fields expected in a stormcloud after a CG discharge which removes much of the positive charge build up at the centre of the cloud. The point is to show not just a Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) above the upper negative shielding layer at 12 km but other gamma ray emission due to electron/positron interaction in the remaining positive charge around 9km and the lower negative charge at 6km altitude. We present here images, lightcurves, altitude profiles, spectra and videos showing the different ionization, excitation and photon density fields produced, their time evolution, and how they depend critically on where the cosmic ray shower beam intercepts the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons, which make up a significant fraction of the shower, where they appear to "orbit" within the high altitude negative shielding layer, and which has been conjectured to produce significant microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question is if this conjectured emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to prove that a TGF originates in the macro-fields of stormclouds or the micro-fields of light leaders and streamers where this "positron orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  9. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  10. The current status of the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Antia, H.M.; Dugad, S.R.; Goswami, U.D.; Hayashi, Y.; Iyer, A.; Ito, N.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Karthikeyan, S.; Kawakami, S.; Minamino, M.; Mohanty, P.K.; Morris, S.D.; Nayak, P.K.; Nonaka, T.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B.S.; Ravindran, K.C.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-01-01

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and it also contains a 560 m 2 tracking muon detector (E μ >1GeV), at Ooty in India. 25% of scintillator detectors are instrumented with two fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for extending the dynamic range to ∼5x10 3 particles m -2 . The scintillators, signal processing electronics and data recording systems were fabricated in-house to cut costs and optimize performance. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below the 'knee', with an overlap with direct measurements. Search for multi-TeV γ-rays from point sources is done with the aid of the muon detector. A good angular resolution of 0.7 deg. at 30 TeV, is measured from the shadow of the Moon on the isotropic flux of cosmic rays. A sensitive limit on the diffuse flux of 100 TeV γ-rays is placed by using muon detector to filter the charged cosmic ray background. A tracking muon detector allows sensitive measurements on coronal mass ejections and solar flares through Forbush decrease events. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in the areas listed above.

  11. A common understanding of several cosmic ray anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamdagni, N.

    1986-12-01

    A common understanding of several Cosmic ray anomalies points to a threshold in the electromagnetic shower development. Above the threshold, the electromagnetic shower frequently contains hadrons. This anomalous shower development can explain the muon signal from Cygnus X-3 observed by underground detectors. (author)

  12. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  13. Results from Pion-Carbon Interactions Measured by NA61/SHINE for Improved Understanding of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Herve, Alexander

    2015-07-21

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements, produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, relies on the correct modeling of the hadron-air interactions that occur during the shower development. The majority of hadronic particles are produced at equivalent beam energies below the TeV range. NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment using secondary beams produced at CERN at the SPS. Hadron-hadron interactions have been recorded at beam momenta between 13 and 350 GeV/c with a wide-acceptance spectrometer. In this contribution we present measurements of the spectra of charged pions and the $\\rho^0$ production in pion-carbon interactions, which are essential for modeling of air showers.

  14. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and new particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M.

    2001-02-28

    The current status of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHE CR) enigma and several proposed solutions involving particle physics beyond the standard model are discussed. Emphasis is given to top--down models, and as a main example, supermassive dark matter as galactic source for UHE CR and the status of its experimental signatures (galactic anisotropy, chemical composition and clustering) is reviewed. Then different approaches to calculate fragmentation spectra of supermassive particles are discussed. Finally, it is argued that UHE neutrinos cannot be - neither directly or indirectly - responsible for the observed vertical air showers.

  15. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  16. Investigating the physics performance of air shower universality at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Ariel; Schulz, Alexander; Roth, Markus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Recent updates to the air shower universality reconstruction of surface detector data at the Pierre Auger Observatory have reduced the bias and improved the resolution of mass-sensitive variables: the depth of shower maximum and the relative number of muons. For better-informed studies of a possible anisotropy in the arrival direction of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, a quantification of the power of these parameters to separate a proton-like signal from background is presented. The analysis is furthered with an outlook to the detector's overall sensitivity to a proton-like signal as well as a projection of our ability to distinguish between different astrophysical flux scenarios.

  17. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km 2 . Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported

  18. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berat, C., E-mail: berat@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km{sup 2}. Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported.

  19. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray primary spectrum with ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, B; Iuppa, R; Di Sciascio, G

    2013-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray physic of 10 12 – 10 15 primary cosmic energy is one of the main goals of ARGO-YBJ experiment. The detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ), is an EAS array consisting of a continuous carpet of RPCs. The low energy threshold of the detector allows to study an energy region characterized by the transition from the direct to the indirect measurements. In this talk we will report on the measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at different zenith angles. The phenomenology of horizontal air shower (θ > 70°) will be described and discussed.

  20. Workshop on Hadron-Hadron & Cosmic-Ray Interactions at multi-TeV Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Bergman, D; Bongi, M; Bunyatyan, A; Cazon, L; d'Enterria, D; de Mitri, I; Doll, P; Engel, R; Eggert, K; Garzelli, M; Gerhardt, L; Gieseke, S; Godbole, R; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Gustafson, G; Hebbeker, T; Kheyn, L; Kiryluk, J; Lipari, P; Ostapchenko, S; Pierog, T; Piskounova, O; Ranft, J; Rezaeian, A; Rostovtsev, A; Sakurai, N; Sapeta, S; Schleich, S; Schulz, H; Sjostrand, T; Sonnenschein, L; Sutton, M; Ulrich, R; Werner, K; Zapp, K; CRLHC10; CRLHC 10

    2011-01-01

    The workshop on "Hadron-Hadron and Cosmic-Ray Interactions at multi-TeV Energies" held at the ECT* centre (Trento) in Nov.-Dec. 2010 gathered together both theorists and experimentalists to discuss issues of the physics of high-energy hadronic interactions of common interest for the particle, nuclear and cosmic-ray communities. QCD results from collider experiments -- mostly from the LHC but also from the Tevatron, RHIC and HERA -- were discussed and compared to various hadronic Monte Carlo generators, aiming at an improvement of our theoretical understanding of soft, semi-hard and hard parton dynamics. The latest cosmic-ray results from various ground-based observatories were also presented with an emphasis on the phenomenological modeling of the first hadronic interactions of the extended air-showers generated in the Earth atmosphere. These mini-proceedings consist of an introduction and short summaries of the talks presented at the meeting.

  1. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth's surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  2. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  3. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  4. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  5. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  6. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  7. A Multi-Variate Fit to the Chemical Composition of the Cosmic-Ray Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, Jonathan

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays over a century ago, evidence of their origins has remained elusive. Deflected by galactic magnetic fields, the only direct evidence of their origin and propagation remain encoded in their energy distribution and chemical composition. Current models of galactic cosmic rays predict variations of the energy distribution of individual elements in an energy region around 3x1015 eV known as the knee. This work presents a method to measure the energy distribution of individual elemental groups in the knee region and its application to a year of data from the IceCube detector. The method uses cosmic rays detected by both IceTop, the surface-array component, and the deep-ice component of IceCube during the 2009-2010 operation of the IC-59 detector. IceTop is used to measure the energy and the relative likelihood of the mass composition using the signal from the cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower reaching the surface. IceCube, 1.5 km below the surface, measures the energy of the high-energy bundle of muons created in the very first interactions after the cosmic ray enters the atmosphere. These event distributions are fit by a constrained model derived from detailed simulations of cosmic rays representing five chemical elements. The results of this analysis are evaluated in terms of the theoretical uncertainties in cosmic-ray interactions and seasonal variations in the atmosphere. The improvements in high-energy cosmic ray hadronic-interaction models informed by this analysis, combined with increased data from subsequent operation of the IceCube detector, could provide crucial limits on the origin of cosmic rays and their propagation through the galaxy. In the course of developing this method, a number of analysis and statistical techniques were developed to deal with the difficulties inherent in this type of measurement. These include a composition-sensitive air shower reconstruction technique, a method to model simulated event

  8. Evidence for a mixed mass composition at the ‘ankle’ in the cosmic-ray spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a first measurement for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in the water Cherenkov stations of air-showers registered simultaneously by the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlation measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory with sensitivity to both the electromagnetic and muonic components. It allows an accurate determination of the spread of primary masses in the cosmic-ray flux. Up till now, constraints on the spread of primary masses have been dominated by systematic uncertainties. The present correlation measurement is not affected by systematics in the measurement of the depth of shower maximum or the signal in the water Cherenkov stations. The analysis relies on general characteristics of air showers and is thus robust also with respect to uncertainties in hadronic event generators. The observed correlation in the energy range around the ‘ankle’ at lg⁡(E/eV=18.5–19.0 differs significantly from expectations for pure primary cosmic-ray compositions. A light composition made up of proton and helium only is equally inconsistent with observations. The data are explained well by a mixed composition including nuclei with mass A>4. Scenarios such as the proton dip model, with almost pure compositions, are thus disfavored as the sole explanation of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux at Earth. Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Cosmic rays, Mass composition, Ankle

  9. Gamma-ray astronomy by the air shower technique: performance and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The techniques for γ-ray astronomy at energies ≥10 TeV using air shower detectors are discussed. The results, based on a number of large arrays, are negative, with no point sources being identified. While the contributions to γ-ray astronomy so far have been only upper limits, these arrays in the future will make significant progress in the understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 13 eV to 10 16 eV. Also, contributions to solar physics are being made by observations of shape and time dependence of the shadow of the Sun as observed in cosmic rays. For the advancement of γ-ray astronomy a greater sensitivity is required in the energy region of 10 TeV. A number of promising techniques to accomplish a greater sensitivity are discussed. They include the enlargement of the Tibet array at 4300 meters altitude, the array of open photomultipliers at La Palma (AIROBICC), which views the shower by the Cherenkov photons produced in the atmosphere, and the instrumentation of a pond at Los Alamos with photomultipliers (Milagro)

  10. Gamma-ray astronomy by the air shower technique: performance and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, J.W. [Chicago, Univ. of Chicago (United States). Dept. of Phisycs and Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1996-11-01

    The techniques for {gamma}-ray astronomy at energies {>=}10 TeV using air shower detectors are discussed. The results, based on a number of large arrays, are negative, with no point sources being identified. While the contributions to {gamma}-ray astronomy so far have been only upper limits, these arrays in the future will make significant progress in the understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range 10{sup 13} eV to 10{sup 16} eV. Also, contributions to solar physics are being made by observations of shape and time dependence of the shadow of the Sun as observed in cosmic rays. For the advancement of {gamma}-ray astronomy a greater sensitivity is required in the energy region of 10 TeV. A number of promising techniques to accomplish a greater sensitivity are discussed. They include the enlargement of the Tibet array at 4300 meters altitude, the array of open photomultipliers at La Palma (AIROBICC), which views the shower by the Cherenkov photons produced in the atmosphere, and the instrumentation of a pond at Los Alamos with photomultipliers (Milagro).

  11. Cosmic rays with portable Geiger counters: from sea level to airplane cruise altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: Francesco.Riggi@ct.infn.it

    2009-07-15

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive air showers induced by high-energy primary protons in the atmosphere were also carried out, involving undergraduate and graduate teaching levels.

  12. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Ramos de; Bonifazi, Carla; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Soares, Elvis do Amaral; Mello Neto, Joao Ramos Torres de; Almeida, Rogerio Menezes de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  13. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  14. The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Delay, R.S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Gupta, S.; Krakauer, D.A.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.; Cady, R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sinnis, C.; Stanislaus, S.; Thompson, T.N.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Zhang, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment is described. The design criteria, construction and operation details, and performance characteristics are presented. A discussion of the data analysis techniques is given. Finally, several enhancements and improvements in the apparatus are described. (orig.).

  15. The MIDAS experiment: A prototype for the microwave emission of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasor, M.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bodgan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Facal San Luis, P.; Mills, E.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Wayne, S.; Reyes, L.C.; Santos, E.M.; Privitera, P.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) emit signals in the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement, a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers), a prototype of microwave detector, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 53 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented.

  16. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Akker, M. van den; Banerjee, S.; Baehr, J.; Betev, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bottai, S.; Bobbink, G.; Cartacci, A.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, H.S.; Chiarusi, T.; Dai, C.J.; Ding, L.K.; Duran, I.; Faber, G.; Fay, J.; Grabosch, H.J.; Groenstege, H.; Guo, Y.N.; Gupta, S.; Haller, Ch.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z.X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hofer, H.; Hoferjun, H.; Huo, A.X.; Ito, N.; Jing, C.L.; Jones, L.; Kantserov, V.; Kawakami, S.; Kittel, W.; Koenig, A.C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kuang, H.H.; Kuijpers, J.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Li, D.; Li, L.; Li, Z.C.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, H.T.; Lohmann, W.; Lu, Y.S.; Ma, X.H.; Ma, Y.Q.; Mil, A. van; Monteleoni, B.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pauss, F.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Petersen, B.; Pohl, M.; Qing, C.R.; Ramelli, R.; Ravindran, K.C.; Rewiersma, P.; Rojkov, A.; Saidi, R.; Schmitt, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schotanus, D.J.; Shen, C.Q.; Sulanke, H.; Tang, X.W.; Timmermans, C.; Tonwar, S.; Trowitzsch, G.; Unger, M.; Verkooijen, H.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wijk, R. van; Wijnen, Th.A.M.; Wilkens, H.; Xu, Y.P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, X.F.; Yao, Z.G.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, Q.Q.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m 3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied

  17. The L3+C detector, a unique tool-set to study cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Banerjee, S; Bähr, J; Betev, B L; Bourilkov, D; Bottai, S; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Cartacci, A M; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen He Sheng; Chiarusi, T; Dai Chang Jiang; Ding, L K

    2002-01-01

    The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, has been employed for the study of cosmic ray muons. The muon spectrometer of L3 consists of a set of high-precision drift chambers installed inside a magnet with a volume of about 1000 m**3 and a field of 0.5 T. Muon momenta are measured with a resolution of a few percent at 50 GeV. The detector is located under 30 m of overburden. A scintillator air shower array of 54 m by 30 m is installed on the roof of the surface hall above L3 in order to estimate the energy and the core position of the shower associated with a sample of detected muons. Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied.

  18. The effect of the atmospheric condition on the extensive air shower analysis at the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokuno, H.; Kakimoto, F.; Tomida, T.

    2011-01-01

    The accuracies in determination of air shower parameters such as longitudinal profiles or primary energies with the fluorescence detection technique are strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions of the molecular and aerosol components. Moreover, air fluorescence photon yield depends on the atmospheric density, and the transparency of the air for fluorescence photons depends on the atmospheric conditions from EAS to FDs. In this paper, we describe the atmospheric monitoring system in the Telescope Array (TA experiment), and the impact of the atmospheric conditions in air shower reconstructions. The systematic uncertainties of the determination of the primary cosmic ray energies and of the measurement of depth of maximum development (X max ) of EASs due to atmospheric variance are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  19. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  20. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  1. Cosmic ray nuclear interactions and EAS-triggered families observed by the Chacaltaya hybrid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the families detected by emulsion chambers in the hybrid experiment with AS-array at Mt. Chacaltaya are studied in detail. Although many groups discuss about an increase of the heavy component in primary cosmic-rays beyond the knee region, it is shown that the observed characteristics of the families accompanied by large shower size, Ne>10 6 , can not be explained by an increase of heavy primaries alone. It is necessary to assume some changes of nuclear interaction in order to explain the observed characteristics of the air-showers accompanied by families

  2. 11. European cosmic ray symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  3. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √(s nn )=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  4. PREFACE: 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (and 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Meroshnichenko, L. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-02-01

    The 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) took place in Moscow at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (3-7 July 2012), and was excellently organized by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, with the help of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Council on the Complex Problem of Cosmic Rays of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The first symposia were held in 1968 in Lodz, Poland (high energy, extensive air showers and astrophysical aspects) and in Bern (solar and heliospheric phenomena) and the two 'strands' joined together in 1976 with the meeting in Leeds. Since then the symposia, which have been very successful, have covered all the major topics with some emphasis on European collaborations and on meeting the demands of young scientists. Initially, a driving force was the need to overcome the divisions caused by the 'Cold War' but the symposia continued even when that threat ceased and they have shown no sign of having outlived their usefulness. 2012 has been an important year in the history of cosmic ray studies, in that it marked the centenary of the discovery of enigmatic particles in the perilous balloon ascents of Victor Hess. A number of conferences have taken place in Western Europe during the year, but this one took place in Moscow as a tribute to the successful efforts of many former USSR and other Eastern European scientists in discovering the secrets of the subject, often under very difficult conditions. The symposium covers a wide range of scientific issues divided into the following topics: PCR-IPrimary cosmic rays I (E 1015 eV) MNCosmic ray muons and neutrinos GAGeV and TeV gamma astronomy SHEnergetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs and GCR modulation) GEOCosmic rays and geophysics (energetic particles in the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth) On a personal note, as I step down as co-founder and chairman of the International Advisory Committee, I should like to

  5. Instrumentation development for an array of water Cherenkov detectors for extensive air shower experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidaei, F.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Keivani, A.; Samimi, J.

    2009-11-01

    A new small array of Cherenkov detectors has been deployed in Tehran, 1200 m above sea level. This array contains four tanks of distilled water with a diameter of 64 cm and a height of 130 cm. The effective area of each tank is about 1382 cm2. They are used to detect air showers and to record the arrival time of the secondary particles. We have collected about 640 000 extensive air showers (EAS) in 8298 h of observation time from November 2006 to October 2007. The distribution of air showers in zenith and azimuth angles has been studied and a cosnθ distribution with n = 6.02 ± 0.01 was obtained for the zenith angle distribution. An asymmetry has been observed in the azimuthal distribution of EAS of cosmic rays due to geomagnetic field. The first and second amplitudes of the asymmetry are AI = 0.183 ± 0.001 and AII = 0.038 ± 0.001. Since the recent results are in good agreement with our previous results of scintillation detectors, and tanks of distilled water are cheaper, we prefer to use them instead of scintillators in a future larger array. By simulation, we have improved the size of the detectors to yield the highest efficiency. The best dimensions for each tank with a photomultiplier tube in the center of its lid are 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the HEGRA cosmic ray detector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Fonseca, V. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Karle, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D80805 Munich (Germany); Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D80805 Munich (Germany); Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D80805 Munich (Germany); Rozanska, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D80805 Munich (Germany)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, ul.Kawiory 26a, PL30-055 Cracow (Poland)

    1995-04-21

    Models of the scintillator and wide-angle air Cherenkov (AIROBICC) arrays of the HEGRA experiment are described here. Their response to extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays in the 10 to 1000 TeV range has been assessed using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of air shower development and associated Cherenkov emission. Protons, {gamma}-rays and oxygen and iron nuclei have been considered as primary particles. For both arrays, the angular resolution as determined from the Monte Carlo simulation is compared with experimental data. Shower size N{sub e} can be reconstructed from the scintillator signals with an error ranging from 10% (N{sub e}=2x10{sup 5}) to 35% (N{sub e}=3x10{sup 3}). The energy threshold of AIROBICC is 14 TeV for primary gammas and 27 TeV for protons and an angular resolution of 0.25 can be obtained. The measurement of the Cherenkov light at 90 m from the shower core provides an accurate determination of primary energy E{sub 0} as far as the nature of the primary particle is known. For gammas an error in the energy prediction ranging from 8% (E{sub 0}=5x10{sup 14} eV) to 15% (E{sub 0}=2x10{sup 13} eV) is achieved. This detector is therefore a powerful tool for {gamma}-ray astronomy. ((orig.)).

  7. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  8. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-01-01

    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  9. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  10. Energy determination of trans-EeV cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the primary energy estimation by observing ultra-high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (down to the EeV energies - the energy range of the Japanese AGASA experiment). The shower cascade in air initiated by cosmic rays is called Extensive Air Shower (EAS) which has been playing a key role in the detection of cosmic ray particles. There are two types of detection techniques available to measure the energy (as well as the arrival directions and mass composition) of the primary UHECR (ultra high energy cosmic rays) particles: the Ground Arrays and the Fluorescence Detectors. The two methods are highly complementary: the ground array method measures the lateral development of EAS cascades. The dynamics to determine the behavior of the lateral spread of particle distributions in EAS is well understood and rather reliable, regardless of the mass of the primary cosmic rays, but some uncertainties remain due to our incomplete knowledge concerning the hadronic interactions and the multiple scattering of secondary electrons. The fluorescence method observes the longitudinal development of cascades. It is similar to the concept of calorimetric detectors in high energy physics, since the fluorescence light generated by the charged particles in the shower is proportional to the energy deposited in the atmosphere. These two methods are complementary since they view different components of the EAS. The ground array observes the particles at ∼ 1 km away from the EAS axis while the fluorescence method is sensitive to particle energy distributions very close to the shower axis, typically less than 100 m. Therefore, both methods have their own advantage and disadvantage as far as the energy estimation is concerned. In the following sections, we discuss how to deduce the primary energy and the possible sources of the systematic uncertainties. The energy spectrum of UHECRs is a key clue for the understanding of the origin of UHE particle

  11. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured by the HAWC experiment from 10 to 500 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño de León, S.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dichiara, S.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Enriquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hinton, J.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Cámara, D.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report on the measurement of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory in the energy range 10 to 500 TeV. HAWC is a ground-based air-shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcan Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, and is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The data used in this work were taken over 234 days between June 2016 and February 2017. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. The measured all-particle spectrum is consistent with a broken power law with an index of -2.49 ±0.01 prior to a break at (45.7 ±0.1 ) TeV , followed by an index of -2.71 ±0.01 . The spectrum also represents a single measurement that spans the energy range between direct detection and ground-based experiments. As a verification of the detector response, the energy scale and angular resolution are validated by observation of the cosmic ray Moon shadow's dependence on energy.

  12. Observation of the thunderstorm-related ground cosmic ray flux variations by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; D'Alessandro, F.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A correlation between the secondary cosmic ray flux and the near-earth electric field intensity, measured during thunderstorms, has been found by analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, a full coverage air shower array located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China). The counting rates of showers with different particle multiplicities (m =1 , 2, 3, and ≥4 ) have been found to be strongly dependent upon the intensity and polarity of the electric field measured during the course of 15 thunderstorms. In negative electric fields (i.e., accelerating negative charges downwards), the counting rates increase with increasing electric field strength. In positive fields, the rates decrease with field intensity until a certain value of the field EFmin (whose value depends on the event multiplicity), above which the rates begin increasing. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that this peculiar behavior can be well described by the presence of an electric field in a layer of thickness of a few hundred meters in the atmosphere above the detector, which accelerates/decelerates the secondary shower particles of opposite charge, modifying the number of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. These results, for the first time to our knowledge, give a consistent explanation for the origin of the variation of the electron/positron flux observed for decades by high altitude cosmic ray detectors during thunderstorms.

  13. Extensive Air Showers Detected by Aragats Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, A.; Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Grigoryan, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Manukyan, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive Air Shower (EAS) duration as registered by the surface particle detectors does not exceed a few tens of nanosecond. However, Neutron monitors containing plenty of absorbing matter can respond to EAS core traversal during 1 ∼ms by registering secondary slow neutrons born by EAS hadrons in the soil, walls of buildings and in the matter of detector itself. Thus, the time distribution of the pulses from the proportional counters of the neutron monitor after EAS propagation extends to ∼l ms, ∼5 orders of magnitude larger than the EAS passing time. The Aragats Neutron Monitor (ArNM) has a special option for the EAS core detection. In general, the dead time of NM is ∼1 ms that provides the one-to-one relation of incident hadrons and detector counts. The pulses generated by the neutrons possibly entering the proportional chamber after the first one will be neglected. In ArNM, we use several “electronic” dead times, and with the shortest one, 400 ns, the detector counts all pulses that enter the proportional chambers. If ArNM one-second time series corresponding to the shortest dead time contain much more signals (a neutron burst) than with l-ms dead time, then we conclude that the EAS core hits the detector. We assume that he distribution of registered burst multiplicities is proportional to the energy of the primary particle. The primary cosmic ray energy spectrum was obtained by the frequency analysis through the counting frequencies of the multiplicities of different magnitudes and relating them to the integral energy spectrum measured by the MAKET array at the same place several years ago. (author)

  14. Predicting Proton-Air Cross Sections at {radical}(s) {approx} 30 TeV Using Accelerator and Cosmic Ray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Halzen, Francis [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    1999-12-13

    We use the high-energy predictions of a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, along with Glauber theory, to predict proton-air cross sections at energies near {radical}(s){approx_equal}30 TeV . The parametrization of the proton-proton cross section incorporates analyticity and unitarity and demands that the asymptotic proton is a black disk of soft partons. By comparing with the p -air cosmic ray measurements, our analysis results in a constraint on the inclusive particle production cross section. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  15. Cosmic ray modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hirosachi

    1974-01-01

    It is important to know the physical state of solar plasma region by the observation of intensity variation of cosmic ray which passed through the solar plasma region, because earth magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between geomagnetic field and solar plasma flow. The observation of cosmic ray intensity is useful to know the average condition of the space of 0.1--3 A.U., and gives the structure of the magnetic field in solar wind affecting the earth magnetosphere. The observation of neutron component in cosmic ray has been carried out at Norikura, Tokyo, Fukushima and Morioka. The lower limit of the energy of incident cosmic ray which can be observed at each station is different, and the fine structure of the variation can be known by comparison. The intensity of meson component in cosmic ray has been measured in underground, and the state of solar plasma region 2--3 A.U. from the earth can be known. The underground measurement has been made at Takeyama and Matsumoto, and a new station at Sakashita is proposed. The measurement at Sakashita will be made by proportional counters at the depth of 100m (water equivalent). Arrangement of detectors is shown. (Kato, T.)

  16. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Kemp, Julian; Raedel, Leif; Rongen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Hansmann, Bengt; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, Physikalische Institut III b (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  17. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  18. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  19. Summary of super high energy events and exotic phenomena in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this report, the features of superhigh energy events and exotic phenomena are presented. The examples obtained with emulsion chambers show clear trend of change in the hadron interaction characteristics with energy. The scaling law is violated in the very high energy region above 10 15 eV. In the energy region from 10 to 100 TeV, there is mild violation of scaling. The cosmic ray data on the diffusion of high energy particles in the atmosphere was used to study the mild violation of scaling. It is not easy to discuss the violation in the energy region higher than 10 15 eV, because such event can be obtained very rarely. The only method is the observation of extensive air showers. The relation of average transverse momenta to primary cosmic ray energy was compared with some accelerator data. The cosmic ray data tend to show smaller momentum values. The energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons can be measured by the underground observation, the observation of muon-production burst with emulsion chambers, or the observation of horizontal air showers. Analysis of this spectrum shows that there is an upper limit for the direct production of muons at primary energy of several times of 10 14 eV. Other support for the change of interaction character at 10 14 eV is seen. Possible examples of heavy lepton events were found in the deep underground observation. In deep underground observation, anomalous showers with energy content larger than several hundred GeV were observed. Comment on the long tail nuclear cascade is presented. Some experiments for future are introduced. (Kato, T.)

  20. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  1. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the surface detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ±0.04 ±0.48 (sys))×107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain d ln Nμ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 ×1018 eV and 5 ×1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ±0.024 ±0.030 (sys)) .

  2. Dosimetry of environmental radiations (cosmic ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Keizo

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic ray is dominant as environmental radiation, though the experimental determination made on cosmic ray doses is few in Japan. The free air ionization intensity at sea level due to cosmic ray has been estimated in the Bay of Wakasa, Japan, at middle geomagnetic latitude (25 deg. N), in October 1977. The ionization chambers used were two air and one argon types. Where the responses to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were equal, the ionization intensity due to cosmic ray was obtained by subtracting the ionization intensity due to terrestrial gamma ray from the total ionization intensity. As the terrestrial gamma ray, (1) U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40 in seawater, (2) K-40 in the material of a wooden ship, and (3) Rn-222 and its daughter products in the atmosphere were considered. The result of free air ionization due to cosmic ray with the argon chamber was slightly smaller than those with the other two air chambers; however, both were in good agreement within standard errors. (JPN.)

  3. Recent results from CODALEMA and the Nançay radio facilities related to cosmic-ray measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallier Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, the NanÇay Radio Observatory hosts the CODALEMA experiment, dedicated to radio detection of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. CODALEMA also features the R&D EXTASIS project, aiming at detecting the lowfrequency signal ([2-6] MHz produced at the sudden disappearance of the air shower particles hitting the ground. The 3 current antenna arrays present different antenna density and extent, and can be operated in a joint mode to record simultaneously the radio signal coming from air showers. Therefore, the NanÇay facilities may offer a complete description of the air shower induced electric field at small, medium and large scale, and over an unique and very wide frequency band (from ~ 2 to 200 MHz.

  4. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  5. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  6. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  7. Methods for the reconstruction of large scale anisotropies of the cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, Sven

    2010-01-15

    In cosmic ray experiments the arrival directions, among other properties, of cosmic ray particles from detected air shower events are reconstructed. The question of uniformity in the distribution of arrival directions is of large importance for models that try to explain cosmic radiation. In this thesis, methods for the reconstruction of parameters of a dipole-like flux distribution of cosmic rays from a set of recorded air shower events are studied. Different methods are presented and examined by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Particular focus is put on the implications of spurious experimental effects. Modifications of existing methods and new methods are proposed. The main goal of this thesis is the development of the horizontal Rayleigh analysis method. Unlike other methods, this method is based on the analysis of local viewing directions instead of global sidereal directions. As a result, the symmetries of the experimental setup can be better utilised. The calculation of the sky coverage (exposure function) is not necessary in this analysis. The performance of the method is tested by means of further Monte Carlo simulations. The new method performs similarly good or only marginally worse than established methods in case of ideal measurement conditions. However, the simulation of certain experimental effects can cause substantial misestimations of the dipole parameters by the established methods, whereas the new method produces no systematic deviations. The invulnerability to certain effects offers additional advantages, as certain data selection cuts become dispensable. (orig.)

  8. A comparison of the cosmic-ray energy scales of Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande via their radio extensions Tunka-Rex and LOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Apel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The radio technique is a promising method for detection of cosmic-ray air showers of energies around 100PeV and higher with an array of radio antennas. Since the amplitude of the radio signal can be measured absolutely and increases with the shower energy, radio measurements can be used to determine the air-shower energy on an absolute scale. We show that calibrated measurements of radio detectors operated in coincidence with host experiments measuring air showers based on other techniques can be used for comparing the energy scales of these host experiments. Using two approaches, first via direct amplitude measurements, and second via comparison of measurements with air shower simulations, we compare the energy scales of the air-shower experiments Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, using their radio extensions, Tunka-Rex and LOPES, respectively. Due to the consistent amplitude calibration for Tunka-Rex and LOPES achieved by using the same reference source, this comparison reaches an accuracy of approximately 10% – limited by some shortcomings of LOPES, which was a prototype experiment for the digital radio technique for air showers. In particular we show that the energy scales of cosmic-ray measurements by the independently calibrated experiments KASCADE-Grande and Tunka-133 are consistent with each other on this level.

  9. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  10. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  11. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  12. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni, muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS. Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  13. Study of dispersion of mass distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using a surface array of muon and electromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan

    2015-09-01

    We consider a hypothetical observatory of ultra-high energy cosmic rays consisting of two surface detector arrays that measure independently electromagnetic and muon signals induced by air showers. Using the constant intensity cut method, sets of events ordered according to each of both signal sizes are compared giving the number of matched events. Based on its dependence on the zenith angle, a parameter sensitive to the dispersion of the distribution of the logarithmic mass of cosmic rays is introduced. The results obtained using two post-LHC models of hadronic interactions are very similar and indicate a weak dependence on details of these interactions.

  14. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  15. JASA: A prototype water-Cerenkov air-shower detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Dion, C.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Kwok, P.W.; Stark, M.J.; Svoboda, R.C.; Ferguson, H.; Hoffman, C.M.; Horch, E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Delay, R.S.; Lu, X.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    A small pilot experiment to examine the use of the water-Cerenkov technique for air shower detection was installed near the center of the CYGNUS air shower array. Preliminary results showing general agreement with simulations are presented. Thus, the technique promises to offer significant advances for VHE-UHE γ-ray astronomy

  16. A multi-transputer system for parallel Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.; Heck, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessor computer system has been brought into operation at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The architecture consists of two independently working VMEbus systems each with a 68020 microprocessor as host computer and twelve T800 transputers for parallel processing. The two systems are linked via Ethernet for data exchange. The T800 transputers are equipped with 4 Mbyte RAM each, sufficient to run rather large codes. The host computers are operated under UNIX 5.3. On the transputers compilers for PARALLEL FORTRAN, C, and PASCAL are available. The simple modular architecture of this parallel computer reflects the single purpose for which it is intended. The hardware of the multiprocessor computer is described as well as the way how the user software is handled and distributed to the 24 working processors. The performance of the parallel computer is demonstrated by well-known benchmarks and by realistic Monte Carlo simulations of air showers. Comparisons with other types of microprocessors and with large universal computers are made. It is demonstrated that a cost reduction by more than a factor of 20 is achieved by this system as compared to universal computer. (orig.)

  17. First results from the TUS orbital detector in the extensive air shower mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrenov, B.A.; Klimov, P.A.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Sharakin, S.A.; Zotov, M.Yu.; Chirskaya, N.P.; Eremeev, V.E.; Garipov, G.K.; Kalmykov, N.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Tkachev, L.G.; Biktemerova, S.V.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Grinyuk, A.A.; Lavrova, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie, 6, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia, 141980 (Russian Federation); Botvinko, A.A. [Space Regatta Consortium, ul. Lenina, 4a, 141070 Korolev, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Jeong, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, J.; Park, I.H. [Department of Physics and ISTS, Sungkyunkwan University, Seobu-ro 2066, Suwon, \\mbox440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Martinez, O., E-mail: zotov@eas.sinp.msu.ru [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 sur 104 Centro Histórico C.P. 72000, Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-09-01

    TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up), the first orbital detector of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), those with energies above 50 EeV, was launched into orbit on April 28, 2016, as a part of the Lomonosov satellite scientific payload. The main aim of the mission is to test a technique of registering fluorescent and Cherenkov radiation of extensive air showers generated by EECRs in the atmosphere with a space telescope. We present preliminary results of its operation in a mode dedicated to registering extensive air showers in the period from August 16, 2016, to November 4, 2016. No EECRs have been conclusively identified in the data yet, but the diversity of ultraviolet emission in the atmosphere was found to be unexpectedly rich. We discuss typical examples of data obtained with TUS and their possible origin. The data is important for obtaining more accurate estimates of the nocturnal ultraviolet glow of the atmosphere, necessary for successful development of more advanced orbital EECR detectors including those of the KLYPVE (K-EUSO) and JEM-EUSO missions.

  18. From a Yunnan mountain to a Tibetan highland-the story of a hundred years of cosmic ray research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Youheng

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays a hundred years ago opened a new field of view to the universe and the mysterious particle world, leading to the birth of particle physics. Cosmic ray research in China was started in the early 50's of the last century by several senior scientists who had already distinguished themselves abroad in this subject. The first cosmic ray observatory in China was built on a mountain in Yunnan province, and many high level results were obtained in the ensuing ten years. Then after almost twenty years of political unrest, the national 'Reform and Opening up' policy provided a good opportunity to stimulate development and to narrow the wide gap caused by long term stagnation. The second generation of Chinese cosmic ray researchers chose high altitude extensive air showers as their new target of observation, and embarked on twenty years of hard work to build a modern international cosmic ray experimental station at Yangbajing in Tibet, 4300 m above sea level. The manually operated cloud chamber was transformed into a large-scale high-technology facility , capable of performing various international research programs with its unique low threshold energy, high trigger rate and wide field of view. The Yanbajing Observatory symbolizes that China's cosmic ray research has started on a new march towards excellence. (author)

  19. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  20. Fast "swarm of detectors" and their application in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoziyoev, G. P.; Shoziyoev, Sh. P.

    2017-06-01

    New opportunities in science appeared with the latest technology of the 21st century. This paper points to creating a new architecture for detection systems of different characteristics in astrophysics and geophysics using the latest technologies related to multicopter cluster systems, alternative energy sources, cluster technologies, cloud computing and big data. The idea of a quick-deployable scaleable dynamic system of a controlled drone with a small set of different detectors for detecting various components of extensive air showers in cosmic rays and in geophysics is very attractive. Development of this type of new system also allows to give a multiplier effect for the development of various sciences and research methods to observe natural phenomena.

  1. Highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskij, S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary particles of cosmic radiation with highest energies cannot in view of their low intensity be recorded directly but for this purpose the phenomenon is used that these particles interact with nuclei in the atmosphere and give rise to what are known as extensive air showers. It was found that 40% of primary particles with an energy of 10 15 to 10 16 eV consist of protons, 12 to 15% of helium nuclei, 15% of iron nuclei, the rest of nuclei of other elements. Radiation intensity with an energy of 10 18 to 10 19 eV depends on the direction of incoming particles. Maximum intensity is in the direction of the centre of the nearest clustre of galaxies, minimal in the direction of the central area of our galaxy. (Ha)

  2. Spatial structure of extensive air showers near the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, E N; Gal' perin, M D; Glemba, P Ya [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1978-07-01

    The spatial structure of the extensive air showers has been investigated. The tests have been staged on the 400 scintillation counter installation. It has been shown, that spatial distribution of the extensive air showers in the vicinity of the axis does not vary in case of the Nsub(e) electron number showers in the 10/sup 5/-10/sup 6/ range. The share of the showers having a clear-cut multicore structure is approximately 3% with Nsub(e) >= 2x10/sup 5/.

  3. New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böser Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Even with an accumulated data set from an integrated six years of lifetime from the Auger experiment, no point sources of charged cosmic rays have be identified at the highest energies. Significantly increased apertures such as promised by the JEMEUSO mission will be required to identify these sources from the cosmic ray signatures themselves. However, in employing water-cherenkov surface detectors as well as fluorescence telescopes, Auger has demonstrated the power provided by the hybrid technology approach. New detection technologies thus provide a valuable tool, in particular for the study of systematic effects. Over the past decade, in particular radio detection of cosmic ray air-showers has become a viable future detection technology to enhance and complement existing air-shower experiments. Following the proof-of-principle provided by the Lopes experiment, this technology is now being pursued in all major air-shower detectors. In the MHz regime, the radio signal is dominated by geomagnetic emission from the electrons deflected in the earth magnetic field, with secondary contributions from a global charge excess. As the majority of the energy in the shower is carried by these electron and the radio signal traverses the atmosphere basically unattenuated, this approach not only promises superior energy resolution but may also provide an independent handle on the longitudinal shower development and hence the primary composition. Theoretical signal predictions provided by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations as well as analytic shower parametrizations are in good agreement with measurements provided by the AERA and Codalema experiments. Recent efforts also include studies of the radio emission in the GHz regime, where the ambient noise is significantly reduced, yet the emission mechanism in this regime has not been firmly established yet. As neutrinos are not deflected in the intergalactic magnetic fields, the detection of neutrino-induced cascades

  4. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. I. Measurements at energies above 10.sup.17.8./sup.  eV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122005-1"-"122005-25" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : astroparticle physics * Pierre Auger Observatory * cosmic rays * air showers * depth of maximum * Xmax Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  5. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  6. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  7. Constraining Microwave Emission from Extensive Air Showers via the MIDAS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Privitera, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the most energetic processes in the universe. Upon entering Earth’s atmosphere they produce particle showers known as extensive air showers (EASs). Observatories like the Pierre Auger Observatory sample the particles and light produced by the EASs through large particle detector arrays or nitrogen fluorescence detectors to ascertain the fundamental properties of UHECRs. The large sample of high quality data provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory can be attributed to the hybrid technique which utilizes the two aforementioned techniques simultaneously; however, the limitation of only being able to observe nitrogen fluorescence from EASs on clear moonless nights yields a limited 10% duty cycle for the hybrid technique. One proposal for providing high quality data at increased statistics is the observation of isotropic microwave emission from EASs, as such emission would be observed with a 100% duty cycle. Measurements of microwave emission from laboratory air plasmas conducted by Gorham et al. (2008) produced promising results indicating that the microwave emission should be observable using inexpensive detectors. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment was built at the University of Chicago to characterize the isotropic microwave emission from EASs and has collected 359 days of observational data at the location of the Pierre Auger experiment. We have performed a time coincidence analysis between this data and data from Pierre Auger and we report a null result. This result places stringent limits on microwave emission from EASs and demonstrates that the laboratory measurements of Gorham et al. (2008) are not applicable to EASs, thus diminishing the feasibility of using isotropic microwave emission to detect EASs.

  8. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  9. Cosmic ray observations of Cygnus X-3: some theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    We describe how the discovery of surface showers from Cygnus X-3 and other compact X-ray binaries may resolve the long-standing question of the origin of cosmic rays above 10 15 eV. In contrast, we show how possible underground muon observations raise rather than answer questions. 5 figs.; 17 refs

  10. Studies in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1974-03-01

    The investigation of the diurnal variation in the cosmic ray intensity on individual days has revealed a new class of diurnal variation showing a maximum around 09 hour direction in the interplanetary space. It is shown to occur during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases as well as during quiet periods. The rigidity spectrum of the anomalous diurnal variation has an exponent around zero, the same as that for the average diurnal variation exhibiting maximum around 18 hours in the interplanetary space. It is shown that the Forbush decreases associated with the diurnal variation exhibiting morning maximum, are 27 day recurrent in nature and are preceded by east limb solar flares on most of the occasions. A qualitative model of the transient modulation by solar corotating corpuscular streams of enhanced solar wind velocity, emanating from the active regions on the solar disc, is proposed to explain the anomalous diurnal anisotropy in the recovery phase of 27 day recurrent Forbush decreases. From this model, the cosmic ray diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field inside the corotating stream, are derived and compared with the average values. To investigate the possibility of determining the energy spectra of cosmic ray intensity variations from a single station, a continuous record of neutron multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for the period October, 1967 - October, 1971, using the Gulmarg neutron monitor. The average multiplicity spectrum in the Gulmarg neutron monitor shows a mean multiplicity approximately equal to 1.4 for 12 Boron-tri-fluoride counters and is an increasing function of the number of counters used. The mean multiplicity measured in various other neutron monitors, when normalized to the cutoff rigidity of Gulmurg (11.91 GV), shows a systematic increase with the altitude of the station. (author)

  11. Are we making progress in finding the sources of the most energetic cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillas, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    There is progress, in the sense that although the energies assigned to cosmic rays by air shower arrays may need reducing by about 20%, energy measurements are consistent at about this level, and several experiments now accord with a spectrum which astonishingly shows no GZK cut-off near 10 20 eV, greatly limiting the possible source regions. The simplest interpretation is that few cosmic rays above 10 19 eV come from hundreds of Mpc, contrary to expectation on geometrical grounds. Most of the arrival directions of showers above 4 x 10 19 eV show little correlation with the supergalaxy or with matter concentrations within 200 Mpc. The implications of the spectrum and the arrival directions are discussed. The most likely explanations of their unexpected features are either (a) that these cosmic rays come mainly from the decay of cosmological relic particles clustered in a large galactic halo (though not if photons really do form a large part of the decay spectrum), or (b) that local intergalactic magnetic fields are unexpectedly strong, and disguise the position of and enhance one extraordinary source within a few Mpc, or (c) most particles above 10 19 eV are very different from protons after all, and do not have a threshold for serious energy loss as low as 10 20 eV, or (d) that there is a conspiracy of matching fluxes, so that most cosmic rays above 10 19 eV are from widespread extragalactic sources, but a superimposed hard spectrum from decaying halo relic particles neatly reduces the magnitude of the GZK fall-off above 10 20 eV. Several close pairs of arrival directions may yet turn out to be accidental, but if not, explanations (a) and (b) fail. There are several diagnostic tests to be made by the well-placed first (Southern) Auger Project detector and the High-Resolution Fly's Eye detector

  12. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  13. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  14. Cosmic rays Monte Carlo simulations for the Extreme Energy Events Project

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Aiola, S; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalò, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Massai, M; Miozzi, S; Panareo, M; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Regano, A; Riggi, F; Righini, G C; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Spandre, G; Squarcia, S; Taiuti, M; Tosello, F; Votano, L; Williams, M C S; Yánez, G; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2014-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events Project (EEE Project) is an innovative experiment to study very high energy cosmic rays by means of the detection of the associated air shower muon component. It consists of a network of tracking detectors installed inside Italian High Schools. Each tracking detector, called EEE telescope, is composed of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). At present, 43 telescopes are installed and taking data, opening the way for the detection of far away coincidences over a total area of about 3 × 10 5 km 2 . In this paper we present the Monte Carlo simulations that have been performed to predict the expected coincidence rate between distant EEE telescopes.

  15. Role of fluctuations in the primary energy estimation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Malecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy spectrum and chemical composition of primary cosmic ray for energies higher than 1 PeV are obtained mainly from research on the intensity and properties of extensive air showers (EAS). Similar additional information is obtained from research on properties of gamma ray families. A common characteristic of these researches is the fact that we are working in the range of high fluctuation parameters serving us to obtain primary energy spectrum. In this research different probability distributions have been used as well as their convolutions with the power spectrum. The role of the influence of different parameters on measurements of the primary energy spectrum

  16. Exploring design tradeoffs of a distributed algorithm for cosmic ray event detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, S.; Bakhshi, R.; van Steen, M.; Voulgaris, S.; Kelley, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Many sensor networks, including large particle detector arrays measuring high-energy cosmic-ray air showers, traditionally rely on centralised trigger algorithms to find spatial and temporal coincidences of individual nodes. Such schemes suffer from scalability problems, especially if the nodes communicate wirelessly or have bandwidth limitations. However, nodes which instead communicate with each other can, in principle, use a distributed algorithm to find coincident events themselves without communication with a central node. We present such an algorithm and consider various design tradeoffs involved, in the context of a potential trigger for the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA).

  17. Optimization of an FPGA Trigger Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Detection of Neutrino-Induced Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz; Pytel, Krzysztof; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. Air showers initiated by protons and muon neutrinos at various altitudes, angles, and energies were simulated in CORSIKA and the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platforms, giving analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) patterns in Auger water Cherenkov detectors on the ground. The proton interaction cross section is high, so proton “old” showers start their development early in the atmosphere. In contrast to this, neutrinos can generate “young” showers deeply in the atmosphere relatively close to the detectors. Differences between “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers are visible in attenuation factors of ADC waveforms. For the separation of “old” proton and “young” neutrino ADC traces, many three-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) were tested. They were trained in MATLAB (in a dedicated way -only “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers as patterns) by simulated ADC traces according to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Unexpectedly, the recognition efficiency is found to be almost independent of the size of the networks. The ANN trigger based on a selected 8-6-1 network was tested in the Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7, the heart of prototype front-end boards developed for testing new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors.

  18. Cosmic ray riddle solved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Physicists from Japan and the United States have discovered a possible answer to the puzzle of the origin of high energy cosmic rays that bombard Earth from all directions in space. Using data from the Japanese/US X-ray astronomical satellite ASCA, physicists have found strong evidence for the production of cosmic particles in the shock wave of a supernova remnant, the expanding fireball produced by the explosion of a star. Primary cosmic rays, mostly electrons and protons, travel near the speed of light. Each second, approximately 4 such particles cross one square centimetre of space just outside the Earth's atmosphere. Subsequently, collisions of these primary particles with atoms in the upper atmosphere produce slower secondary particles. Ever since the discovery of cosmic rays early this century, scientists have debated the origin of these particles and how they can be accelerated to such high speeds. Supernova remnants have long been thought to provide the high energy component, but the evidence has been lacking until now. The international team of investigators used the satellite to determine that cosmic rays are generated profusely in the remains of the supernova of 1006 AD - which appeared to medieval viewers to be as bright as the Moon - and that they are accelerated to high velocities by an iterative process first suggested by Enrico Fermi in 1949. Using solid-state X-ray cameras, the ASCA satellite records simultaneous images and spectra of X-rays from celestial sources, allowing astronomers to distinguish different types of X-ray emission. The tell-tale clue to the discovery was the detection of two diametrically opposite regions in the rapidly expanding supernova remnant, the debris from the stellar explosion. The two regions glow intensely from the synchrotron radiation produced when fast-moving electrons are bent by a magnetic field. The remainder of the supernova remnant, in contrast, emits ordinary ''thermal'' X

  19. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cut off and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method is proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a mini array. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 1019eV at large core distances.

  20. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  2. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-06-10

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Large scale anisotropy studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays using data taken with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigat, Marius

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10 15 eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)

  4. Extensive Air Showers with unusual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23500 Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼ 1016 eV have been detected during the ∼3500 hours of the Horizon-T (HT detectors system operations before Aug. 2016. Among these EAS, more than a thousand had an unusual spatial and temporary structure that showed pulses with several maxima (modals or modes from several detection points of the HT at the same time. These modes are separated in time from each other starting from tens to thousands of ns. These EAS have been called multi-modal. Analysis shows that the multi-modal EAS that have been detected by Horizon-T have the following properties: 1. Multi-modal EAS have energy above ∼1017 eV. 2. Pulses with several modes are located at large distances from the EAS axis. An overview of the collected data will be provided. General comments about the unusual structure of the multi-modal EAS will be presented.

  5. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  6. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  7. Cosmic ray studies with the Soudan 2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddick, Keith

    1994-01-01

    We will describe attempts to measure the elemental composition of the primary cosmic rays using muons observed deep underground in coincidence with detectors on the surface of the earth. A proportional tube array has been used to measure shower size at the surface and we have recently constructed a Cerenkov array which will give a more direct measurement of primary cosmic ray energy. We will also present results from an all-sky survey obtained from the trajectories of underground muons ohserved over a four year period. ((orig.))

  8. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  9. An upper limit to the proton fraction in cosmic rays above 10.sup.19./sup. eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nosek, D.; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2007), s. 155-168 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134; GA MŠk LN00A006; GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : cosmic rays * ultra-high energy photons * exctensive air shower s * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2007

  10. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  11. Observation of cosmic-ray anisotropy in the decade below 1 PeV with a pentagon array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, S. Mortazavi; Bahmanabadi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential tool to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. A pentagon array has been designed to collect data around the knee region of cosmic ray spectrum. The experimental results of this array obtained from October 2016 to October 2017. During this period, more than 5.3 ×105 extensive air shower events at energies in the decade below 1 PeV has been accumulated by this array at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran (3 5 ° 4 3'N , 5 1 ° 2 0'E , 1200m a .s .l =890 g cm-2 ). In analyzing the data set, we have used appropriate techniques of analysis and considered environmental effects. We report the analysis of the sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). In this analysis, in addition to the Compton- Getting effect due to the motion of the earth in the Galaxy, an anisotropy has been observed which is due to a unidirectional anisotropy of cosmic ray flow along the Galactic arms.

  12. Extensive air showers accompanied by γ-ray families with summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV and general extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Hamayasu, C.; Mitsumune, T.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EAS's) accompanied by families of high-energy cascade showers were observed at Mt. Norikura (738 g cm/sup -2/). 99 families of γ-ray- and hadron-origin showers with total energies summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV were obtained. The success rate of the combination between families and EAS's reaches to almost 90% (87 events). The families are associated with young EAS's, with mean age parameter s∼0.7, whose sizes distribute widely over three orders of magnitude up to 10 8 . The size spectrum of the family-associated EAS's coincides with the general EAS's in the size region above 5 x 10 6 but the former drops rapidly from the latter below this critical size. From the absolute intensity of summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/ spectrum the proton fraction in the primary cosmic rays is deduced to be (14 +- 5)%, with an error of one standard deviation, in the primary energies (5 x 10/sup 14/)--10/sup 16/ eV, in comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation assuming an adequate interaction model. This agrees with the result obtained by the work with other mountain data and is also compatible with the result inferred from the size spectrum gap between the family-associated EAS's and the general EAS's in the region below the critical size

  13. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  14. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-09-27

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  15. Antennas for the detection of radio emission pulses from cosmic-ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Obervatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, Oct (2012), s. 1-42 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * antennas Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  16. VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico The VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held at the MCTP, at the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico thanks to the Science for Development ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Regional Seminar, 17-25 November 2015 (http://mctp.mx/e-VI-School-on-Cosmic-Rays-and-Astrophysics.html). The School series started in La Paz, Bolivia in 2004 and it has been, since then, hosted by several Latin American countires: 1.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2004), 2.- Puebla, Mexico (September, 2006), 3.- Arequipa, Peru (September, 2008), 4.- Santo André, Brazil (September, 2010), 5.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2012). It aims to promote Cosmic Ray (CR) Physics and Astrophysics in the Latin American community and to provide a general overview of theoretical and experimental issues on these topics. It is directed to undergraduates, postgraduates and active researchers in the field. The lectures introduce fundamental Cosmic Ray Physics and Astrophysics with a review of standards of the field. It is expected the school continues happening during the next years following a tradition. In this edition, the list of seminars included topics such as experimental techniques of CR detection, development of CR showers and hadronic interactions, composition and energy spectrum of primary CR, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), neutrino Astrophysics, spacecraft detectors, simulations, solar modulation, and the current state of development and results of several astroparticle physics experiments such as The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, HAWC in Mexico, KASCADE and KASCADE Grande, HESS, IceCube, JEM-EUSO, Fermi-LAT, and others. This time the school has been complemented with the ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Seminar of theory on Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The organization was done by MCTP, the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics. The school had 46 participants, 30 students from Honduras, Brazil

  17. Cosmic rays, clouds and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensmark, Henrik [Danish Space Research Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    Changes in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays seems alter the Earth's cloudiness. A recent experiment has shown how electrons liberated by cosmic rays assist in making aerosols, the building blocks of cloud condensation nuclei, while anomalous climatic trends in Antarctica confirm the role of clouds in helping to drive climate change. Variations in the cosmic-ray influx due to solar magnetic activity account well for climatic fluctuations on decadal, centennial and millennial timescales. Over longer intervals, the changing galactic environment of the Solar System has had dramatic consequences, including Snowball Earth episodes.

  18. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  19. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Amaral Soares, E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boháčová, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bonifazi, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2013-08-11

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique.

  20. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique

  1. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse γ rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  2. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egberts, Kathrin

    2009-03-30

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse {gamma} rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  3. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  4. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  5. Interplanetary cosmic-ray scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toptygin, I N; Vasiliev, V N [Kalininskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR)

    1977-05-01

    The equation for the two-particles cosmic-ray distribution function is derived by means of the Boltzmann kinetic equation averaging. This equation is valid for arbitrary ratio of regular and random parts of the magnetic field. For small energy particles the guiding-center approximation is used. On the basis of the derived equation the dependence between power spectra of cosmic-ray intensity and random magnetic field is obtained. If power spectra are degree functions for high energy particles (approximately 10 GeV nucleon/sup -1/), then the spectral exponent ..gamma.. of magnetic field lies between rho and rho-2, where rho is the spectral exponent of cosmic-ray power spectra. The experimental data concerning moderate energy particles are in accordance with ..gamma..=rho, which demonstrates that the magnetic fluctuations are isotropic or cosmic-ray space gradient is small near the Earth orbit.

  6. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  7. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  8. Delayed hadrons in air showers observed in Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Bolivian Air Shower Joint Experiment group has studied high energy interaction by measuring the aspect of vertical growth of air showers of 10 16 eV or more at Mt. Chacaltaya Space Physics Observatory at 5200 m above sea level and atmospheric depth of 550 g/cm 2 . The aspect of vertical growth of electrons from about 100 g/cm 2 to about 400 g/cm 2 of atmospheric depth obtained by the measured results of the time of arrival distribution of air Cherenkov radiation at Mt. Chacaltaya agreed with the one predicted from the enhanced 1/2 power of E model. Since the vertical growth of electrons and muons in about 10 17 eV air showers from the atmospheric apex was difficult to give the unified explanation with known interaction models, the University of Tokyo group has proposed a two-component model for air shower growth. If this second component is formed from heavy particles or heavy quantum state as parents, it should be observed as the component which arrives later in air shower. Thus, the measurement and experiment on the delayed hadrons in air showers have been started. In this paper, the experiment, analysis and results are reported. It is clear that the parent particles which caused such a phenomenon were not pions which were multiply generated by the interaction generally known. Therefore, an exact simulating calculation must be performed and compared with the experimental results to obtain the final conclusion from the measured results of this time. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Study of TeV range cosmic ray detection with Cherenkov imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, R.; Gaillard, J.M.; Parrour, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Monte Carlo study of cosmic ray detection in the TeV energy range has been triggered by the authors' interest in the ARTEMIS (Antimatter Research Through the Earth Moon Ion Spectrometer) proposal. The properties of cosmic ray showers detected by Cherenkov imaging in the visible domain are studied. The detection sensitivity and the accuracy of the reconstruction of the parent particle direction using Cherenkov imaging are discussed. The backbone of the study is the atmospheric shower Monte Carlo generator developed by A.M. Hillas. A comparison between nucleon and photon induced showers of Cherenkov detection is also included. (R.P.) 14 refs., 48 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from three years of IceTop and IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, K.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop is the surface component of the IceCube Observatory, composed of frozen water tanks at the top of IceCube’s strings. Data from this detector can be analyzed in different ways with the goal of measuring cosmic ray spectrum and composition. The shower size S125 from IceTop alone can be used as a proxy for primary energy, and unfolded into an all-particle spectrum. In addition, S125 from the surface can be combined with high-energy muon energy loss information from the deep IceCube detector for those air showers which pass through both. Using these coincident events in a complementary analysis, both the spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays can be extracted in parallel using a neural network. Both of these analyses have been performed on three years of IceTop and IceCube data. Both all-particle spectra as well as individual spectra for elemental groups are presented.

  11. UHE Cosmic Ray Observations Using the Cygnus Water - Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Cynthia L.

    1995-01-01

    The CYGNUS water-Cerenkov array, consisting of five surface water-Cerenkov detectors, was built in the CYGNUS extensive air shower array at Los Alamos, New Mexico (latitude 36^circ N, longitude 107^circ W, altitude 2310 meters) to search for point sources of ultra-high energy particles (>1014 eV per particle) with the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. The water-Cerenkov detectors are used to improve the angular resolution of the extensive air shower array. This experiment searches for point sources of UHE gamma-radiation that may be of galactic or extra-galactic origin. The data set from December 1991 to January 1994 consists of data from both the water-Cerenkov array and the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. These data are combined, and the angular resolution of this combined data set is measured to be 0.34^circ+0.03 ^circ-0.04^circ. The measurement is made by observing the cosmic-ray shadowing of the Sun and the Moon. Using a subset of these data, three potential sources of UHE emission are studied: the Crab Pulsar, and the active galactic nuclei Markarian 421 and Markarian 501. A search is conducted for continuous emission from these three sources, and emission over shorter time scales. This experiment is particularly sensitive to emission over these shorter time scales. There is no evidence of UHE emission from these three sources over any time scales studied, and upper bounds to the flux of gamma radiation are determined. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from the Crab Pulsar is found to be 1.2times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 70 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 421 is found to be 1.3times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 501 is found to be 3.8times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV.

  12. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  13. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  14. Radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Analysis, simulation and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the use of giant detectors suitable for low flux beyond 1018 eV, the origin of ultra energy cosmic rays, remains unclear. In the 60', the radio-detection of air shower is proposed as a complementary technique to the ground particle detection and to the fluorescence method. A revival of this technique took place in the 2000's in particular with CODALEMA experiment. The first results show both a strong dependence of the signal to the geomagnetic field and a strong correlation between energy estimated by the radio-detectors and by particle detectors. The new generation of autonomous detectors created by the CODALEMA collaboration indicates that it is now possible to detect air showers autonomously. Due to the expected performances (a nearly 100% duty cycle, a signal generated by the complete shower, simplicity and low cost of a detector), it is possible to consider to deploy this technique for the future large arrays. In order to interpret experimental data, a simulation tool, SELFAS, is developed in this wok. This simulation code allowed us to highlight the existence of a second radio-emission mechanism. A first interpretation of the longitudinal profile as an observable of a privileged instant of the shower development is also proposed, which could give an estimation of the nature of the primary. (author)

  15. Cosmic ray H and He spectra from 2 to 800 TeV/nucleon from the JACEE experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B. S.; Cherry, M. L.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, J. P.; Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.; Olson, E. D.; Strausz, S. C.; Wilkes, R. J.; Zager, E.; Chevli, K.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Shiina, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    Results for the cosmic ray hydrogen and helium spectra up to 800 TeV, near the 'knee' region, are presented. There is no sign of a break in either the hydrogen or helium spectra. The differential power law slopes are 2.80±0.04 for hydrogen and 2.68±0.06 for helium. With these new H and He measurements, together with earlier reported results for the heavier elements, the sum of the spectra give an all-particle spectrum that is in good agreement with the all-particle spectrum measured using extensive air showers

  16. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Lisjak, I.; Radolic, V.; Vekic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2006-01-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv and the average dose rate was 2.7 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h

  17. Measurements of the dose due to cosmic rays in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Lisjak, I. [Croatia Airlines, Zagreb (Croatia); Radolic, V. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)]. E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2006-06-15

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured with the Alpha Guard radon detector. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed by the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 {mu}Sv and the average dose rate was 2.7 {mu}Sv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24 h flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  18. The absorbed dose in air of photons generated from secondary cosmic rays at sea level at Nagoya, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose in air of photons generated from secondary cosmic radiation at sea level at Nagoya, Japan. To isolate the contribution from cosmic photons, the pulse-height distributions due to μ particles and electrons were eliminated from the observed pulse-height distribution of a measurement with a 3'' diam. spherical NaI(Tl) detector. The pulse height due to μ particles and electrons was inferred from the coincidence technique using two types of scintillation detectors with different sensitivities to photons. To obtain the photon fluence rate for further dose calculation, the pulse-height distribution of cosmic photons was unfolded by the iterative method. The mean and its standard deviation of the absorbed dose in air and fluence rate due to cosmic photons calculated from a one year observation are 2.86±0.05 nGy.h -1 and 0.1342±0.0015 photons.cm -2 .s -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose in air from cosmic photons was 0.5% lower during autumn to winter and 0.6% higher during spring to summer than the mean taken over the year. (author)

  19. Multi-TeV gamma ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with TAIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tluczykont, Martin [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: TAIGA Kollaboration

    2016-07-01

    The very high energy gamma-ray regime is the key to several questions in high energy astrophysics, the most prominent being the search for the origin of cosmic rays. Observations of gamma rays up to several 100 TeV are particularly important to spectrally resolve the cutoff regime of the long-sought Pevatrons, the accelerators of PeV cosmic rays. TAIGA is an international collaboration that has, in the past 3 years, installed the air Cherenkov timing array HiSCORE on an area of 0.25 square-km, and are currently installing a first 4m diameter imaging air Cherenkov telescope (IACT), to be operated in parallel with the timing array. Our aim is to combine the timing and imaging techniques on a large scale in order to optimize the air Cherenkov detection technique for energies above 10 TeV and up to several 100 TeV. Simulations show a clear potential of the planned hybrid event reconstruction, especially in the energy regime from 10 TeV to 100 TeV. The TAIGA experiment will be complemented by scintillator based particle detectors for a measurement of the muon content of the air shower at higher energies. The status of our experiment and the planned 1 square-km stage of TAIGA are discussed.

  20. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  1. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...

  2. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  3. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  4. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model

  5. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P

    2000-01-31

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model.

  6. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  7. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  8. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collica, Laura [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Paris Diderot Univ. (France)

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  9. Search for antimatter in 1012 eV cosmic rays using Artemis method and interpretation of the cosmic rays spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarede, D.

    1999-04-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is a review of the present knowledge of the antimatter and of the cosmic rays. Theoretical and experimental aspects are presented. It is demonstrated that a measurement of the antimatter abundance in TeV cosmic rays is of fundamental interest, and would establish the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the Universe. The second part is dedicated to the method of antimatter research through the Earth Moon ion spectrometer (ARTEMIS). The account is given of the winter 1996-97 41-nights observation campaign undertaken at the Whipple Observatory in Arizona (USA). A 109 photomultiplier camera is operated on the 40 meter telescope to detect by Cherenkov imaging the cosmic ray initiated showers. We describe the performance of an optical filter used to reduce the noise. The development and the utilization of a simulation program are described. The main work is the analysis of the data: data characterization, understanding of the apparatus, understanding of the noise and its influence, calibration, search for signals by different methods. Subtle systematic effects are uncovered. The simulations establish that the amount of data is insufficient to reveal a shadow effect in the cosmic ray flux. The conclusion of this work is that the experimental setup was not suitable, and we propose important improvements of the method based on a bigger focal plane that would allow to reach a one percent sensitivity on the antimatter content of the cosmic rays. In the third part of the thesis, an interpretation of the total cosmic ray spectrum is proposed and discussed. (author)

  10. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Muñiz J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  11. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  12. Solar-cosmic-ray variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The maximum flux of particles from solar events that should be considered in designing the shielding for a space habitation is discussed. The activities of various radionuclides measured in the top few centimeters of lunar rocks are used to examine the variability of solar cosmic ray fluxes over the last five million years. 10 references

  13. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Results and status of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Christine [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest experiment detecting extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays at the highest energies. An area of 3000 km{sup 2} is instrumented by 1660 water Cherenkov detector stations, and 27 fluorescence telescopes overlook the atmosphere above the surface detector array. A hybrid detection principle is achieved by utilizing information of both detectors. A major upgrade of the experiment (AugerPrime) has been decided adding a third detector type, scintillator detector stations located on the water Cherenkov tanks. Thereby, the composition sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory is extended by an improved determination of the muonic shower component. Additionally, underground muon detectors (AMIGA) are deployed. The experiment has been further extended by antennas measuring the emission of radio signals from air showers (AERA). An overview about recent results and the current status of the experiment are given in this talk. Highlights are updated results, e.g. on the energy spectrum, chemical composition or proton-air cross section.

  14. Cosmic Ray Modulation and Radiation Dose of Aircrews During Possible Grand Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S.; Kataoka, R.; Sato, T.; Imada, S.; Miyahara, H.; Shiota, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueno, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is exhibiting low solar activity levels since the descending phase of the last solar cycle, and it is likely to be continued as well as in the case of the past grand solar minima. The cosmic-ray modulation, which is the variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum caused by the heliospheric environmental change, is basically anti-correlated with the solar activity. In the recent weak solar cycle, we thus expect that the flux of GCRs is getting higher than that in the previous solar cycles, leading to the increase in the radiation exposure in the space and atmosphere. In order to quantitatively evaluate the possible solar modulation of GCRs and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude, we have developed the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic-ray modulation. Our model can give the flux of GCRs anywhere in the heliosphere by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), and its tilt angle. We solve the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs in the HMF, and therefore reproduce the 22-year variation of the cosmic-ray modulation. We also calculate the neutron monitor counting rate and the radiation dose of aircrews at flight altitude, by the air-shower simulation performed by PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System). In our previous study [1], we calculated the radiation dose at a flight altitude during the coming solar cycle by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed and the strength of the HMF expressed by sinusoidal curve, and obtained that an annual radiation dose of aircrews in 5 years around the next solar minimum will be up to 19% higher than that at the last cycle. In this study, we predict the new model of the heliospheric environmental change on the basis of a prediction model for the sunspot number. The quantitative predictions of the cosmic-ray modulation and the radiation dose at a flight altitude during possible Grand Minimum considering

  15. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Karle, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Martinez, S. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rozanska, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-04-24

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by {gamma} rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this `{gamma}/hadron separation` is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by {gamma} rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for {gamma}/hadron separation in AICAs called ``LES``. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ``AIROBICC`` AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy, the ``reduced quality factor``. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to {gamma}-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  16. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Lorenz, E.; Martinez, S.; Rozanska, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by γ rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this 'γ/hadron separation' is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by γ rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based γ-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for γ/hadron separation in AICAs called ''LES''. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ''AIROBICC'' AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based γ-ray astronomy, the ''reduced quality factor''. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to γ-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  17. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of nitrogen in air. Consequences on the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Mesure precise du rendement absolu de la fluorescence de l'azote dans l'air. Consequences sur la detection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, G

    2006-07-15

    The study of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 20} eV) requires to determine the energy with much more precision than what is currently achieved. The shower of particles created in the atmosphere can be detected either by sampling particle on the ground, or by detecting the fluorescence induced by the excitation of nitrogen by shower electrons. At present, the measurement of the fluorescence is the simplest and the most reliable method, since it does not call upon hadronic physics laws at extreme energies, a field still inaccessible to accelerators. The precise knowledge of the conversion factor between deposited energy and the number of fluorescence photons produced (the yield) is thus essential. Up to now, it has been determined with an accuracy of 15 % only. This main goal of this work is to measure this yield to better than 5 per cent. To do this, 1 MeV electrons from a radioactive source excite nitrogen of the air. The accuracy has been reached thanks to the implementation of a new method for the absolute calibration of the photomultipliers detecting the photons, to better than 2 per cent. The fluorescence yield, measured and normalized to 0.85 MeV, 760 mmHg and 15 Celsius degrees, is (4.23 {+-} 0.20) photons per meter, or (20.46 {+-} 0.98) photons per deposited MeV. In addition, and for the first time, the absolute fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen excited by a source has been measured with an optical grating spectrometer. (author)

  18. Towards the installation and use of an extended array for cosmic ray detection The EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badala, A; Baek, Y W; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri,C; Cicalò, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; Coccetti, F; De Caro, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; D'Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Garnaccia, C; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J S; Kim, M M; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Noferini, F; Pagano, P; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Petta, C; Piragino, G; Preghenella, R; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Russo, G; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Scioli, G; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Wenninger, H; Williams, M C S; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2009-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project started to use an array of cosmic ray telescopes for muon detection, distributed over the italian territory. The use of such telescopes, based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) allows the study of the local muon flux, the detection of cosmic ray showers and the search for correlations between distant showers. The project is also intended to involve high school teams in an advanced research work. The present status of the installation and the first physics results are discussed here.

  19. Towards the installation and use of an extended array for cosmic ray detection: The EEE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Bari (Italy); Alici, A. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); An, S. [World Laboratory, Geneva (Switzerland); Antolini, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Badala, A. [INFN and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Baek, Y.W. [Department of Physics, Kangnung National University (Korea, Republic of); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baldini Ferroli, R. [Museo Storico della Fisica, Centro Studi e Ricerche E.Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Bencivenni, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica, Centro Studi e Ricerche E.Fermi, Roma (Italy); Blanco, F. [INFN and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Bressan, E. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Chiri, C. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Lecce (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica, Centro Studi e Ricerche E.Fermi, Roma (Italy); Cicalo, C. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Cagliari (Italy); Cifarelli, L. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Coccia, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Coccetti, F. [Museo Storico della Fisica, Centro Studi e Ricerche E.Fermi, Roma (Italy); De Caro, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S. [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Salerno (Italy); D' Incecco, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project started to use an array of cosmic ray telescopes for muon detection, distributed over the italian territory. The use of such telescopes, based on Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) allows the study of the local muon flux, the detection of cosmic ray showers and the search for correlations between distant showers. The project is also intended to involve high school teams in an advanced research work. The present status of the installation and the first physics results are discussed here.

  20. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  1. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ''beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA

  2. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  3. ARGO-YBJ OBSERVATION OF THE LARGE-SCALE COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY DURING THE SOLAR MINIMUM BETWEEN CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica ”Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W.; Gao, W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024, Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail: cuisw@ihep.ac.cn [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-08-10

    This paper reports on the measurement of the large-scale anisotropy in the distribution of cosmic-ray arrival directions using the data collected by the air shower detector ARGO-YBJ from 2008 January to 2009 December, during the minimum of solar activity between cycles 23 and 24. In this period, more than 2 × 10{sup 11} showers were recorded with energies between ∼1 and 30 TeV. The observed two-dimensional distribution of cosmic rays is characterized by two wide regions of excess and deficit, respectively, both of relative intensity ∼10{sup −3} with respect to a uniform flux, superimposed on smaller size structures. The harmonic analysis shows that the large-scale cosmic-ray relative intensity as a function of R.A. can be described by the first and second terms of a Fouries series. The high event statistics allow the study of the energy dependence of the anistropy, showing that the amplitude increases with energy, with a maximum intensity at ∼10 TeV, and then decreases while the phase slowly shifts toward lower values of R.A. with increasing energy. The ARGO-YBJ data provide accurate observations over more than a decade of energy around this feature of the anisotropy spectrum.

  4. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors

  5. Galactic cosmic ray iron composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the isotopic compostition of galactic cosmic ray iron in the energy interval 500-750 MeV/nucleon with a visual track detector system consisting of nuclear emulsion and cellulose-nitrate platic. Stopping iron nuclei were identified from ionization - range measurements in the two detector parts. Cone lengths were measured in the plastic sheets and the residual ranges of the particles were measured in plastic and in emulsion. We have determined the mass of 17 iron nuclei with an uncertainty of about 0.3 amu. The isotopic composition at the detector level was found to be 52 Fe: 53 Fe: 54 Fe: 55 Fe: 56 Fe: 57 Fe: 58 Fe = 0:1: 4:3:8:1:0. These numbers are not in conflict with the assumption that the isotopic composition of cosmic ray iron at the source is similar to the solar system composition. (author)

  6. Cosmic-ray neutron simulations and measurements in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    This study used simulations of galactic cosmic ray in the atmosphere to investigate the neutron background environment in Taiwan, emphasising its altitude dependence and spectrum variation near interfaces. The calculated results were analysed and compared with two measurements. The first measurement was a mobile neutron survey from sea level up to 3275 m in altitude conducted using a car-mounted high-sensitivity neutron detector. The second was a previous measured result focusing on the changes in neutron spectra near air/ground and air/water interfaces. The attenuation length of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere was estimated to be 163 g cm -2 in Taiwan. Cosmic-ray neutron spectra vary with altitude and especially near interfaces. The determined spectra near the air/ground and air/water interfaces agree well with measurements for neutrons below 10 MeV. However, the high-energy portion of spectra was observed to be much higher than our previous estimation. Because high-energy neutrons contribute substantially to a dose evaluation, revising the annual sea-level effective dose from cosmic-ray neutrons at ground level in Taiwan to 35 μSv, which corresponds to a neutron flux of 5.30 x 10 -3 n cm -2 s -1 , was suggested. The cosmic-ray neutron background in Taiwan was studied using the FLUKA simulations and field measurements. A new measurement was performed using a car-mounted high-efficiency neutron detector, re-coding real-time neutron counting rates from sea level up to 3275 m. The attenuation of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere exhibited an effective attenuation length of 163 g cm -2 . The calculated neutron counting rates over predicted the measurements by ∼32 %, which leaded to a correction factor for the FLUKA-calculated cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere in Taiwan. In addition, a previous measurement regarding neutron spectrum variation near the air/ground and air/water interfaces was re-evaluated. The results showed that the

  7. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e - storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77±11) % protons and (23±11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 -probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88±8) % protons and (12±8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a χ 2 -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  8. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  9. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  10. Operation and performance of the EEE network array for the detection of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Bari (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Baldini Ferroli, R. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Batignani, G. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bencivenni, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Bossini, E. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN Gruppo Collegato di Siena and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Siena (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cicalò, C. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cifarelli, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project is an experiment for the detection of cosmic ray muons by means of a sparse array of telescopes, each made of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), distributed over all the Italian territory and at CERN. The main scientific goals of the Project are the investigation of the properties of the local muon flux, the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and the search for long-distance correlations between far telescopes. The Project is also characterized by a strong educational and outreach aspect since the telescopes are managed by teams of students and teachers who had previously constructed them at CERN. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array, which currently consists of more than 50 telescopes, is also presented by showing the most recent physics results.

  11. Implementation of a custom time-domain firmware trigger for RADAR-based cosmic ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohira, S.; Besson, D.; Kunwar, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Young, R.

    2018-05-01

    Interest in Radio-based detection schemes for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) has surged in recent years, owing to the potentially very low cost/detection ratio. The method of radio-frequency (RF) scatter has been proposed as potentially the most economical detection technology. Though the first dedicated experiment to employ this method, the Telescope Array RADAR experiment (TARA) reported no signal, efforts to develop more robust and sensitive trigger techniques continue. This paper details the development of a time-domain firmware trigger that exploits characteristics of the expected scattered signal from an UHECR extensive-air shower (EAS). The improved sensitivity of this trigger is discussed, as well as implementation in two separate field deployments from 2016 to 2017.

  12. Operation and performance of the EEE network array for the detection of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project is an experiment for the detection of cosmic ray muons by means of a sparse array of telescopes, each made of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), distributed over all the Italian territory and at CERN. The main scientific goals of the Project are the investigation of the properties of the local muon flux, the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and the search for long-distance correlations between far telescopes. The Project is also characterized by a strong educational and outreach aspect since the telescopes are managed by teams of students and teachers who had previously constructed them at CERN. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array, which currently consists of more than 50 telescopes, is also presented by showing the most recent physics results.

  13. Fast “swarm of detectors” and their application in cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoziyoev G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New opportunities in science appeared with the latest technology of the 21st century. This paper points to creating a new architecture for detection systems of different characteristics in astrophysics and geophysics using the latest technologies related to multicopter cluster systems, alternative energy sources, cluster technologies, cloud computing and big data. The idea of a quick-deployable scaleable dynamic system of a controlled drone with a small set of different detectors for detecting various components of extensive air showers in cosmic rays and in geophysics is very attractive. Development of this type of new system also allows to give a multiplier effect for the development of various sciences and research methods to observe natural phenomena.

  14. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Percolation Effects in Very-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.; Santo, M.C. Espirito; Pimenta, M.; Pajares, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic ray data at high energies present a number of well-known puzzles. At very high energies (E∼10 20 eV) there are indications of a discrepancy between ground array experiments and fluorescence detectors. On the other hand, the dependence of the depth of the shower maximum X max with the primary energy shows a change in slope (E∼10 17 eV) which is usually explained assuming a composition change. Both effects could be accounted for in models predicting that above a certain energy showers would develop deeper in the atmosphere. In this Letter we argue that this can be done naturally by including percolation effects in the description of the shower development, which cause a change in the behavior of the inelasticity K above E≅10 17 eV

  16. Radiation dose distributions close to the shower axis calculated for high energy electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.; Gsponer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses produced by 500, 1,000 and 10,000 MeV electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air have been calculated using a Monte Carlo program. The radial distributions of the absorbed dose near to the shower axis are found to be significantly narrower than predicted by simple analytical shower theory. For a 500 MeV, 10 kA, 100 ns electron beam pulse, the region in which the total dose is in excess of 1 krad and the dose rate in excess of 10 10 rad/s is a cigar-shaped envelope of radius 1 m and length 200 m. (orig.) [de

  17. The Fermi Large Area Telescope as a cosmic-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrò, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope is an international observatory conceived to study high energy gamma-rays from the universe. It is designed to identify and reconstruct electromagnetic showers and it can collect cosmic-ray electrons and positrons thanks to its triggering and filtering capabilities. The Fermi LAT collaboration has published several results on charged cosmic rays. We measured the inclusive spectrum of electrons and positrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV and searched for anisotropies in the electron incoming direction. We have recently published a measurement of cosmic-ray positron-only and electron-only spectra for energies between 20 GeV and 200 GeV exploiting the Earth's magnetic field as a charge separator. In this work we describe the techniques and capabilities of the LAT as a cosmic-ray detector and review the recent results and their interpretations. Prospects for future studies and observations will also be discussed

  18. Effect of energy deposited by cosmic-ray particles on interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hayakawa, Hideaki; Okada, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Tsunesada, Yoshiki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the noise of interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to heat energy deposited by cosmic-ray particles. We derived a general formula that describes the response of a mirror against a cosmic-ray passage. We found that there are differences in the comic-ray responses (the dependence of temperature and cosmic-ray track position) in cases of interferometric and resonant gravitational wave detectors. The power spectral density of vibrations caused by low-energy secondary muons is 100 times smaller than the goal sensitivity of future second-generation interferometer projects, such as LCGT and Advanced LIGO. The arrival frequency of high-energy cosmic-ray muons that generate enough large showers inside mirrors of LCGT and Advanced LIGO is one per a millennium. We also discuss the probability of exotic-particle detection with interferometers.

  19. The IceCube Collaboration: contributions to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial ν e , ν μ and ν τ signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way

  20. Electric field of thunderclouds and cosmic rays: evidence for acceleration of particles (runaway electrons)

    CERN Document Server

    Khaerdinov, N S; Petkov, V B; 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    2004-01-01

    We present the data on correlations of the intensity of the soft component of cosmic rays with the local electric field of the near-earth atmosphere during thunderstorm periods at the Baksan Valley (North Caucasus, 1700 m a. s. l.). The large-area array for studying the extensive air showers of cosmic rays is used as a particle detector. An electric field meter of the "electric mill" type (rain-protected) is mounted on the roof of the building in the center of this array. The data were obtained in the summer seasons of 2000-2002. We observe strong enhancements of the soft component intensity before some lightning strokes. At the same time, the analysis of the regression curve "intensity versus field" discovers a bump at the field sign that is opposite to the field sign corresponding to acceleration of electrons. It is interpreted as a signature of runaway electrons from the region of the strong field (with opposite sign) overhead.

  1. Comparison of methods for determining the centers of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Funk, E.; Mikocki, S.; Rohrer, N.

    1987-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate extensive air shower data. Two methods of determining the core location of the shower have been investigated: the method of least squares and the method of maximizing the likelihood function. The likelihood function method gives a precision of shower center location two times better than the χ 2 method for small numbers of detected particles. (orig.)

  2. A large air shower array to search for astrophysical sources emitting γ-rays with energies ≥1014 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borione, A.; Covault, C.E.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Krimm, H.A.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Sanders, H.; Catanese, M.; Ciampa, D.; Green, K.D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; Van der Velde, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the technical details and the performance of a large array which detects both the electron and muon components in extensive air showers with energies ≥10 14 eV. The array was designed to search for γ-rays from astrophysical sources. The background of cosmic rays is reduced by the selection of muon poor events. The array consists of 1089 scintillation detectors on the surface covering an area of 0.23 km 2 and 1024 scintillation counters of 2.5 m 2 each, buried 3 m below the surface for muon detection. Each of the surface detectors has its own local electronics and local data storage controlled by a microprocessor. The array is located at Dugway, Utah USA (40.2 N, 112.8 W) where the average atmospheric depth is 870 g/cm 2 . ((orig.))

  3. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  4. Study of the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and analysis of the associated hadronic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, X.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), i.e. E ≥ 1 EeV, raise many questions about their origin and constitute a challenge to modern physics. These cosmic rays entering the atmosphere dissipate their huge energy by generating a shower of secondary particles whose development is significantly different depending on the nature of the primaries. The study of the composition of UHECR is therefore a major interest both in understanding the hadronic processes which govern the evolution of showers and in identifying the sources of this radiation. Given its hybrid structure and the size of its unmatched network of ground detectors, the Pierre Auger Observatory can provide clear answers to the issues raised by UHECR. In this thesis, we are particularly interested in the muon component of air showers. First, we show how the hadronic parameters define the production of muons. Then we present an original method to extract this muon component and deduce the implications on the composition of UHECR. The results of this approach suggest a transition from a heavy composition to a light one when the energy increases. Finally, we address the measurement of cosmic-air cross section and present the first results derived from the Pierre Auger Observatory data. (author)

  5. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Kataoka, R.; Yasuda, H.; Yashiro, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Shiota, D.; Kubo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect air crews from additional SEP exposure. When galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) or solar energetic particles (SEPs) are incident on the atmosphere, they can induce air showers by producing various secondary particles. These secondary particles can reach conventional flight altitudes (∼12 km); hence, air crews are exposed to enhanced levels of radiation. The most important difference between GCR and SEP exposure arises from their temporal variations and dose rates; GCRs induce continuous exposure with low dose rates, usually up to several μSv h -1 , whereas SEPs produce pulsed exposure with high dose rates, occasionally >1 mSv h -1 , though such severe events rarely occur. Thus, subsequent evaluation is sufficient for estimating the aircrew dose due to GCR exposure, whereas forecasting is desirable for SEP exposure. Several calculation codes, e.g. CARI-6(3), EPCARD(4), JISCARD-EX(5), and PCAIRE(6), have been developed for post-exposure evaluation of GCR doses. On the other hand, empirical and phenomenological models have been developed for real-time or

  6. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray fluxes and cosmogenic neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2013-04-15

    We discuss the possible origin of the two neutrino shower events reported by the IceCube Collaboration at the Neutrino 2012 conference in Kyoto, Japan. The suspicion early on was that these two events are due to cosmogenic neutrinos and possibly by electron antineutrinos generating the Glashow resonance. The difference of the energy of the W{sup −} in the resonance and the energy estimates of the detected cascade events makes this assumption unlikely. The conclusion then may be that these high energy neutrinos are produced at sources of high energy cosmic rays such as Active Galactic Nuclei.

  7. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prete M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  8. On the possibilities of large-scale radio and fiber optics detectors in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, G. A.; Markov, M. A.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    Different variants of radio and fiber optics detectors for registration of super high energy cascades in the atmosphere and in dense media are discussed. Particularly the possibilities for investigation of quasi horizontal cosmic ray showers (CRS) and simulated muons from these CRS with the help of radio detectors and fiber optics detectors located on the ice surface are considered.

  9. Effects of cosmic-ray-induced cascades on the ultracryogenic antenna NAUTILUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astone, P.; Bonifazi, P.; Frasca, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; Fafone, V.; Castellazzi, D.; Marini, A.; Carelli, P.

    1995-07-01

    The gravitational wave antenna Nautilus has been provided with a cosmic-ray veto system. The expected number of events from the interactions of high- energy hadrons and muons and multihadron showers with the antenna are shown together with examples from the data analysis of the search for coincidences between the two detectors

  10. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  11. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  12. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  13. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  14. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  15. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  16. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  17. Cosmic-ray-veto detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-12-01

    To reduce the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background, we are testing a cosmic-ray veto option with a neutron detector system that uses plastic scintillator slabs mounted on the outside of a 3 He-tube detector. The scintillator slabs eliminate unwanted cosmic-ray events, enabling the detector to assay low-level plutonium samples, for which a low-background coincident signature is critical. This report describes the design and testing of the prototype cosmic-ray-veto detector system

  18. Transition effect of extensive air showers in thick scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidvanskij, A.S.; Navarra, Dzh.; Chernyaev, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Transition effect of extensive air showers has been measured by means of the ''Kover'' facility of the Baksan neutrino laboratory. The transition effect represents the ratio of ''scintillation'' particle density detected with detectors and particle density under the facility concrete roof (21 gxcm -2 ). Measurement results are compared with data obtained by means of the program of electron-photon cascade gaming. Good agreement of experimental and calculational data has been obtained. It follows from the data in the paper that the transition effect for one scintillator in the absence of roof can be produced by the gaming rather reliably

  19. Numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharges as the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Shower process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Nag, A.; Rakov, V. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) are sources of the powerful, often isolated radio pulses emitted by thunderstorms. The VLF-LF radio pulses are called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). It is still not clear how CIDs are produced, but two categories of theoretical models that have previously been considered are the Transmission Line (TL) model and the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Showers (RREA-EAS) model. In this paper, we perform numerical calculations of RREA-EASs for various electric field configurations inside thunderstorms. The results of these calculations are compared to results from the other models and to the experimental data. Our analysis shows that different theoretical models predict different fundamental characteristics for CIDs. Therefore, many previously published properties of CIDs are highly model dependent. This is because of the fact that measurements of the radiation field usually provide information about the current moment of the source, and different physical models with different discharge currents could have the same current moment. We have also found that although the RREA-EAS model could explain the current moments of CIDs, the required electric fields in the thundercloud are rather large and may not be realistic. Furthermore, the production of NBPs from RREA-EAS requires very energetic primary cosmic ray particles, not observed in nature. If such ultrahigh-energy particles were responsible for NBPs, then they should be far less frequent than is actually observed.

  20. Determination of some fundamental characteristics of Geiger-Mueller counters. Applications to the study of delayed particles from cosmic-ray shower; Sur la determination de quelques caracteristiques fondamentales de compteurs de geiger-muller applications a l'etude des particules retardees des gerbes atmospheriques du rayonnement cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-06-15

    After some historic recalls, the different phases of discharge of a Geiger-Mueller counter is studied. It measures, by oscillograph method, the time between the flow of a particle through a determined area of the counter and the response of the associated amplifier. This time length is composed by the latency period and the delay itself which depends on the amplifier sensitivity. The selection of particles which generate a discharge in the studied counter is obtained with a two coincidence counters telescope in which the aperture is limited by four counters in anticoincidence with the first two counters. The measures have been done with different distance values and an overvoltage V{sub s} which was applied to the counter. The dead time of a GM counter is also measured with a delayed coincidences method. The counter pulses which supply the coincidence circuit are delivered directly or with a known and variable delay. This method allows also to study the spurious pulses which are due to the positive ions impact on the counter cathode. Results for counters working in different conditions are given. It describes the system to limit the discharge which induces the increase of the life working of a counter, the decrease of its dead time and the reduction of the number of spurious pulses. In a second part, it describes the system to study the time correlation between different particles of the cosmic ray. An experiment concerning the presence of delayed particles in cosmic showers has permitted to specify the superior limit of this phenomena which is directly connected to the presence of heavy nuclear particles in the cosmic shower. (M.P.)

  1. Cosmic ray diffusion: report of the workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, T.J.; Jones, F.C.

    1975-02-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory. (auth)

  2. Cosmic rays exposure during aircraft flight (3). Guideline and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Council of MEXT drew up the Guideline of Cosmic Ray Exposure Control for Air Crew in 2006. The content of the Guideline and evaluation methods of dose are explained. The Guideline stated five items for Airline Company. It consists of 1) exposure dose control for air crew, 2) evaluation methods of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, 3) explanation and education of cosmic rays exposure for air crew, 4) reading, record and store of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, and 5) health control of air crew. The doses of four airlines were calculated by the Civil Aeromedical Research Institute (CARI) code and the European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (EPCARD) code. The difference of two codes was about 15 to 25%. Japanese Internet System for Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (JISCAED) has been developed by Japan. (S.Y.)

  3. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Michael, E-mail: michael.walter@desy.de

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  4. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  5. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster

  6. Directional clustering in highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    An unexpected degree of small-scale clustering is observed in highest-energy cosmic ray events. Some directional clustering can be expected due to purely statistical fluctuations for sources distributed randomly in the sky. This creates a background for events originating in clustered sources. We derive analytic formulas to estimate the probability of random cluster configurations, and use these formulas to study the strong potential of the HiRes, Auger, Telescope Array and EUSO-OWL-AirWatch facilities for deciding whether any observed clustering is most likely due to nonrandom sources. For a detailed comparison to data, our analytical approach cannot compete with Monte Carlo simulations, including experimental systematics. However, our derived formulas do offer two advantages: (i) easy assessment of the significance of any observed clustering, and most importantly, (ii) an explicit dependence of cluster probabilities on the chosen angular bin size

  7. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreggia, S.

    2007-06-01

    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10 20 eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  8. Interstellar propagation of low energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wave particles interactions prevent low energy cosmic rays from propagating at velocities much faster than the Alfven velocity, reducing their range by a factor of order 50. Therefore, supernovae remnants cannot fill the neutral portions of the interstellar medium with 2 MeV cosmic rays [fr

  9. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  10. Early history of cosmic rays at Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2013-02-01

    Cosmic ray studies at the University of Chicago were started by Arthur Compton during the late 1920s. The high points of cosmic ray studies at Chicago under Compton and Marcel Schein are the focus of this report, which summarizes the research done at Chicago up to the end of World War II.

  11. Implication of EAS data for the study of primary cosmic rays above 10 to the 5th power GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L.; Wdowczyk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the strong decrease of the energetic cosmic ray flux its direct detection at the top of atmosphere with aircraft is limited at the present time to about 100,000 GeV. The intensity of all primary particles can be approximated in the range 100 to 100,000 GeV by power function with power index 2.65. There are predominantly protons and the rest is represented by several groups of nuclei. In the range of 100,000 to 10 to the 8th power GeV considerable disagreement is most probably connected with the uncertainity of the indirect derivation of the parameters of extensive air showers. Results for the primary spectrum in the range to the 8th power GeV, obtained by implication of extensive air showers (EAS) data from mountain altitudes are discussed.

  12. Cosmic ray production curves below reworking zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating cosmic ray production profiles below reworking zones. The method uses an input reworking depth determined from data such as signatures in the depth profile of ferromagnetic resonance intensity and input cosmic ray production profiles for an undisturbed surface. Reworking histories are simulated using Monte Carlo techniques, and depth profiles are used to determine cosmic ray exposure age limits with a specified probability. It is shown that the track density profiles predict cosmic ray exposure ages in lunar cores that are consistent with values determined by other methods. Results applied to neutron fluence and spallation rare gases eliminate the use of reworking depth as an adjustable parameter and give cosmic ray exposure ages that are compatible with each other

  13. Cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    It is inevitable that there is a close connection between cosmic rays and the ISM insofar as the propagation of cosmic rays is conditioned by the magnetic field in the ISM and the cosmic rays interact with the gas (and photon fluxes) in this medium. This paper deals with both topics. Propagation effects manifest themselves as an anisotropy in arrival directions and a review is given of anisotropy measurements and their interpretation. The status of studies of cosmic ray interactions is examined whit particular reference to the information about the ISM itself which comes from observations of the flux of secondary γ-rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with gas, the situation regarding molecular as in the Inner Galaxy being of particular concern

  14. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  15. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  16. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarone, C; Fernandez-Tellez, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2·10 10 to 2· 10 12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 to 10 17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program

  17. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  18. New results from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1980-07-01

    Behavior of elementary particles at very high energies and new phenomena observed are discussed in the light of results obtained by cosmic ray studies. Methods of determining hadron-nucleus inelastic cross-sections are described. Proton energy spectra are studied at 2000-50,000 GeV and the hadron-proton total cross section is deduced. Measurement of the cross-section by measurement of the intensity of transition radiation is described. The instrumental effects and the corrections effected are mentioned. The results obtained by different groups of investigators are compared. Observations on the scaling violation at high energies are reported. New particles or phenomena observed include: (i) the long flying component (ii) centauro events, (iii) delayed particles (iv) high energy cascades in underground experiments and (v) charm hadron production in hadron collisions. New experiments being planned for further research are mentioned.

  19. Cosmic Ray Mass Measurements with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, Stijn; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hörandel, Jörg R.; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katie; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Jörg Paul; Rossetto, Laura; Schellart, Pim; Scholten, Olaf; Thoudam, Satyendra; Trinh, Gia; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In the dense core of LOFAR individual air showers are detected by hundreds of dipole antennas simultaneously. We reconstruct Xmax by using a hybrid technique that combines a two-dimensional fit of the radio profile to CoREAS simulations and a one-dimensional fit of the particle density distribution.

  20. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazon L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  1. The arrival time distribution of muons in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was done to investigate the lateral dependence of the muon arrival time distribution in extensive air showers at small core distances. In the present experiment the muon arrival time distribution was investigated by measuring the relative arrival times between single muons in five fast Cerenkov detectors beneath 500g/cm 2 of concrete and at an atmospheric depth of 880g/cm 2 . It is shown that, although it is not possible to determine the arrival time distribution as such, it is possible to interpret the relative arrival times between muons in terms of the differences between the order statistics of a sample drawn from the arrival time distribution. The relationship between the arrival time distribution of muons relative to the first detected muon and the muon arrival time distribution is also derived. It was found that the dispersion of the muon arrival time distribution does not increase significantly with increasing core distance between 10m and 60m from the core. A comparison with theoretical distributions obtained from model calculations for proton initiated showers indicate that 1. the mean delay of muons with respect to the first detected muon is significantly larger than that expected from the model and 2. the observed dispersion is also significantly larger than the predicted dispersion for core distances between 10m and 60m

  2. A study of the cosmic-ray neutron field near interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sheu, R J; Jiang, S H

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of the cosmic-ray neutron field near air/ground and air/water interfaces with an emphasis on the angular distribution. Two sets of high-efficiency neutron detecting systems were used. The first one, called the Bonner Cylinders, was used for measurements of the energy information. The other one, referred to as the eight-channel neutron detector (8CND), was used to characterize the angular information of the neutron field. The measured results were used to normalize and confirm one-dimensional transport calculations for cosmic-ray neutrons below 20 MeV in the air/ground and air/water media. Annual sea level cosmic-ray neutron doses were then determined based on the obtained characteristics of low-energy cosmic-ray neutrons near interfaces and estimated contribution from high-energy neutrons.

  3. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), "052002-1"-"052002-18" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12AR013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  4. Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2009-06-15

    We briefly describe the energy loss processes of ultrahigh-energy protons, heavier nuclei and {gamma}-rays in interactions with the universal photon fields of the Universe. We then discuss the modification of the accelerated cosmic-ray energy spectrum in propagation by the energy loss processes and the charged cosmic-ray scattering in the extragalactic magnetic fields. The energy lost by the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays goes into {gamma}-rays and neutrinos that carry additional information about the sources of highest energy particles. The new experimental results of the HiRes and the Auger collaborations are discussed in view of the predictions from propagation calculations.

  5. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  6. A Method to Search for Correlations of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic-Ray Masses with the Large-scale Structures in the Local Galaxy Density Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test—the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine—which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  7. A METHOD TO SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC-RAY MASSES WITH THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GALAXY DENSITY FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test—the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine—which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  8. A METHOD TO SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC-RAY MASSES WITH THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GALAXY DENSITY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A. A., E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test-the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine-which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  9. 3D Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography from an Underground Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Rowe, Charlotte; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily; Roy, Mousumi; George, Nicolas; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey; Durham, Matthew; Morley, Deborah; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Poulson, Daniel; Baker, Diane; Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We present an underground cosmic ray muon tomographic experiment imaging 3D density of overburden, part of a joint study with differential gravity. Muon data were acquired at four locations within a tunnel beneath Los Alamos, New Mexico, and used in a 3D tomographic inversion to recover the spatial variation in the overlying rock-air interface, and compared with a priori knowledge of the topography. Densities obtained exhibit good agreement with preliminary results of the gravity modeling, which will be presented elsewhere, and are compatible with values reported in the literature. The modeled rock-air interface matches that obtained from LIDAR within 4 m, our resolution, over much of the model volume. This experiment demonstrates the power of cosmic ray muons to image shallow geological targets using underground detectors, whose development as borehole devices will be an important new direction of passive geophysical imaging.

  10. Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; Corstanje, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; ter Veen, S.; de Vries, K. D.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a

  11. A theory of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rújula, Alvaro De

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory of non-solar cosmic rays (CRs) based on a single type of CR source at all energies. The total luminosity of the Galaxy, the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the `knee(s)' and `ankle', and the CR composition and its variation with energy are all predicted in terms of very simple and completely `standard' physics. The source of CRs is extremely `economical': it has only one parameter to be fitted to the ensemble of all of the mentioned data. All other inputs are `priors', that is, theoretical or observational items of information independent of the properties of the source of CRs, and chosen to lie in their pre-established ranges. The theory is part of a `unified view of high-energy astrophysics' --based on the `Cannonball' model of the relativistic ejecta of accreting black holes and neutron stars. If correct, this model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the `cannon' that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic processes of accreti...

  12. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Setting the stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, P.

    2013-06-01

    The history of ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics is reviewed from the post-war era of arrays such as Volcano Ranch, Haverah Park and Akeno to the development of air-fluorescence and current hybrid arrays. The aim of this paper is to present the background information needed for a better understanding of the current issues in this field that are discussed in much greater depth in the rest of this conference.

  13. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Setting the stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolsky P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics is reviewed from the post-war era of arrays such as Volcano Ranch, Haverah Park and Akeno to the development of air-fluorescence and current hybrid arrays. The aim of this paper is to present the background information needed for a better understanding of the current issues in this field that are discussed in much greater depth in the rest of this conference.

  14. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  15. Lightning Discharges, Cosmic Rays and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The entirety of the Earth's climate system is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays and exhibits about 2000 thunderstorms active at any time of the day all over the globe. Any linkage among these vast systems should have global consequences. Numerous studies done in the past deal with partial links between some selected aspects of this grand linkage. Results of these studies vary from weakly to strongly significant and are not yet complete enough to justify the physical mechanism proposed to explain such links. This review is aimed at presenting the current understanding, based on the past studies on the link between cosmic ray, lightning and climate. The deficiencies in some proposed links are pointed out. Impacts of cosmic rays on engineering systems and the possible effects of cosmic rays on human health are also briefly discussed. Also enumerated are some problems for future work which may help in developing the grand linkage among these three vast systems.

  16. Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented

  17. COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.

  18. The ALTA cosmic ray experiment electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, W.; Burris, W.J.; Caron, B.; Hewlett, J.; Holm, L.; Hamilton, A.; McDonald, W.J.; Pinfold, J.L.; Price, P.; Schaapman, J.R.; Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.A.; Wampler, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the origin and propagation of high-energy cosmic rays is a fundamental area of astroparticle physics with major unanswered questions. The study of cosmic rays with energy more than 10 14 eV, probed only by ground-based experiments, has been restricted by the low particle flux. The Alberta Large-area Time-coincidence Array (ALTA) uses a sparse array of cosmic ray detection stations located in high schools across a large geographical area to search for non-random high-energy cosmic ray phenomena. Custom-built ALTA electronics is based on a modular board design. Its function is to control the detectors at each ALTA site allowing precise measurements of event timing and energy in the local detectors as well as time synchronization of all of the sites in the array using the global positioning system

  19. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S.; Snodin, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  20. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  1. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  2. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km......), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth....

  3. ACORDE a cosmic ray detector for ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Gamez, E.; Herrera, G.; Lopez, R.; Leon-Monzon, I.; Martinez, M.I.; Pagliarone, C.; Paic, G.; Roman, S.; Tejeda, G.; Vargas, M.A.; Vergara, S.; Villasenor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2007-01-01

    ACORDE is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction at CERN. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. It will act as a cosmic ray trigger, and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 -10 17 eV. Here we describe the design of ACORDE along with the present status and integration into ALICE

  4. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  5. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, M; Carrillo Montoya, G; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi accelera...

  6. Cosmic rays: an in-flight hazard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    2000-01-01

    International airlines are collaborating with physicists to assess whether aircrew are at risk from cosmic radiation as routine monitoring will soon become mandatory. Recently, an international team of physicists has joined forces with NASA and several European airlines to study in detail how the radiation field varies inside the atmosphere depending on the altitude, latitude and solar activity. Astronauts are subjected to the full intensity of high-energy cosmic rays and solar particles (together with the secondary particles produced in the spacecraft walls), and the biological risks in space are the subject of ongoing investigations. A typical return mission to Mars, for example, could result in a total ''dose equivalent'' of up to 0.5 sievert. The dose equivalent takes into account the harm caused by a particular type of radiation. Current estimates suggest that a person who receives a 1 sievert dose of ionizing radiation incurs a few per cent increase in the risk of contracting fatal cancer in his or her lifetime, although the risk level depends on sex and age. The radiation we observe at aircraft altitudes of typically 10-12 km is due to very high-energy particles mainly protons and helium nuclei, together with a small amount of heavy nuclei penetrating the atmosphere and colliding with air atoms. These collisions give rise to the production of more particles, such as protons, neutrons and various mesons. A cascade of particles is then produced by successive interactions as they penetrate deeper into the atmosphere. As a result, the flux of particles increases in the upper atmosphere and reaches a maximum at about 20 km above sea level. Below this point, the number of particles decreases due to energy losses and various particle interactions. Happily, at the Earth's surface we are protected by the air above us, which provides the same degree of shielding as a layer of water 10 m thick. The small amount of radiation that eventually reaches us in the form of

  7. The puzzle of the ankle in the Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum, and composition indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Glennys

    2015-08-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum around 10^18.6 eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle and intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically. In this talk I discuss two possible solutions to the puzzle and how they can be (in)validated.First, I present a new mechanism whereby photo-disintegration of ultra-high energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator naturally accounts for the observed spectrum and inferred composition (using LHC-tuned models extrapolated to UHE) at Earth. We discuss the conditions required to reproduce the spectrum above 10^17.5 eV and the composition, which -- in our model -- consists below the ankle of extragalactic protons and the high energy tail of Galactic Cosmic Rays, and above the ankle of surviving nuclei from the extended source. Predictions for the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos resulting from this process will be presented, and also implications for candidate sources.The other possible explanation is that in actuality UHECRs are entirely or almost entirely protons, and the cross-section for p-Air scattering increases more rapidly above center-of-mass energy of 70 TeV (10 times the current LHC cm energy) than predicted in conventional models. This gives an equally good fit to the depth-of-shower maximum behavior obverved by Auger, while being an intriguing sign of new state in QCD at extremely high energy density.

  8. STUDIES OF COSMIC-RAY MUONS AND NEUTRONS IN A FIVE-STORY CONCRETE BUILDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2018-05-01

    This study thoroughly determined the flux and dose rate distributions of cosmic-ray muons and neutrons in a five-story concrete building by comparing measurements with Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray showers. An angular-energy-dependent surface source comprising secondary muons and neutrons at a height of 200 m above ground level was established and verified, which was used to concatenate the shower development in the upper atmosphere with subsequent simulations of radiation transport down to ground level, including the effect of the terrain and studied building. A Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector and a highly sensitive Bonner cylinder were used to perform muon and neutron measurements on each building floor. After careful calibration and correction, the measured responses of the two detectors were discovered to be reasonably consistent with the theoretical predictions, thus confirming the validity of the two-step calculation model employed in this study. The annual effective doses from cosmic-ray muons and neutrons on the open roof of the building were estimated to be 115.2 and 35.2 μSv, respectively. Muons and neutrons were attenuated floor-by-floor with different attenuation factors of 0.97 and 0.78, and their resultant dose rates on the first floor of the building were 97.8 and 9.9 μSv, respectively.

  9. Air shower detection and the energy flow in electromagnetic cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor (Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (United States)); Vankov, H.P. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika)

    1992-02-01

    We study the longitudinal behaviour of the energy carried by the shower particles E{sub c} and its lateral distribution, give simple parametrizations of the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the advantages of shower detectors that measure directly E{sub c}. (author).

  10. Milagro: A low energy threshold extensive air shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, C.

    1994-12-31

    Observations of high-energy gamma rays from astronomical sources have revolutionized our view of the cosmos. Gamma rays with energies up to {approximately}10 GeV can be observed directly with space-based instruments. Above 100 GeV the low flux of gamma rays requires one to utilize ground-based instruments. Milagro is a new type of gamma-ray detector based on water Cerenkov technology. This new design will enable to continuously observe the entire overhead sky, and be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above {approximately}250 GeV. These attributes make Milagro an ideal detector for the study of high-energy transient phenomenon.

  11. Extensive Air Showers High Energy Phenomena and Astrophysical Aspects - A Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book

    CERN Document Server

    Grieder, Peter K.F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are a very unique phenomenon. In the more than six decades since their discovery by Auger et al. we have learned a great deal about these extremely energetic events and gained deep insights into high-energy phenomena, particle physics and astrophysics. In this Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book Peter K. F. Grieder provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the phenomenology and facts of the various types of interactions and cascades, theoretical background, experimental methods, data evaluation and interpretation, and air shower simulation. He discusses astrophysical aspects of the primary radiation and addresses the questions that continue to puzzle researchers. The book is divided into two parts, each in its own separate volume: Part I in Volume I deals mainly with the basic theoretical framework of the processes that determine an air shower and ends with a summary of ways to extract information on the primary radiation from air shower observations. It also presents a compi...

  12. Improving the angular resolution of existing air shower arrays by adding a thin layer of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Mikocki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations show that placing a thin sheet of lead above conventional extensive air shower counters yields an additional signal which is earlier in time. This will improve the array's angular resolution. (orig.)

  13. NEEDS for LHC experiment planning from results of very high energy cosmic ray Investigations (NEEDS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrukhin A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 years ago, at 12th ISVHECRI, a special NEEDS workshop was held to discuss future LHC data required for interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Now, when the main task of LHC is solved – the Higgs boson is discovered – the question “What will be the next?” is very actual. In this paper the results of cosmic ray experiments at LHC energies are considered. Their possible explanation in the frame of a new model of production of quark-gluon matter blobs is discussed. The necessity to pass in LHC experiments from investigations of pp-interactions to investigations of nucleus-nucleus interactions is underlined since cosmic rays consist mainly of nuclei (≈ 60% which interact with nuclei of air. But namely in these nucleus-nucleus interactions many unusual results were obtained in cosmic ray investigations. Corresponding tasks for future LHC experiments are proposed.

  14. Extensive air showers, lightnings and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the lightning research, we monitor the particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) initiated by the runaway electrons, and Extensive Air Showers (EASs) originated from high energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides, we monitor the near-surface electric field and the atmospheric discharges with the help of a network of electric field mills. The Aragats “electron accelerator” produced plenty of TGE and lightning events in spring 2015. Using 1-sec time series, we investigated the relation of lightnings and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; during some of TGEs the lightning would terminate the particle flux 3 times after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of TGE or on the decay phase of it; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just on a maximum of its development. We discuss the possibility that a huge EAS facilitates lightning leader to find its path to the ground. (author)

  15. An observation on a cosmic-ray induced event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawayanagi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors observed a big A-jet family in the chamber No. 21. In this paper summary of the family is given though some of the results are preliminary. Emulsion chamber technique has been giving a way of observing ultrahigh energy atmospheric interactions made by cosmic-ray radiations with fine spacial resolution and good stability for a long duration of exposure. The two-story structure of emulsion chamber adopted by Brasil-Japan Collaboration on Emulsion Chamber Experiments at Mt. Chacaltaya makes it possible to observe local interactions within the chamber in addition to atmospheric interactions at the same time. For this purpose an inner target layer of plastic/petroleum pitch is located between the upper and the lower parts of the chamber. The observation of these local interactions, called C-jets, is used to make auto-calibration of energies of observed cascade showers

  16. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  17. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-03-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  18. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  19. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  20. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  1. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  2. Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Goldstein, M.L.; Mcdonald, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s

  3. Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of 22 Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables

  4. The propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Large scale (approximately 15 pc) turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) causes the firehose and mirror instabilities to occur. These produce small scale (approximately 10 -7 pc) magnetic irregularities, which scatter cosmic rays. We use pulsar scintillation data, and a model of the origin of these scintillations, to construct a slab model of the turbulent ISM. Then we find the amplitudes and wavelengths of the magnetic irregularities that arise, and we calculate the coefficients for the diffusion of cosmic rays along the interstellar magnetic fields. We incorporate this diffusion into our model of the turbulent ISM, and show that it can account naturally for both the lifetime of low energy cosmic rays, and the variation of their mean pathlength with energy. Our model has no galactic halo, and contains no scattering by Alfven waves. (author)

  5. Sequential measurements of spectrum and dose for cosmic-ray neutrons on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, N.; Nunomiya, T.; Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2002-01-01

    The earth is continually bathed in high-energy particles that come from outside the solar system, known as galactic cosmic rays. When these particles penetrate the magnetic fields of the solar system and the Earth and reach the Earth's atmosphere, they collide with atomic nuclei in air and secondary cosmic rays of every kind. On the other hand, levels of accumulation of the semiconductor increase recently, and the soft error that the cosmic-ray neutrons cause has been regarded as questionable. There have been long-term measurements of cosmic-ray neutron fluence at several places in the world, but no systematic study on cosmic-ray neutron spectrum measurements. This study aimed to measure the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum and dose on the ground during the solar maximum period of 2000 to 2002. Measurements have been continuing in a cabin of Tohoku University Kawauchi campus, by using five multi-moderator spectrometers (Bonner sphere), 12.7 cm diam by 12.7 cm long NE213 scintillator, and rem counter. The Bonner sphere uses a 5.08 cm diam spherical 3 He gas proportional counter and the rem counter uses a 12.7 cm diam 3 He gas counter. The neutron spectra were obtained by unfolding from the count rates measured with the Bonner sphere using the SAND code and the pulse height spectra measured with the NE213 scintillator using the FORIST code . The cosmic- ray neutron spectrum and ambient dose rates have been measured sequentially from April 2001. Furthermore, the correlation between ambient dose rate and the atmospheric pressure was investigated with a barometer. We are also very much interested in the variation of neutron spectrum following big solar flares. From the sequential measurements, we found that the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum has two peaks at around 1 MeV and at around 100 MeV, and the higher energy peak increases with a big solar flare

  6. Multiple production around 1000 TeV observed in the emulsion chamber experiments at Mt. Fuji and linkage experiments with air shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Syoji

    1980-01-01

    The multiple production around 1000 TeV is discussed in this paper by using the experimental data at Mt. Fuji and the results of the Monte Carlo simulation. Six events with the total energy more than 1000 TeV were observed in the emulsion chamber (EC) exposed for 600 m 2 year at Mt. Fuji. Various Monte Carlo calculations with the scaling model were performed. The relation between the transverse momentum and The Feynman scaling law is discussed. The frequency of the total gamma energy spectrum and the lateral distribution of the family were compared with the calculation. In the case that protons are dominant in primary cosmic ray, the multiplicity in the interaction increased according to 1/4 th power of energy. In the case of heavy nuclei, the experimental results can be reproduced by assuming the increase of cross-section, when the scaling holds. It is still hard to make definite conclusion on the break of scaling. Simultaneous observation of air family and air shower is proposed. (Kato, T.)

  7. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aublin, J.

    2006-09-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  8. A formalism for cosmic ray propagation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, R.L.; Badhwar, G.D.; Stephens, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The continuity equation for cosmic ray propagation is used to derive a set of linear equations interrelating the fluxes of multiply charged nuclei as observed at any particular part of the galaxy. The derivation leads to model indepent definitions for cosmic ray storage time, mean density of target nuclei and effective mass traversed. The set of equations form a common framework for comparisons of theories and observations. As an illustration, it is shown that there exists a large class of propagation models which give the same result as the exponential path length model. (orig./BJ) [de

  9. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Alessandro [INFN and Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (Italy); LIP/IST Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  10. Isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, W.

    1976-01-01

    A review will be given on the role of cosmic ray isotopes as tracers of the astrophysical nucleo-synthesis. The products of every nuclear burning chain are first of all isotopes and not elements. Thus, it is the study of the isotopes rather than that of the elements that responds to the questions on these nucleo-synthetic reactions. The problems concerning the solar system isotopic abundances and the cosmic ray isotopic abundances as well as a comparison between both will be presented. Furthermore the present stage of the experimental techniques and the latest results will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Cosmic ray spectroscopy using plastic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudra, Sharmili; Nandan, Akhilesh P.; Neog, Himangshu; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mahapatra, S.; Samal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and new technique has been developed using plastic scintillator detectors for cosmic ray spectroscopy without single channel analyzer (SCA) or multichannel analyzer (MCA). In this technique only a leading edge discriminator (LED) and a NIM scaler have been used. Plastic scintillator detectors has been used to measure the velocity of cosmic ray muons. Here the time difference has been measured from the Tektronix DPO 5054 digital phosphor oscilloscope with 500 MHz and 5 GS/s. The details of experimental technique, analysis procedure and experimental results are presented

  12. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  13. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science

  14. Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, Luke

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some recent developments in our understanding of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnant shocks. It is pointed out that while good agreement now exists as to steady nonlinear modifications to the shock structure, there is also growing evidence that the mesoscopic scales may not in fact be steady and that significant instabilities associated with magnetic field amplification may be a feature of strong collisionless plasma shocks. There is strong observational evidence for such magnetic field amplification, and it appears to solve a number of long-standing issues concerned with acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants

  15. Search for antimatter in primary cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.; Alvarez, L. W.; Wahlig, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Data from two flights of a new superconducting magnetic spectrometer are reported. This instrument was capable of a direct matter-antimatter separation in the cosmic rays. Antimatter events would appear in the spectrometer as trajectories which curve in the opposite direction to common matter, because of their negative charge. A brief description of the equipment and of the characteristics of the instrument is presented, along with the data processing techniques used. A new upper limit on the amount of antimatter in primary cosmic rays has been established. The limits are considerably lower than those for any previous experiment.

  16. Simulation studies of an air Cherenkov telescope, IceACT, for future IceCube surface extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Bengt; Auffenberg, Jan; Bekman, Ilja; Kemp, Julian; Roegen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceACT is a compact air Cherenkov telescope using silicon photomultipliers. The Fresnel lens based design has been adopted from the fluorescence telescope FAMOUS. The goal of IceACT is the efficient detection of cosmic ray induced air showers above the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. This allows to distinguish cosmic ray induced muons and neutrinos in the southern sky from astrophysical neutrinos in the deep ice detector. This leads to an increase in low-background astrophysical neutrinos of several dozen events per year for a detection threshold of several 100 TeV cosmic ray primary energy. To determine the actual telescope performance, dedicated CORSIKA air shower simulations incorporating the full Cherenkov light information are performed.

  17. A study of the air-shower response of current-limited spark chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Hodson, A.L.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of current-limited spark chambers (discharge chambers) and their relative response to shower electrons and photons are investigated. A stack of six horizontal 1m x 10 cm discharge chambers, above one another, is triggered by air showers falling on an adjacent discharge-chamber array. Particular combinations of discharges show that the efficiency of the chambers is very high and that a significant fraction of the discharges is due to incident photons

  18. Separation of γ-ray, electron and proton induced air showers applied to diffuse emission studies with H.E.S.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tanya

    2017-01-18

    A fundamental issue in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy is the identification of γ-ray events among the overwhelming background of air showers induced by charged cosmic rays. Reconstruction techniques exist to distinguish most of the background of hadrons but an irreducible background of electrons and gamma-like protons still remain. I present here a new technique making use of high-altitude Cherenkov light emitted by the charged primary particle and air shower development properties. This method provides a way to distinguish between electrons and gamma rays on a statistical basis. In addition to this, the remaining proton background can also be identified. The technique was developed, tested and applied to studies using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) located in Namibia. The analysis method is especially important in the detection of diffuse signals and eliminates the necessity of a background region in the field of view. The technique was applied to three scientific studies. The latitude profile of the Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission was analysed. A width of σ=0.25±0.05 (0.20±0.06 ) for energies of 380 to 900 GeV(1 to 6 TeV) was determined. The cosmic electron spectrum was measured between 0.38 and 14 TeV and a broken power law was fit to the data. The spectrum steepens from Γ=3.08±0.06 to Γ=3.72±0.12 at a break in energy of 1.11±0.04 TeV. In addition, upper limits on the maximum γ-ray contamination from the Isotropic γ-Ray Background was placed at 4 x 10{sup -3}(5 x 10{sup -3}) MeVcm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} for energies of 1 to 6 TeV(380 to 900 GeV).

  19. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  20. Cosmic rays and ancient planetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using the latitude-dependent cutoff in the intensity and flux of cosmic ray particles reaching the surface of a planet to investigate ancient magnetic fields in the Moon, Mars and the Earth. In the last case, the method could provide a validity test for conventional palaeomagnetism. (Auth.)

  1. Cosmic ray origin: the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A W

    2003-01-01

    Despite their discovery being 90 years ago cosmic rays are still characterised by their uncertain masses at high energy and their uncertain origin. This paper deals with the origin problem. The case is put for the majority of the particles being of galactic origin - a generally accepted result. Specific models are put forward for the galactic mechanism and that for the minority extragalactic component

  2. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  3. Periodic and recurrent variations of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.J.

    1981-12-01

    The new results achieved in the field of periodic and recurrent variations of the intensity of 10 9 to 10 13 eV cosmic rays are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to developments in understanding the fluctuations of corotation-type anisotropies as well as to the structure of the heliosphere and its temporal changes. (author)

  4. Cosmic ray muons in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babson, J.; Becker-Szenzy, R.; Cady, R.; Dye, S.; Gorham, P.; Learned, J.; Matsuno, S.; O' Conner, D.; Peterson, V.; Roberts, A.; Stenger, V. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA)); Barish, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Bradner, H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)); Clem, J.; Roos, C.; Webster, M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Gaidos, J.; Wilson, C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Grieder, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research); Kropp, W.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); March, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA)); DUMAND Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    A measurement of cosmic ray muon flux was obtained at ocean depths ranging from 2 km to 4 km at 500 m intervals off the West Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. A brief description of the experiment and the results will be presented in this paper. (orig.).

  5. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Foundation, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2008-04-01

    We discuss the relation between the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and UHE neutrinos. The neutrinos produced in the sources of optically thin astrophysical sources have been linked to the UHECR emissivity of the Universe. The fluxes of cosmogenic neutrinos, generated in propagation by UHECR, also reflect the acceleration of these particles, the maximum acceleration energy, and the cosmological evolution of their sources.

  6. Cosmic rays at ultra high energies (Neutrinos.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2005-06-01

    Resonant photopion production with the cosmic microwave background predicts a suppression of extragalactic protons above the famous Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff at about E GZK ∼ 5 x 10 10 GeV. Current cosmic ray data measured by the AGASA and HiRes Collaborations do not unambiguously confirm the GZK cutoff and leave a window for speculations about the origin and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays. In this work we analyze the possibility of strongly interacting neutrino primaries and derive model-independent quantitative requirements on the neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section for a viable explanation of the cosmic ray data. Search results on weakly interacting cosmic particles from the AGASA and RICE experiments are taken into account simultaneously. Using a flexible parameterization of the inelastic neutrino-nucleon cross section we find that a combined fit of the data does not favor the Standard Model neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section, but requires, at 90% confidence level, a steep increase within one energy decade around E GZK by four orders of magnitude. We illustrate such an enhancement within some extensions of the Standard Model. The impact of new cosmic ray data or cosmic neutrino search results on this scenario, notably from the Pierre Auger Observatory soon, can be immediately evaluated within our approach. (orig.)

  7. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh; Svensmark

    2000-12-04

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (climate on Earth.

  8. Capturing the most energetic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantsch, P.

    1999-01-01

    The methods of energy measurement applied to the most energetic cosmic rays are described. The rays are so rare that two gigantic systems of detectors are proposed to detect at least some of them (the Pierre Auger Project ). (Z.J.)

  9. Believability of signals from cosmic ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the criteria by which an observer judges whether to believe a signal or limit that has been reported for a cosmic ray source. The importance of specifying the test before looking at the data is emphasized. 5 refs

  10. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these reactions would be Li. The rare isotope Li is produced only by cosmic rays, dominantly in αα → 6Li fusion reactions with the ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays. Exactly because of this unique property is Li affected most by the presence of an additional cosmic ray population. In turn, this could have profound consequences for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metalpoor halo stars. Given the already existing problem of establishing the concordance between Li observed in halo stars and primordial 7Li as predicted by the WMAP, it is crucial to set limits to the level of this "contamination". However, the history of SFCRs is not very well known. Thus we propose a few model-independent ways of testing the SFCR species and their history, as well as the existing lithium problem: 1 we establish the connection between gamma-ray and Li production, which enables us to place constraints on the SFCR-made lithium by using the observed Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGRB; 2 we propose a new site for testing the primordial and SFCR-made lithium, namely, low-metalicity High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs, which retain the pre-Galactic composition without any significant depletion. Although using one method alone may not give us strong constraints, using them in

  11. The longitudinal development of showers induced by high-energy hadrons in an iron-sampling calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Milke, J; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Blümer, H; Bozdog, H; Büttner, C; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Dolla, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Klages, H O; Kolotaev, Yu; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Müller, M; Navarra, G; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Scholz, J; Stümpert, M; Thouw, T; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S; Zimmermann, D

    2005-01-01

    Occasionally cosmic-ray induced air showers result in single, unaccompanied hadrons at ground level. Such events are investigated with the 300 m2 hadron calorimeter of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. It is an iron sampling calorimeter with a depth of 11 hadronic interaction lengths read out by warm-liquid ionization chambers. The longitudinal shower development is discussed as function of energy up to 30 TeV and the results are compared with simulations using the GEANT/FLUKA code. In addition, results of test measurements at a secondary particle beam of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN up to 350 GeV are discussed.

  12. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  13. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  14. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...

  15. Impact of Cosmic-Ray Transport on Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, R.; Ruszkowski, M.; Yang, H.-Y. K.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    The role of cosmic rays generated by supernovae and young stars has very recently begun to receive significant attention in studies of galaxy formation and evolution due to the realization that cosmic rays can efficiently accelerate galactic winds. Microscopic cosmic-ray transport processes are fundamental for determining the efficiency of cosmic-ray wind driving. Previous studies modeled cosmic-ray transport either via a constant diffusion coefficient or via streaming proportional to the Alfvén speed. However, in predominantly cold, neutral gas, cosmic rays can propagate faster than in the ionized medium, and the effective transport can be substantially larger; i.e., cosmic rays can decouple from the gas. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of patches of galactic disks including the effects of cosmic rays. Our simulations include the decoupling of cosmic rays in the cold, neutral interstellar medium. We find that, compared to the ordinary diffusive cosmic-ray transport case, accounting for the decoupling leads to significantly different wind properties, such as the gas density and temperature, significantly broader spatial distribution of cosmic rays, and higher wind speed. These results have implications for X-ray, γ-ray, and radio emission, and for the magnetization and pollution of the circumgalactic medium by cosmic rays.

  16. Feasibility study on a cosmic-ray level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Fukaya, M.; Minato, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic-ray intensities were measured at the stairs in a subway station in Nagoya City, inside a tall concrete building and under a cylindrical water tank, to examine the feasibility of a cosmic-ray level gauge. The measured results agreed quite well with the theoretical calculations. These results show that a cosmic-ray level gauge is feasible. (author)

  17. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  18. Use of a neutrino detector for muon identification by the CYGNUS air-shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; DeLay, R.S.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sena, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Potter, M.E.; Thompson, T.N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers observed by the CYGNUS experiment are measured by a well-shielded apparatus originally used for accelerator neutrino detection. Primary identification and counting of muons relies on a 44 m{sup 2} array of multiwire proportional counters that has operated continously since the experiment's inception to the present time. During the experiment's first 20 months, the central detector, consisting of flash-tube chambers, was used for high-resolution reconstruction of muon trajectories for a limited subsample of air showers. The ability to distinguish individual muons in the tracking device enabled verification and calibration of the muon counting by the proportional-counter system. The tracking capability was also used to verify the systematic pointing accuracy of the extensive air-shower arrival direction, as determined, as determined by the CYGNUS array, to better than 0.5{sup 0}. (orig.).

  19. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  20. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  1. CALET: a calorimeter for cosmic-ray measurements in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) instrument is scheduled for a launch in 2014 and attached to the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station. Its main objective is to perform precise measurements of the electron+positron spectrum in cosmic rays at energies up to some TeV, searching for signals from dark matter and/or contributions from nearby astrophysical sources like pulsars. Other scientific goals include the investigation of heavy ions spectra up to Fe, elemental abundance of trans-iron nuclei and a measurement of the diffuse γ ray emission with high energy resolution. The instrument is now under construction, and consists of a charge detection device (CHD) composed of two layers of plastic scintillators, a finely-segmented sampling calorimeter (IMC) and a deep, homogeneous calorimeter (TASC) made of PbWO scintillating bars. The good containment of electromagnetic showers (total depth ∼3X 0 (IMC)+27X 0 (TASC)=30X 0 ) together with the homogeneity of TASC give an energy resolution for electrons and γ rays about 2%. CHD can discriminate the charge of primary particles with a resolution between 15% and 30% up to Fe. The finely-segmented IMC, made by tungsten layers and 1mm-wide scintillating fibers, can provide detailed information about the start and early development of particle showers. Lateral and longitudinal shower-development information from TASC, together with informations from IMC, can be used to achieve an electron/proton rejection power about 10 5 . High-statistics for collected data will be achieved by means of the planned 5-years exposure time together with a geometrical factor of 0.12 m 2 sr. Furthermore, a Gamma-Ray Burst monitor will complement the main detector. In this paper the status of the mission, the design and expected performance of the instrument will be detailed

  2. Proceedings of the 21. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, P.; Kudela, K.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-09-01

    Scientific symposium deals with problems of cosmic ray. The Symposium included the following sessions: (1): Relationship of cosmic rays to the environment; (2) Energetic particles and the magnetosphere of the Earth; (3) Energetic particles in the heliosphere; (4) Solar-terrestrial effects on different time scales; (5) Cosmic rays below the knee; (6) Cosmic rays above the knee (7) High energy interactions; (8) GeV and TeV gamma ray astronomy; (9) European projects related to cosmic rays; Future perspectives. Proceedings contains 122 papers dealing with the scope of INIS.

  3. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  4. Cosmic ray exposure in aircraft and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The exposure from cosmic ray radiation to the workers and public is a new aspect of exposure that was cased by the development of science and technology. ICRP Publication 60 says: 'to provide some practical guidance, the Commission recommends that there should be a requirement to include exposure to natural sources as part of occupational exposure only in the following cases: radon..., some natural radionuclides..., operation of jet air craft, space flight'. For this situation what kind of radiation protection concept is applicable? And what kind of radiation guideline and procedure are possible to propose? Here, we would like to review the past activities on this issue and to summarize the concepts in ICRP concerning to these exposure. Then the recommended radiation protection system will be proposed as one trial to this solution. In the paper the characters of cosmic ray were firstly reviewed. Cosmic rays are consisted by solar one and galactic one. Both of them have high energy and this will cause the difficulty of dosimetry because of lacking of physical and biological data. Next discussion point is a classification of exposure. For this, several classifications were done: jet airplane flight, supersonic airplane flight and space flight. Other classification is aircrew (occupational exposure), passengers (public exposure), frequent flyers (gray zone), space astronauts (special mission), and pregnant women. Considering the real level of radiation the practical radiation control is proposed including the cosmic radiation exposure prediction method by computer codes. The discussion of space astronauts is a little different for the highness of radiation doses. The dose levels will be obtained through the discussion of lifetime risk balancing their mission importance. (author)

  5. Cosmic Ray Signatures of Decaying Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological observations do not require the dark matter particles to be absolutely stable. If they are indeed unstable, their decay into Standard Model particles might occur at a sufficiently large rate to allow the indirect detection of dark matter through an anomalous contribution to the high energy cosmic ray fluxes. We analyze the implications of the excess in the total electron plus positron flux and the positron fraction reported by the Fermi and PAMELA collaborations, respectively, for the scenario of decaying dark matter. We also discuss the constraints on this scenario from measurements of other cosmic ray species and the predictions for the diffuse gamma ray flux and the neutrino flux. In particular, we expect a sizable dipole-like anisotropy which may be observed in the near future by the Fermi-LAT.

  6. Long-lived staus from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Illana, J.I.; Masip, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE y Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Meloni, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Spienza (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The collision of a high energy cosmic ray with a nucleon in the upper atmosphere could produce long-lived heavy particles. Such particles would be very penetrating, since the energy loss in matter scales as the inverse mass, and could reach a neutrino telescope like IceCube from large zenith angles. Here we study this possibility and focus on the long-lived stau of SUSY models with a gravitino LSP. The signal would be a pair of muon-like parallel tracks separated by 50 meters along the detector. We evaluate the background of muon pairs and show that any events from zenith angles above 80. could be explained by the production of these heavy particles by cosmic rays. (orig.)

  7. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  8. Direct cosmic ray muons and atmospheric neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Volkova, L.V.; Zatsepin, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    A possible contribution of very short living particles (particles with life-time much shorter than that of charmed particles), for example, resonances, into cosmic ray muon and atmospheric neutrino fluxes (direct muons and neutrinos) is estimated. This contribution could become of the same order of magnitude as that from pions and kaons (conventional) already at energies of hundreds TeV and tens TeV for muons and muon neutrinos coming to the sea level in the vertical direction correspondingly. Of course, the estimation has quite a qualitative character and even it is quite arbitrary but it is necessary to keep this contribution in mind when studying EAS, cosmic ray muon component or trying to interpret data of experiments on cosmic neutrino searching at high energies

  9. Long-lived staus from cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.

    2007-05-01

    The collision of a high energy cosmic ray with a nucleon in the upper atmosphere could produce long-lived heavy particles. Such particles would be very penetrating, since the energy loss in matter scales as the inverse mass, and could reach a neutrino telescope like IceCube from large zenith angles. Here we study this possibility and focus on the long-lived stau of SUSY models with a gravitino LSP. The signal would be a pair of muon-like parallel tracks separated by 50 meters along the detector. We evaluate the background of muon pairs and show that any events from zenith angles above 80. could be explained by the production of these heavy particles by cosmic rays. (orig.)

  10. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2013-01-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century. (letter)

  11. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  12. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizot, E.

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  13. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    In a sample of 1.5times10 4 helium and 4.0times10 4 higher-charged nuclei, obtained with balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometers, we find the ratio of antinuclei to nuclei in the cosmic rays to be less than 8times10 -5 for rigidities (momentum/charge) between 4 and 33 GV/c and less than 10 -2 between 33 and 100 GV/c, at the 95% confidence level. (auth)

  14. Electron capture isotopes as cosmic ray 'hydrometers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Comstock, G.; Perron, C.; Yiou, F.

    1975-01-01

    Following our earlier work, a computer program has been developed to investigate in detail the survival of pure electron capture isotopes in cosmic rays as a function of their propagation conditions. It is found that this survival is very insensitive to certain parameters such as the type of path length distribution, but very sensitive to the density of the medium in which they are formed. Observation of these isotopes may thus provide clues as to this density. (orig.) [de

  15. Origin of transient cosmic ray intensity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, S.P.; Pomerantz, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach to determining the solar progenitor of transient cosmic ray intensity variations has revealed that in a statistical sense, solar flares, heretofore regarded as the predominant source of the modulation, actually do not precede the reduction in flux observed at earth. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray data with respect to the time of occurrence of all 379 solar flares of importance (Imp) < or =2 observed during solar cycle 20 (1964-1974 inclusive) shows that the onset of a decrease in the composite nucleonic intensity at polar stations occurs prior to the zero day (i.e., time of the flare) well before the arrival in the vicinity of earth of the associated solar plasma. The statistical significance of this result is confirmed by comparing the pooled variance determined from Chree analysis of an equal number of random epochs with that of the curve representing the flare epochs. Subdivision of the latter into three groups according to the heliographic longitude of the flares shows that whereas eastern flares might be associated with cosmic ray decreases, central (30degree to -30degree) and western flares cannot be thus related. A similar analysis of all flares of Imp< or =2 that occurred in a selected set of 24 extraordinary flare-rich active centers during 1964--1974 confirms these results and shows that the observed cosmic ray intensity decrease is, in fact, associated with the central meridian passage ( +- 1 day) of the active regions. Thus earlier conclusions concerning relationships between the heliolongitude of flares and their apparent effectiveness in producing Forbush decreases require reevaluation. The specific feature associated with solar active centers that is actually the principal source of transient modulations remanins to be identified

  16. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G. F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    It appears probable that some fraction of the cosmic rays has extragalactic origin. A search for antimatter nuclei was conducted with the aid of a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The investigation made use of the fact that matter and antimatter nuclei, because of their opposite signs of charge, would be deflected in opposite directions when passing through a magnetic field. The antimatter flux limits set by the experiments are discussed.

  17. Introduction to high energy cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Grillo, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    After a few general qualitative considerations about the characteristics of primary cosmic rays arriving at the top of atmosphere, the fundamental concepts on their propagation and acceleration are discussed. The experimental situation, both from direct and indirect experiments, is presented, followed by a discussion on some concepts on hadronic interactions at high energy which are applied in a simplified and analytical model to the production of secondary particles in atmosphere

  18. Study of the lateral and temporal distributions of particles in the extensive air shower front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I. M.; Mitrica, B.; Badea, A. F.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the influence of the primary particle (mass and energy) on the development of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) a study has been performed on simulated events. A number of showers have been simulated using CORSIKA simulation program for different primary particles (p, C, Fe) and different energies (5.62x10 16 and 10 17 eV). The arrival time distributions of particles arriving at ground (detector level) have been studied for different primary energies and masses. Arrival time quartiles have been calculated and compared for different primaries. Arrival time distributions for different distances to shower core and different threshold energies have been compared. To obtain information about the influence of the primary particle on the shape of the lateral distribution of detected shower particles, the simulated lateral density distribution has been approximated with a parametric Lateral Density Function (LDF). The interaction of the shower particles with the detectors has been simulated and the energy deposited in the detectors has been evaluated. This method was used for obtaining the reconstructed (equivalent to the experimental) lateral density distribution, afterwards approximated with the same LDF. To check the quality of the fit and to investigate the sensitivity to fitting conditions, the study was done for three radial ranges, 40-200 m, 350-650 m, 0-1000 m. The total number of particles in the shower front and the truncated number of particles (in the fitting range) have been reconstructed to be compared with the real number of particles from CORSIKA simulations and to investigate the potential use of these parameters in a multiparametric study of extensive air showers. (authors)

  19. Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies above 1015 eV – Rapporteur Review of Poster Presentations at the 23rd ECRS – Session PCR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric Extensive Air Showers (EAS) are the only way of experimental studies of Primary Cosmic Rays (CR) with energies above 10 15 eV. The final targets of these studies are search for astrophysical origin of these particles and properties of particle production in high energy particle interaction. Works presented at the PCR 2 session in the form of posters reflected the current progress in this area. In this review presented posters were grouped according to CR energy range, astrophysical significance, relation to high energy physics interaction properties and interaction models, and future experiments. 42 posters were submitted for this session. Some of the presented material in posters overlapped in parts with oral presentations.

  20. Investigation of the properties of the flux and interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays by the method of local-muon-density spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.