Interactions between $U(1)$ Cosmic Strings: An Analytical Study
Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Rivers, R. J.
1994-01-01
We derive analytic expressions for the interaction energy between two general $U(1)$ cosmic strings as the function of their relative orientation and the ratio of the coupling constants in the model. The results are relevant to the statistic description of strings away from critical coupling and shed some light on the mechanisms involved in string formation and the evolution of string networks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.
1988-07-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs
Cosmic strings and cosmic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.
1987-01-01
The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)
The DKP oscillator with a linear interaction in the cosmic string space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil)
2018-02-15
We study the relativistic quantum dynamics of a DKP oscillator field subject to a linear interaction in cosmic string space-time in order to better understand the effects of gravitational fields produced by topological defects on the scalar field. We obtain the solution of DKP oscillator in the cosmic string background. Also, we solve it with an ansatz in the presence of a linear interaction. We obtain the wave functions and the energy levels of the relativistic field in that background. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, E. J. [Sussex (United Kingdom)
1991-07-15
The past decade has seen a developing interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology. The former has had great success in demonstrating the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces at energies just above 250 GeV (1016 degrees Kelvin). The 'Standard Model' of particle physics seems to describe accurately the interactions of quarks and leptons at and below these energies, as demonstrated daily in CERN's LEP electron-positron collider.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.
1991-01-01
The past decade has seen a developing interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology. The former has had great success in demonstrating the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces at energies just above 250 GeV (1016 degrees Kelvin). The 'Standard Model' of particle physics seems to describe accurately the interactions of quarks and leptons at and below these energies, as demonstrated daily in CERN's LEP electron-positron collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-01-01
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
A disintegrating cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J B; Docherty, P
2002-01-01
We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string). The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave. (letter to the editor)
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, E.
1989-01-01
Cosmic strings have become increasingly popular candidates as seeds for the formation of structure in the universe. This scenario, remains a serious cosmogonical model despite close scrutiny. In constrast, magnetic monopoles and domain walls - relic topological defects as are cosmic strings - are disastrous for cosmology if they are left over from the early universe. The production of heavy cosmic strings is speculative, as it depends on the details of ultrahigh energy physics. Fortunately, speculation about cosmic strings is not entirely idle because, if they exist and are heavy enough to seed galaxy formation, cosmic strings can be detected astronomically. Failure to detect cosmic strings would impose some constraints on grand unified theories (GUTs); their discovery would have exciting consequences for high energy physics and cosmology. This article reviews the basic physics of nonsuperconducting cosmic strings, highlighting the field theory aspects, and provides a progress report on calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
Bertschinger, Edmund
1989-01-01
The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.
1992-03-01
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-01-01
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEA/DSM/SPhT, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, Service de Physique Theorique; Bruck, C. van de [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Davis, A.C.; Davis, S.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-05-15
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, P.; Postma, M.
2008-05-01
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational ﬁeld of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikivie, P.
1991-01-01
The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.; Bhattacharjee, P.
1984-01-01
The evolution of a network of strings produced at a grand-unification phase transition in an expanding universe is discussed, with particular reference to the processes of energy exchange between the strings and the rest of the universe. This is supported by numerical calculations simulating the behavior of strings in an expanding universe. It is found that in order that the energy density of the strings does not come to dominate the total energy density there must be an efficient mechanism for energy loss: the only plausible one being the production of closed loops and their subsequent decay via gravitational radiation
Collisions of cosmic F- and D-strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, N.
2004-01-01
Recent theoretical advances and upcoming experimental measurements make the testing of generic predictions of string theory models of cosmology feasible. Brane anti-brane models of inflation within superstring theory are promising as string theory descriptions of the physics of the early universe. While varied in their construction, these models can have the generic and observable consequence that cosmic strings will be abundant in the early universe. This leads to possible detectable effects in the cosmic microwave background, gravitational wave physics and gravitational lensing. Detailed calculations of cosmic string interactions within string theory are presented, in order to distinguish these cosmic strings from those in more conventional theories; these interaction probabilities can be very different from conventional 4-dimension strings, providing the possibility of experimental tests of string theory. (authors)
Superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources
Cosmic strings and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Ford, L.H.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
The metric for a Schwarzschild black hole with a cosmic string passing through it is discussed. The thermodynamics of such an object is considered, and it is shown that S = (1/4)A, where S is the entropy and A is the horizon area. It is noted that the Schwarzschild mass parameter M, which is the gravitational mass of the system, is no longer identical to its energy. A solution representing a pair of black holes held apart by strings is discussed. It is nearly identical to a static, axially symmetric solution given long ago by Bach and Weyl. It is shown how these solutions, which were formerly a mathematical curiosity, may be given a more physical interpretation in terms of cosmic strings
Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, F.R.
1988-01-01
The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t -2 . This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok
Early reheating and cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stebbins, A.J. III.
1987-01-01
In the first chapter, possible thermal histories of the universe during the epoch z = 10 - 100 are studied. Expression for the fractional ionization and electron temperature are given in the case of homogeneous heating as a function of the parameters of arbitrary ionizing sources. It is shown that present and future limits on spectral distortions to the microwave background radiation do not provide very restrictive constraints on possible thermal histories of the universe. Heating by cosmic rays and very massive stars is discussed. In the second chapter, accretion of matter onto the wakes left behind by horizon-size pieces of cosmic string is studied. It was found that in a universe containing cold dissipationless matter (CDM), accretion onto wakes produce a network of sheet-like regions with a nonlinear density enhancement. In the third chapter, a formalism is developed for calculating the microwave ansisotropy produced by cosmic string loops in Minkowski space. The final formalism involves doing a one-dimensional integral along the string for each point on the sky. Exact solutions have only been found for a circular loop seen face-on. The equations are integrated for one particular loop configuration at nine points in its evolution
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.
1987-02-01
We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Fitting cosmic microwave background data with cosmic strings and inflation.
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2008-01-18
We perform a multiparameter likelihood analysis to compare measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra with predictions from models involving cosmic strings. Adding strings to the standard case of a primordial spectrum with power-law tilt ns, we find a 2sigma detection of strings: f10=0.11+/-0.05, where f10 is the fractional contribution made by strings in the temperature power spectrum (at l=10). CMB data give moderate preference to the model ns=1 with cosmic strings over the standard zero-strings model with variable tilt. When additional non-CMB data are incorporated, the two models become on a par. With variable ns and these extra data, we find that f10<0.11, which corresponds to Gmicro<0.7x10(-6) (where micro is the string tension and G is the gravitational constant).
Cosmic R-string in thermal history
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2013-03-15
We study stabilization of an unstable cosmic string associated with spontaneously broken U(1){sub R} symmetry, which otherwise causes a dangerous roll-over process. We demonstrate that in a gauge mediation model, messengers can receive enough corrections from the thermal plasma of the supersymmetric standard model particles to stabilize the unstable modes of the string.
Constraints on cosmic strings due to black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldwell, R.R.; Gates, E.
1993-05-01
The cosmological features of primordial black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops are studied. Observational restrictions on a population of primordial black holes are used to restrict f, the fraction of cosmic string loops which collapse to form black holes, and μ, the cosmic string mass-per-unit-length. Using a realistic model of cosmic strings, we find the strongest restriction on the parameters f and μ is due to the energy density in 100MeV photons radiated by the black holes. We also find that inert black hole remnants cannot serve as the dark matter. If earlier, crude estimates of f are reliable, our results severely restrict μ, and therefore limit the viability of the cosmic string large-scale structure scenario
Scaling laws for nonintercommuting cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.
2004-01-01
We study the evolution of noninteracting and entangled cosmic string networks in the context of the velocity-dependent one-scale model. Such networks may be formed in several contexts, including brane inflation. We show that the frozen network solution L∝a, although generic, is only a transient one, and that the asymptotic solution is still L∝t as in the case of ordinary (intercommuting) strings, although in the present context the universe will usually be string dominated. Thus the behavior of two strings when they cross does not seem to affect their scaling laws, but only their densities relative to the background
Transplanckian censorship and global cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Matthew J.; Draper, Patrick; Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Patel, Hiren
2017-01-01
Large field excursions are required in a number of axion models of inflation. These models also possess global cosmic strings, around which the axion follows a path mirroring the inflationary trajectory. Cosmic strings are thus an interesting theoretical laboratory for the study of transplanckian field excursions. We describe connections between various effective field theory models of axion monodromy and study the classical spacetimes around their supercritical cosmic strings. For small decay constants f
Transplanckian censorship and global cosmic strings
Dolan, Matthew J.; Draper, Patrick; Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Patel, Hiren
2017-04-01
Large field excursions are required in a number of axion models of inflation. These models also possess global cosmic strings, around which the axion follows a path mirroring the inflationary trajectory. Cosmic strings are thus an interesting theoretical laboratory for the study of transplanckian field excursions. We describe connections be-tween various effective field theory models of axion monodromy and study the classical spacetimes around their supercritical cosmic strings. For small decay constants f M p /f , the EFT is under control and the string cores undergo topological inflation, which may be either of exponential or power-law type. We show that the exterior spacetime is nonsingular and equivalent to a decompactifying cigar geometry, with the radion rolling in a potential generated by axion flux. Signals are able to circumnavigate infinite straight strings in finite but exponentially long time, t ˜ e Δ a/ M p . For finite loops of supercritical string in asymptotically flat space, we argue that if topological inflation occurs, then topological censorship implies transplanckian censorship, or that external observers are forbidden from threading the loop and observing the full excursion of the axion.
Transplanckian censorship and global cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolan, Matthew J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale,School of Physics, University of Melbourne,Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); Draper, Patrick; Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Patel, Hiren [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics,University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2017-04-21
Large field excursions are required in a number of axion models of inflation. These models also possess global cosmic strings, around which the axion follows a path mirroring the inflationary trajectory. Cosmic strings are thus an interesting theoretical laboratory for the study of transplanckian field excursions. We describe connections between various effective field theory models of axion monodromy and study the classical spacetimes around their supercritical cosmic strings. For small decay constants f
Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-10-15
In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)
Cosmic strings: A problem or a solution?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.; Bouchet, F.R.
1987-10-01
The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis. 6 refs., 2 figs
Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio
2016-01-01
In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)
Bogomol'nyi bounds for cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comtet, A.; Gibbons, G.W.; Cambridge Univ.
1987-09-01
We establish Bogomol'nyi inequalities for the deficit angle of some cylindrically symmetric asymptotically local flat (CALF) spacetimes containing cosmic strings. These results prove the stability against arbitrary cylindrical deformations of those configurations which saturate the bound. Such configurations satisfy first order equations which can, in some cases, be solved exactly
Small scale structure on cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.
1989-01-01
I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs
Superconducting cosmic string evolution of quasars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yulin.
1988-09-01
The quasars may have been undergoing two evolutionary processes after they formed. As a result of the string loops shrinking at the first stage, the luminosities of the quasars increased gradually up to their maximum value at the redshift z ∼ 2, after then the second evolutionary stage began and the luminosity reduced. This result can be fitted by luminosity counting of quasars. Observable limit of quasars can be obtained naturally. Many phenomena, such as radiomorphology, density distribution between fuzz structure and broad line region and rotational curve may also originate from the first evolutionary stage of quasars as cosmic string. (author). 10 refs
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation: Current status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stebbins, A.
1987-04-01
Successes and remaining problems with cosmic string theories of galaxy formation are outlined. Successes of the theory include predictions for the correct amplitude of initial inhomogeneities leading to galaxy formation, the distribution of observed inhomogeneities, the observed correlation function of clusters, and the density profiles of dark matter halos. Potentially serious problems which have been raised are the biased galaxy production (why do galaxies occur in clusters?), the core radius problem (density profiles of galactic halos do not match predictions), the maximal rotation velocity problem (why is there a sharp cutoff in observed rotational velocity of galaxies?), the small galaxy problem (why are all the galaxies relatively small structures?), the angular momentum problem (where do baryons acquire their angular momentum in order to form spirals), and the large-scale structure problem (why do most galaxies appear to lie on surfaces surrounding voids?). Possible approaches to each of these problems are suggested and the future of cosmic string theory is discussed. 25 refs
Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregory, R.; Perkins, W.B.; Davis, A.C.; Brandenberger, R.H. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Cambridge Univ. (UK); Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1989-09-01
Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. We review the catalysis processes both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and discuss the implications for baryogenesis. We present a computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay using classical physics. We also discuss some effects which can screen catalysis processes. 32 refs., 1 fig.
Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, R.; Perkins, W.B.; Davis, A.C.; Brandenberger, R.H.; Cambridge Univ.; Brown Univ., Providence, RI
1989-09-01
Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. We review the catalysis processes both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and discuss the implications for baryogenesis. We present a computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay using classical physics. We also discuss some effects which can screen catalysis processes. 32 refs., 1 fig
Updated constraints on the cosmic string tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam
2010-01-01
We reexamine the constraints on the cosmic string tension from cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectra, and also from limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves provided by pulsar timing. We discuss the different approaches to modeling string evolution and radiation. In particular, we show that the unconnected segment model can describe CMB spectra expected from thin string (Nambu) and field theory (Abelian-Higgs) simulations using the computed values for the correlation length, rms string velocity and small-scale structure relevant to each variety of simulation. Applying the computed spectra in a fit to CMB and SDSS data we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 (2σ) if the Nambu simulations are correct and Gμ/c 2 -7 in the Abelian-Higgs case. The degeneracy between Gμ/c 2 and the power spectrum slope n S is substantially reduced from previous work. Inclusion of constraints on the baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) imply that n S 2 and loop production size, α, we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 for αc 2 /(ΓGμ) 2 -11 /α for αc 2 /(ΓGμ)>>1.
Superconducting cosmic strings in models with spontaneously broken family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bibilashvili, T.M.; Dvali, G.R.
1990-01-01
It is shown that superconducting cosmic strings with some specific properties naturally exist in models of spontaneously broken family symmetry. Superconductivity may be of both types - bosonic and fermionic. There exists a possible mechanism of string conservation. (orig.)
The Hubble Web: The Dark Matter Problem and Cosmic Strings
Alexander, Stephon
2009-07-01
I propose a reinterpretation of cosmic dark matter in which a rigid network of cosmic strings formed at the end of inflation. The cosmic strings fulfill three functions: At recombination they provide an accretion mechanism for virializing baryonic and warm dark matter into disks. These cosmic strings survive as configurations which thread spiral and elliptical galaxies leading to the observed flatness of rotation curves and the Tully-Fisher relation. We find a relationship between the rotational velocity of the galaxy and the string tension and discuss the testability of this model.
The Hubble Web: The Dark Matter Problem and Cosmic Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, Stephon
2009-01-01
I propose a reinterpretation of cosmic dark matter in which a rigid network of cosmic strings formed at the end of inflation. The cosmic strings fulfill three functions: At recombination they provide an accretion mechanism for virializing baryonic and warm dark matter into disks. These cosmic strings survive as configurations which thread spiral and elliptical galaxies leading to the observed flatness of rotation curves and the Tully-Fisher relation. We find a relationship between the rotational velocity of the galaxy and the string tension and discuss the testability of this model.
Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, P.
1991-02-01
The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a ''natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all ''primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as α's or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs
Patterns of the cosmic microwave background from evolving string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, F.R.; Bennett, D.P.; Stebbins, A.
1988-01-01
A network of cosmic strings generated in the early Universe may still exist today. As the strings move across the sky, they produce, by gravitational lensing, a characteristic pattern of anisotropies in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. The observed absence of such anisotropies places constraints on theories in which galaxy formation is seeded by strings, but it is anticipated that the next generation of experiments will detect them. (author)
A Bayesian framework for cosmic string searches in CMB maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciuca, Razvan; Hernández, Oscar F., E-mail: razvan.ciuca@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: oscarh@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2017-08-01
There exists various proposals to detect cosmic strings from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) or 21 cm temperature maps. Current proposals do not aim to find the location of strings on sky maps, all of these approaches can be thought of as a statistic on a sky map. We propose a Bayesian interpretation of cosmic string detection and within that framework, we derive a connection between estimates of cosmic string locations and cosmic string tension G μ. We use this Bayesian framework to develop a machine learning framework for detecting strings from sky maps and outline how to implement this framework with neural networks. The neural network we trained was able to detect and locate cosmic strings on noiseless CMB temperature map down to a string tension of G μ=5 ×10{sup −9} and when analyzing a CMB temperature map that does not contain strings, the neural network gives a 0.95 probability that G μ≤2.3×10{sup −9}.
Self-force on an electric dipole in the spacetime of a cosmic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muniz, C.R., E-mail: celiomuniz@yahoo.com [Grupo de Física Teórica (GFT), Universidade Estadual do Ceará, UECE-FECLI, Iguatu, Ceará (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2014-01-15
We calculate the electrostatic self-force on an electric dipole in the spacetime generated by a static, thin, infinite and straight cosmic string. The electric dipole is held fixed in different configurations, namely, parallel, perpendicular to the cosmic string and oriented along the azimuthal direction around this topological defect, which is stretched along the z axis. We show that the self-force is equivalent to an interaction of the electric dipole with an effective dipole moment which depends on the linear mass density of the cosmic string and on the configuration. The plots of the self-forces as functions of the parameter which determines the angular deficit of the cosmic string are shown for those different configurations. -- Highlights: •Review of regularized Green’s function applied to the problem. •Self-force on an electric dipole in the string spacetime for some orientations. •Representation via graphs of the self-forces versus angular parameter of the cosmic string. •Self-force induced by the string seen as an interaction between two dipoles. •Discussion about the superposition principle in this non-trivial background.
The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: d.regan@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2015-03-01
We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.
The stability of D-term cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collinucci, A.; Smyth, P.; Van Proeyen, A.
2007-01-01
In this article, we discuss the semi-classical stability of the D-term string solution of D=4, N=1 supergravity with a constant Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Regardless of the particular theory one is interested in, the stability of cosmic strings is necessary if we hope to observe them. We apply the spinorial Witten-Nester method to prove a positive energy theorem for the D-term cosmic string background with positive deficit angle. We also pay particular attention to the negative deficit angle D-term string, which is known to violate the dominant energy condition. Within the class of string solutions we consider, this violation implies that the negative deficit angle D-term string must have a naked pathology and therefore the positive energy theorem we prove does not apply to it. (orig.)
Numerical simulation of bosonic-superconducting-string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laguna, P.; Matzner, R.A.
1990-01-01
Numerical simulations show that bosonic superconducting U(1) gauge cosmic strings interact by reconnecting and chopping off in a fashion similar to nonconducting strings. Cancellation of the electromagnetic current occurs when, in one of the strings, the direction of the U(1) gauge magnetic field is opposite to the electromagnetic current flow. Electric charge accumulates on the segments of the reconnected strings where the current is discontinuous or vanishes. A virtual photon appears after the collision and intercommutation, and a bubble of electromagnetic radiation emerges as the currents in the reconnected strings equalize. These phenomena suggest new possible mechanisms for void production in the large-scale distribution of galaxies
Manipulating lightcone fluctuations in an analogue cosmic string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiawei Hu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We study the flight time fluctuations in an anisotropic medium inspired by a cosmic string with an effective fluctuating refractive index caused by fluctuating vacuum electric fields, which are analogous to the lightcone fluctuations due to fluctuating spacetime metric when gravity is quantized. The medium can be realized as a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string in the sense of transformation optics. For a probe light close to the analogue string, the flight time variance is ν times that in a normal homogeneous and isotropic medium, where ν is a parameter characterizing the deficit angle of the spacetime of a cosmic string. The parameter ν, which is always greater than unity for a real cosmic string, is determined by the dielectric properties of the metamaterial for an analogue string. Therefore, the flight time fluctuations of a probe light can be manipulated by changing the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the analogue medium. We argue that it seems possible to fabricate a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string with a large ν in laboratory so that a currently observable flight time variance might be achieved.
Manipulating lightcone fluctuations in an analogue cosmic string
Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2018-02-01
We study the flight time fluctuations in an anisotropic medium inspired by a cosmic string with an effective fluctuating refractive index caused by fluctuating vacuum electric fields, which are analogous to the lightcone fluctuations due to fluctuating spacetime metric when gravity is quantized. The medium can be realized as a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string in the sense of transformation optics. For a probe light close to the analogue string, the flight time variance is ν times that in a normal homogeneous and isotropic medium, where ν is a parameter characterizing the deficit angle of the spacetime of a cosmic string. The parameter ν, which is always greater than unity for a real cosmic string, is determined by the dielectric properties of the metamaterial for an analogue string. Therefore, the flight time fluctuations of a probe light can be manipulated by changing the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the analogue medium. We argue that it seems possible to fabricate a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string with a large ν in laboratory so that a currently observable flight time variance might be achieved.
Distributional curvature of time-dependent cosmic strings
Wilson, J P
1997-01-01
Colombeau's theory of generalised functions is used to calculate the contributions, at the rotation axis, to the distributional curvature for a time-dependent radiating cosmic string, and hence the mass per unit length of the string source. This mass per unit length is compared with the mass at null infinity, giving evidence for a global energy conservation law.
Cosmic strings in a braneworld theory with metastable gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue, Arthur
2002-01-01
If the graviton possesses an arbitrarily small (but nonvanishing) mass, perturbation theory implies that cosmic strings have a nonzero Newtonian potential. Nevertheless in Einstein gravity, where the graviton is strictly massless, the Newtonian potential of a cosmic string vanishes. This discrepancy is an example of the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (VDVZ) discontinuity. We present a solution for the metric around a cosmic string in a braneworld theory with a graviton metastable on the brane. This theory possesses those features that yield a VDVZ discontinuity in massive gravity, but nevertheless is generally covariant and classically self-consistent. Although the cosmic string in this theory supports a nontrivial Newtonian potential far from the source, one can recover the Einstein solution in a region near the cosmic string. That latter region grows as the graviton's effective linewidth vanishes (analogous to a vanishing graviton mass), suggesting the lack of a VDVZ discontinuity in this theory. Moreover, the presence of scale dependent structure in the metric may have consequences for the search for cosmic strings through gravitational lensing techniques
Inflation and cosmic strings in models with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matheson, A.M.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
We derive the effective action for the composite field which in dynamical symmetry breaking plays the role of the Higgs field. We show that this effective action does not give rise to inflation. It is, however, possible to obtain topological defects such as cosmic strings. There will be fermionic zero modes trapped on the strings, and the strings will therefore be superconducting in a generalized sense. (orig.)
Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter
Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert
1991-01-01
A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.
How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)
2017-10-01
Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.
D-term inflation, cosmic strings, and consistency with cosmic microwave background measurements.
Rocher, Jonathan; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2005-01-14
Standard D-term inflation is studied in the framework of supergravity. D-term inflation produces cosmic strings; however, it can still be compatible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements without invoking any new physics. The cosmic strings contribution to the CMB data is not constant, nor dominant, contrary to some previous results. Using current CMB measurements, the free parameters (gauge and superpotential couplings, as well as the Fayet-Iliopoulos term) of D-term inflation are constrained.
Evidence for a scaling solution in cosmic-string evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.; Bouchet, F.R.
1988-01-01
We study, by means of numerical simulations, the most fundamental issue of cosmic-string evolution: the existence of a scaling solution. We find strong evidence that a scaling solution does indeed exist. This justifies the main assumption on which the cosmic-string theories of galaxy formation are based. Our main conclusion coincides with that of Albrecht and Turok in previous work, but our results are not consistent with theirs. In fact, our results indicate that the details of string evolution are very different from the standard dogma
Numerical study of cosmic censorship in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per
2004-01-01
Recently Hertog, Horowitz, and Maeda have argued that cosmic censorship can be generically violated in string theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime by considering a collapsing bubble of a scalar field whose mass saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We study this system numerically, and find that black holes form rather than naked singularities, implying that cosmic censorship is upheld. (author)
Numerical study of cosmic censorship in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutperle, Michael E-mail: gutperle@physics.ucla.edu; Kraus, Per
2004-04-01
Recently Hertog, Horowitz, and Maeda have argued that cosmic censorship can be generically violated in string theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime by considering a collapsing bubble of a scalar field whose mass saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We study this system numerically, and find that black holes form rather than naked singularities, implying that cosmic censorship is upheld. (author)
Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holman, R.
1992-01-01
The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed
Cosmic String Detection with Tree-Based Machine Learning
Vafaei Sadr, A.; Farhang, M.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Bassett, B.; Kunz, M.
2018-05-01
We explore the use of random forest and gradient boosting, two powerful tree-based machine learning algorithms, for the detection of cosmic strings in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), through their unique Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect on the temperature anisotropies. The information in the maps is compressed into feature vectors before being passed to the learning units. The feature vectors contain various statistical measures of the processed CMB maps that boost cosmic string detectability. Our proposed classifiers, after training, give results similar to or better than claimed detectability levels from other methods for string tension, Gμ. They can make 3σ detection of strings with Gμ ≳ 2.1 × 10-10 for noise-free, 0.9΄-resolution CMB observations. The minimum detectable tension increases to Gμ ≳ 3.0 × 10-8 for a more realistic, CMB S4-like (II) strategy, improving over previous results.
Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Background from Cosmic Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemens, Xavier; Creighton, Jolien; Mandic, Vuk
2007-01-01
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space
Exceptional Colloquium: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Cosmic Strings
CERN. Geneva; Treille, D; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís
2005-01-01
In the 1980s many people were excited by the concept that cosmic strings, as relics of the Grand Unified Era, could be responsible for the formation of cosmic structure. In the 1990s the cosmic string concept steadily lost ground to the Inflationary model both as a result of the difficulty of calculations and more definitively through observations of the CMB. About the time many expected the new WMAP data to deliver the coup de grace, the concepts of cosmic strings as major physical phenomena (not so important in structure formation) has begun a renaissance. This new interest is motivated by one of the original ideas that topological defects are inevitable in symmetry breaking by the Kibble (1976) mechanism and the introduction of new ideas such as brane-cosmology/inflation and the realization that cosmic strings may be the only acceptable such defect. We find ourselves back in the business of trying to detect or limit and understand cosmic strings once again for the insight and constraints they put on partic...
Exceptional Colloquium: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Cosmic Strings
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
In the 1980s many people were excited by the concept that cosmic strings, as relics of the Grand Unified Era, could be responsible for the formation of cosmic structure. In the 1990s the cosmic string concept steadily lost ground to the Inflationary model both as a result of the difficulty of calculations and more definitively through observations of the CMB. About the time many expected the new WMAP data to deliver the coup de grace, the concepts of cosmic strings as major physical phenomena (not so important in structure formation) has begun a renaissance. This new interest is motivated by one of the original ideas that topological defects are inevitable in symmetry breaking by the Kibble (1976) mechanism and the introduction of new ideas such as brane-cosmology/inflation and the realization that cosmic strings may be the only acceptable such defect. We find ourselves back in the business of trying to detect or limit and understand cosmic strings once again for the insight and constraints they put on p...
Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Gauge strings have their energy concentrated in a very thin tube, the radius of which is of the order of the symmetry- breaking scale whereas the global strings are such that their energy extends to regions far beyond the central core. Strings have an important astrophysical consequence, namely, the double quasar problem ...
Radiative processes of two entangled atoms in cosmic string spacetime
Cai, Huabing; Ren, Zhongzhou
2018-01-01
We investigate the radiative processes of two static two-level atoms in a maximally entangled state coupled to vacuum electromagnetic field in the cosmic string spacetime. We find that the decay rate from the entangled state to the ground state crucially depends on the atomic separation, the polarization directions of the individual atoms, the atom-string distance and the deficit angle induced by the string. As the atom-string distance increases, the decay rate oscillates around the result in Minkowski spacetime and the amplitude gradually decreases. The oscillation is more severe for larger planar angle deficit. We analyze the decay rate in different circumstances such as near zone and specific polarization cases. Some comparisons between symmetric and antisymmetric states are performed. By contrast with the case in Minkowski spacetime, we can reveal the effects of the cosmic string on the radiative properties of the entangled atoms.
Fluctuations from cosmic strings and the microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, R.H.; Turok, N.
1986-01-01
The spectrum of energy-density perturbations and anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are calculated in models with cosmic strings. The computations are based on a mathematical model of the network of cosmic strings as a combination of a random walk of infinite strings and a distribution of string loops. The energy-density distribution is scale invariant at Hubble radius crossing, but the k dependence of the spectrum is nontrivial and not equal to the result for adiabatic linear perturbations. The anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are smaller than the observational upper bounds on all angular scales for a value μGapprox.2 x 10 -6 obtained from independent astrophysical considerations. We include both the effects due to gravitational lensing from long strings and from local gravitational perturbations due to loops (the Sachs-Wolfe effect)
Gravitational effects of cosmic strings in Friedmann universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veeraraghavan, S.
1988-01-01
Cosmic strings have been invoked recently as a possible source of the primordial density fluctuations in matter which gave rise to large-scale structure by the process of gravitational collapse. If cosmic strings did indeed seed structure formation then they would also leave an observable imprint upon the microwave and gravitational wave backgrounds, and upon structure on the very largest scales. In this work, the energy-momentum tensor appropriate to a cosmic string configuration in the flat Friedmann universe is first obtained and then used in the linearized Einstein equations to obtain the perturbations of the background space-time and the ambient matter. The calculation is full self-consistent to linear order because it takes into account compensation, or the response of the ambient matter density field to the presence of the string configuration, and is valid for an arbitrarily curved and moving configuration everywhere except very close to a string segment. The single constraint is that the dimensionless string tension Gμ/c 2 must be small compared to unity, but this condition is satisfied in any theory that leads to strings of cosmological relevance. The gravitational wave spectrum and the microwave background temperature fluctuations from a single infinite straight and static string are calculated. The statistically expected fluctuations from an ensemble of such strings with a mean density equal to that found in computer simulations of the evolution of string networks is also calculated. These fluctuations are compared with the observational data on the microwave background to constrain Gμ. Lastly, the role of infinite strings in the formation of the large-scale structure on scales of tens of Megaparsecs observed in deep redshift surveys is examined
Cosmic Strings and Their Induced Non-Gaussianities in the Cosmic Microwave Background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christophe Ringeval
2010-01-01
small fraction of the CMB angular power spectrum, cosmic strings could actually be the main source of its non-Gaussianities. In this paper, after having reviewed the basic cosmological properties of a string network, we present the signatures Nambu-Goto cosmic strings would induce in various observables ranging from the one-point function of the temperature anisotropies to the bispectrum and trispectrum. It is shown that string imprints are significantly different than those expected from the primordial type of non-Gaussianity and could therefore be easily distinguished.
String cosmology modern string theory concepts from the cosmic structure
2009-01-01
The field of string cosmology has matured considerably over the past few years, attracting many new adherents to this multidisciplinary Field. This book fills a critical gap by bringing together strains of current research into one single volume. The resulting collection of selected articles presents the latest, ongoing results from renowned experts currently working in the field. This offers the possibility for practitioners to become conversant with many different aspects of string cosmology
Effects of the image universe on cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vachaspati, T.; Rees, M.
1990-01-01
We investigate some of the cosmological effects of the gravitational attraction of straight cosmic strings that arises due to the conical geometry of the string. Although this effect is second order in Newton's gravitational constant, its effects in the early universe can be significant. We find that the image masses responsible for this second order attraction effectively 'fill up' the volume deficit due to the conical geometry of a static straight string. A moving string also experiences a frictional force due to the images and this provides a mechanism for energy dissipation. The energy loss due to the image effect is comparable to the energy loss in gravitational radiation for strings on the size of the horizon scale but is probably not important when compared to the energy loss due to loop production. The image effect can also become important when a string comes close to a black hole. Our analysis of these effects is newtonian. (orig.)
Observational constraints on the types of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazhina, Olga S.; Sazhin, Mikhail V.; Scognamiglio, Diana
2014-01-01
This paper is aimed at setting observational limits to the number of cosmic strings (Nambu-Goto, Abelian-Higgs, semilocal) and other topological defects (textures). Radio maps of CMB anisotropy, provided by the space mission Planck for various frequencies, were filtered and then processed by the method of convolution with modified Haar functions (MHF) to search for cosmic string candidates. This method was designed to search for solitary strings, without additional assumptions as regards the presence of networks of such objects. The sensitivity of the MHF method is δT ∼ 10 μK in a background of δT ∼ 100 μK. The comparison of these with previously known results on search string network shows that strings can only be semilocal in the range of 1 / 5, with the upper restriction on individual string tension (linear density) of Gμ/c 2 ≤ 7.36 x 10 -7 . The texture model is also legal. There are no strings with Gμ/c 2 > 7.36 x 10 -7 . However, a comparison with the data for the search of non-Gaussian signals shows that the presence of several (up to three) Nambu-Goto strings is also possible. For Gμ/c 2 ≤ 4.83 x 10 -7 the MHF method is ineffective because of unverifiable spurious string candidates. Thus the existence of strings with tensions Gμ/c 2 ≤ 4.83 x 10 -7 is not prohibited but it is beyond the Planck data possibilities. The same string candidates have been found in the WMAP 9-year data. Independence of Planck and WMAP data sets serves as an additional argument to consider those string candidates as very promising. However, the final proof should be given by optical deep surveys. (orig.)
Rybak, I. Yu.; Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2017-11-01
We study how the presence of world-sheet currents affects the evolution of cosmic string networks, and their impact on predictions for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies generated by these networks. We provide a general description of string networks with currents and explicitly investigate in detail two physically motivated examples: wiggly and superconducting cosmic string networks. By using a modified version of the CMBact code, we show quantitatively how the relevant network parameters in both of these cases influence the predicted CMB signal. Our analysis suggests that previous studies have overestimated the amplitude of the anisotropies for wiggly strings. For superconducting strings the amplitude of the anisotropies depends on parameters which presently are not well known—but which can be measured in future high-resolution numerical simulations.
Straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke gravity
Dos Santos, S. Mittmann; da Silva, J. M. Hoff; Cindra, J. L.
2018-03-01
An exact solution of straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is presented. The possibility of the existence of closed time-like curves around these cosmic strings is analyzed. Furthermore, the stability about the formation of the topological defect discussed here is checked. It is shown that the existence of a suitable choice for the integration constants in which closed time-like curves are not allowed. We also study the (im)possibility of using the obtained spacetime in the rotational curves problem.
Relativistic Landau levels in the rotating cosmic string spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha, M.S. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Grupo de Fisica Teorica (GFT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Muniz, C.R. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara, Faculdade de Educacao, Ciencias e Letras de Iguatu, Iguatu, CE (Brazil); Christiansen, H.R. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia, Educacao e Tecnologia, IFCE Departamento de Fisica, Sobral (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba-UFPB, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2016-09-15
In the spacetime induced by a rotating cosmic string we compute the energy levels of a massive spinless particle coupled covariantly to a homogeneous magnetic field parallel to the string. Afterwards, we consider the addition of a scalar potential with a Coulomb-type and a linear confining term and completely solve the Klein-Gordon equations for each configuration. Finally, assuming rigid-wall boundary conditions, we find the Landau levels when the linear defect is itself magnetized. Remarkably, our analysis reveals that the Landau quantization occurs even in the absence of gauge fields provided the string is endowed with spin. (orig.)
The String and the Cosmic Bounce
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bozza V.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available String theory introduces a new fundamental scale (the string length that is expected to regularize the singularities of classical general relativity. In a cosmological context, the Big Bang is no longer regarded as the beginning of time, but just a transition between a Pre-Big Bang collapse phase and the current expansion. We will review old and recent attempts to build consistent bouncing cosmologies inspired to string theories, discussing their solved and unsolved problems, focussing on the observables that may distinguish them from standard inflationary scenarios.
Scaling properties of cosmic (super)string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C J A P
2014-01-01
I use a combination of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and analytic modelling to discuss the scaling properties of cosmic defect networks, including superstrings. Particular attention is given to the role of extra degrees of freedom in the evolution of these networks. Compared to the 'plain vanilla' case of Goto-Nambu strings, three such extensions play important but distinct roles in the network dynamics: the presence of charges/currents on the string worldsheet, the existence of junctions, and the possibility of a hierarchy of string tensions. I also comment on insights gained from studying simpler defect networks, including Goto-Nambu strings themselves, domain walls and semilocal strings
Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.
Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans
2010-09-03
We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship.
Integrable equation of state for noisy cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1990-01-01
It is argued that, independently of the detailed (thermal or more general) noise spectrum of the microscopic extrinsic excitations that can be expected on an ordinary cosmic string, their effect can be taken into account at a macroscopic level by replacing the standard isotropic Goto-Nambu-type string model by the nondegenerate string model characterized by an equation of state of the nondispersive ''fixed determinant'' type, with the effective surface stress-energy tensor satisfying (T ν ν ) 2 -T μ ν T ν μ =2T 0 2 , where T 0 is a constant representing the null-state limit of the string tension T, whose product with the energy density U of the string is thereby held fixed: TU=T 0 2 . It is shown that this equation of state has the special property of giving rise (in a flat background) to explicitly integrable dynamical equations
Cosmic strings in unified gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everett, A.E.
1981-01-01
Some spontaneously broken gauge theories can give rise to stringlike vacuum structures (vortices). It has been pointed out by Vilenkin that in grand unified theories these can be sufficiently massive to have cosmological implications, e.g., in explaining the formation of galaxies. The circumstances in which such structures occur are examined. They do not occur in the simplest grand unified theories, but can occur in some more elaborate models which have been proposed. The cross section for the scattering of elementary particles by strings is estimated. This is used to evaluate the effect of collisions on the dynamics of a collapsing circular string, with particular attention to the question of whether energy dissipation by collision can reduce the rate of formation of black holes by collapsed strings, which may be unacceptably large in models where strings occur. It is found that the effect of collisions is not important in the case of grand unified strings, although it can be important for lighter strings
Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-01-01
This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism
Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Bouchet, François R., E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: bouchet@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2016-02-01
Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = O(1) × 10{sup −6} match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.
The regular cosmic string in Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-09-22
It is shown that Born-Infeld gravity -a high energy deformation of Einstein gravity-removes the singularities of a cosmic string. The respective vacuum solution results to be free of conical singularity and closed timelike curves. The space ends at a minimal circle where the curvature invariants vanish; but this circle cannot be reached in a finite proper time.
Wavelet-Bayesian inference of cosmic strings embedded in the cosmic microwave background
McEwen, J. D.; Feeney, S. M.; Peiris, H. V.; Wiaux, Y.; Ringeval, C.; Bouchet, F. R.
2017-12-01
Cosmic strings are a well-motivated extension to the standard cosmological model and could induce a subdominant component in the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in addition to the standard inflationary component. The detection of strings, while observationally challenging, would provide a direct probe of physics at very high-energy scales. We develop a framework for cosmic string inference from observations of the CMB made over the celestial sphere, performing a Bayesian analysis in wavelet space where the string-induced CMB component has distinct statistical properties to the standard inflationary component. Our wavelet-Bayesian framework provides a principled approach to compute the posterior distribution of the string tension Gμ and the Bayesian evidence ratio comparing the string model to the standard inflationary model. Furthermore, we present a technique to recover an estimate of any string-induced CMB map embedded in observational data. Using Planck-like simulations, we demonstrate the application of our framework and evaluate its performance. The method is sensitive to Gμ ∼ 5 × 10-7 for Nambu-Goto string simulations that include an integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution only and do not include any recombination effects, before any parameters of the analysis are optimized. The sensitivity of the method compares favourably with other techniques applied to the same simulations.
Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.
1987-04-01
We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs
Topological Casimir effect in compactified cosmic string spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Mello, E R Bezerra; Saharian, A A
2012-01-01
We investigate the Wightman function, the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling in the generalized cosmic string geometry with a compact dimension along its axis. The boundary condition along the compactified dimension is taken in general form with an arbitrary phase. The vacuum expectation values are decomposed into two parts. The first one corresponds to the uncompactified cosmic string geometry and the second one is the correction induced by the compactification. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum expectation values of the field squared, energy density and stresses is investigated near the string and at large distances. We show that the nontrivial topology due to the cosmic string enhances the vacuum polarization effects induced by the compactness of spatial dimension for both the field squared and the vacuum energy density. A simple formula is given for the part of the integrated topological Casimir energy induced by the planar angle deficit. The results are generalized for a charged scalar field in the presence of a constant gauge field. In this case, the vacuum expectation values are periodic functions of the component of the vector potential along the compact dimension. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present results for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies generated from high resolution simulations of cosmic string networks in a range of flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with a cosmological constant. Using an ensemble of all-sky maps, we compare with the Cosmic Background Explorer data to infer a normalization (or upper bound) on the string linear energy density μ. For a flat matter-dominated model (Ω M =1) we find Gμ/c 2 ≅0.7x10 -6 , which is lower than previous constraints probably because of the more accurate inclusion of string small-scale structure. For a cosmological constant within an observationally acceptable range, we find a relatively weak dependence with Gμ/c 2 less than 10% higher
Cosmic string in compactified gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, A.; Hirenzaki, S.; Shiraishi, K.
1989-08-01
A solution of the vortex type is given in a six-dimensional SU(2)xU(1) pure gauge theory coupled to Einstein gravity in a compactified background geometry. We construct the solution of an effective Abelian-Higgs model in terms of dimensional reduction. The solution, however, has a peculiarity in its physically relevant quantity, a deficit angle, which is given as a function of the ratio of the gauge couplings of SU(2) and U(1). The size of the extra space (sphere) is shown to vary with the distance from the axis of the 'string'. (author)
Is it really naked? On cosmic censorship in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Andrei V.
2004-01-01
We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counterexample to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the 'no black hole' argument breaks
Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1990-01-01
One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included
Superconducting cosmic string loops as sources for fast radio bursts
Cao, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Yun-Wei
2018-01-01
The cusp burst radiation of superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops is thought to be a possible origin of observed fast radio bursts with the model-predicted radiation spectrum and the redshift- and energy-dependent event rate, we fit the observational redshift and energy distributions of 21 Parkes fast radio bursts and constrain the model parameters. It is found that the model can basically be consistent with the observations, if the current on the SCS loops has a present value of ˜1016μ179 /10 esu s-1 and evolves with redshift as an empirical power law ˜(1 +z )-1.3 , where μ17=μ /1017 g cm-1 is the string tension. This current evolution may provide a clue to probe the evolution of the cosmic magnetic fields and the gathering of the SCS loops to galaxy clusters.
Structures formation through self-organized accretion on cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murdzek, R.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we shall show that the formation of structures through accretion by a cosmic string is driven by a natural feed-back mechanism: a part of the energy radiated by accretions creates a pressure on the accretion disk itself. This phenomenon leads to a nonlinear evolution of the accretion process. Thus, the formation of structures results as a consequence of a self-organized growth of the accreting central object.
General relativistic model of a spinning cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, B.; Soleng, H.H.
1991-11-01
The authors investigate the infinite, straight, rotating cosmic string within the framework of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. A class of exact interior solutions is derived for which the source satisfies the weak and the dominant energy conditions. The interior metric is matched smoothly to the exterior vacuum. A subclass of these solutions has closed time-like curves both in the interior and the exterior geometry. 39 refs., 2 figs
Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eto, Minoru; Ohashi, Keisuke; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.
2012-11-01
We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.
Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2012-11-15
We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.
Constraints on cosmic strings from the LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave detectors
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.
2014-01-01
Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints o...
Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory
Hacquebord, F.H.
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.
1990-01-01
From the results of recent measurements we place new constraints on superconducting cosmic strings (SCS) and on their cosmological evolution, independently of numerical simulation results. The absence of distortion in the cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR) spectrum recently reported from the preliminary data of the COBE (Cosmic background explorer) satellite, together with the available MBR angular temperature ΔT/T measurements and the latest fast pulsar timings, allow us to obtain (i) the electromagnetic-to-gravitational radiation ratio released by SCS loops, f -2 , (ii) the chemical potential due to SCS, μ 0SCS -3 , (iii) constraints on the loop evolution parameters which we confront to those given by numerical simulations, and (iv) limits on the string parameter Gμ: those obtained from COBE's data (Gμ -6 ) converge to those given by the latest PSR 1937+21 timing. Both limits on Gμ are reduced by an order of magnitude when taking into account numerical simulation results. (orig.)
Negative energy in string theory and cosmic censorship violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.; Maeda, Kengo
2004-01-01
We find asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions in N=8 supergravity which have a negative total energy. This is possible since the boundary conditions required for the positive energy theorem are stronger than those required for a finite mass (and allowed by string theory). But the stability of the anti-de Sitter vacuum is still ensured by the positivity of a modified energy, which includes an extra surface term. Some of the negative energy solutions describe the classical evolution of nonsingular initial data to naked singularities. Since there is an open set of such solutions, cosmic censorship is violated generically in supergravity. Using the dual field theory description, we argue that these naked singularities will be resolved in the full string theory
Pair production in the gravitational field of a cosmic string
Harari, Diego D.; Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D.
1990-04-01
We show that many elementary particle physics processes, such as pair production by a high energy photon, that take place in Minkowski space only if a non-uniform external field provides for momentum non-conservation, do occur in the space-time around a straight cosmic string, even though the space is locally flat and there is no local gravitational potential. We exemplify this mechanism through the evaluation of the cross section per unit length of string for the decay of a massless scalar particle into a pair of massive particles. The cross sections for this kind of processes are typically small. Nevertheless, it is interesting to realize how these reactions occur due to topological properties of space, rather than to the action of a local field. V.S. is grateful to Mario Castagnino for hospitality at the Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio during a visit while this work was done.
Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Yun-Wei [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cheng, Kwong-Sang [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry, E-mail: yuyw@phy.ccnu.edu.cn, E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk, E-mail: shiu@ust.hk, E-mail: iastye@ust.hk [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)
2014-11-01
Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch.
Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry
2014-01-01
Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch
Interacting bosonic strings in subcritical dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, S.; Marnelius, R.
1988-01-01
Interaction theory for relativistic bosonic string in spacetime dimensions below the critical value 26 is formulated using BRST techniques with an extra scalar field. One-loop zero-point amplitudes for closed strings are modular invariant. For a free scalar field, vertex operators are constructed leading to, e.g., the old dual N-tachyon tree amplitudes in D < 26. The N-tachyon one-loop expressions contain closed string poles for open strings, and are modular invariant for closed strings. However, the threshold cuts are wrong in D < 25. Only for D=25 to the considered vertex operators lead to consistency. (orig.)
On Bianchi-I cosmic strings coupled with Maxwell ﬁelds in bimetric ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Axially symmetric Bianchi-I model is studied with source cosmic cloud strings coupled with electromagnetic ﬁeld in Rosen's bimetric theory of relativity and observed that there is no contribution from cosmic strings and Maxwell ﬁelds in this theory.
Planck 2013 results. XXV. Searches for cosmic strings and other topological defects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
Planck data have been used to provide stringent new constraints on cosmic strings and other defects. We describe forecasts of the CMB power spectrum induced by cosmic strings, calculating these from network models and simulations using line-of-sight Boltzmann solvers. We have studied Nambu-Goto c...
Constraints on Cosmic Strings from the LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Aasi, J.; Agathos, M.; Beker, M.G.; Bertolini, A.; Blom, M.R.; Bulten, H.J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R.; Li, T.G.F.; Meidam, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; van der Putten, S.; LIGO Sci, Collaboration; Virgo, Collaboration
2014-01-01
Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the
Imprints of cosmic strings on the cosmological gravitational wave background
Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Verdaguer, E.; Vlahos, L.
2008-07-01
The equation which governs the temporal evolution of a gravitational wave (GW) in curved space-time can be treated as the Schrödinger equation for a particle moving in the presence of an effective potential. When GWs propagate in an expanding universe with constant effective potential, there is a critical value (kc) of the comoving wave number which discriminates the metric perturbations into oscillating (k>kc) and nonoscillating (k
Effect of the cosmological constant on the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string
Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali
2018-03-01
We report the effect of the cosmological constant and the internal energy density of a cosmic string on the deflection angle of light in the spacetime of a rotating cosmic string with internal structure. We first revisit the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string and then provide a generalization using the geodesic equations and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We show there is an agreement between the two methods when employing higher-order terms of the linear mass density of the cosmic string. By modifying the integration domain for the global conical topology, we resolve the inconsistency between these two methods previously reported in the literature. We show that the deflection angle is not affected by the rotation of the cosmic string; however, the cosmological constant Λ strongly affects the deflection angle, which generalizes the well-known result.
Superconducting cosmic strings as sources of cosmological fast radio bursts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Jiani [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China); Stony Brook University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Cai, Yi-Fu [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Hefei, Anhui (China)
2017-11-15
In this paper we calculate the radio burst signals from three kinds of structures of superconducting cosmic strings. By taking into account the observational factors including scattering and relativistic effects, we derive the event rate of radio bursts as a function of redshift with the theoretical parameters Gμ and I of superconducting strings. Our analyses show that cusps and kinks may have noticeable contributions to the event rate and in most cases cusps would dominate the contribution, while the kink-kink collisions tend to have secondary effects. By fitting theoretical predictions with the normalized data of fast radio bursts, we for the first time constrain the parameter space of superconducting strings and report that the parameter space of Gμ ∝ [10{sup -14}, 10{sup -12}] and I ∝ [10{sup -1}, 10{sup 2}] GeV fit the observation well although the statistic significance is low due to the lack of observational data. Moreover, we derive two types of best fittings, with one being dominated by cusps with a redshift z = 1.3, and the other dominated by kinks at the range of the maximal event rate. (orig.)
Superconducting cosmic strings as sources of cosmological fast radio bursts
Ye, Jiani; Wang, Kai; Cai, Yi-Fu
2017-11-01
In this paper we calculate the radio burst signals from three kinds of structures of superconducting cosmic strings. By taking into account the observational factors including scattering and relativistic effects, we derive the event rate of radio bursts as a function of redshift with the theoretical parameters Gμ and I of superconducting strings. Our analyses show that cusps and kinks may have noticeable contributions to the event rate and in most cases cusps would dominate the contribution, while the kink-kink collisions tend to have secondary effects. By fitting theoretical predictions with the normalized data of fast radio bursts, we for the first time constrain the parameter space of superconducting strings and report that the parameter space of Gμ ˜ [10^{-14}, 10^{-12}] and I ˜ [10^{-1}, 102] GeV fit the observation well although the statistic significance is low due to the lack of observational data. Moreover, we derive two types of best fittings, with one being dominated by cusps with a redshift z = 1.3, and the other dominated by kinks at the range of the maximal event rate.
Joining-Splitting Interaction of Noncritical String
Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew
The joining-splitting interaction of noncritical bosonic string is analyzed in the light-cone formulation. The Mandelstam method of constructing tree string amplitudes is extended to the bosonic massive string models of the discrete series. The general properties of the Liouville longitudinal excitations which are necessary and sufficient for the Lorentz covariance of the light-cone amplitudes are derived. The results suggest that the covariant and the light-cone approach are equivalent also in the noncritical dimensions. Some aspects of unitarity of interacting noncritical massive string theory are discussed.
Constraints on cosmic strings using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steer, D. A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.-F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2018-05-01
Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in grand unified theory scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension G μ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and big-bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon; Hindmarsh, Mark
2017-01-01
We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10 15 GeV (6.3× 10 14 GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10 15 GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m a ∼< 10 −28 eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at the gravitational wave
Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: asier.lopez@ehu.eus, E-mail: joanes.lizarraga@ehu.eus, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.eus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2017-07-01
We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10{sup 15} GeV (6.3× 10{sup 14} GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10{sup 15} GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m {sub a} ∼< 10{sup −28} eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
Cosmic strings in an open universe: Quantitative evolution and observational consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avelino, P.P.; Caldwell, R.R.; Martins, C.J.
1997-01-01
The cosmic string scenario in an open universe is developed - including the equations of motion, a model of network evolution, the large angular scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, and the power spectrum of density fluctuations produced by cosmic strings with dark matter. We first derive the equations of motion for a cosmic string in an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time. With these equations and the cosmic string stress-energy conservation law, we construct a quantitative model of the evolution of the gross features of a cosmic string network in a dust-dominated, Ω 2 /Mpc. In a low density universe the string+CDM scenario is a better model for structure formation. We find that for cosmological parameters Γ=Ωh∼0.1 - 0.2 in an open universe the string+CDM power spectrum fits the shape of the linear power spectrum inferred from various galaxy surveys. For Ω∼0.2 - 0.4, the model requires a bias b approx-gt 2 in the variance of the mass fluctuation on scales 8h -1 Mpc. In the presence of a cosmological constant, the spatially flat string+CDM power spectrum requires a slightly lower bias than for an open universe of the same matter density. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Repulsive Casimir-Polder forces from cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saharian, A.A.; Kotanjyan, A.S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the Casimir-Polder force acting on a polarizable microparticle in the geometry of a straight cosmic string. In order to develop this analysis we evaluate the electromagnetic field Green tensor on the imaginary frequency axis. The expression for the Casimir-Polder force is derived in the general case of anisotropic polarizability. In dependence on the eigenvalues for the polarizability tensor and of the orientation of its principal axes, the Casimir-Polder force can be either repulsive or attractive. Moreover, there are situations where the force changes the sign with separation. We show that for an isotropic polarizability tensor the force is always repulsive. At large separations between the microparticle and the string, the force varies inversely with the fifth power of the distance. In the non-retarded regime, corresponding to separations smaller than the relevant transition wavelengths, the force decays with the inverse fourth power of the distance. In the case of anisotropic polarizability, the dependence of the Casimir-Polder potential on the orientation of the polarizability tensor principal axes also leads to a moment of force acting on the particle. (orig.)
A simple model for the evolution of a non-Abelian cosmic string network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cella, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Pieroni, M., E-mail: giancarlo.cella@pi.infn.it, E-mail: mauro.pieroni@apc.univ-paris7.fr [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2016-06-01
In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations intended to study the behavior of non-Abelian cosmic strings networks. In particular we are interested in discussing the variations in the asymptotic behavior of the system as we variate the number of generators for the topological defects. A simple model which allows for cosmic strings is presented and its lattice discretization is discussed. The evolution of the generated cosmic string networks is then studied for different values for the number of generators for the topological defects. Scaling solution appears to be approached in most cases and we present an argument to justify the lack of scaling for the residual cases.
Evading the pulsar constraints on the cosmic string tension in supergravity inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Miyamoto, Yuhei [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ. (JP). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Tokyo Univ. (JP). Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU); Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa, Chiba (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
2012-04-15
The cosmic string is a useful probe of the early Universe and may give us a clue to physics at high energy scales where any artificial particle accelerators cannot reach. Although one of the most promising tools is the cosmic microwave background, the constraint from gravitational waves is becoming so stringent that one may not hope to detect its signatures in the cosmic microwave background. In this paper, we construct a scenario that contains cosmic strings observable in the cosmic microwave background while evading the constraint imposed by the recent pulsar timing data. We argue that cosmic strings with relatively large tension are allowed by delaying the onset of the scaling regime. We also show that this scenario is naturally realized in the context of chaotic inflation in supergravity, where the phase transition is governed by the Hubble induced mass.
Evading the pulsar constraints on the cosmic string tension in supergravity inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamada, Kohei; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2012-04-01
The cosmic string is a useful probe of the early Universe and may give us a clue to physics at high energy scales where any artificial particle accelerators cannot reach. Although one of the most promising tools is the cosmic microwave background, the constraint from gravitational waves is becoming so stringent that one may not hope to detect its signatures in the cosmic microwave background. In this paper, we construct a scenario that contains cosmic strings observable in the cosmic microwave background while evading the constraint imposed by the recent pulsar timing data. We argue that cosmic strings with relatively large tension are allowed by delaying the onset of the scaling regime. We also show that this scenario is naturally realized in the context of chaotic inflation in supergravity, where the phase transition is governed by the Hubble induced mass.
The Rise and Fall of the Cosmic String Theory for Cosmological Perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perivolaropoulos, L.
2005-01-01
The cosmic string theory for cosmological fluctuations is a good example of healthy scientific progress in cosmology. It is a well defined physically motivated model that has been tested by cosmological observations and has been ruled out as a primary source of primordial fluctuations. Until about fifteen years ago, the cosmic string theory of cosmological perturbations provided one of the two physically motivated candidate theories for the generation of primordial perturbations. The cosmological data that appeared during the last decade have been compared with the well defined predictions of the theory and have ruled out cosmic strings as a primary source of primordial cosmological perturbations. Since cosmic strings are predicted to form after inflation in a wide range of microphysical theories (including supersymmetric and fundamental string theories) their observational bounds may serve a source of serious constraints for these theories. This is a pedagogical review of the historical development, the main predictions of the cosmic string theory and the constraints that have been imposed on it by cosmological observations. Recent lensing events that could be attributed to lighter cosmic strings are also discussed
Gauge and general covariance of string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.R.
1986-01-01
All fundamental interactions at observable energies seem to arise out of local symmetries - gauge invariances and general coordinate invariance. In usual field theories of point particles these invariances are postulated a priori: the idea is to deduce everything else from the symmetry group and the representation content of the matter fields. In string theories, the situation is rather different. Here the basic principle is reparametrization invariance on the world sheet swept out by the string. The authors consider the simplest string models-those defined on flat Minkowski space-time. The transverse oscillations of the string lead to an infinite tower of modes which may be thought of as the ''particles'' constituting the string. The interacting string theory is defined, in the first quantized formulation, by specifying the interaction of these modes with the string. These interaction vertices must satisfy a basic requirement: when any dual amplitude is factorized only physical states (i.e. those satisfying the Virasoro conditions) must occur as on-mass-shell intermediate states. This means that the vertices respect the reparametrization invariance of the world sheet, since it is this symmetry which eliminates ghost states by virtue of Virasoro conditions
Ray trajectories for a spinning cosmic string and a manifestation of self-cloaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, Tom H.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2010-01-01
A study of ray trajectories was undertaken for the Tamm medium which represents the spacetime of a zero-tension cosmic spinning string, under the geometric-optics approximation. Our numerical studies revealed that: (i) rays never cross the string's boundary; (ii) the Tamm medium supports evanescent waves in regions of phase space that correspond to those regions of the string's spacetime which could support closed timelike curves; and (iii) a spinning string can be slightly visible while a non-spinning string is almost perfectly invisible.
Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations around a cosmic string in de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saharian, A.A.; Saharyan, N.A. [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia); Manukyan, V.F. [Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute, Department of Physics and Mathematics, Gyumri (Armenia)
2017-07-15
The electromagnetic field correlators are evaluated around a cosmic string in background of (D + 1)-dimensional dS spacetime assuming that the field is prepared in the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. The correlators are presented in the decomposed form where the string-induced topological parts are explicitly extracted. With this decomposition, the renormalization of the local vacuum expectation values (VEVs) in the coincidence limit is reduced to the one for dS spacetime in the absence of the cosmic string. The VEVs of the squared electric and magnetic fields, and of the vacuum energy density are investigated. Near the string they are dominated by the topological contributions and the effects induced by the background gravitational field are small. In this region, the leading terms in the topological contributions are obtained from the corresponding VEVs for a string on the Minkowski bulk multiplying by the conformal factor. At distances from the string larger than the curvature radius of the background geometry, the pure dS parts in the VEVs dominate. In this region, for spatial dimensions D > 3, the influence of the gravitational field on the topological contributions is crucial and the corresponding behavior is essentially different from that for a cosmic string on the Minkowski bulk. There are well-motivated inflationary models which produce cosmic strings. We argue that, as a consequence of the quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble electromagnetic fluctuations during inflation, in the post-inflationary era these strings will be surrounded by large-scale stochastic magnetic fields. These fields could be among the distinctive features of the cosmic strings produced during the inflation and also of the corresponding inflationary models. (orig.)
Algebraic structure of open string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.; Rodgers, V.G.J.
1986-05-01
Starting from the gauge invariant equations of motion for the free open string we show how to generate interactions by analogy with Yang-Mills. We postulate Non-Abelian transformation laws acting on the fields of the gauge invariant free open string theory. By demanding algebraic closure we then derive a set of consistency requirements and show that they lead to the construction of the minimal interacting equations which contain no cubic terms away from the physical gauge. We present explicit solutions to lowest interacting order for both vertices and structure functions. 14 refs
Algebraic structure of open-string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.; Rodgers, V.G.J.
1986-01-01
Starting from the gauge-invariant equations of motion for the free open string we show how to generate interactions by analogy with the Yang-Mills system. We postulate non-Abelian transformation laws acting on the fields of the gauge-invariant free open-string theory. By demanding algebraic closure we then derive a set of consistency requirements and show that they lead to the construction of the minimal interacting equations which contain no cubic terms away from the physical gauge. We present explicit solutions to lowest interacting order for both vertices and structure functions
Klein-Gordon oscillator with position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string spacetime
Wang, Bing-Qian; Long, Zheng-Wen; Long, Chao-Yun; Wu, Shu-Rui
2018-02-01
A spinless particle coupled covariantly to a uniform magnetic field parallel to the string in the background of the rotating cosmic string is studied. The energy levels of the electrically charged particle subject to the Klein-Gordon oscillator are analyzed. Afterwards, we consider the case of the position-dependent mass and show how these energy levels depend on the parameters in the problem. Remarkably, it shows that for the special case, the Klein-Gordon oscillator coupled covariantly to a homogeneous magnetic field with the position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string background has the similar behaviors to the Klein-Gordon equation with a Coulomb-type configuration in a rotating cosmic string background in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Planck 2013 results. XXV. Searches for cosmic strings and other topological defects
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
Planck data have been used to provide stringent new constraints on cosmic strings and other defects. We describe forecasts of the CMB power spectrum induced by cosmic strings, calculating these from network models and simulations using line-of-sight Boltzmann solvers. We have studied Nambu-Goto cosmic strings, as well as field theory strings for which radiative effects are important, thus spanning the range of theoretical uncertainty in strings models. We have added the angular power spectrum from strings to that for a simple adiabatic model, with the extra fraction defined as $f_{10}$ at multipole $\\ell=10$. This parameter has been added to the standard six parameter fit using COSMOMC with flat priors. For the Nambu-Goto string model, we have obtained a constraint on the string tension of $G\\mu/c^2 < 1.5 x 10^{-7}$ and $f_{10} < 0.015$ at 95% confidence that can be improved to $G\\mu/c^2 < 1.3 x 10^{-7}$ and $f_{10} < 0.010$ on inclusion of high-$\\ell$ CMB data. For the abelian-Higgs field theory ...
Fractal properties and small-scale structure of cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2006-01-01
We present results from a detailed numerical study of the small-scale and loop production properties of cosmic string networks, based on the largest and highest resolution string simulations to date. We investigate the nontrivial fractal properties of cosmic strings, in particular, the fractal dimension and renormalized string mass per unit length, and we also study velocity correlations. We demonstrate important differences between string networks in flat (Minkowski) spacetime and the two very similar expanding cases. For high resolution matter era network simulations, we provide strong evidence that small-scale structure has converged to 'scaling' on all dynamical length scales, without the need for other radiative damping mechanisms. We also discuss preliminary evidence that the dominant loop production size is also approaching scaling
Stability and characteristic propagation speeds in superconducting cosmic and other string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
A bicharacteristic version is obtained for the differential equations of motion in a recently introduced formalism for the (fully covariant) treatment of a broad range of macroscopic 'thin' string models, with applicability extending from ordinary (violin type) elastic strings to superconducting cosmic strings. In any locally stable state there are two bicharacteristic propagation speeds corresponding to group velocities of transverse (extrinsic) and longitudinal (intrinsic) perturbations. The local stability requirement excludes states in which the string tension T is negative or in which its derivative with respect to the energy density (per unit length) U is positive. (orig.)
Graviton production in the scaling of a long-cosmic-string network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Verdaguer, Enric
2011-01-01
In a previous paper [K. Kleidis, D. B. Papadopoulos, E. Verdaguer, and L. Vlahos, Phys. Rev. D 78, 024027 (2008).] we considered the possibility that (within the early-radiation epoch) there has been (also) a short period of a significant presence of cosmic strings. During this radiation-plus-strings stage the Universe matter-energy content can be modeled by a two-component fluid, consisting of radiation (dominant) and a cosmic-string fluid (subdominant). It was found that, during this stage, the cosmological gravitational waves--that had been produced in an earlier (inflationary) epoch--with comoving wave numbers below a critical value (which depends on the physics of the cosmic-string network) were filtered, leading to a distorsion in the expected (scale-invariant) cosmological gravitational wave power spectrum. In any case, the cosmological evolution gradually results in the scaling of any long-cosmic-string network and, hence, after a short time interval, the Universe enters into the late-radiation era. However, along the transition from an early-radiation epoch to the late-radiation era through the radiation-plus-strings stage, the time dependence of the cosmological scale factor is modified, something that leads to a discontinuous change of the corresponding scalar curvature, which, in turn, triggers the quantum-mechanical creation of gravitons. In this paper we discuss several aspects of such a process, and, in particular, the observational consequences on the expected gravitational-wave power spectrum.
Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre; Brandenberger, Robert
2017-01-01
We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10 −7 .
Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre [ETH Zurich, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenberger, Robert, E-mail: hergtl@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: tomasz.kacprzak@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2017-06-01
We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10{sup −7}.
The dual formulation of cosmic strings and vortices
Lee, Ki-Myeong
1993-01-01
We study four dimensional systems of global, axionic and local strings. By using the path integral formalism, we derive the dual formulation of these systems, where Goldstone bosons, axions and missive vector bosons are described by antisymmetric tensor fields, and strings appear as a source for these tensor fields. We show also how magnetic monopoles attached to local strings are described in the dual formulation. We conclude with some remarks.
Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun
1988-06-01
A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)
Multi-branes boundary states with open string interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesando, Igor
2008-01-01
We derive boundary states which describe configurations of multiple parallel branes with arbitrary open string states interactions in bosonic string theory. This is obtained by a careful discussion of the factorization of open/closed string states amplitudes taking care of cycles needed by ensuring vertices commutativity: in particular the discussion reveals that already at the tree level open string knows of the existence of closed string
Geometric phase for a neutral particle in rotating frames in a cosmic string spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakke, Knut; Furtado, Claudio
2009-01-01
We study of the appearance of geometric quantum phases in the dynamics of a neutral particle that possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment in rotating frames in a cosmic string spacetime. The relativistic dynamics of spin-1/2 particle in this frame is investigated and we obtain several contributions to relativistic geometric phase due rotation and topology of spacetime. We also study the geometric phase in the nonrelativistic limit. We obtain effects analogous to the Sagnac effect and Mashhoon effect in a rotating frame in the background of a cosmic string.
Cosmic strings in f(R,L{sub m}) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)
2015-02-01
We consider Kasner-type static, cylindrically symmetric interior string solutions in the f(R,L{sub m}) theory of modified gravity. The physical properties of the string are described by an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor satisfying the condition T{sub t}{sup t} = T{sub z}{sup z}; that is, the energy density of the string along the z-axis is equal to minus the string tension. As a first step in our study we obtain the gravitational field equations in the f(R,L{sub m}) theory for a general static, cylindrically symmetric metric, and then for a Kasner-type metric, in which the metric tensor components have a power law dependence on the radial coordinate r. String solutions in two particular modified gravity models are investigated in detail. The first is the so-called ''exponential'' modified gravity, in which the gravitational action is proportional to the exponential of the sum of the Ricci scalar and matter Lagrangian, and the second is the ''self-consistent model'', obtained by explicitly determining the gravitational action from the field equations under the assumption of a power law dependent matter Lagrangian. In each case, the thermodynamic parameters of the string, as well as the precise form of the matter Lagrangian, are explicitly obtained. (orig.)
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2018-04-01
We rederive the equations of motion for relativistic strings, that is, one-dimensional elastic bodies whose internal energy depends only on their stretching, and use them to study circular string loops rotating in the equatorial plane of flat and black hole spacetimes. We start by obtaining the conditions for equilibrium, and find that: (i) if the string’s longitudinal speed of sound does not exceed the speed of light then its radius when rotating in Minkowski’s spacetime is always larger than its radius when at rest; (ii) in Minkowski’s spacetime, equilibria are linearly stable for rotation speeds below a certain threshold, higher than the string’s longitudinal speed of sound, and linearly unstable for some rotation speeds above it; (iii) equilibria are always linearly unstable in Schwarzschild’s spacetime. Moreover, we study interactions of a rotating string loop with a Kerr black hole, namely in the context of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture and the Penrose process. We find that: (i) elastic string loops that satisfy the null energy condition cannot overspin extremal black holes; (ii) elastic string loops that satisfy the dominant energy condition cannot increase the maximum efficiency of the usual particle Penrose process; (iii) if the dominant energy condition (but not the weak energy condition) is violated then the efficiency can be increased. This last result hints at the interesting possibility that the dominant energy condition may underlie the well known upper bounds for the efficiencies of energy extraction processes (including, for example, superradiance).
Lectures on interacting string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.
1986-09-01
We give a detailed review of the current formulations of interacting string field theory. The historical development of the subject is taken beginning with the old dual resonance model theory. The light cone approach is reviewed in some detail with emphasis on conformal mapping techniques. Witten's covariant approach is presented. The main body of the lectures concentrates on developing the operator formulation of Witten's theory. 38 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs
Emergence of Fresnel diffraction zones in gravitational lensing by a cosmic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández-Núñez, Isabel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bulashenko, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.bulashenko@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2017-06-09
The possibility to detect cosmic strings – topological defects of early Universe, by means of wave effects in gravitational lensing is discussed. To find the optimal observation conditions, we define the hyperbolic-shaped Fresnel observation zones associated with the diffraction maxima and analyse the frequency patterns of wave amplification corresponding to different alignments. In particular, we show that diffraction of gravitational waves by the string may lead to significant amplification at cosmological distances. The wave properties we found are quite different from what one would expect, for instance, from light scattered off a thin wire or slit, since a cosmic string, as a topological defect, gives no shadow at all. - Highlights: • Interference and diffraction of gravitational waves by a cosmic string are studied. • Uniform asymptotic theory of diffraction is applied for a finite distance source. • Hyperbolic-shaped Fresnel observation zones associated with maxima of diffraction. • Frequency patterns modulated by diffraction for different string alignments are given. • The method is applicable to condensed-matter defects and other types of waves.
Vacuum fluctuations of twisted fields in the space time of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsas, G.E.A.
1990-01-01
A twisted scalar field conformally coupled to gravitation is used to calculate the vacuum stress-energy tensor in the background spacetime generated by an infinite straight gauge cosmic string. The result has an absolute numerical value close to the one obtained with a non-twisted conformal scalar field but their signals are opposite. (author) [pt
Casimir-Polder potential for a metallic cylinder in cosmic string spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saharian, A.A., E-mail: saharian@ysu.am [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kotanjyan, A.S. [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)
2012-07-09
Casimir-Polder potential is investigated for a polarizable microparticle in the geometry of a straight cosmic string with a metallic cylindrical shell. The electromagnetic field Green tensor is evaluated on the imaginary frequency axis. The expressions for the Casimir-Polder potential is derived in the general case of anisotropic polarizability for the both interior and exterior regions of the shell. The potential is decomposed into pure string and shell-induced parts. The latter dominates for points near the shell, whereas the pure string part is dominant near the string and at large distances from the shell. For the isotropic case and in the region inside the shell the both pure string and shell-induced parts in the Casimir-Polder force are repulsive with respect to the string. In the exterior region the shell-induced part of the force is directed toward the cylinder whereas the pure string part remains repulsive with respect to the string. At large distances from the shell the total force is repulsive.
Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko, E-mail: matsui.yuka@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: horiguchi.kouichirou@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nitta.daisuke@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kuroyanagi.sachiko@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of physics and astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-11-01
Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.
Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko
2016-01-01
Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.
Varying dilaton as a tracer of classical string interactions
Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo
2017-09-01
We analyze tree-level string amplitudes in a linear dilaton background, motivated by its use as a gauge-invariant tracer of string interactions in scattering experiments and its genericity among simple perturbative string theory limits. A simple case is given by a lightlike dependence for the dilaton. The zero mode of the embedding coordinate in the direction of dilaton variation requires special care. Employing Gaussian wave packets and a well-defined modification of the dilaton profile far from the dominant interaction region, we obtain finite results which explicitly reproduce the interaction time scales expected from joining and splitting interactions involving oscillating strings in simple string scattering processes. There is an interesting interplay between the effects of the linear dilaton and the i ɛ prescription. In more general circumstances this provides a method for tracing the degree of nonlocality in string interactions, and it gives a basis for further studies of perturbative supercritical string theory at higher loop order.
Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities ... the creation of compact baryon-rich objects as well as alter the abundances of light ele- ments if they persist up to the time ... The trajectories of collisionless particles bend while passing by the string. They overlap in the ...
Galaxy Formation by Cosmic Strings and Cooling of Baryonic Matter
Mizuo, IZAWA; Humitaka, SATO; Department of Physics, University of Tokyo; Department of Physics, Kyoto University
1987-01-01
Cooling and contraction of baryonic matter are investigated ina galaxy formation scenario by string loops. It is found that ～3% of virialized baryonic matter has cooled down and contracted. This virialized object may have a disk-halo structure and be considered a galaxy.
Implications of cosmic string-induced density fluctuations at the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
such that they should survive until the stage of nucleosynthesis, affecting the calculations of abundances of light ... baryon inhomogeneities resulting from moving interfaces can be determined by calculating the evolution of .... string velocity is either much smaller, or extremely close to the speed of light. In the first situation ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)
2017-10-15
The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romans, L.J.
1987-01-01
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed. (orig.)
Note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romans, L.J.
1987-08-20
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed.
Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-08-20
We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands.
Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1989-01-01
In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)
Scattering and bound states for the Hulthen potential in a cosmic string background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, P. O. Box: 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2017-05-15
In this work we study the Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials in the spacetime generated by a cosmic string. Using an approximation for the centrifugal term, a solution for the radial differential equation is obtained. We consider the scattering states under the Hulthen potential and obtain the phase shifts. From the poles of the scattering S-matrix the states energies are determined as well. (orig.)
Energy-density spectrum of the vacuum around a cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarmiento, A.; Hacyan, S.
1988-01-01
The explicit form of the spectrum of the energy density of the vacuum surrounding a cosmic string as would be seen by an observer at rest is calculated. Spin-0, -half, or -1 massless fields are considered and it is found that the result is independent of the spin value. An interpretation which differs from the one usually found in the literature is also given
Pair creation of anti-de Sitter black holes on a cosmic string background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Oscar J.C.
2004-01-01
We analyze the quantum process in which a cosmic string breaks in an anti-de Sitter (AdS) background, and a pair of charged or neutral black holes is produced at the ends of the strings. The energy to materialize and accelerate the pair comes from the string tension. In an AdS background this is the only study done on the process of production of a pair of correlated black holes with spherical topology. The acceleration A of the produced black holes is necessarily greater than √(|Λ|/3), where Λ A bh /4 , where A bh is the black hole horizon area. We also conclude that the general behavior of the pair creation rate with the mass and acceleration of the black holes is similar in the AdS, flat and de Sitter cases, and our AdS results reduce to the ones of the flat case when Λ→0
Fermionic vacuum polarization by a cylindrical boundary in the cosmic string spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bezerra, V. B.; Saharian, A. A.; Tarloyan, A. S.
2008-01-01
The vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor and the fermionic condensate are analyzed for a massive spinor field obeying the MIT bag boundary condition on a cylindrical shell in the cosmic string spacetime. Both regions inside and outside the shell are considered. By applying to the corresponding mode sums a variant of the generalized Abel-Plana formula, we explicitly extract the parts in the expectation values corresponding to the cosmic string geometry without boundaries. In this way the renormalization procedure is reduced to that for the boundary-free cosmic string spacetime. The parts induced by the cylindrical shell are presented in terms of integrals rapidly convergent for points away from the boundary. The behavior of the vacuum densities is investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. In the limit of large values of the planar angle deficit, the boundary-induced expectation values are exponentially suppressed. As a special case, we discuss the fermionic vacuum densities for the cylindrical shell on the background of the Minkowski spacetime.
A model of interacting strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-03-01
In this letter we introduce a model of interacting string in which the usual ideal gas approximations are not made. The model is constructed in analogy with nucleation models, the formation of droplets in a supersaturate gas. We consider the strings to be interacting and their number not fixed. The equilibrium configuration is the one for which the time derivatives of the number of strings in the various energies vanishes. We evaluate numerically the equilibrium configurations for various values of the energy density. We find that a density of order one in planck units there is a sharp transition, from a 'gas' phase in which there are many strings, all in the massless or first few excited states, to a 'liquid' phase in which all strings have coalesced into one (or few) highly excited string. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
Improving the Performance of Interactive Configuration with Regular String Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
A generalization of the problem of interactive configuration has previously been presented in [1]. This generalization utilized decomposition to extend the standard finite domain interactive configuration framework to deal with unbounded string variables and provided features such as prefix auto...
Cosmic strings and the origin of structure in the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eardley, D.M.
1987-01-01
The observed universe is homogeneous and isotropic on the largest observable scales. The best evidence for this comes from observations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR). On smaller scales, a striking amount of structure can be seen - galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the large scale structure in the form of possible filaments, bubbles, sheets or voids. The best proximate explanation for this structure is small amplitude perturbations in the early universe, which grew by gravitational instability into the observed large scale structure during the expansion of the universe. At some time in the future when we have a complete theory of the universe and its initial conditions - see James Hartle's lectures in this volume for some promising ideas toward such a theory - both the overall homogeneity and the structure should be a calculable consequence of the theory. Until then, people have made partial progress toward understanding the genesis of structure on a homogeneous background, based on the laws of fundamental physics as currently known. At this time we have at least two possible fundamental mechanisms for generation of the conjectural initial perturbations, namely quantum fluctuations, or thermodynamic fluctuations of a particular sort. The authors purpose in these lectures is to review and outline the basic physical nature of these two mechanisms, leaving out the details. Both mechanisms are well reviewed in the literature, and the reader will be referred both to more comprehensive reviews and to the primary literature throughout these lectures. 35 references, 2 tables
Proliferation of sharp kinks on cosmic (super)string loops with junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.
2010-01-01
Motivated by their effect on the gravitational wave signal emitted by cosmic strings, we study the dynamics of kinks on strings of different tensions meeting at junctions. The propagation of a kink through a Y junction leads to the formation of three 'daughter' kinks. Assuming a uniform distribution of the incoming wave vectors at the junction, we find there is a significant region of configuration space in which the sharpness of at least one of the daughter kinks is enhanced relative to the sharpness of the initial kink. For closed loops with junctions we show this leads to an exponential growth in time of very sharp kinks. Using numerical simulations of realistic, evolving cosmic string loops with junctions to calculate the distribution of kink amplitudes as a function of time, we show that loops of this kind typically develop several orders of magnitude of very sharp kinks before the two junctions collide. This collision, or other effects such as gravitational backreaction, may end the proliferation.
Non-thermal production of neutralino cold dark matter from cosmic string decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeannerot, R.; Zhang, X.; Brandenberger, R.
1998-12-01
We propose a mechanism of nonthermal production of a neutralino cold dark matter particle, χ, from the decay of cosmic strings which form from the spontaneous breaking of a U(1) gauge symmetry, such as U B-L (1), in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). By explicit calculation, we point out that with a symmetry breaking scale η of around 10 8 GeV, the decay of cosmic strings can give rise to Ω χ ≅ 1. This gives a new constraint on supersymmetric models. For example, the dark matter produced from strings will over close the universe if η is near the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. To be consistent with Ω χ ≤ 1, the mass of the new U(1) gauge boson must be much larger than the Fermi scale which makes it unobservable in upcoming accelerator experiments. In a supersymmetric model with an extra U B-L (1) symmetry, the requirement of Ω χ ≤ 1 puts an upper bound on the neutrino mass of about 30eV provided neutrino masses are generated by the see-saw mechanisms. (author)
Is string interaction the origin of quantum mechanics?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bars, Itzhak, E-mail: bars@usc.edu; Rychkov, Dmitry
2014-12-12
String theory was developed by demanding consistency with quantum mechanics. In this paper we wish to reverse the reasoning. We pretend that open string field theory is a fully consistent definition of the theory – it is at least a self-consistent sector. Then we find in its structure that the rules of quantum mechanics emerge from the non-commutative nature of the basic string joining/splitting interactions. Thus, rather than assuming the quantum commutation rules among the usual canonical variables we derive them from the physical process of string interactions. Morally we could apply such an argument to M-theory to cover quantum mechanics for all physics. If string or M-theory really underlies all physics, it seems that the door has been opened to an explanation of the origins of quantum mechanics from the physical processes point of view.
Fractal geometry of cosmic strings and correlations among galaxies and Abell clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pagels, H.R.
1987-01-01
In the context of the cosmic-string picture of galaxy and cluster formation we develop a model for the loop correlation function. Assuming that parent loops have dimension 1 and that the production of child loops cut off from the parent with a peculiar velocity v is described by a Brownian random walk we estimate for the fractal dimension of the correlations D = 1+3.28v 2 . For v≅0.24 this gives the observed fractal D≅1.2
Scalar bosons under the influence of noninertial effects in the cosmic string spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, L.C.N.; Barros, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Dept. de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2017-03-15
In this paper we present two different classes of solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation in the presence of a scalar potential under the influence of noninertial effects in the cosmic string spacetime. We show that noninertial effects restrict the physical region of the spacetime where the particle can be placed, and furthermore that the energy levels are shifted by these effects. In addition, we show that the presence of a Coulomb-like scalar potential allows the formation of bound states when the Klein-Gordon equation is considered in this kind of spacetime. (orig.)
Inflation and cosmic strings: Two mechanisms for producing structure in the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, R.
1987-01-01
Contents: Introduction; Big Bang Cosmology and its Problems; The Old and the New Inflationary Universe; The Onset of Inflation; Chaotic Inflation; The Origin of Small Scale Structure in Inflationary Universe Models: Generation of Perturbations; Gauge Invariant Analysis of Classical Perturbations; Evolution of Perturbations in Inflationary Universe Models; Cosmological Constrains on Inflationary Universe Models; Beyond the Simplest Models of Inflation; Generalized Inflation (Kaluza-Klein Inflation, Inflation in Induced Gravity Models and in Superstring Theories); Quantum Cosmology and Inflation; Inflation and Cosmic Strings: A Comparison between Two Mechanisms for Forming Structures in the Early Universe
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
Sitenko, Yu. A.; Vlasii, N. D.
2011-01-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional space-time. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decr...
Bursts of gravitational radiation from superconducting cosmic strings and the neutrino mass spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.
2001-02-01
Berezinsky, Hnatyk and Vilenkin showed that superconducting cosmic strings could be central engines for cosmological gamma-ray bursts and for producing the neutrino component of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A consequence of this mechanism would be that a detectable cusp-triggered gravitational wave burst should be release simultaneously with the γ-ray surge. If contemporary measurements of both γ and ν radiation could be made for any particular source, then the cosmological time-delay between them might be useful for putting unprecedently tight bounds on the neutrino mass spectrum. Such measurements could consistently verify or rule out the model since strictly correlated behaviour is expected for the duration of the event and for the time variability of the spectra. (author)
Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burlaga, L.F.; Goldstein, M.L.; Mcdonald, F.B.
1985-01-01
Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, L.C.N.; Barros, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Dept. de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2018-01-15
We study solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation with vector and scalar potentials of the Coulomb types under the influence of noninertial effects in the cosmic string spacetime. We also investigate a quantum particle described by the Klein-Gordon oscillator in the background spacetime generated by a cosmic string. An important result obtained is that the noninertial effects restrict the physical region of the spacetime where the particle can be placed. In addition, we show that these potentials can form bound states for the Klein-Gordon equation in this kind of background. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)
2016-09-15
From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.
Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Vijendra, E-mail: vsmedphysics@gmail.com; Swami, O. P., E-mail: omg1789@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001 (India); Taneja, S., E-mail: sachintaneja9@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, CHAF Bangalore, Karnataka 560007 (India)
2016-05-06
In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.
A covariant open bosonic string field theory including the endpoint and middlepoint interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, B.G.; Northwest Univ., Xian; Chen, Y.X.
1988-01-01
Extending the usual endpoint and midpoint interactions, we introduce numerous kinds of interactions, labelled by a parameter λ and obtain a non-commutative and associative string field algebra by adding up all interactions. With this algebra we develop a covariant open bosonic string field theory, which reduces to Witten's open bosonic string field theory under a special string length choice. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinelly, J.; Mello, E.R. Bezerra de
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate the vacuum polarization effects associated with quantum fermionic charged fields in a generalized (d+1)-dimensional cosmic string space-times considering the presence of a magnetic flux along the string. In order to develop this analysis we calculate a general expression for the respective Green function, valid for several different values of d, which is expressed in terms of a bispinor associated with the square of the Dirac operator. Adopting this result, we explicitly calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensors, (T A B ) Ren. , associated with massless fields. Moreover, for specific values of the parameters which codify the cosmic string and the fractional part of the ratio of the magnetic flux by the quantum one, we were able to present in closed forms the bispinor and the respective Green function for massive fields.
Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.
2011-01-01
This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth's surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.
Experimental investigation of the piano hammer-string interaction.
Birkett, Stephen
2013-04-01
Experimental techniques for investigating the piano hammer-string interaction are described. It is argued that the accuracy, consistency, and scope of conclusions of previous studies can be compromised by limitations of the conventional methods relating to key inputs; physical distortion; numerical distortion, particularly when differentiation or integration of measured signals is used to derive primary response variables; contact identification; and synchronization issues. These problems are discussed, and experimental methods that have been devised to avoid them are described and illustrated by detailed results from a study of the hammer-string interaction in a vertical piano. High resolution displacements are obtained directly by non-contact high-speed imaging and quantitative motion tracking. The attention focused on achieving very accurate and consistent temporal and spatial alignment, including the objective procedure used for contact identification, allows meaningful comparisons of responses from separate tests. String motion at the strike point and on each side of it, as well as hammer motion, is obtained for eight dynamic levels from 1.06 to 2.98 m/s impact velocity. Detailed observations of the force-compression behavior of the hammer interacting with real strings are presented. The direct effects of hammer shank deflection and agraffe string pulses on the interaction are also highlighted.
Circular orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime with Fermi-Walker transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.; Carvalho, A.M. de
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss the Fermi-Walker transport of vectors along orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes. We analyze the influence of acceleration on these holonomies. An effect similar to Thomas precession is observed within the process of Fermi-Walker transport along these circular orbits which are studied in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant in Schwarzschild-AdS case; also we obtain Fermi-Walker transport in a Schwarzschild background. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime, we analyze the quantized band holonomy invariance. In the limit of zero acceleration we recover the well-known results for holonomy matrix obtained by parallel transport in all these spacetimes. (orig.)
Wave propagation in metamaterials mimicking the topology of a cosmic string
Fernández-Núñez, Isabel; Bulashenko, Oleg
2018-04-01
We study the interference and diffraction of light when it propagates through a metamaterial medium mimicking the spacetime of a cosmic string—a topological defect with curvature singularity. The phenomenon may look like a gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, since the light propagates in a region where the Riemann tensor vanishes, being nonetheless affected by the non-zero curvature confined to the string core. We carry out the full-wave numerical simulation of the metamaterial medium and give the analytical interpretation of the results by use of the asymptotic theory of diffraction, which turns out to be in excellent agreement. In particular, we show that the main features of wave propagation in a medium with conical singularity can be explained by four-wave interference involving two geometrical optics and two diffracted waves.
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, Yu A; Vlasii, N D
2012-01-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed. (paper)
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
Sitenko, Yu A.; Vlasii, N. D.
2012-05-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed.
Dark matter cosmic string in the gravitational field of a black hole
Nakonieczny, Łukasz; Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek
2018-03-01
We examined analytically and proposed a numerical model of an Abelian Higgs dark matter vortex in the spacetime of a stationary axisymmetric Kerr black hole. In analytical calculations the dark matter sector was modeled by an addition of a U(1)-gauge field coupled to the visible sector. The backreaction analysis revealed that the impact of the dark vortex presence is far more complicated than causing only a deficit angle. The vortex causes an ergosphere shift and the event horizon velocity is also influenced by its presence. These phenomena are more significant than in the case of a visible vortex sector. The area of the event horizon of a black hole is diminished and this decline is larger in comparison to the Kerr black hole with an Abelian Higgs vortex case. After analyzing the gravitational properties for the general setup, we focused on the subset of models that are motivated by particle physics. We retained the Abelian Higgs model as a description of the dark matter sector (this sector contained a heavy dark photon and an additional complex scalar) and added a real scalar representing the real component of the Higgs doublet in the unitary gauge, as well as an additional U(1)-gauge field representing an ordinary electromagnetic field. Moreover, we considered two coupling channels between the visible and dark sectors, which were the kinetic mixing between the gauge fields and a quartic coupling between the scalar fields. After solving the equations of motion for the matter fields numerically we analyzed properties of the cosmic string in the dark matter sector and its influence on the visible sector fields that are directly coupled to it. We found out that the presence of the cosmic string induced spatial variation in the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field and a nonzero electromagnetic field around the black hole.
Interactions for winding strings in Misner space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hikida, Y.
2006-06-01
We compute correlation functions of closed strings in Misner space, a big crunch big bang universe. We develop a general method for correlators with twist fields, which are relevant for the investigation on the condensation of winding tachyon. We propose to compute the correlation functions by performing an analytic continuation of the results in C/Z N Euclidean orbifold. In particular, we obtain a finite result for a general four point function of twist fields, which might be important for the interpretation as the quartic term of the tachyon potential. Three point functions are read off through the factorization, which are consistent with the known results. (Orig.)
Relativistic strings and dual models of strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinov, M.S.
1977-01-01
The theory of strong interactions,based on the model depicting a hardon as a one-dimentional elastic relativistic system(''string'') is considered. The relationship between this model and the concepts of quarks and partons is discussed. Presented are the principal results relating to the Veneziano dual theory, which may be considered as the consequence of the string model, and to its modifications. The classical string theory is described in detail. Attention is focused on questions of importance to the construction of the quantum theory - the Hamilton mechanisms and conformal symmetry. Quantization is described, and it is shown that it is not contradictory only in the 26-dimentional space and with a special requirement imposed on the spectrum of states. The theory of a string with a distributed spin is considered. The spin is introduced with the aid of the Grassman algebra formalism. In this case quantization is possible only in the 10-dimentional space. The strings interact by their ruptures and gluings. A method for calculating the interaction amplitudes is indicated
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2010-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
Wang, Zhi; Long, Zheng-wen; Long, Chao-yun; Teng, Jing
2015-05-01
We study the Schrödinger equation with a Coulomb ring-shaped potential in the spacetime of a cosmic string, and the solutions of the system are obtained by using the generalized parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. They show that the quantum dynamics of a physical system depend on the non-trivial topological features of the cosmic string spacetime and the energy levels of the considered quantum system depend explicitly on the angular deficit α which characterizes the global structure of the metric in the cosmic string spacetime.
Compactification of Superstrings and Chain or Oriented Strings in Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales, Robert O.
2000-04-10
Superstring theories command the study of their various possible compactifications, and their consequence physics. Thus, the role of topology is likely to be far more central, in particular in ten-dimensional physics. Topological invariants on a chain of oriented strings in interaction are discussed. Attempts to link superstrings with the reality of the physical world in four dimensions are discussed.
Cosmological solutions in string theory with dilaton self interaction potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mora, C.; Pimentel, L.O.
2003-01-01
In this work we present homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solutions for the low energy limit of string theory with a self interacting potential for the scalar field. For a potential that is a linear combination of two exponential, a family of exact solutions are found for the different spatial curvatures. Among this family a non singular accelerating solution for positive curvature is singled out and the violation of the energy conditions for that solution is studied, and also its astrophysical consequences. The string coupling for this solution is finite. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.
2010-01-01
We study geometric quantum phases in the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with two distinct field configurations in a cosmic string spacetime. We consider the local reference frames of the observers are transported via Fermi-Walker transport and study the influence of the non-inertial effects on the phase shift of the wave function of the neutral particle due to the choice of this local frame. We show that the wave function of the neutral particle acquires non-dispersive relativistic and non-relativistic quantum geometric phases due to the topology of the spacetime, the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment with external fields and the spin-rotation coupling. However, due to the Fermi-Walker reference frame, no phase shift associated to the Sagnac effect appears in the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle. We show that in the absence of topological defect, the contribution to the quantum phase due to the spin-rotation coupling is equivalent to the Mashhoon effect in non-relativistic dynamics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henrot-Versillé, Sophie; Robinet, Florent; Leroy, Nicolas; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Arnaud, Nicolas; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Cavalier, Fabien; Christensen, Nelson; Couchot, François; Franco, Samuel; Hello, Patrice; Huet, Dominique; Kasprzack, Marie; Perdereau, Olivier; Spinelli, Marta; Tristram, Matthieu
2015-01-01
The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density Ω GW for frequencies above 10 −15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that Ω GW h 0 2 <3.8×10 −6 at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ∼4 × 10 −9 are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10 −3 . (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2015-11-15
Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.
The interacting-string picture and functional integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-01-01
The transformation law for the z's is not required in the calculation of the loop amplitudes. If an intermediate string becomes infinitely short, the two invariant points associated with its projective transformation will approach one another; w will approach zero if time difference between the interactions producing the string remains finite, but, if the time difference becomes of the order of the string length, w will remain finite. In the latter case as one of the fundamental generators T/sub r/, the product of the projective transformation associated with the shrinking string and another projective transformation. The w-parameter associated with the new T/sub r/ then approaches zero. In all cases one of the w-parameters approaches zero. By making a modular transformation if necessary, the w-parameter's associated with one of the generators. Hence there exists a fundamental region whose only singular points are those where the w's associated with the fundamental T/sub r/'s become small
Interacting-string picture of dual-resonance models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1985-01-01
Dual-resonance models are an alyzed by means of operators which act within the physical Hilbert space of positive-metric states. The basis of the method is to extend the relativistic-string picture of a previous study to interacting particles. Functional methods are used, but their relation to the operator is evident, and factorization is maintained. An expression is given for the N-point amplitude in terms of physical-particle operators. For the three-point function the Neumann functions which occur in this expression are evaluated, so that we have a formula for the on- and off-energy-shell vertex. The authors assume that the string has no longitudinal degrees of freedom, and their results are Lorentz invariant and dual only if d=26
Off-Shell Interactions of Closed-String Tachyons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabholkar, A
2004-04-07
Off-shell interactions for localized closed-string tachyons in C/Z{sub N} superstring backgrounds are analyzed and a conjecture for the effective height of the tachyon potential is elaborated. At large N, some of the relevant tachyons are nearly massless and their interactions can be deduced from the S-matrix. The cubic interactions between these tachyons and the massless fields are computed in a closed form using orbifold CFT techniques. The cubic interaction between nearly-massless tachyons with different charges is shown to vanish and thus condensation of one tachyon does not source the others. It is shown that to leading order in N, the quartic contact interaction vanishes and the massless exchanges completely account for the four point scattering amplitude. This indicates that it is necessary to go beyond quartic interactions or to include other fields to test the conjecture for the height of the tachyon potential.
Bianchi Type-V Bulk Viscous Cosmic String in f(R,T Gravity with Time Varying Deceleration Parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bïnaya K. Bishi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the Bianchi type-V string cosmological model with bulk viscosity in f(R,T theory of gravity by considering a special form and linearly varying deceleration parameter. This is an extension of the earlier work of Naidu et al., 2013, where they have constructed the model by considering a constant deceleration parameter. Here we find that the cosmic strings do not survive in both models. In addition we study some physical and kinematical properties of both models. We observe that in one of our models these properties are identical to the model obtained by Naidu et al., 2013, and in the other model the behavior of these parameters is different.
Syzygies among elementary string interactions in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott Carter, J.; Saito, M.
1991-01-01
The elementary string interactions are the Reidemeister moves, birth/death, and fusion/fission. Such interactions have as their trace generically mapped surfaces, and these combine to form knotted surfaces in 4-space. The syzygies among these interactions are moves to such surfaces analogous to the Reidemeister moves for knots. 'Movie' parametrizations of these syzygies are given and interpreted in dimension 2+2. A Morse theoretic argument shows there are 15 such movie moves. These moves, with appropriate choices of crossing information, are sufficient to construct any isotropy of an embedded surface on which a height function has been specified. The first seven of the movie moves are parametrized versions of those given by Roseman. The remaining eight are moves of Δ-type. Amplitudes assigned to these interactions must satisfy relations that correspond to the movie moves. One such relation is a Zamolodchikov tetrahedral equation. We present some puzzles about the matrix formulations of these amplitudes. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, Won Sang [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Physics and Research Institute of Natural Science, College of Natural Science, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)
2018-02-15
In this article, we determine the thermodynamical properties of the anharmonic canonical ensemble within the cosmic-string framework. We use the ordinary statistics and the q-deformed superstatistics for this study. The q-deformed superstatistics is derived by modifying the probability density in the original superstatistics. The Schroedinger equation is rewritten in the cosmic-string framework. Next, the anharmonic oscillator is investigated in detail. The wave function and the energy spectrum of the considered system are derived using the bi-confluent Heun functions. In the next step, we first determine the thermodynamical properties for the canonical ensemble of the anharmonic oscillator in the cosmic-string framework using the ordinary statistics approach. Also, these quantities have been obtained in the q-deformed superstatistics. For vanishing deformation parameter, the ordinary results are obtained. (orig.)
Cosmic string solution in a Born-Infeld type theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocha, W.J. da; Guimaraes, M.E.X.
2009-01-01
Full text. Advances in the formal structure of string theory point to the emergence, and necessity, of a scalar-tensorial theory of gravity. It seems that, at least at high energy scales, the Einstein's theory is not enough to explain the gravitational phenomena. In other words, the existence of a scalar (gravitational) field acting as a mediator of the gravitational interaction together with the usual purely rank-2 tensorial field is, indeed, a natural prediction of unification models as supergravity, superstrings and M-theory. This type of modified gravitation was first introduced in a different context in the 60's in order to incorporate the Mach's principle into relativity, but nowadays it acquired different sense in cosmology and gravity theories. Although such unification theories are the most acceptable, they all exist in higher dimensional spaces. The compactification from these higher dimensions to the 4-dimensional physics is not unique and there exist many effective theories of gravity which come from the unification process. Each of them must, of course, satisfy some predictions. Here, in this paper, we will deal with one of them. The so-called NDL theory. One important assumption in General Relativity is that all field interact in the same way with gravity. This is the so called Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). It is well known, with good accuracy, that this is true when we concern with matter to matter interaction, i.e, the Weak Equivalence Principle(WEP) is tested. But, until now, there is no direct observational confirmation of this affirmation to the gravity to gravity interaction. In an extension of the field theoretical description of General Relativity constructed by is used to propose an alternative field theory of gravity. In this theory gravitons propagate in a different spacetime. The velocity of propagation of the gravitational waves in this theory does not coincide with the General Relativity predictions. (author)
Interactions, strings and isotopies in higher order anisotropic superspaces
Vacaru, Sergiu Ion
2001-01-01
The monograph summarizes the author's results on the geometry of anholonomic and locally anisotropic interactions, published in J. Math. Phys., Nucl. Phys. B, Ann. Phys. (NY), JHEP, Rep. Math. Phys., Int. J. Theor. Phys. and in some former Soviet Union and Romanian scientific journals. The main subjects are in the theory of field interactions, strings and diffusion processes on spaces, superspaces and isospaces with higher order anisotropy and inhomogeneity. The approach proceeds by developing the concept of higher order anisotropic (super)space which unifies the logical and manthematical aspects of modern Kaluza--Klein theories and generalized Lagrange and Finsler geometry and leads to modeling of physical processes on higher order fiber (super)bundles provided with nonlinear and distinguished connections and metric structures. This book can be also considered as a pedagogical survey on the mentioned subjects.
Interactions and scattering in d = 1 string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengupta, A.M.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses two results: the authors calculate the two-point function of the density fluctuations to o(g st 2 ) in the fermionic formulation of the d = 1 string theory and compare with the o(g st 2 ) result from the candidate collective field Hamiltonian. The latter result is divergent, showing the inequivalence of the two theories. The authors find out the corrections to the collective field Hamiltonian (both in the form of infinite counterterms and additional finite pieces) needed to match with the fermion theory. The authors study tree-level scattering processes between bosons due to the localized interaction near the boundary (in a region of order √ α'). The reflection problem at the boundary is treated by an analytic continuation of the time-of-flight variable
Stiff self-interacting strings at high temperature QCD
S Bakry, A.; Chen, X.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Galal, A.; Khalaf, A.; M Pengming, P.
2018-03-01
We investigate the implications of Nambu-Goto (NG), Lüscher Weisz (LW) and Polyakov-Kleinert (PK) effective string actions for the Casimir energy and the width of the quantum delocalization of the string in 4-dim pure SU(3) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory. At a temperature closer to the critical point T/Tc=0.9, we found that the next to leading-order (NLO) contributions from the expansion of the NG string in addition to the boundary terms in LW action to decrease the deviations from the lattice data in the intermediate distance scales for both the quark-antiquark QQ̅ potential and broadening of the color tube compared to the free string approximation. We conjecture possible stiffness of the QCD string through studying the effects of extrinsic curvature term in PK action and find a good fitting behavior for the lattice Monte-Carlo data at both long and intermediate quark separations regions.
Simulation of cosmic ray interaction at Saturne
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michel, R.
1996-01-01
Accelerator experiments provide the basis for the development of physical models describing the production of cosmogenic nuclides by cosmic ray particles. Here, experiments are presented by which the irradiation of stony and iron meteoroids in space by galactic cosmic ray protons was successfully simulated; two thick spherical targets made of gabbro and of steel with radii of 25 and 10 cm, respectively, were isotropically irradiated with 1.6 GeV protons at LNS. The artificial meteoroids contained large numbers of individual small targets of up to 27 elements in which the depth-dependent production of radioactive and stable nuclides was analyzed by model calculations based on depth-dependent spectra of primary and secondary particles calculated by the HERMES code system and on experimental and theoretical thin-target cross sections. Due to the results of the two simulation experiments at LNS a consistent modelling of cosmogenic nuclide production rates in stony and iron meteorites was achieved for the first time which allows to interpret the observed abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in stony and iron meteorites with respect to their exposure histories and to describe the history of the cosmic radiation itself. (author)
QED as the tensionless limit of the spinning string with contact interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, James P., E-mail: J.P.Edwards@durham.ac.uk; Mansfield, Paul, E-mail: P.R.W.Mansfield@durham.ac.uk
2015-06-30
QED with spinor matter is argued to correspond to the tensionless limit of spinning strings with contact interactions. The strings represent electric lines of force with charges at their ends. The interaction is constructed from a delta-function on the world-sheet which, although off-shell, decouples from the world-sheet metric. Integrating out the string degrees of freedom with fixed boundary generates the super-Wilson loop that couples spinor matter to electromagnetism in the world-line formalism. World-sheet and world-line, but not spacetime, supersymmetry underpin the model.
String interactions in a plane-fronted parallel-wave spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopakumar, Rajesh
2002-01-01
We argue that string interactions in a plane-fronted parallel-wave spacetime are governed by an effective coupling g eff =g s (μp + α ' )f(μp + α ' ) where f(μp + α ' ) is proportional to the light-cone energy of the string states involved in the interaction. This simply follows from generalities of a matrix string description of this background. g eff nicely interpolates between the expected result (g s ) for flat space (small μp + α ' ) and a recently conjectured expression from the perturbative gauge theory side (large μp + α ' )
Evolution of Bianchi I magnetized cosmic strings in Brans–Dicke gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharif, M; Waheed, Saira
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi I universe filled with magnetized viscous string fluid in Brans–Dicke gravity. For the exact solutions, we use the law of variation of the Hubble parameter that leads to volumetric expansion laws and assume power law ansatz for the scalar field. We discuss the nature of the resulting models through different parameters and their graphs. It is concluded that the constructed universe models yield an accelerated expanding behavior with an isotropic nature for the final stages of the universe evolution, which is consistent with recent observations. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chiamin; McDonald, John
2006-01-01
Supergravity corrections due to the energy density of a right-handed sneutrino can generate a negative mass squared for the inflaton, flattening the inflaton potential and reducing the spectral index and inflaton energy density. For the case of D-term hybrid inflation, we show that the spectral index can be lowered from the conventional value n=0.98 to a value within the range favored by the latest WMAP analysis, n=0.951 -0.019 +0.015 . The modified energy density is consistent with nonobservation of cosmic strings in the CMB if n<0.946. The WMAP lower bound on the spectral index implies that the D-term cosmic string contribution may be very close present CMB limits, contributing at least 5% to the CMB multipoles
Stiff self-interacting strings at high temperature QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Bakry A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the implications of Nambu-Goto (NG, Lüscher Weisz (LW and Polyakov-Kleinert (PK effective string actions for the Casimir energy and the width of the quantum delocalization of the string in 4-dim pure SU(3 Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory. At a temperature closer to the critical point T/Tc=0.9, we found that the next to leading-order (NLO contributions from the expansion of the NG string in addition to the boundary terms in LW action to decrease the deviations from the lattice data in the intermediate distance scales for both the quark-antiquark QQ̅ potential and broadening of the color tube compared to the free string approximation. We conjecture possible stiffness of the QCD string through studying the effects of extrinsic curvature term in PK action and find a good fitting behavior for the lattice Monte-Carlo data at both long and intermediate quark separations regions.
Interaction of clouds with the hot interstellar medium (HIM) and cosmic rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voelk, H.J.
1983-01-01
The modification, by cosmic rays, of the interaction of interstellar clouds with the ambient HIM is considered. Small clouds should still evaporate and thereby exclude cosmic rays if they do so without cosmic rays. The possible mass accretion of massice clouds is reduced by the pressure of the compressed cosmic rays. The consequences for diffuse galactic #betta#-ray emisison are discussed. (orig.)
Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kampert Karl-Heinz
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.
Inácio, O.; Antunes, J.; Wright, M. C. M.
2008-02-01
Most theoretical studies of bowed-string instruments deal with isolated strings, pinned on fixed supports. In others, the instrument body dynamics have been accounted by using extremely simplified models of the string-body interaction through the instrument bridge. Such models have, nevertheless, been instrumental to the understanding of a very common and musically undesirable phenomenon known as the wolf note—a strong beating interplay between string and body vibrations. Cellos, bad and good, are particularly prone to this problem. In previous work, a computational method that allows efficient time-domain modelling of bowed strings based on a modal approach has been introduced. This has been extended to incorporate the complex dynamics of real-life instrument bodies, and their coupling to the string motions, using experimental dynamical body data. The string is modelled using its unconstrained modes, assuming pinned-pinned boundary conditions at the tailpiece and the nut. At the intermediary bridge location, the string-body coupling is enforced using the body impulse-response or modal data, as measured at the instrument bridge. In the present paper, this computational approach is applied to a specific cello, which provided experimental wolf-behaviour data under several bowing conditions, as well as laboratory measurements of the bridge impulse responses on which the numerical simulations were based. Interesting aspects of the string-body dynamical responses are highlighted by numerical simulations and the corresponding sounds and animations produced. Finally, a qualitative (and, when possible, quantitative) comparison of the experimental and numerical results is presented.
Dark degeneracy and interacting cosmic components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.
2011-01-01
We study some properties of the dark degeneracy, which is the fact that what we measure in gravitational experiments is the energy-momentum tensor of the total dark sector, and any split into components (as in dark matter and dark energy) is arbitrary. In fact, just one dark fluid is necessary to obtain exactly the same cosmological and astrophysical phenomenology as the ΛCDM model. We work explicitly the first-order perturbation theory and show that beyond the linear order the dark degeneracy is preserved under some general assumptions. Then we construct the dark fluid from a collection of interacting fluids. Finally, we try to break the degeneracy with a general class of couplings to baryonic matter. Nonetheless, we show that these interactions can also be understood in the context of the ΛCDM model as between dark matter and baryons. For this last investigation we choose two independent parametrizations for the interactions, one inspired by electromagnetism and the other by chameleon theories. Then, we constrain them with a joint analysis of CMB and supernovae observational data.
STRING 8--a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lars Juhl; Kuhn, Michael; Stark, Manuel
2008-01-01
Functional partnerships between proteins are at the core of complex cellular phenotypes, and the networks formed by interacting proteins provide researchers with crucial scaffolds for modeling, data reduction and annotation. STRING is a database and web resource dedicated to protein-protein inter......Functional partnerships between proteins are at the core of complex cellular phenotypes, and the networks formed by interacting proteins provide researchers with crucial scaffolds for modeling, data reduction and annotation. STRING is a database and web resource dedicated to protein......-protein interactions, including both physical and functional interactions. It weights and integrates information from numerous sources, including experimental repositories, computational prediction methods and public text collections, thus acting as a meta-database that maps all interaction evidence onto a common set...... of genomes and proteins. The most important new developments in STRING 8 over previous releases include a URL-based programming interface, which can be used to query STRING from other resources, improved interaction prediction via genomic neighborhood in prokaryotes, and the inclusion of protein structures...
Gauge invariance over a group as the first principle of interacting string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.
1986-01-01
It is stressed that the basic principle of the standard gauge theories is the invariance under internal symmetry transformations that do not commute with translations. This concept is generalized to the case where the translation group is replaced by an arbitrarily given non-abelian group G. The generalized Yang-Mills theory, called gauge theory over G, is an attractive extension of the standard formalism. The gauge theory over the conformal group is proposed as the fundamental theory of bosonic strings. As is usual in gauge theories, the interaction is uniquely specific by the invariance properties. For strings, overlap conditions between string positions come out in a natural way. The powerful machinery of Yang-Mills theories is fully applicable to the gauge theories over groups. In particular, an example of the Higgs-Kibble mechanism is given. (orig.)
Examination of radioargon production by cosmic neutron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Christine; Armstrong, Hirotatsu; Wilson, William H.; Biegalski, Steven R.
2015-01-01
Radioargon isotopes, particularly 37 Ar, are currently being considered for use as an On-Site Inspection (OSI) relevant radionuclide within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order to understand any soil air measurements taken during an OSI, the radioargon background due to cosmic ray induced activation along with other sources must be understood. An MCNP6 model was developed using the cosmic ray source feature within the code to examine the neutron flux at ground level as a function of various conditions: date during the solar magnetic activity cycle, latitude of sampling location, geology of the sampling location, and sampling depth. Once the cosmic neutron flux was obtained, calculations were performed to determine the rate of radioargon production for the main interactions. Radioargon production was shown to be highly dependent on the soil composition, and a range of 37 Ar production values at 1 m depth was found with a maximum production rate of 4.012 atoms/sec/m 3 in carbonate geologies and a minimum production rate of 0.070 atoms/sec/m 3 in low calcium granite. The sampling location latitude was also shown to have a measurable effect on the radioargon production rate, where the production of 37 Ar in an average continental crust is shown to vary by a factor of two between the equator and the poles. The sampling date's position within the solar magnetic activity cycle was also shown to cause a smaller change, less than a factor of 1.2, in activation between solar maxima and solar minima. - Highlights: • Cosmic neutron flux modeled in various geologic materials using MCNP6. • Radioargon production rate calculated in various geologic materials. • Variations in production considered for latitude, date, material, and depth. • Geology and depth have greatest impact, some latitude effect, smaller date effect
Interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere: growth curves revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obermeier, A.; Boyle, P.; Müller, D. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hörandel, J., E-mail: a.obermeier@astro.ru.nl [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 6525-HP Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2013-12-01
Measurements of cosmic-ray abundances on balloons are affected by interactions in the residual atmosphere above the balloon. Corrections for such interactions are particularly important for observations of rare secondary particles such as boron, antiprotons, and positrons. These corrections either can be calculated if the relevant cross sections in the atmosphere are known or may be empirically determined by extrapolation of the 'growth curves', i.e., the individual particle intensities as functions of atmospheric depth. The growth-curve technique is particularly attractive for long-duration balloon flights where the periodic daily altitude variations permit rather precise determinations of the corresponding particle intensity variations. We determine growth curves for nuclei from boron (Z = 5) to iron (Z = 26) using data from the 2006 Arctic balloon flight of the TRACER detector for cosmic-ray nuclei, and we compare the growth curves with predictions from published cross section values. In general, good agreement is observed. We then study the boron/carbon abundance ratio and derive a simple and energy-independent correction term for this ratio. We emphasize that the growth-curve technique can be developed further to provide highly accurate tests of published interaction cross section values.
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, B.
1993-06-01
The author presents a global solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating cosmic string with a finite coreradius. The importance of pressure for the generation of closed timelike curves outside the coreregion of such strings is clearly displayed in this model due to the simplicity of the source. 10 refs
A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen Kristoffer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.
Feature-Based and String-Based Models for Predicting RNA-Protein Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald Adjeroh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study two approaches for the problem of RNA-Protein Interaction (RPI. In the first approach, we use a feature-based technique by combining extracted features from both sequences and secondary structures. The feature-based approach enhanced the prediction accuracy as it included much more available information about the RNA-protein pairs. In the second approach, we apply search algorithms and data structures to extract effective string patterns for prediction of RPI, using both sequence information (protein and RNA sequences, and structure information (protein and RNA secondary structures. This led to different string-based models for predicting interacting RNA-protein pairs. We show results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches, including comparative results against leading state-of-the-art methods.
Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2017-07-01
Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.
The interaction among dual strings as a manifestation of the gauge group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gliozzi, F.; Virasoro, M.A.
1980-01-01
We show that under reasonable assumptions we can establish an unambiguous one-to-one correspondence between the particular gauge group of a pure sourceless gauge theory and a dual model (more precisely the interacting part of the action of closed dual strings). The equations we find for the trace of any group element could also be used in other approaches to gauge theories. (orig.)
Lowe, D. A.; Thorlacius, L.
1994-01-01
Above the Hagedorn energy density closed fundamental strings form a long string phase. The dynamics of weakly interacting long strings is described by a simple Boltzmann equation which can be solved explicitly for equilibrium distributions. The average total number of long strings grows logarithmically with total energy in the microcanonical ensemble. This is consistent with calculations of the free single string density of states provided the thermodynamic limit is carefully defined. If the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1986-01-01
Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1985-01-01
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt
Viscous self interacting dark matter and cosmic acceleration
Atreya, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Arvind
2018-02-01
Self interacting dark matter (SIDM) provides us with a consistent solution to certain astrophysical observations in conflict with collision-less cold DM paradigm. In this work we estimate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) of SIDM, within kinetic theory formalism, for galactic and cluster size SIDM halos. To that extent we make use of the recent constraints on SIDM cross-section for the dwarf galaxies, LSB galaxies and clusters. We also estimate the change in solution of Einstein's equation due to these viscous effects and find that σ/m constraints on SIDM from astrophysical data provide us with sufficient viscosity to account for the observed cosmic acceleration at present epoch, without the need of any additional dark energy component. Using the estimates of dark matter density for galactic and cluster size halo we find that the mean free path of dark matter ~ few Mpc. Thus the smallest scale at which the viscous effect start playing the role is cluster scale. Astrophysical data for dwarf, LSB galaxies and clusters also seems to suggest the same. The entire analysis is independent of any specific particle physics motivated model for SIDM.
Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions
Klein, Spencer
2009-01-01
Cosmic-rays with energies up to $3\\times10^{20}$ eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is $\\sqrt{s_{nn}} = 700$ TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy ($>$ 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon de...
Signatures of cosmic-ray interactions on the solar surface
Seckel, D.; Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, T. K.
1991-01-01
The fluxes of neutrinos, gamma rays, antiprotons, neutrons, and antineutrons that result from collisions of high-energy Galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere are estimated. The results are sensitive to assumptions about cosmic-ray transport in the magnetic fields of the inner solar system. The high-energy photon flux should be observable by the Gamma Ray Observatory. The neutrino flux should produce less than one event per year in the next generation of neutrino telescopes. The antiproton flux is unobservable against the Galactic background. The neutron and antineutron fluxes are detectable only if neutrons produced in terrestrial cosmic-ray events may be discriminated against.
A proposal for an effective interacting field theory of open and closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Grossman, B.
1987-01-01
We propose the use of the reggeon-pomeron vertex to obtain an effective field theory for open and closed strings. We suggest that closed string fields are necessary in order to go off-shell in an open string field theory. We then find that the closed string fields satisfy the Virasoro constraints (including equal number of left and right movers) in an appropriate choice of gauge. (orig.)
String necklaces and primordial black holes from type IIB strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, Matthew; Thomas, Steve; Ward, John
2009-01-01
We consider a model of static cosmic string loops in type IIB string theory, where the strings wrap cycles within the internal space. The strings are not topologically stabilised, however the presence of a lifting potential traps the windings giving rise to kinky cycloops. We find that PBH formation occurs at early times in a small window, whilst at late times we observe the formation of dark matter relics in the scaling regime. This is in stark contrast to previous predictions based on field theoretic models. We also consider the PBH contribution to the mass density of the universe, and use the experimental data to impose bounds on the string theory parameters.
Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J
1987-12-24
We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.
Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer
2009-01-01
Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3 x 10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √s nn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.
Mandal, A. K.; Wahi, P.
2015-03-01
We study the vibration characteristics of a string with a smooth unilateral obstacle placed at one of the ends similar to the strings in musical instruments like sitar and veena. In particular, we explore the correlation between the string vibrations and some unique sound characteristics of these instruments like less inharmonicity in the frequencies, a large number of overtones and the presence of both frequency and amplitude modulations. At the obstacle, we have a moving boundary due to the wrapping of the string and an appropriate scaling of the spatial variable leads to a fixed boundary at the cost of introducing nonlinearity in the governing equation. Reduced order system of equations has been obtained by assuming a functional form for the string displacement which satisfies all the boundary conditions and gives the free length of the string in terms of the modal coordinates. To study the natural frequencies and mode-shapes, the nonlinear governing equation is linearized about the static configuration. The natural frequencies have been found to be harmonic and they depend on the shape of the obstacle through the effective free length of the string. Expressions have been obtained for the time-varying mode-shapes as well as the variation of the nodal points. Modal interactions due to coupling have been studied which show the appearance of higher overtones as well as amplitude modulations in our theoretical model akin to the experimental observations. All the obtained results have been verified with an alternate formulation based on the assumed mode method with polynomial shape functions.
Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer R.
2009-01-01
Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √(s nn )=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.
Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.
Dufaux, Jean-François
2012-07-06
Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments.
Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic strings arise during phase transitions after the big-bang explosion as the temperature goes down below some critical temperature [1–3]. These strings have stress energy and couple in a simple way to the gravitational field. The general relativistic formalism of cosmic strings is due to Letelier [4,5]. Stachel [6] has ...
Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reedy, R.C.
1988-01-01
A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.
Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reedy, R.C.
1988-01-01
A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs
Workshop on Hadron-Hadron & Cosmic-Ray Interactions at multi-TeV Energies
Alessandro, B; Bergman, D; Bongi, M; Bunyatyan, A; Cazon, L; d'Enterria, D; de Mitri, I; Doll, P; Engel, R; Eggert, K; Garzelli, M; Gerhardt, L; Gieseke, S; Godbole, R; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Gustafson, G; Hebbeker, T; Kheyn, L; Kiryluk, J; Lipari, P; Ostapchenko, S; Pierog, T; Piskounova, O; Ranft, J; Rezaeian, A; Rostovtsev, A; Sakurai, N; Sapeta, S; Schleich, S; Schulz, H; Sjostrand, T; Sonnenschein, L; Sutton, M; Ulrich, R; Werner, K; Zapp, K; CRLHC10; CRLHC 10
2011-01-01
The workshop on "Hadron-Hadron and Cosmic-Ray Interactions at multi-TeV Energies" held at the ECT* centre (Trento) in Nov.-Dec. 2010 gathered together both theorists and experimentalists to discuss issues of the physics of high-energy hadronic interactions of common interest for the particle, nuclear and cosmic-ray communities. QCD results from collider experiments -- mostly from the LHC but also from the Tevatron, RHIC and HERA -- were discussed and compared to various hadronic Monte Carlo generators, aiming at an improvement of our theoretical understanding of soft, semi-hard and hard parton dynamics. The latest cosmic-ray results from various ground-based observatories were also presented with an emphasis on the phenomenological modeling of the first hadronic interactions of the extended air-showers generated in the Earth atmosphere. These mini-proceedings consist of an introduction and short summaries of the talks presented at the meeting.
Gravitational effects of global strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.
1986-01-01
We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, P.G.O.
1988-01-01
According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muminov, A.T.
2004-01-01
Full text: As it shown in the work [1,2], interaction of electromagnetic wave with rotating cylindrical shell of conductor leads to an interesting phenomenon of energy transmission from rotating body to the wave. We study influence of the gravitational field of the string on the process of interaction of electromagnetic waves with infinitesimally thin conducting cylindrical shell. Since in the outer space and inside the shell electromagnetic field satisfies source free Maxwell equations we start with constructing the most general solutions of this equation. Then we match the fields on the cylinder with account of boundary conditions on it. Matching the fields gives expressions for reflection factors of cylindrical waves for two cases of polarization. The reflection factors for distinct wave polarizations show the ratio of outgoing energy flux to in going one. Curved cylindrical symmetric space-time with weakly gravitating string-like source is described by static metric: δs 2 = f(r)δt 2 - h(r)(δz 2 + δr 2 ) - l(r)δψ 2 ; f(r) = r ε ; h(r) = r -ε ; l(r) = r 2 /f(r). Which corresponds to low line density of mass ε on the string. The metric is particular case of Lewis metric [3,4] with zero angular momentum of the string and its weak gravity. The boundary value problem for electromagnetic waves interaction with thin conducting rotating cylindrical shell in static cylindrical metric with weakly gravitating string has been solved analytically. It is found that character of dependence of the factors on Ω at ω R<<1 and ΩR<<1 approximation remains the same as in flat space-time ε =0. Analysis of expressions for the reflection factors in frames of considered approximation has been done
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael
2011-01-01
present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score...... models, extensive data updates and strongly improved connectivity and integration with third-party resources. Version 9.0 of STRING covers more than 1100 completely sequenced organisms; the resource can be reached at http://string-db.org....
Strings and superstrings. Electron linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alessandrini, V.; Bambade, P.; Binetruy, P.; Kounnas, C.; Le Duff, J.; Schwimmer, A.
1989-01-01
Basic string theory; strings in interaction; construction of strings and superstrings in arbitrary space-time dimensions; compactification and phenomenology; linear e+e- colliders; and the Stanford linear collider were discussed [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-07-25
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
Interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with microwave background radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonyan, F.A.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Vardanyan, V.V.
1989-01-01
The formation of the bump and black-body cutoff in the cosmic-ray (CR) spectrum arising from the π-meson photoproduction reaction in collisions of CR protons with the microwave background radiation (MBR) photons is studied. A kinetic equation which describes CR proton propagation in MBR with account of a catastrophic of the π-meson photoproduction process is derived. The equilibrium CR proton spectrum obtained from the solution of the stationary kinetic equation is in general agreement with spectrum obtained under assumption of continuous energy loss approximation. However spectra from local sources especially for the times of propagation t>10 9 years differ noticeably from those obtained in the continuous loss approximation. 24 refs.; 5 figs
Higher-dimensional string theory in Lyra geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic strings as source of gravitational field in general relativity was discussed by ... tensor theory of gravitation and constructed an analog of Einstein field ... As string concept is useful before the particle creation and can explain galaxy for-.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de
1990-01-01
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)
Berezinsky, V; Gazizov, A; Kachelrieb, M
2006-12-08
We discuss as a new signature for the interaction of extragalactic ultrahigh energy protons with cosmic microwave background radiation a spectral feature located at E= 6.3 x 10(19) eV in the form of a narrow and shallow dip. It is produced by the interference of e+e(-)-pair and pion production. We show that this dip and, in particular, its position are almost model-independent. Its observation by future ultrahigh energy cosmic ray detectors may give the conclusive confirmation that an observed steepening of the spectrum is caused by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect.
Introduction to string theory and string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GarcIa-Compean, Hugo
2005-01-01
Basics of some topics on perturbative and non-perturbative string theory are reviewed. After a mathematical survey of the Standard Model of particle physics and GUTs, the bosonic string kinematics for the free case and with interaction is described. The effective action of the bosonic string and the spectrum is also discussed. T-duality in closed and open strings and the definition of D-brane are surveyed. Five perturbative superstring theories and their spectra is briefly outlined. Calabi-Yau three-fold compactifications of heterotic strings and their relation to some four-dimensional physics are given. Finally, non-perturbative issues like S-duality, M-theory and F-theory are also reviewed
Interactions of cosmic ray hadrons from 104 to 106 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaisser, T.K.
1977-01-01
Three topics from the field of high energy cosmic rays that are relevant to properties of hadronic interactions at energies not accessible to existing accelerators are discussed. In each case, the implications for future experiments at ISABELLE and other accelerators planned to probe the energy range of E/sub Lab/ approximately 10 4 GeV and beyond are evaluated. A systematic analysis of inclusive distributions of photons produced in collisions of hadrons with light nuclei is given. The overall conclusion is that, although the data is consistent with scaling for small x in the fragmentation region, the plateau appears to rise significantly beyond ISR energies with a correspondingly rapid increase in multiplicity. The situation in the more controversial field of high p/sub T/ in cosmic rays is summarized. If the suggestions of some experiments are correct, then the high p/sub T/ component of hadronic interactions must become much more important relative to the normal component for E/sub Lab/ > 10 4 GeV than would be expected by extrapolating accelerator data on high p/sub T/ using fits of the form p/sub T/ -8 . Some analyses of atmospheric cascades produced by interactions of cosmic rays of E greater than or equal to 10 6 GeV are briefly reviewed. The interpretation of these experiments is ambiguous because the primary composition of cosmic rays is unknown at these energies. It is, however, possible to draw conclusions corresponding to various assumptions about the primary composition
Interactions of Cosmic Rays around the Universe. Models for UHECR data interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boncioli Denise
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs are expected to be accelerated inastrophysical sources and to travel through extragalactic space before hitting the Earth atmosphere. They interact both with the environment in the source and with the intergalactic photon fields they encounter, causing different processes at various scales depending on the photon energy in the nucleus rest frame. UHECR interactions are sensitive to uncertainties in the extragalactic background spectrum and in the photo-disintegration models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neveu, A.
1986-01-01
There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meneguzzi, Maurice.
1975-01-01
The effects of nuclear interactions between the nuclei of cosmic radiation and those of interstellar gas were studied. The variation in the chemical composition of cosmic radiation with energy shows that the quantity of matter it passes through decreases between 1 and 100GeV/nucleon from 6 to 1g/cm 2 approximately. The chemical and isotopic composition for C, N and O suggests that the relative abundances of these nuclei at the source are much the same as the universal abundances except for the ratio C/O, higher by about a factor 1.5 in cosmic radiation sources. The enrichment of interstellar gas in light elements Li, Be and B was calculated. The value obtained accounts well for the universal abundances of the four isotopes 6 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 11 B independently of the model used. It may be assumed that large fluxes of low-energy cosmic rays exist in the remains of supernovae and that 7 Li is produced in these objects and then spread out in the galaxy. These objects could be extended sources of nuclear γ's, which are observable, but the same process proves unable to produce sufficient quantities of the very heavy proton-rich elements of dubious origin. Inelastic collisions or spallation reactions between cosmic and interstellar gas nuclei induce a quantity of nuclear γ ray emission not necessarily undetectable. The position flux of a few MeV from the β + disintegration of unstable spallation products is too low on the other hand to give an estimate of the low-energy cosmic radiation flux in the interstellar medium [fr
Physical Interactions with Digital Strings - A hybrid approach to a digital keyboard instrument
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlstedt, Palle
2017-01-01
of stopping and muting the strings at arbitrary positions. The parameters of the string model are controlled through TouchKeys multitouch sensors on each key, combined with MIDI data and acoustic signals from the digital keyboard frame, using a novel mapping. The instrument is evaluated from a performing...... of control. The contributions are two-fold. First, the use of acoustic sounds from a physical keyboard for excitations and resonances results in a novel hybrid keyboard instrument in itself. Second, the digital model of "inside piano" playing, using multitouch keyboard data, allows for performance techniques...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....
2015-01-01
Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Maharana, J. (eds.) [Institute of Physics, Orissa (India)
2008-07-01
This volume, dedicated to Prof. Gabriele Veneziano on the occasion of his retirement from CERN, starts as a broad historico-scientific study on the work on string theory and nonperturbative QCD that has been pioneered by Prof. Veneziano in the late 60s and early 70s. It goes on to examine the many ramifications this and similar early work has spawned over the past decades and the reader will find state-of-the art tutorial reviews on string cosmology, string dualities and symmetries, and much more. The book includes a concise updated scientific biography of, and an interview with, Prof. Veneziano, in which he relates his personal views about the present and future of fundamental physics. This is followed by the commented draft of an unpublished paper of 1973 of his, anticipating interesting results which were rediscovered and published more than a decade later. Overall, this volume is a vast and unique canvas where the re-examination of older and the presentation of newer results and insights are skillfully mixed with personal recollections of the contributing authors, most of them involved in the early days of string and quantum field theory, about Prof. Veneziano and the many interrelated topics considered. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasperini, M.
2008-01-01
This volume, dedicated to Prof. Gabriele Veneziano on the occasion of his retirement from CERN, starts as a broad historico-scientific study on the work on string theory and nonperturbative QCD that has been pioneered by Prof. Veneziano in the late 60s and early 70s. It goes on to examine the many ramifications this and similar early work has spawned over the past decades and the reader will find state-of-the art tutorial reviews on string cosmology, string dualities and symmetries, and much more. The book includes a concise updated scientific biography of, and an interview with, Prof. Veneziano, in which he relates his personal views about the present and future of fundamental physics. This is followed by the commented draft of an unpublished paper of 1973 of his, anticipating interesting results which were rediscovered and published more than a decade later. Overall, this volume is a vast and unique canvas where the re-examination of older and the presentation of newer results and insights are skillfully mixed with personal recollections of the contributing authors, most of them involved in the early days of string and quantum field theory, about Prof. Veneziano and the many interrelated topics considered. (orig.)
Aerial Neutron Detection of Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Earth's Surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard Maurer
2008-01-01
We have demonstrated the ability to measure the neutron flux produced by the cosmic-ray interaction with nuclei in the ground surface using aerial neutron detection. High energy cosmic-rays (primarily muons with GeV energies) interact with the nuclei in the ground surface and produce energetic neutrons via spallation. At the air-surface interface, the neutrons produced by spallation will either scatter within the surface material, become thermalized and reabsorbed, or be emitted into the air. The mean free path of energetic neutrons in air can be hundreds of feet as opposed to a few feet in dense materials. As such, the flux of neutrons escaping into the air provides a measure of the surface nuclei composition. It has been demonstrated that this effect can be measured at long range using neutron detectors on low flying helicopters. Radiological survey measurements conducted at Government Wash in Las Vegas, Nevada, have shown that the neutron background from the cosmic-soil interactions is repeatable and directly correlated to the geological data. Government Wash has a very unique geology, spanning a wide variety of nuclide mixtures and formations. The results of the preliminary measurements are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilczynski, H. [Dept. of High Energy Physics, The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1996-12-31
In the paper the JACEE experiment data analysis: energy spectra in the energy range 10{sup 12} - 10{sup 15} eV of different nuclides in cosmic radiation and some aspects of nuclear interactions at energy above 10{sup 12} eV/nucleon is presented. The data were compared with results of theory of cosmic radiation acceleration by striking waves arises from supernova stars explosions. In the interactions of cosmic radiation nuclei the short-lived particles production has been observed what agrees with long-distance component of cascades initiated by cosmic radiation interactions. In one case an interaction with asymmetric photons emission were observed 72 refs, 33 figs, 4 tabs
New expressions for string loop amplitudes leading to an ultra-simple conception of string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun; Bordes, J.; Nellen, L.
1990-11-01
New expressions are derived for string loop amplitudes as overlap integrals of string wave functionals. They are shown to take the form of exchange terms coming from the Bose-Einstein symmetrisation between string segments. One is thus led to the ultra-simple conception that string theory is basically free, and that 'string interactions' are due merely to the fact that strings are composite objects with Bose-Einstein segments as constituents. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiqiang Yang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The coupling between dark energy and dark matter provides a possible approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of the cosmological standard model. In this paper, we assumed the interacting term was related to the Hubble parameter, energy density of dark energy, and equation of state of dark energy. The interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter was a constant parameter, which was, Q = 3 H ξ ( 1 + w x ρ x . Based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we made a global fitting on the interacting dark energy model from Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy and observational Hubble data. We found that the observational data sets slightly favored a small interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter; however, there was not obvious evidence of interaction at the 1 σ level.
Ganor, Ori J.
2018-02-01
"Curvepole (2,0)-theory" is a deformation of the (2,0)-theory with nonlocal interactions. A curvepole is defined as a two-dimensional generalization of a dipole. It is an object of fixed two-dimensional shape of which the boundary is a charged curve that interacts with a 2-form gauge field. Curvepole theory was previously only defined indirectly via M-theory. Here, we propose a supersymmetric Lagrangian, constructed explicitly up to quartic terms, for an "Abelian" curvepole theory, which is an interacting deformation of the free (2,0) tensor multiplet. This theory contains fields of which the quanta are curvepoles (i.e., fixed-shape strings). Supersymmetry is preserved (at least up to quartic terms) if the shape of the curvepoles is (two-dimensional) planar. This nonlocal six-dimensional quantum field theory may also serve as a UV completion for certain (local) five-dimensional gauge theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1991-01-01
We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)
Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo
2012-01-01
The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...
Production of particle clustern in 50 GeV/cπ- -N and cosmic ray interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaul, S.K.
1977-01-01
The role of particle clusters in multiple-pion production at accelerator and cosmic ray energies is studied employing the high multiplicity (nsub(c) > = 9) accelerator data at 50 GeV/c, and cosmic ray α-N and N-N data at 0.1-1.21 TeV and 0.25-42.3 TeV respectively. The clusters in individual interactions have been identified by employing three methods. In interactions where the measurement of the secondaries was possible, the parameters of the clusters were found from the kinematics of the cluster production process and in it rest of the cases the parameters were determined by the conventional method. A phenomeological investigation of the following aspects has been made: (i) mass and decay particles of the cluster, (ii) transverse momentum of the cluster, (iii) angular distribution of the secondary particles in the cluster system, and (iv) average momentum (Psub(0)) of the pions in the cluster-rest system. In majority of the events of each type of interactions, at least one cluster is emitted. The average characteristics of clusters produced in double and single cluster events have been found to be similar. The average mass of the cluster and the number of its charged decay particles have been found to be 1.79 +- 0.2 GeV and 5.78 +- 0.4 GeV respectively. Value of (Psub(0)) has been found to be (161.2 +- 12) MeV/c. It has been observed that the features of the clusters at accelerator and cosmic ray energies are almost similar. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, H.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.
2008-01-01
Longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the families detected by emulsion chambers in the hybrid experiment with AS-array at Mt. Chacaltaya are studied in detail. Although many groups discuss about an increase of the heavy component in primary cosmic-rays beyond the knee region, it is shown that the observed characteristics of the families accompanied by large shower size, Ne>10 6 , can not be explained by an increase of heavy primaries alone. It is necessary to assume some changes of nuclear interaction in order to explain the observed characteristics of the air-showers accompanied by families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1987-01-01
We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L
1997-01-01
Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.
On nonlocally interacting metrics, and a simple proposal for cosmic acceleration
Vardanyan, Valeri; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Silvestri, Alessandra
2018-03-01
We propose a simple, nonlocal modification to general relativity (GR) on large scales, which provides a model of late-time cosmic acceleration in the absence of the cosmological constant and with the same number of free parameters as in standard cosmology. The model is motivated by adding to the gravity sector an extra spin-2 field interacting nonlocally with the physical metric coupled to matter. The form of the nonlocal interaction is inspired by the simplest form of the Deser-Woodard (DW) model, α R1/squareR, with one of the Ricci scalars being replaced by a constant m2, and gravity is therefore modified in the infrared by adding a simple term of the form m21/squareR to the Einstein-Hilbert term. We study cosmic expansion histories, and demonstrate that the new model can provide background expansions consistent with observations if m is of the order of the Hubble expansion rate today, in contrast to the simple DW model with no viable cosmology. The model is best fit by w0~‑1.075 and wa~0.045. We also compare the cosmology of the model to that of Maggiore and Mancarella (MM), m2R1/square2R, and demonstrate that the viable cosmic histories follow the standard-model evolution more closely compared to the MM model. We further demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the same number of physical degrees of freedom as in GR. Finally, we discuss the appearance of ghosts in the local formulation of the model, and argue that they are unphysical and harmless to the theory, keeping the physical degrees of freedom healthy.
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Constraining strong baryon-dark-matter interactions with primordial nucleosynthesis and cosmic rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Wandelt, Benjamin
2002-01-01
Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) was introduced by Spergel and Steinhardt to address possible discrepancies between collisionless dark matter simulations and observations on scales of less than 1 Mpc. We examine the case in which dark matter particles not only have strong self-interactions but also have strong interactions with baryons. The presence of such interactions will have direct implications for nuclear and particle astrophysics. Among these are a change in the predicted abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the flux of γ rays produced by the decay of neutral pions which originate in collisions between dark matter and galactic cosmic rays (CR). From these effects we constrain the strength of the baryon-dark-matter interactions through the ratio of baryon-dark-matter interaction cross section to dark matter mass, s. We find that BBN places a weak upper limit on this ratio (less-or-similar sign)10 8 cm 2 g -1 . CR-SIDM interactions, however, limit the possible DM-baryon cross section to (less-or-similar sign)5x10 -3 cm 2 g -1 ; this rules out an energy-independent interaction, but not one which falls with center-of-mass velocity s∝1/v or steeper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora, C. [Departamento de Matematicas, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia, IPN, Av. Acueducto s/n Barrio La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: cmora@acei.upibi.ipn.mx; Pimentel, L.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, A.P. 44-534, 09340Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lopr@xanum.uam.mx
2003-07-01
In this work we present homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solutions for the low energy limit of string theory with a self interacting potential for the scalar field. For a potential that is a linear combination of two exponential, a family of exact solutions are found for the different spatial curvatures. Among this family a non singular accelerating solution for positive curvature is singled out and the violation of the energy conditions for that solution is studied, and also its astrophysical consequences. The string coupling for this solution is finite. (Author)
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traubenberg, M.R. de.
1988-01-01
We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY MODULATION BY COROTATING INTERACTION REGION STREAM INTERFACES AT 1 au
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, X. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Florinski, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2016-07-20
We present a new model that couples galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) propagation with magnetic turbulence transport and the MHD background evolution in the heliosphere. The model is applied to the problem of the formation of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during the last solar minimum from the period between 2007 and 2009. The numerical model simultaneously calculates the large-scale supersonic solar wind properties and its small-scale turbulent content from 0.3 au to the termination shock. Cosmic rays are then transported through the background, and thus computed, with diffusion coefficients derived from the solar wind turbulent properties, using a stochastic Parker approach. Our results demonstrate that GCR variations depend on the ratio of diffusion coefficients in the fast and slow solar winds. Stream interfaces inside the CIRs always lead to depressions of the GCR intensity. On the other hand, heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings do not appreciably affect GCR intensities in the model, which is consistent with the two observations under quiet solar wind conditions. Therefore, variations in diffusion coefficients associated with CIR stream interfaces are more important for GCR propagation than the drift effects of the HCS during a negative solar minimum.
GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY MODULATION BY COROTATING INTERACTION REGION STREAM INTERFACES AT 1 au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, X.; Florinski, V.
2016-01-01
We present a new model that couples galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) propagation with magnetic turbulence transport and the MHD background evolution in the heliosphere. The model is applied to the problem of the formation of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during the last solar minimum from the period between 2007 and 2009. The numerical model simultaneously calculates the large-scale supersonic solar wind properties and its small-scale turbulent content from 0.3 au to the termination shock. Cosmic rays are then transported through the background, and thus computed, with diffusion coefficients derived from the solar wind turbulent properties, using a stochastic Parker approach. Our results demonstrate that GCR variations depend on the ratio of diffusion coefficients in the fast and slow solar winds. Stream interfaces inside the CIRs always lead to depressions of the GCR intensity. On the other hand, heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings do not appreciably affect GCR intensities in the model, which is consistent with the two observations under quiet solar wind conditions. Therefore, variations in diffusion coefficients associated with CIR stream interfaces are more important for GCR propagation than the drift effects of the HCS during a negative solar minimum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)
2017-03-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.
Detection of low tension cosmic superstrings
Chernoff, David F.; Tye, S.-H. Henry
2018-05-01
Cosmic superstrings of string theory differ from conventional cosmic strings of field theory. We review how the physical and cosmological properties of the macroscopic string loops influence experimental searches for these relics from the epoch of inflation. The universe's average density of cosmic superstrings can easily exceed that of conventional cosmic strings having the same tension by two or more orders of magnitude. The cosmological behavior of the remnant superstring loops is qualitatively distinct because the string tension is exponentially smaller than the string scale in flux compactifications in string theory. Low tension superstring loops live longer, experience less recoil (rocket effect from the emission of gravitational radiation) and tend to cluster like dark matter in galaxies. Clustering enhances the string loop density with respect to the cosmological average in collapsed structures in the universe. The enhancement at the Sun's position is ~ 105. We develop a model encapsulating the leading order string theory effects, the current understanding of the string network loop production and the influence of cosmological structure formation suitable for forecasting the detection of superstring loops via optical microlensing, gravitational wave bursts and fast radio bursts. We evaluate the detection rate of bursts from cusps and kinks by LIGO- and LISA-like experiments. Clustering dominates rates for G μ 10‑14.2 (LIGO cusp), G μ>10‑15 (LISA cusp) and G μ>10‑ 14.1 (LISA kink).
Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed by mountain emulsion chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
Here is presented a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. The observation covers gamma-quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ''families''). Following topics are covered concerning on characteristics of nuclear interactions in energy region of 10 14 - 10 16 eV: 1) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high energy cosmic-rays, 2) multiplicity and p sub(t) increase in produced pimesons in the fragmentation region, 3) existence of large p sub(t) jets, 4) extremely-hadron-rich family of Centauro type, 5) exotic phenomena at extremely high energy region beyond 10 16 eV. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, F.; Chun, W.
1985-01-01
The use of basis states described as hadronic (or hadron-hadron) or hidden-colour (or colour-colour) for a system of quarks does not necessarily imply that connected exotic multiquark hadrons do exist. Antisymmetrization of quark wave functions tends to make these descriptions ill defined. It appears necessary to have stable collective structures called strings or bags to provide the physical connections required by quark confinement. The masses of multiquark hadrons can then be estimated by using semplified string, bag and NR potential models. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar in all these models. The stability problem for multiquark strings is briefly discussed
Functional integral approach to string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1987-01-01
Fermionic string theory can be made supersymmetric: the superstring. It contains among others mass zero gauge fields of spin 1 and 2. The recent revival of interests in string field theories is due to the recognition of the compactified superstring theory as a viable theory of grandunification of all interactions, especially after Green and Schwarz's discovery of the gauge and gravitational anomaly cancellation in 0(32) superstring theory. New developments include string phenomenology, general discussions of compactification, new models, especially the heterotic string. These are either applications or extensions of string field theories. Although these are very exciting developments, the author limits his attention to the basics of the bosonic string theory
String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepping, R.P.; Burlaga, L.F.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Lazarus, A.J.; Evans, D.S.; Klein, L.W.
1991-01-01
A large interplanetary magnetic cloud has been observed in the mid-December 1982 data from ISEE 3. It is estimated to have a heliocentric radial extent of approx-gt 0.4 AU, making it one of the largest magnetic clouds yet observed at 1 AU. The magnetic field measured throughout the main portion of the cloud was fairly tightly confined to a plane as it changed direction by 174 degree while varying only moderately in magnitude. Throughout nearly the entire duration of the cloud's passage, IMP 8 was located in the Earth's dawn magnetosheath providing observations of this cloud's interaction with the bow shock and magnetopause; the cloud is shown to maintain its solar wind characteristics during the interaction. Near the end of the cloud passage, at 0806 UT on December 17, ISEE 3 (and IMP 8 at nearly the same time) observed an oblique fast forward interplanetary shock closely coincident in time with a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement. The shock, moving much faster than the cloud (radial speeds of 700 and 390 km/s, respectively, on the average), was in the process of overtaking the cloud. The index Dst decreased monotonically by ∼ 130 nT during the 2-day cloud passage by the Earth and was well correlated with the B z component of the interplanetary magnetic field. There was no significant decrease in the cosmic ray intensity recorded by ground-based neutron monitors at this time of rather strong, smoothly changing fields. However, a Forbush decrease did occur immediately after the interplanetary shock, during a period of significant field turbulence. Thus a large, smooth, interplanetary helical magnetic field configuration engulfing the Earth does not necessarily deflect cosmic rays sufficiently to cause a Forbush decrease, but there is a suggestion that such a decrease may be caused by particle scattering by turbulent magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-06-01
Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture
String theory : physics or metaphysics?
Veneziano, Gabriele
2010-01-01
I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Max
2006-01-01
The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es
Introduction to field theory of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, K.
1987-01-01
The field theory of bosonic string is reviewed. First, theory is treated in a light-cone gauge. After a brief survey of the first quantized theory of free string, the second quantization is discussed. All possible interactions of strings are introduced based on a smoothness condition of work sheets swept out by strings. Perturbation theory is developed. Finally a possible way to the manifest covariant formalism is discussed
String cosmology. Large-field inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, Alexander
2014-09-01
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index n s and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Wyder, Stefan
2015-01-01
, and the available data exhibit notable differences in terms of quality and completeness. The STRING database (http://string-db.org) aims to provide a critical assessment and integration of protein-protein interactions, including direct (physical) as well as indirect (functional) associations. The new version 10...... into families at various levels of phylogenetic resolution. Further improvements in version 10.0 include a completely redesigned prediction pipeline for inferring protein-protein associations from co-expression data, an API interface for the R computing environment and improved statistical analysis...
String-localized quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de
2009-01-01
Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2018-03-01
Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.
Perspectives on string phenomenology
Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush
2015-01-01
The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...
Interacting dark energy models as an approach for solving Cosmic Coincidence Problem
Shojaei, Hamed
Understanding the dark side of the Universe is one of the main tasks of physicists. As there is no thorough understanding of nature of the dark energy, this area is full of new ideas and there may be several discoveries, theoretical or experimental, in the near future. We know that dark energy, though not detected directly, exists and it is not just an exotic idea. The presence of dark energy is required by the observation of the acceleration of the universe. There are several questions regarding dark energy. What is the nature of dark energy? How does it interact with matter, baryonic or dark? Why is the density of dark energy so tiny, i.e. why rhoΛ ≈ 10--120 M4Pl ? And finally why does its density have the same order of magnitude as the density of matter does at the present time? The last question is one form of what is known as the "Cosmic Coincidence Problem" and in this work, I have been investigating one way to resolve this issue. Observations of Type Ia supernovae indicate that we are in an accelerating universe. A matter-dominated universe cannot be accelerating. A good fit is obtained if we assume that energy density parameters are O Λ = 0.7 and Om = 0.3. Here O Λ is related to dark energy, or cosmological constant in ΛCDM model. At the same time data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite and supernova surveys have placed a constraint on w, the equation of state for dark energy, which is actually the ratio of pressure and energy density. Any good theory needs to explain this coincidence problem and yields a value for w between -1.1 and -0.9. I have employed an interesting approach to solve this problem by assuming that there exists an interaction between dark energy and matter in the context of holographic dark energy. This interaction converts dark energy to matter or vice versa without violating the local conservation of energy in the universe. Holographic dark energy by itself indicates that the value of dark energy is related
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bush, B.W.; Nix, J.R.
1993-01-01
The interaction of high-energy cosmic rays with nuclei in spacecraft shielding and the human body is important for manned interplanetary missions and is not well understood either experimentally or theoretically. We present a new theoretical approach to this problem based on classical hadrodynamics for extended nucleons, which treats nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This theory represents the classical analogue of the quantum hadrodynamics of Serot and Walecka without the assumptions of the mean-field approximation and point nucleons. It provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to collisions between cosmic rays and nuclei that automatically includes space-time non-locality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. Unlike previous models, this approach is manifestly Lorentz covariant and satisfies a priori the basic conditions that are present when cosmic rays collide with nuclei, namely an interaction time that is extremely short and a nucleon mean-free path, force range, and internucleon separation that are all comparable in size. We review the history of classical meson-field theory and derive the classical relativistic equations of motion for nucleons of finite size interacting with massive scalar and vector meson fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engquist, J.; Sundell, P.; Tamassia, L.
2007-01-01
The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2002-01-01
A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.
Heliospheric current sheet and effects of its interaction with solar cosmic rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malova, H. V., E-mail: hmalova@yandex.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Popov, V. Yu.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Dunko, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
The effects of interaction of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the solar wind are analyzed. A self-consistent kinetic model of the HCS is developed in which ions with quasiadiabatic dynamics can present. The HCS is considered an equilibrium embedded current structure in which two main plasma species with different temperatures (the low-energy background plasma of the solar wind and the higher energy SCR component) contribute to the current. The obtained results are verified by comparing with the results of numerical simulations based on solving equations of motion by the particle tracing method in the given HCS magnetic field with allowance for SCR particles. It is shown that the HCS is a relatively thin multiscale current configuration embedded in a thicker plasma layer. In this case, as a rule, the shear (tangential to the sheet current) component of the magnetic field is present in the HCS. Taking into account high-energy SCR particles in the HCS can lead to a change of its configuration and the formation of a multiscale embedded structure. Parametric family of solutions is considered in which the current balance in the HCS is provided at different SCR temperatures and different densities of the high-energy plasma. The SCR densities are determined at which an appreciable (detectable by satellites) HCS thickening can occur. Possible applications of this modeling to explain experimental observations are discussed.
Describing the observed cosmic neutrinos by interactions of nuclei with matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter, Walter
2014-07-01
IceCube have observed neutrinos which are presumably of extra-galactic origin. Since specific sources have not yet been identified, we discuss what could be learned from the conceptual point of view. We use a simple model for neutrino production from the interactions between nuclei and matter, and we focus on the description of the spectral shape and flavor composition observed by IceCube. Our main parameters are spectral index, maximal energy, magnetic field, and composition of the accelerated nuclei. We show that a cutoff at PeV energies can be achieved by soft enough spectra, a cutoff of the primary energy, or strong enough magnetic fields. These options, however, are difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that these neutrinos originate from the same sources as the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We demonstrate that heavier nuclei accelerated in the sources may be a possible way out if the maximal energy scales appropriately with the mass number of the nuclei. In this scenario, neutrino observations can actually be used to test the UHECR acceleration mechanism. We also emphasize the need for a volume upgrade of the IceCube detector for future precision physics, for which the flavor information becomes a statistical meaningful model discriminator as qualitatively new ingredient.
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.
1995-01-01
Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Desiati Paolo
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25
11. European cosmic ray symposium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-03-01
The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)
Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord
GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.
1999-07-01
The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos
2007-01-01
We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions
String model of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1975-01-01
Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)
Bianchi-V string cosmological model with dark energy anisotropy
Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.; Ray, Pratik P.
2018-05-01
The role of anisotropic components on the dark energy and the dynamics of the universe is investigated. An anisotropic dark energy fluid with different pressures along different spatial directions is assumed to incorporate the effect of anisotropy. One dimensional cosmic strings aligned along x-direction supplement some kind of anisotropy. Anisotropy in the dark energy pressure is found to evolve with cosmic expansion at least at late times. At an early phase, the anisotropic effect due to the cosmic strings substantially affect the dynamics of the accelerating universe.
String-mediated electroweak baryogenesis a critical analysis
Cline, J M; Moore, G D; Riotto, Antonio; Cline, Jim; Espinosa, Jose; Moore, Guy D.; Riotto, Antonio
1999-01-01
We study the scenario of electroweak baryogenesis mediated by nonsuperconducting cosmic strings. This idea relies upon electroweak symmetry being restored in a region around the core of the topological defect so that, within this region, the rate of baryon number violation is enhanced. We compute numerically how effectively baryon number is violated along a cosmic string, at an epoch when the baryon number violation rate elsewhere is negligible. We show that B-violation along nonsuperconducting strings is quite inefficient. When proper accounting is taken of the velocity dependence of the baryon number production by strings, it proves too small to explain the observed abundance by at least ten orders of magnitude, whether the strings are in the friction dominated or the scaling regime.
Cosmic censorship and the dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.
1993-01-01
We investigate extremal electrically charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a cosmological constant inspired by string theory. These solutions are not static, and a timelike singularity eventually appears which is not surrounded by an event horizon. This suggests that cosmic censorship may be violated in this theory
Gauge invariant actions for string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1986-06-01
String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
String Formation Beyond Leading Colour
Christiansen, Jesper R.
2015-08-03
We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1987-01-01
A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)
Multi-core events in cosmic-ray induced interactions with lead at around 10 TeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amato, N.; Arata, N.
1989-01-01
The analysis is made on the cosmic-ray induced interactions with lead at around 10 TeV on the basis of emulsion chamber data at Chacaltaya. A special attention is paid to the events detected as multi-cores under the spatial resolution of a few tens of microns. The observation of six double-core events and two triple-core events with the average invariant mass of 1.8 GeV/c 2 leads to the estimation on production frequency of such multicores as about 5% at 10 TeV at the atmospheric depth 540 gr/cm 2 . (author)
String model of black hole microstates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, F.
1997-01-01
The statistical mechanics of black holes arbitrarily far from extremality is modeled by a gas of weakly interacting strings. As an effective low-energy description of black holes the string model provides several highly nontrivial consistency checks and predictions. Speculations on a fundamental origin of the model suggest surprising simplifications in nonperturbative string theory, even in the absence of supersymmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Dilatation transformation in the string model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chikashige, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Hosoda, M; Saito, S
1975-05-01
Dilatation transformation is discussed in the string model. We show that it becomes meaningful in the infinite slope limit of Regge trajectories for the motion of a free string. It turns out to be equivalent to the high energy limit of the dual amplitudes, with the Regge slope kept finite, in the case of interacting strings. The scaling phenomenon is explained from this point of view.
Highly excited strings I: Generating function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri P. Skliros
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.
Galaxy formation from kinky cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, F.R.; Bennett, D.P.
1990-01-01
The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 um pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.10 at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument
Interactive DataBase of Cosmic Ray Anisotropy (DB A10)
Asipenka, A.S.; Belov, A.V.; Eroshenko, E.F.; Klepach, E.G.; Oleneva, V.A.; Yake, V.G.
Data on the hourly means of cosmic ray density and anisotropy derived by the GSM method over the 1957-2006 are introduced in to MySQL database. This format allowed an access to data both in local and in the Internet. Using the realized combination of script-language Php and My SQL database the Internet project was created on the access for users data on the CR anisotropy in different formats (http://cr20.izmiran.ru/AnisotropyCR/main.htm/). Usage the sheaf Php and MySQL provides fast receiving data even in the Internet since a request and following process of data are accomplished on the project server. Usage of MySQL basis for the storing data on cosmic ray variations give a possibility to construct requests of different structures, extends the variety of data reflection, makes it possible the conformity data to other systems and usage them in other projects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franceschini, A.; Simonovic, M.; Roth, A.
2013-01-01
for certain model organisms and functional systems. Currently, protein interactions and associations are annotated at various levels of detail in online resources, ranging from raw data repositories to highly formalized pathway databases. For many applications, a global view of all the available interaction...... data is desirable, including lower-quality data and/or computational predictions. The STRING database (http://string-db.org/) aims to provide such a global perspective for as many organisms as feasible. Known and predicted associations are scored and integrated, resulting in comprehensive protein...... networks covering >1100 organisms. Here, we describe the update to version 9.1 of STRING, introducing several improvements: (i) we extend the automated mining of scientific texts for interaction information, to now also include full-text articles; (ii) we entirely re-designed the algorithm for transferring...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Meur, H.; Daninos, F.; Bachas, C.
2007-01-01
Since its beginning, in the sixties, the string theory has succeeded in overcoming a lot of theoretical difficulties but now the complete absence of experimental validation entertains doubts about its ability to represent the real world and questions its hegemony in today's theoretical physics. Other space-time theories like the twistors, or the non-commutative geometry, or the loop quantum gravity, or the causal dynamics triangulation might begin receiving more attention. Despite all that, the string theory can be given credit for 4 achievements. First, the string theory has provided a consistent quantum description of gravity. Secondly, the string theory has built a theoretical frame that has allowed the unification of the 4 basic interactions. Thirdly, the string theory applied to astrophysics issues has demonstrated that the evaporation of a black hole does not necessarily lead to a loss of information which comforts the universality of the conservation of the quantity of information in any system and as a consequence put a fatal blow to the so-called paradox observed in black holes. Fourthly, the string theory has given a new and original meaning on the true nature of space-time. (A.C.)
Evidence for string substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes
An invariant string propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.; Moore, G.; Nelson, P.; Polchinski, J.
1986-01-01
The authors show that the Polyakov path integral is used to define off-shell quantities in string theory. The path integral of Polyakov gives an elegant description of strings and their interactions. However, its use has been limited to obtaining the Koba-Nielsen expressions for S-matrix elements. It is not yet clear what quantities make sense in string theory. This study shows that the path integral can be used to define off-shell quantities as well. In particular it defines a natural n-point function in loop space as the sum of all world surfaces bounded by n specific spacetime curves. The reader is referred for more detail. The report first outlines general evaluation then discusses the additional features added by boundaries. Locally, the three gauge freedoms ξ/sup a/ and δphi can be used to take g/sub ab/ (σ) to the unit matrix. Globally, this is not quite possible. In general the researchers choose a family of fiducial metrics g/sub ab/ (σ,tau), depending on a finite number of Teichmuller parameters tau, and every metric is gauge equivalent to one of these
Oscillation damping of chiral string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav
2002-01-01
Chiral cosmic string loops tend to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to energy loss into gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behavior of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations
Formation of Electron Strings in Narrow Band Polar Semiconductors
Kusmartsev, F. V.
2000-01-01
We show that linear electron strings may arise in polar semiconductors. A single string consists of M spinless fermions trapped by an extended polarization well of a cigar shape. Inside the string the particles are free although they interact with each other via Coulomb forces. The strings arise as a result of an electronic phase separation associated with an instability of small adiabatic polarons. We have found the length of the string which depends on dielectric constants of semiconductors. The appearance of these electron strings may have an impact on the effect of stripe formation observed in a variety of high- Tc experiments.
Covariantly second-quantized string. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.
1984-01-01
BRST invariance is used to second-quantize the interacting relativistic string. The zero-mode of the anticommuting string variables is identified as the Grassmann coordinate of BRST superfields. The massless sector is Yang-Mills theory in the usual Faddeev-Popov formalism. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.
1987-11-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turok, N.
1988-01-01
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stanev, Todor
2001-05-01
We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Mirko
2011-01-01
The main topic of this thesis is the investigation of dynamical properties of coupled Tchebycheff map networks. The results give insights into the chaotic string model and its network generalization from a dynamical point of view. As a first approach, discrete symmetry transformations of the model are studied. These transformations are formulated in a general way in order to be also applicable to similar dynamics on bipartite network structures. The dynamics is studied numerically via Lyapunov measures, spatial correlations, and ergodic properties. It is shown that the zeros of the interaction energy are distinguished only with respect to this specific observable, but not by a more general dynamical principle. The original chaotic string model is defined on a one-dimensional lattice (ring-network) as the underlying network topology. This thesis studies a modification of the model based on the introduction of tunable disorder. The effects of inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure on the interaction energy are discussed. Synchronization properties of the chaotic string model and its network generalization are studied in later chapters of this thesis. The analysis is based on the master stability formalism, which relates the stability of the synchronized state to the spectral properties of the network. Apart from complete synchronization, where the dynamics at all nodes of the network coincide, also two-cluster synchronization on bipartite networks is studied. For both types of synchronization it is shown that depending on the type of coupling the synchronized dynamics can display chaotic as well as periodic or quasi-periodic behaviour. The semi-analytical calculations reveal that the respective synchronized states are often stable for a wide range of coupling values even for the ring-network, although the respective basins of attraction may inhabit only a small fraction of the phase space. To provide
High-transverse-momentum secondaries and rising total cross sections in cosmic-ray interactions
Cline, D; Luthe, J
1973-01-01
The authors draw attention to hadron collisions from cosmic-ray data showing evidence for high-transverse-momentum secondaries in substantial excess of the celebrated exponential cutoff, analogous to recent observations at the CERN intersecting storage rings. The data support a composite (parton/quark) picture of the proton in which deep inelastic proton collisions at high energy ( approximately 10/sup 3/ GeV) produce constituents, observed through hadron jets. This phenomenon is possibly connected to the rise of the total cross section observed in the same range of energy. (24 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarle, G.; Swordy, S.
1998-01-01
In 1928 Paul Dirac forecasted the existence of antimatter and 4 years later Carl Anderson detected the first antiparticle: the positron in a cloud chamber while studying cosmic radiation. Antiprotons were more difficult to find but in 1955 physicists from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory got some in a particle accelerator. In 1995 a team from the CERN synthesized atoms of anti-hydrogen by binding positrons to antiprotons in a particle accelerator. Astrophysicists have built more and more complex detectors to study cosmic rays. The detector HEAT (high energy antimatter telescope) has been designed to study positrons above the atmosphere. This detector has been launched for the first time in 1994 and has measured cosmic radiation for 32 hours at an altitude of 37000 meters. The results were challenging: whereas the number of low energy positrons detected agrees with the theory, the number of high energy positrons is too important. It suggests the existence of unknown sources of positrons somewhere in the universe. The massive particles that interact weakly (WIMP) could be such sources. This article draws the history of the quest for antimatter and its implications in cosmology, the detector HEAT is described. (A.C.)
Two field formulation of closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogojevic, A.R.
1990-09-01
A formulation of closed string field theory is presented that is based on a two field action. It represents a generalization of Witten's Chern-Simons formulation of 3d gravity. The action contains only 3 string interactions and no string field truncations, unlike the previous non-polynomial action of Zwiebach. The two field action is found to follow from a purely cubic, background independent action similar to the one for open strings. (orig.)
Field theory of relativistic strings: I. Trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.; Kikkawa, K.
1985-01-01
The authors present an entirely new kind of field theory, a field theory quantized not at space-time points, but quantized along an extended set of multilocal points on a string. This represents a significant departure from the usual quantum field theory, whose free theory represents a definite set of elementary particles, because the field theory on relativistic strings can accommodate an infinite set of linearly rising Regge trajectories. In this paper, the authors (1) present canonical quantization and the Green's function of the free string, (2) introduce three-string interactions, (3) resolve the question of multiple counting, (4) complete the counting arguments for all N-point trees, and (5) introduce four-string interactions which yield a Yang-Mills structure when the zero-slope limit is taken
Flipped cryptons and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, D V
2004-01-01
Cryptons are metastable bound states of fractionally-charged particles that arise generically in the hidden sectors of models derived from heterotic string. We study their properties and decay modes in a specific flipped SU(5) model with long-lived four-particle spin-zero bound states called tetrons. We show that the neutral tetrons are metastable, and exhibit the tenth order nonrenormalizable superpotential operators responsible for their dominant decays. By analogy with QCD, we expect charged tetrons to be somewhat heavier, and to decay relatively rapidly via lower-order interactions that we also exhibit. The expected masses and lifetimes of the neutral tetrons make them good candidates for cold dark matter, and a potential source of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays which have been observed, whereas the charged tetrons would have decayed in the early Universe.
Interacting cosmic fluids and phase transitions under a holographic modeling for dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)
2016-09-15
We discuss the consequences of possible sign changes of the Q-function which measures the transfer of energy between dark energy and dark matter. We investigate this scenario from a holographic perspective by modeling dark energy by a linear parametrization and CPL-parametrization of the equation of state (ω). By imposing the strong constraint of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the change of sign for Q, due to the cosmic evolution, imply changes in the temperatures of dark energy and dark matter. We also discuss the phase transitions, in the past and future, experienced by dark energy and dark matter (or, equivalently, the sign changes of their heat capacities). (orig.)
Interacting cosmic fluids and phase transitions under a holographic modeling for dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco
2016-01-01
We discuss the consequences of possible sign changes of the Q-function which measures the transfer of energy between dark energy and dark matter. We investigate this scenario from a holographic perspective by modeling dark energy by a linear parametrization and CPL-parametrization of the equation of state (ω). By imposing the strong constraint of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the change of sign for Q, due to the cosmic evolution, imply changes in the temperatures of dark energy and dark matter. We also discuss the phase transitions, in the past and future, experienced by dark energy and dark matter (or, equivalently, the sign changes of their heat capacities). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaidalov, A.B.; Klochkov, M.A.; Sarychev, L.I.; Smirnova, L.N.
1989-01-01
The inclusive differential cross sections of Λ- and bar Λ-hyperon production in bar pp and pp interactions at momenta 12, 32, and 100 GeV/c are calculated in the quark-gluon string model and compared with experiment. The model satisfactorily reproduces the experimental data
Study of leading neutral pions: (interactions of cosmic rays with matter at energies above 3 TeV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremenko, Yu.A.
1988-01-01
An experimental plant consisting of a full-automatic ionized colorimeter of 44m 2 , electronics of which is based on modern integral schemes and performed in CAMAC standard; of an x-ray emulsion chamber and of changeable dense target is described. The plant permits to measure the energy of a primary particle, as well as to study in detail a neutral component of products of strong indifferent target atoms. Experimental data on leading neutral mesons with energy from 10 GeV to the cosmic particle energies are analysed using the plant. A new experiment, which aim is the detection of interactions with anomalously great multiplicity and study of microstructure of extensive air showers, is suggested. 277 refs
New twistor string theories revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broedel, Johannes; Wurm, Bernhard
2009-01-01
A gauged version of Berkovits twistor string theory featuring the particle content of N=8 supergravity was suggested by Abou-Zeid, Hull and Mason. The equations of motion for a particular multiplet in the modified theory are examined on the level of basic twistor fields and thereby shown to imply the vanishing of the negative helicity graviton on-shell. Additionally, the restrictions emerging from the equation of motion for the new gauge field B-bar reveal the chiral nature of interactions in theories constructed in this manner. Moreover, a particular amplitude in Berkovits open string theory is shown to be in agreement with the corresponding result in Einstein gravity.
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rausch de Traubenberg, M.
1988-01-01
The string theory is applied in the construction of a theory which allows the coupling of the four fundamental interactions and matter. The original model of the string theory describes the hadronic phenomenon of duality. The model extension, which describes the closed strings and those with a spin, is studied. The supersymmetry and the supersymmetric partner concepts are considered, in order to obtain a superstrings theory. The supersymmetry allows the formulation of a ''supertheory'', including matter, fields and gravitation. In order to explain the mass of the observable particles, the mechanism of symmetry breaking must be taken into account. The scalar state concept, originated from the supersymmetry breaking, is analyzed. This ''supertheory'' is not entirely accepted by the scientific world [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, Oleg; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul
2009-12-01
We study the possibility of constructing the NMSSM from the heterotic string. String derived NMSSMs are much more rare than MSSMs due to the extra requirement that there exist a light singlet which couples to the Higgs pairs. They share the common feature that the singlet self-interactions are typically suppressed, leading to either the ''decoupling'' or to the Peccei-Quinn limit of the NMSSM. In the latter case, the spectrum contains a light pseudoscalar which may be relevant to the MSSM fine-tuning problem.We provide a Z 6 heterotic orbifold example of the NMSSM with approximate Peccei-Quinn symmetry, whose origin lies in the string selection rules combined with our choice of the vacuum configuration. (orig.)
Simulation of semi-artificial interaction events of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.C.A.
1986-01-01
A simulation of artifitial A-jets was performed, using the data of observed C-jets, aiming to study the atmospheric interactions. A comparative study on artifitial A-jets with observed A-jets, considering initially, only one interaction and then, introducing the possibility of successive interactions, is presented. A process denominated ''descascatizacao'' for one interaction stage is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it has ... between string theory and observations provides a strong incentive for ..... sonably be expected to arise for any system having very many degrees of freedom.
Kaluza-Klein straw as a string-guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, A.; Zamir, R.
1989-01-01
Cosmic strings may acquire topological stability by wrapping around the fifth dimension, in which case the Kaluza-Klein ''straw'' plays the role of a string-guide. The only fundamental velocity of the string is then the speed of light, decomposed into the center-of-mass velocity in four dimensions and the group velocity around the fifth dimension. The energy/momentum singularity, on the other hand, is associated with a critical phase velocity. A linear electromagnetic mass formula is derived. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.
1988-01-01
If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy
Conlon, Joseph
2016-01-01
Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.
Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Chluba, Jens; Kamionkowski, Marc
2015-08-14
We propose a new method to constrain elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles in the early Universe. Direct or indirect thermal coupling of nonrelativistic DM with photons leads to a heat sink for the latter. This results in spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the amplitude of which can be as large as a few times the DM-to-photon-number ratio. We compute CMB spectral distortions due to DM-proton, DM-electron, and DM-photon scattering for generic energy-dependent cross sections and DM mass m_{χ}≳1 keV. Using Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer measurements, we set constraints on the cross sections for m_{χ}≲0.1 MeV. In particular, for energy-independent scattering we obtain σ_{DM-proton}≲10^{-24} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, σ_{DM-electron}≲10^{-27} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, and σ_{DM-photon}≲10^{-39} cm^{2} (m_{χ}/keV). An experiment with the characteristics of the Primordial Inflation Explorer would extend the regime of sensitivity up to masses m_{χ}~1 GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-08-01
The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2016-07-11
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander; Kalashev, Oleg; Beacom, John F.
2011-01-01
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.
Cylindrically symmetric, static strings with a cosmological constant in Brans-Dicke theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delice, Oezguer
2006-01-01
The static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions with a cosmological constant in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory are investigated. Some of these solutions admitting Lorentz boost invariance along the symmetry axis correspond to local, straight cosmic strings with a cosmological constant. Some physical properties of such solutions are studied. These strings apply attractive or repulsive forces on the test particles. A smooth matching is also performed with a recently introduced interior thick string solution with a cosmological constant
First quantized noncritical relativistic Polyakov string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaskolski, Z.; Meissner, K.A.
1994-01-01
The first quantization of the relativistic Brink-DiVecchia-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) string in the range 1 < d 25 is considered. It is shown that using the Polyakov sum over bordered surfaces in the Feynman path integral quantization scheme one gets a consistent quantum mechanics of relativistic 1-dim extended objects in the range 1 < d < 25. In particular, the BDHP string propagator is exactly calculated for arbitrary initial and final string configurations and the Hilbert space of physical states of noncritical BDHP string is explicitly constructed. The resulting theory is equivalent to the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn massive string model. In contrast to the conventional conformal field theory approach to noncritical string and random surfaces in the Euclidean target space the path integral formulation of the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn string obtained in this paper does not rely on the principle of conformal invariance. Some consequences of this feature for constructing a consistent relativistic string theory based on the ''splitting-joining'' interaction are discussed. (author). 42 refs, 1 fig
The nucleation model of strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, Ikuo.
1990-07-01
In this paper we discuss a model of interacting strings at finite densities based on nucleation theory, the study of formation of droplets in a supersaturated gas, the analogy being between drops of various sizes and strings with various excitation number. The interaction of the strings is considered to be the usual merging and splitting. We do not assume equilibrium a priori but find equilibrium configurations of strings as a result of their dynamics. We study these configurations as we change the energy density, and find the presence of two phases. A low density 'gas' phase, in which the energy is in strings in the fundamental or the first few excited levels, and a high density 'liquid' phase in which the number of strings is low, all the energy being carried by few very excited strings. For the gas phase we also discuss the thermodynamics of the system. (author). 21 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo
2008-01-01
We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Morris, John H; Cook, Helen
2017-01-01
A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number of organi......A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number...... of organisms. The associations in STRING include direct (physical) interactions, as well as indirect (functional) interactions, as long as both are specific and biologically meaningful. Apart from collecting and reassessing available experimental data on protein-protein interactions, and importing known...... pathways and protein complexes from curated databases, interaction predictions are derived from the following sources: (i) systematic co-expression analysis, (ii) detection of shared selective signals across genomes, (iii) automated text-mining of the scientific literature and (iv) computational transfer...
Parton fragmentation and string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Ingelman, G.; Sjoestrand, T.
1983-01-01
While much has been learned recently about quark and gluon interactions in the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, the relation between calculated parton properties and observed hadron densities involves models where dynamics and jet empirical rules have to be combined. The purpose of this article is to describe a presently successful approach which is based on a cascade jet model using String dynamics. It can readily lead to Monte Carlo jet programmes of great use when analyzing data. Production processes in an iterative cascade approach, with tunneling in a constant force field, are reviewed. Expected differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed. Low transverse momentum phenomena are also reviewed with emphasis on hyperon polarization. In so far as this approach uses a fragmentation scheme based on String dynamics, it was deemed appropriate to also include under the same cover a special report on the Classical theory of relativistic Strings, seen as the classical limit of the Dual Resonance model. The Equations of motion and interaction among strings are presented. (orig.)
A cosmic book. [of physics of early universe
Peebles, P. J. E.; Silk, Joseph
1988-01-01
A system of assigning odds to the basic elements of cosmological theories is proposed in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the theories. A figure of merit for the theories is obtained by counting and weighing the plausibility of each of the basic elements that is not substantially supported by observation or mature fundamental theory. The magnetized strong model is found to be the most probable. In order of decreasing probability, the ranking for the rest of the models is: (1) the magnetized string model with no exotic matter and the baryon adiabatic model; (2) the hot dark matter model and the model of cosmic string loops; (3) the canonical cold dark matter model, the cosmic string loops model with hot dark matter, and the baryonic isocurvature model; and (4) the cosmic string loops model with no exotic matter.
Searching for the standard model in the string landscape: SUSY GUTs
Raby, Stuart
2011-03-01
The standard model is the theory describing all observational data from the highest energies to the largest distances. (There is, however, one caveat: additional forms of energy, not part of the standard model, known as dark matter and dark energy must be included in order to describe the Universe at galactic scales and larger.) High energies refers to physics at the highest energy particle accelerators, including CERN's LEP II (which ceased operation in 2000 to begin construction of the Large Hadron Collider now in operation) and Fermilab's Tevatron, as well as to the energies obtained in particle jets created in so-called active galactic nuclei scattered throughout the visible Universe. Some of these extra-galactic particles bombard our own Earth in the form of cosmic rays, or super-energetic protons which scatter off nucei in the upper atmosphere. String theory is, on the other hand, an unfinished theoretical construct which attempts to describe all matter and their interactions in terms of the harmonic oscillations of open and/or closed strings. It is regarded as unfinished since at present it is a collection of ideas, tied together by powerful consistency conditions, called dualities, with the ultimate goal of finding the completed string theory. At the moment we only have descriptions which are valid in different mutually exclusive limits with names such as type I, IIA, IIB, heterotic, M and F theory. The string landscape has been described in the pages of many scholarly and popular works. It is perhaps best understood as the collection of possible solutions to the string equations; albeit these solutions look totally different in the different limiting descriptions. What do we know about the string landscape? We know that there are such a large number of possible solutions that the only way to represent this number is as 10500 or a 1 followed by 500 zeros. Note that this is not a precise value since the uncertainty is given by a number just as large
Searching for the standard model in the string landscape: SUSY GUTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raby, Stuart
2011-01-01
The standard model is the theory describing all observational data from the highest energies to the largest distances. (There is, however, one caveat: additional forms of energy, not part of the standard model, known as dark matter and dark energy must be included in order to describe the Universe at galactic scales and larger.) High energies refers to physics at the highest energy particle accelerators, including CERN's LEP II (which ceased operation in 2000 to begin construction of the Large Hadron Collider now in operation) and Fermilab's Tevatron, as well as to the energies obtained in particle jets created in so-called active galactic nuclei scattered throughout the visible Universe. Some of these extra-galactic particles bombard our own Earth in the form of cosmic rays, or super-energetic protons which scatter off nucei in the upper atmosphere. String theory is, on the other hand, an unfinished theoretical construct which attempts to describe all matter and their interactions in terms of the harmonic oscillations of open and/or closed strings. It is regarded as unfinished since at present it is a collection of ideas, tied together by powerful consistency conditions, called dualities, with the ultimate goal of finding the completed string theory. At the moment we only have descriptions which are valid in different mutually exclusive limits with names such as type I, IIA, IIB, heterotic, M and F theory. The string landscape has been described in the pages of many scholarly and popular works. It is perhaps best understood as the collection of possible solutions to the string equations; albeit these solutions look totally different in the different limiting descriptions. What do we know about the string landscape? We know that there are such a large number of possible solutions that the only way to represent this number is as 10 500 or a 1 followed by 500 zeros. Note that this is not a precise value since the uncertainty is given by a number just as large
Notes on strings and higher spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, A
2013-01-01
This review is devoted to the intriguing and still largely unexplored links between string theory and higher spins, the types of excitations that lie behind their most cherished properties. A closer look at higher spin fields provides some further clues that string theory describes a broken phase of a higher spin gauge theory. Conversely, string amplitudes contain a wealth of information on higher spin interactions that can clarify long-standing issues related to their infrared behavior. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)
BRST invariant mixed string vertex for the bosonic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarizia, A.; Pezzella, F.
1987-09-01
We construct a BRST invariant (N+M)-string vertex including both open and closed string states. When we saturate it with N open string and M closed string physical states it reproduces their corresponding scattering amplitude. As a particular case we obtain BRST invariant vertex for the open-closed string transition. (orig.)
Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.
2008-01-01
We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.
2007-01-01
We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the π-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The μ + +μ - data show good agreement in the 1∼30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The μ + /μ - ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).
The energy and stability of D-term strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collinucci, Andres; Smyth, Paul; Proeyen, Antoine van
2007-01-01
Cosmic strings derived from string theory, supergravity or any theory of choice should be stable if we hope to observe them. In this paper we consider D-term strings in D = 4 , N = 1 supergravity with a constant Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We show that the positive deficit angle supersymmetric D-term string is non-perturbatively stable by using standard Witten-Nester techniques to prove a positive energy theorem. Particular attention is paid to the negative deficit angle D-term string, which is known to violate the dominant energy condition. Within the class of string solutions we consider, this violation implies that the negative deficit angle D-term string must have a naked pathology and therefore the positive energy theorem we prove does not apply to it. As an interesting aside, we show that the Witten-Nester charge calculates the total gravitational energy of the D-term string without the need for a cut-off, which may not have been expected
String formation beyond leading colour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)
2015-08-03
We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.
Notes on Matrix and Micro Strings
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Herman L.
1998-01-01
We review some recent developments in the study of M-theory compactifications via Matrix theory. In particular we highlight the appearance of IIA strings and their interactions, and explain the unifying role of the M-theory five-brane for describing the spectrum of the T^5 compactification and its duality symmetries. The 5+1-dimensional micro-string theory that lives on the fivebrane world-volume takes a central place in this presentation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco
2013-01-01
Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.
Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco
2013-07-01
Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camera, Stefano [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Fornasa, Mattia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy)
2013-07-01
Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.
Algebras, lattices and strings 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, D.
1987-01-01
The formulation of the string theory of unified elementary particle interactions in terms of operators in a Fock space is now seen to relate to the representation theory of certain infinite dimensional algebras. This insight has enhanced the understanding of the physical and mathematical theories involved and furthermore has led to applications in other branches of theoretical physics. A brief account of the new results is given here. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capdevielle, J N
1984-01-01
First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.
Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2018-02-01
We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1990-01-01
This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality
Thermodynamics of quantum strings
Morgan, M J
1994-01-01
A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkachev, I.I.
2014-01-01
In this talk I will review results of cosmic ray observations at the highest energies. This year the new results on energy spectra, composition and the study of arrival directions of cosmic ray primaries came from the Telescope Array collaboration. I present these results in comparison with measurements done by other recent experiments and discuss their implications for the search of cosmic ray sources. Some related results in gamma-ray astronomy and selected recent advances in theory are also covered. (author)
Experimental Signatures of Strings and Branes
Antoniadis, I.
2007-01-01
Type I string theory provides a D-brane world description of our universe and leads to two new scenaria for physics beyond the Standard Model: low string scale and plit supersymmetry. Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a heoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifymg all interactions. The apparent weakn'ess of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where we must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle cofiders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. I also review the main properties of split supersymmetry and present a concrete string realization which guarantees gauge coupling unification at the conventional scale $M_{GUT}\\approx2$ x $10^{16}$GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1987-01-01
The propagation of closed bosonic strings interacting with background gravitational and dilaton fields is reviewed. The string is treated as a quantum field theory on a compact 2-dimensional manifold. The question is posed as to how the conditions for the vanishing trace anomaly and the ensuing background field equations may depend on global features of the manifold. It is shown that to the leading order in σ-model perturbation theory the string loop effects do not modify the gravitational and the dilaton field equations. However for the purely bosonic strings new terms involving the modular parameter of the world sheet are induced by quantum effects which can be absorbed into a re-definition of the background fields. The authors also discuss some aspects of several regularization schemes such as dimensional, Pauli-Villars and the proper-time cut off in an appendix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Pragati; Tiwari, Swatantra Kumar; De, Sudipan; Sahoo, Raghunath
2017-01-01
The main perspectives of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory are to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter and to explore the conjectured Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. Lattice QCD (lQCD) predicts a smooth crossover at vanishing baryon chemical potential (μ B ) and other QCD based theoretical models predicts first order phase transition at large μB. Searching of the Critical Point in the QCD phase diagram, finding the evidence and nature of phase transition, studying the properties of the matter formed in nuclear collisions as a function of √sNN are the main goals of RHIC. To investigate the nature of the matter produced at heavy-ion collisions, the thermodynamical and transport quantities like: energy density, shear viscosity etc. are studied. It is expected that the ratio of shear viscosity (η) to entropy density (s) would exhibit a minimum value near the QCD critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatzidakis, S., E-mail: schatzid@purdue.edu; Choi, C.K.; Tsoukalas, L.H.
2016-08-21
The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 10{sup 6} muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.
Semilocal and electroweak strings
Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T
We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
2011-01-01
to chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector...
Derandomizing from random strings
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, M.; Loff, B.
2010-01-01
In this paper we show that BPP is truth-table reducible to the set of Kolmogorov random strings R(K). It was previously known that PSPACE, and hence BPP is Turing-reducible to R(K). The earlier proof relied on the adaptivity of the Turing-reduction to find a Kolmogorov-random string of polynomial
Unification of string dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1997-01-01
We argue that all conjectured dualities involving various string, M- and F-theory compactifications can be 'derived' from the conjectured duality between type I and SO(32) heterotic string theory, T-dualities and the definition of M-and F-theories. (orig.)
Optimal Packed String Matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2011-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
I will present a simple and non-technical overview of string theory, aimed for non-experts who like to get some idea what string theory is about. Besides introductory material, I intend to cover also some of the more recent developments.
Multiple-Trace Operators and Non-Local String Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverstein, Eva M.
2001-01-01
We propose that a novel deformation of string perturbation theory, involving non-local interactions between strings, is required to describe the gravity duals of field theories deformed by multiple-trace operators. The new perturbative expansion involves a new parameter, which is neither the string coupling nor the coefficient of a vertex operator on the worldsheet. We explore some of the properties of this deformation, focusing on a special case where the deformation in the field theory is exactly marginal
Equation of motion for string operators in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suura, H.
1979-04-01
I derive from the QCD Lagrangian differential laws describing motions and interactions of an infinite set of string operators - locally gaugeinvariant color-singlet operators. By truncating the set, I obtain a q-anti q wave equation with a confinement potential, and also a jet-fragmentation equation which describes splitting of a q-anti q string and creation of I = O vector mesons. I argue for the validity of the perturbative treatment of the string operators. (orig.) [de
Multiple Coulomb ordered strings of ions in a storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, Rainer W.
2002-01-01
We explain that the anomalous frequency shifts of very close masses measured in the high precision mass measurement experiments in the ESR storage ring result from the locking of Coulomb interacting strings of ions. Here two concentric strings which run horizontally close to each other for many revolutions are captured into a single string if their thermal clouds overlap. They give up their identity and lock into an average frequency
On SUSY breaking and χSB from string duals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, Jaume
2002-01-01
We find regular string duals of three-dimensional N=1 SYM with a Chern-Simons interaction at level k for SO and Sp gauge groups. Using the string dual we exactly reproduce the conjectured pattern of supersymmetry breaking proposed by Witten by showing that there is dynamical supersymmetry breaking for k 2h →Z 2 by analyzing the symmetries of the string solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.
1993-12-01
The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)
Introduction to bosonic string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar
2009-07-01
This is an introductory set of five lectures on bosonic string theory. The first one deals with the classical theory of bosonic strings. The second and third lectures cover quantization. Three basic quantization methods are sketched: the old covariant formalism, the light-cone gauge quantization, where the spectrum is derived and the Polyakov path integral formalism and in particular the partition function at one loop. Finally, the last lecture covers interactions, low energy effective action, the general idea of compactification and in particular toroidal compactification. The notes are based on books by Green, Schwarz and Witten, Polchinski, Lust and Theissen and Kaku and review papers by D'Hocker and Phong and O. Alvarez. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)
Comparison of string models for heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, K.
1990-01-01
An important method to explore new domains in physics is to compare new results with extrapolations from known areas. For heavy ion collision this can be done with string models, which extrapolate from light to heavy systems and which also may be used to extrapolate to higher energies. That does not mean that these string models are only background models, one may easily implement new ideas on top of the known aspects, providing much more reliable models than those formed from scratch. All the models to be considered in this paper have in common that they consist of three independent building blocks: (a) geometry, (b) string formation and (c) string fragmentation. The geometry aspect is treated quite similar in all models: nucleons are distributed inside each nucleus according to some standard parameterization of nuclear densities. The nuclei move through each other on a straight line trajectory, with all the nucleon positions being fixed. Whenever a projectile and a target nucleon come close, they interact. Such an interaction results in string formation. In the last step these strings decay into observable hadrons according to some string fragmentation procedure. The three building blocks are independent, so one can combine different methods in an arbitrary manner. Therefore rather than treating the models one after the other, the author discusses the procedures for string formation and string fragmentation as used by the models. He considers string models in a very general sense, so he includes models where the authors never use the word string, but which may be most naturally interpreted as string models and show strong similarities with real string models. Although very important he does not discuss - for time and space reasons - recent developments concerning secondary scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zabrodin E.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Proton-proton collisions at energies from √s = 200 GeV up to √s = 14 TeV are studied within the microscopic quark-gluon string model. The model is based on Gribov’s Reggeon Field Theory accomplished by string phenomenology. Comparison with experimental data shows that QGSM describes well particle yields, rapidity - and transverse momentum spectra, rise of mean 〈 pT 〉 and forward-backward multiplicity correlations. The latter arise in QGSM because of the addition of various processes with different mean multiplicities. The model also indicates fulfillment of extended longitudinal scaling and violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling at LHC. The origin of both features is traced to short-range particle correlations in the strings. Predictions are made for √s = 14 TeV.
Overproduction of cosmic superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnaby, Neil; Berndsen, Aaron; Cline, James M.; Stoica, Horace
2005-01-01
We show that the naive application of the Kibble mechanism seriously underestimates the initial density of cosmic superstrings that can be formed during the annihilation of D-branes in the early universe, as in models of brane-antibrane inflation. We study the formation of defects in effective field theories of the string theory tachyon both analytically, by solving the equation of motion of the tachyon field near the core of the defect, and numerically, by evolving the tachyon field on a lattice. We find that defects generically form with correlation lengths of order M s -1 rather than H -1 . Hence, defects localized in extra dimensions may be formed at the end of inflation. This implies that brane-antibrane inflation models where inflation is driven by branes which wrap the compact manifold may have problems with overclosure by cosmological relics, such as domain walls and monopoles
A reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, L.C.L.
1989-01-01
It is studied a reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string by using Polyakov's path integral formalism. On the basis of this reduced model it is suggested that the extrinsic string has its critical dimension given by 13. Additionally, it is calculated in a simple way Poliakov's renormalization group law for the string rigidity coupling constants. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Optimization of SAGD wellbore completions : short production tubing string sensitivities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cokar, M.; Graham, J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-10-15
This study investigated the effects of changing the landing position of short production tubing strings near the heel of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production wells. A homogenous discretized wellbore model was used to model the reservoir and wellbore simultaneously in order to study wellbore and reservoir interactions. The aim of the study was to develop a method of optimizing bitumen production and determining the most economical position for wellbore strings. Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of shortening the production tubing string and examine the impact of extending the tubing string beyond the heel of the well on bitumen bitumen production rates and the steam oil ratio (SOR). Results of the study showed that a shortened string decreased bitumen production rates, while the amounts of steam produced through the tubing string increased. When the tubing string was extended past the heel of the well, bitumen production rates remained the same, but steam injection rates and SOR decreased. A lower pressure differential between the injector and producer wells was also observed. The study showed that SAGD producers can re-position production tubing strings in order to determine ratios of liquid production. It was concluded that although placing the short production tubing string close to the heel increased oil production, a longer tubing string improved production rates while lowering operating costs. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 35 figs.
Simulation of swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow
Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin
2006-11-01
In nature, many phenomena involve interactions between flexible bodies and their surrounding viscous fluid, such as a swimming fish or a flapping flag. The intrinsic dynamics is complicate and not well understood. A flexible string can be regarded as a one-dimensional flag model. Many similarities can be found between the flapping string and swimming fish, although different wake speed results in a drag force for the flapping string and a propulsion force for the swimming fish. In the present study, we propose a mathematical formulation for swimming strings immersed in a viscous fluid flow. Fluid motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations and a momentum forcing is added in order to bring the fluid to move at the same velocity with the immersed surface. A flexible inextensible string model is described by another set of equations with an additional momentum forcing which is a result of the fluid viscosity and the pressure difference across the string. The momentum forcing is calculated by a feedback loop. Simulations of several numerical examples are carried out, including a hanging string which starts moving under gravity without ambient fluid, a swinging string immersed in a quiescent viscous fluid, a string swimming within a uniform surrounding flow, and flow over two side-by-side strings. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis and previous experimental observations. Further simulation of a swimming fish is under consideration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1987-01-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory
Dynamics of Strings in Noncommutative Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, David J.; Nekrasov, Nikia A.
2000-01-01
We continue our study of solitons in noncommutative gauge theories and present an extremely simple BPS solution of N=4 U(1) noncommutative gauge theory in 4 dimensions, which describes N infinite D1 strings that pierce a D3 brane at various points, in the presence of a background B-field in the Seiberg-Witten limit. We call this solution the N-fluxon. For N=1 we calculate the complete spectrum of small fluctuations about the fluxon and find three kinds of modes: the fluctuations of the superstring in 10 dimensions arising from fundamental strings attached to the D1 strings, the ordinary particles of the gauge theory in 4 dimensions and a set of states with discrete spectrum, localized at the intersection point - corresponding to fundamental strings stretched between the D1 string and the D3 brane. We discuss the fluctuations about the N-fluxon as well and derive explicit expressions for the amplitudes of interactions between these various modes. We show that translations in noncommutative gauge theories are equivalent to gauge transformations (plus a constant shift of the gauge field) and discuss the implications for the translational zeromodes of our solitons. We also find the dyonic versions of N-fluxon, as well as of our previous string-monopole solution. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.
1985-01-01
We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, S.V.; Kochin, V.N.; Plyushchaj, M.S.; Pron'ko, G.P.; Razumov, A.V.; Samarin, A.V.
1985-01-01
Partial solutions to classical equations of three-string motion are considered. Simplest solutions, when three-string center moving with high velocity, are co nsidered. Single-mode solutions are studied. Explicit form of their parametrization is obtained and three-string dynamics visualization is made. Means of graphic packet ''Atom'' were used for visualization. A set of processes for graphic representation of multiparametric functions is developed. Peculiarity of these processes is a wide class of functions, which are represented by parametric, coordinate and functional isolines
Nuclear force from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Sakai, Tadakatsu; Sugimoto, Shigeki
2009-01-01
We compute the nuclear force in a holographic model of QCD on the basis of a D4-D8 brane configuration in type IIA string theory. The repulsive core of nucleons is important in nuclear physics, but its origin has not been well understood in strongly coupled QCD. We find that the string theory via gauge/string duality deduces this repulsive core at a short distance between nucleons. Since baryons in the model are realized as solitons given by Yang-Mills instanton configuration on flavor D8-branes, ADHM construction of two instantons probes well the nucleon interaction at short scale, which provides the nuclear force quantitatively. We obtain a central force, as well as a tensor force, which is strongly repulsive as suggested in experiments and lattice results. In particular, the nucleon-nucleon potential V(r) (as a function of the distance) scales as r -2 , which is peculiar to the holographic model. We compare our results with the one-boson exchange model using the nucleon-nucleon-meson coupling obtained in our previous paper. (author)
Exceptional groups from open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.
1998-01-01
We consider type IIB theory compactified on a two-sphere in the presence of mutually non-local 7-branes. The BPS states associated with the gauge vectors of exceptional groups are seen to arise from open strings connecting the 7-branes, and multi-pronged open strings capable of ending on more than two 7-branes. These multi-pronged strings are built from open string junctions that arise naturally when strings cross 7-branes. The different string configurations can be multiplied as traditional open strings, and are shown to generate the structure of exceptional groups. (orig.)
Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.
2004-01-01
We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string
Dark matter from cosmic defects on galactic scales?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerreiro, N.; Carvalho, J. P. M. de; Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2008-01-01
We discuss the possible dynamical role of extended cosmic defects on galactic scales, specifically focusing on the possibility that they may provide the dark matter suggested by the classical problem of galactic rotation curves. We emphasize that the more standard defects (such as Goto-Nambu strings) are unsuitable for this task but show that more general models (such as transonic wiggly strings) could in principle have a better chance. In any case, we show that observational data severely restricts any such scenarios.
Reheating for closed string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute
2010-05-15
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
Reheating for closed string inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam; Copenhagen Univ.
2010-05-01
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations and fundamental string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, G.
1988-01-01
In this paper the infinite sequence of non-linear partial differential equations known as the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations is described in simple terms and possible applications to a fundamental description of interacting strings are addressed. Lines of research likely to prove useful in formulating a description of non-perturbative string configurations are indicated. (orig.)
Story of the string theory. From hadrons to Planck scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petropoulos, P.M.
2010-01-01
Originally the string theory was devised to describe the scattering between hadron particles but was quickly put aside by the success of the quantum chromodynamics. Now string theory appears in the quantum gravity theory and has been involved in almost all attempts to define a physics beyond the standard model and to unify basic interactions. (A.C.)
Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaidalov, A.B.
1980-01-01
Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model are derived. For this purpose the space- time picture of hadron interactions at high energies corresponding to planar diagrams of topological expansion is considered. Simple relations between intercepts and slopes of Regge trajectories based on the topological expansion and q anti q-string picture of hadrons are obtained [ru
Forty Years of String Theory: Reflecting on the Foundations
de Haro, S.; Dieks, D.G.B.J.; t Hooft, G.; Verlinde, E.
2013-01-01
The history of string theory started around 1970 when Nambu, Nielsen, and Susskind realized that Veneziano’s 1968 dual model, devised to explain the particle spectrum of the strong interactions, actually describes the properties of quantum mechanical strings. A few years later, QCD appeared as a
International conference on string theory
2017-01-01
The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.
Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R
2015-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.
Hydroball string sensing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurwitz, M.J.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Squarer, D.
1991-01-01
This patent describes a hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor having a core containing a fluid at a fluid pressure. It comprises a tube connectable to the nuclear reactor so that the fluid can flow within the tube at a fluid pressure that is substantially the same as the fluid pressure of the nuclear reactor core; a hydroball string including - a string member having objects positioned therealong with a specified spacing, the object including a plurality of hydroballs, and bullet members positioned at opposing ends of the string member; first sensor means, positioned outside a first segment of the tube, for sensing one of the objects being positioned within the first segment, and for providing a sensing signal responsive to the sensing of the first sensing means
2008-01-01
String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.
Nonrelativistic closed string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi
2001-01-01
We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting
String theory compactifications
Graña, Mariana
2017-01-01
The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schellekens, A.N.
1989-01-01
In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found
Confusing the heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benett, D.L.; Mizrachi, L.
1986-01-01
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8 's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model. (orig.)
Confusing the heterotic string
Benett, D.; Brene, N.; Mizrachi, Leah; Nielsen, H. B.
1986-10-01
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.
Confusing the heterotic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.; Mizrachi, L.
1986-10-02
A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E/sub 8/'s of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E/sub 8/ only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
Several topics are discussed in string theory presented as three lectures to the Spring School on Superstrings at the ICTP at Trieste, Italy, in April, 1988. The first lecture is devoted to some general aspects of conformal invariance and duality. The second sketches methods for carrying out perturbative calculations in string field theory. The final lecture presents an alternative lattice approach to a nonperturbative formulation of the sum over world surfaces. 35 refs., 12 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.
1980-01-01
Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)
Manipulating Strings in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William J. Turkel
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, Hirosachi
1974-01-01
It is important to know the physical state of solar plasma region by the observation of intensity variation of cosmic ray which passed through the solar plasma region, because earth magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between geomagnetic field and solar plasma flow. The observation of cosmic ray intensity is useful to know the average condition of the space of 0.1--3 A.U., and gives the structure of the magnetic field in solar wind affecting the earth magnetosphere. The observation of neutron component in cosmic ray has been carried out at Norikura, Tokyo, Fukushima and Morioka. The lower limit of the energy of incident cosmic ray which can be observed at each station is different, and the fine structure of the variation can be known by comparison. The intensity of meson component in cosmic ray has been measured in underground, and the state of solar plasma region 2--3 A.U. from the earth can be known. The underground measurement has been made at Takeyama and Matsumoto, and a new station at Sakashita is proposed. The measurement at Sakashita will be made by proportional counters at the depth of 100m (water equivalent). Arrangement of detectors is shown. (Kato, T.)
Power suppression at large scales in string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, Bologna, 40126 (Italy); Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: dutta@physics.tamu.edu [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States)
2013-12-01
We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.
String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields
Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.
2018-03-01
For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).
Scattering of long folded strings and mixed correlators in the two-matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourgine, J.-E.; Hosomichi, K.; Kostov, I.; Matsuo, Y.
2008-01-01
We study the interactions of Maldacena's long folded strings in two-dimensional string theory. We find the amplitude for a state containing two long folded strings to come and go back to infinity. We calculate this amplitude both in the worldsheet theory and in the dual matrix model, the matrix quantum mechanics. The matrix model description allows to evaluate the amplitudes involving any number of long strings, which are given by the mixed trace correlators in an effective two-matrix model
Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, J.
2009-05-01
String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity
Maximum margin classifier working in a set of strings.
Koyano, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya
2016-03-01
Numbers and numerical vectors account for a large portion of data. However, recently, the amount of string data generated has increased dramatically. Consequently, classifying string data is a common problem in many fields. The most widely used approach to this problem is to convert strings into numerical vectors using string kernels and subsequently apply a support vector machine that works in a numerical vector space. However, this non-one-to-one conversion involves a loss of information and makes it impossible to evaluate, using probability theory, the generalization error of a learning machine, considering that the given data to train and test the machine are strings generated according to probability laws. In this study, we approach this classification problem by constructing a classifier that works in a set of strings. To evaluate the generalization error of such a classifier theoretically, probability theory for strings is required. Therefore, we first extend a limit theorem for a consensus sequence of strings demonstrated by one of the authors and co-workers in a previous study. Using the obtained result, we then demonstrate that our learning machine classifies strings in an asymptotically optimal manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usefulness of our machine in practical data analysis by applying it to predicting protein-protein interactions using amino acid sequences and classifying RNAs by the secondary structure using nucleotide sequences.
Deterministic indexing for packed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
2017-01-01
Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernin, Artur D
2001-01-01
Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2001-11-30
Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)
Open String Diagrams I: Topological Type
Nag, Subhashis; Sankaran, Parameswaran
1992-01-01
An arbitrary Feynman graph for string field theory interactions is analysed and the homeomorphism type of the corresponding world sheet surface is completely determined even in the non-orientable cases. Algorithms are found to mechanically compute the topological characteristics of the resulting surface from the structure of the signed oriented graph. Whitney's permutation-theoretic coding of graphs is utilized.
Purely cubic action for string field theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.
Topics in supergravity and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastaugh, A.G.
1987-01-01
The first topic covered in this dissertation concerns the harmonic expansion technique and its application to the dimensional compactification of higher dimensional supergravity. A simple example is given to explain the method and then the method is applied to the problem of obtaining the mass spectrum of the squashed seven-sphere compactification of eleven dimensional supergravity. The second topic concerns the application of Fujikawa's method of anomaly calculation to the calculation of the critical dimension of various string models. The third topic is a study and explicit calculation of the Fock space representation of the vertex in Witten's formulation of the interacting open bosonic string field theory
Strings and fundamental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael
2012-01-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
Strings and fundamental physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
2012-07-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.
2010-01-01
A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2014-01-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astaf'ev, V.A.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews the mathematical methods used for analyzing the experimental data obtained in investigations of cosmic rays of superhigh energies (10 14 -10 19 eV). The analysis is carried out on the basis of the direct problem solution, i.e. calculation of the characteristics of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade showers developed in the atmosphere with regard to the specific features of experimental devices. The analytical and numerical metods for solving equations describing shower development, as well as simulation of cascade processes by the Monte Carlo method are applied herein
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surkov, Yu A; Moskaleva, L P; Kharyukova, V P; Borodin, A M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii
1976-03-01
Gamma-spectra of Mars have been analyzed measured by the ''Mars-5'' interplanetary station at the altitude of approximately 200 km over the planet. A model spectrum of the Mars atmosphere gamma-radiation obtained earlier has been employed for obtaining cosmo-chemical information of the Mars rocks. In the energy range of gamma radiation Esub(..gamma..)(>=)2.6 MeV, in which no contribution of gamma radiation of natural radioisotopes is present, the best agreement has been obtained for the spectrum of gamma-radiation induced by cosmic rays in rocks of the type of earthly basalts.
Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?
David Huron; Caitlyn Trevor
2017-01-01
String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1988-01-01
We present an entirely new approach to closed-string field theory, called Igeometric string field theory R, which avoids the complications found in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin string field theory (e.g., ghost counting, infinite overcounting of diagrams, midpoints, lack of modular invariance). Following the analogy with general relativity and Yang-Mills theory, we define a new infinite-dimensional local gauge group, called the unified string group, which uniquely specifies the connection fields, the curvature tensor, the measure and tensor calculus, and finally the action itself. Geometric field theory, when gauge fixed, yields an entirely new class of gauges called the interpolating gauge which allows us to smoothly interpolate between the midpoint gauge and the end-point gauge (''covariantized light-cone gauge''). We can show that geometric string field theory reproduces one copy of the Shapiro-Virasoro model. Surprisingly, after the gauge is broken, a new Iclosed four-string interactionR emerges as the counterpart of the instantaneous four-fermion Coulomb term in QED. This term restores modular invariance and precisely fills the missing region of the complex plane
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-01
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F
2014-01-01
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-15
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Tian, Q. Z.
2017-12-01
It is common to use a jarring tool to unfreeze stuck downhole string. However, in a horizontal well, influenced by the friction caused by the deviated section, jarring effect is poor; on the other hand, the forcing point can be located in the horizontal section by a hydraulic booster and the friction can be reduced, but it is time-consuming and easy to break downhole string using a large-tonnage and constant pull force. A hydraulic booster - jar tool string has been developed for unfreezing operation in horizontal wells. The technical solution involves three elements: a two-stage parallel spring cylinder structure for increasing the energy storage capacity of spring accelerators; multiple groups of spring accelerators connected in series to increase the working stroke; a hydraulic booster intensifying jarring force. The integrated unfreezing tool string based on these three elements can effectively overcome the friction caused by a deviated borehole, and thus unfreeze a stuck string with the interaction of the hydraulic booster and the mechanical jar which form an alternatively dynamic load. Experimental results show that the jarring performance parameters of the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string for the horizontal wells are in accordance with original design requirements. Then field technical parameters were developed based on numerical simulation and experimental data. Field application shows that the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string is effective to free stuck downhole tools in a horizontal well, and it reduces hook load by 80% and lessens the requirement of workover equipment. This provides a new technology to unfreeze stuck downhole string in a horizontal well.
Quark potential of spontaneous strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
German, G.; Kleinert, H.
1989-01-01
The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings
Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity
Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali
2010-11-01
String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.
Yang-Mills theory - a string theory in disguise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foerster, D.
1979-01-01
An examination of the Schwinger-Dyson equations of U(N) lattice Yang-Mills theory shows that this theory is exactly equivalent to a theory of strings that interact with one another only through their topology. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnowitt, R.; Bryan, R.; Duff, M.J.; Nanopoulos, D.; Pope, C.N.
1990-01-01
Does string theory provide us with a consistent quantum theory of gravity? Is it that Holy Grail of elementary particle physics, a Theory of Everything with embraces all the forces and particles of Nature? Even if it is, can we extract concrete predictions about our low-energy world that can be tested experimentally at the SSC and other particle accelerators? What does it have to say about the origin of the Universe and the thorny problem of the cosmological constant? Are superstring theories unique, or might the eleven-dimensional supermembrane prove equally consistent? These are just some of the question posed and debated at Strings '89
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Michael
2000-01-01
Theorists are confident that they are closer than ever to finding a quantum theory that unites gravity with the three other fundamental forces in nature. Many of the leading figures in the world of string theory met at the California Institute of Technology in January to discuss recent progress in the field and to reflect on the state of the theory. The enthusiastic mood of the gathering was based on the fact that string theory provides an elegant framework for a unified theory of all the forces and particles in nature, and also gives a consistent quantum-mechanical description of general relativity. String theory, and more precisely superstring theory, describes the assortment of elementary particles such as quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons responsible for mediating forces in a unified manner as different modes of vibration of a single extended string. This version of the theory also embodies supersymmetry a conjectured symmetry that unifies fermions and bosons. Furthermore, the fact that the string has a fundamental length scale - the ''string length'' - apparently cures the short-distance problems of uniting general relativity with quantum theory. The main problem with the early formulations of superstring theory was that they emphasized the ''perturbative'' point of view, an approximation that describes string-like quantum-mechanical particles moving through classical (that is non quantum-mechanical) space-time. However, very general arguments require that any quantum theory of gravity should also describe space-time geometry in a quantum-mechanical manner. The classical geometry of space-time should then emerge as an approximate description at distance scales much larger than the so-called Planck scale of 10 -33 m. This requires an understanding of the theory beyond the perturbative approximation. It is the quest for this more fundamental description of string theory that has provided the main challenge for string theorists over the past decade. Much
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1987-10-01
These notes are based on a set of six introductory lectures given jointly by the authors. After developing the canonical methods we discuss the covariant quantization of the bosonic as well as the fermionic string. Conformal field theory methods are also introduced and used to calculate the anomaly coefficient, c, as well as the critical dimensions for bosonic and superstrings. We briefly sketch the BRS quantization and then offer an elementary derivation of the anomaly in the ghost number current. Finally, we address the one-loop partition function of the bosonic string and the question of SL(2,Z) invariance. (author). 15 refs
Matrix string partition function
Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre
1998-01-01
We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.
String theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.
1988-01-01
A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs
Instability of colliding metastable strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2013-04-15
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
Instability of colliding metastable strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.
2013-04-01
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
String theory and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, A.M.
1998-01-01
This article is based on a talk given at the ''Strings '97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed. (orig.)
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
Conformal invariance and microscopic sensitivity in cosmic inflation
Aalst, Ted Adrianus Franciscus van der
2012-01-01
Phenomenologically, cosmic inflation is a satisfying and well-tested description of the physics of the very early universe. During this epoch, the universe was dominated by high energy phenomena that can only be truly understood in a quantum gravity theory such as string theory. In this thesis we
SUPERCOLLIDER: String test success
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
On 14 August at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Laboratory in Ellis County, Texas, the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) successfully met its objective by operating a half-cell of five collider dipole magnets, one quadrupole magnet, and two spool pieces at the design current of 6500 amperes
2007-01-01
"How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco A.C. Kneipp
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.
According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons
String perturbation theory diverges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.
1988-01-01
We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi
1988-01-01
Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)
Invariant strings and pattern-recognizing properties of one-dimensional cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jen, E.
1986-01-01
A cellular automaton is a discrete dynamical system whose evolution is governed by a deterministic rule involving local interactions. It is shown that given an arbitrary string of values and an arbitry neighborhood size (representing the range of interaction), a simple procedure can be used to find the fules of that neighborhood size under which the string is unvarian. The set of nearestneighbor rules for which invariant strings exist is completely specified, as is the set of strings invariant under each such rule. For any automaton rule, an associated ''filtering'' rule is defined for which the only attractors are spatial sequences consisting of concatenations of invariant strings. A result is provided defining the rule of minimum neighborhood size for which an arbitrrily chosen string is the unique invariant string. The applications of filtering rules to pttern recognition problems are discussed
Lectures on strings and dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1997-01-01
In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)
Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Borak, T.; Carter, T.; Frankel, K. A.; Fukumura, A.; Murakami, T.; Rademacher, S. E.; Schimmerling, W.;
1998-01-01
This paper surveys some recent accelerator-based measurements of the nuclear fragmentation of high energy nuclei in shielding and tissue-equivalent materials. These data are needed to make accurate predictions of the radiation field produced at depth in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding materials and in the human body by heavy charged particles in the galactic cosmic radiation. Projectile-target combinations include 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe incident on aluminum and graphite and 600 MeV/nucleon 56Fe and 290 MeV/nucleon 12C on polyethylene. We present examples of the dependence of fragmentation on material type and thickness, of a comparison between data and a fragmentation model, and of multiple fragments produced along the beam axis.
Hadronic cosmic ray interactions near the LHC energy region and in the UHE domain of giant EAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capdevielle, J.N. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), College de France, 75 - Paris (France)
2005-07-01
The fluctuations of ray families simulated with CORSIKA in the energy region 3.10{sup 15} - 10{sup 17} eV on the basis of standard Lns collider physics exhibits alignments of secondaries in the stratosphere and at ground level. The remarkable event recorded on the Concorde does not fit well however those cases. The possible hints of new mechanisms, especially the valence diquark breaking, are considered. Observing that the extrapolation of the original cosmic ray primary spectrum derived from the size spectrum measured in the Akeno classical EAS array coincides with the spectrum measured recently by the Hires Stereo experiment, we point out a possible overestimation of the primary energy in inclined showers of the surface arrays like AGASA. (author)
LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference, August 7 - December 15, 2006
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.
2006-01-01
This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings. Particle physics is at the dawn of a new era, as the Large Hadron Collider, the most powerful accelerator ever built, is set to begin operation at the end of 2007. This instrument will probe distances fully an order of magnitude smaller than probed in the past. It is widely expected that dramatic effects, associated with the breaking of the symmetry of the electroweak interactions, will appear at this scale. Candidate phenomena include supersymmetry, new strong interactions, and large or warped extra dimensions; another possibility is simply the Standard model itself (including the Higgs particle). Similarly, the last decade has seen great leaps in our knowledge of the early history of the universe. Inflation as the origin of cosmic structure is now reasonably well established. Until recently, superstring theory, despite its successes in taming the difficulties of quantum gravity, has proven unable to make definitive predictions for phenomena at accelerators or in the cosmos. Recent developments have raised hopes that this situation is about to change. Previously, one could identify at least three related, major obstacles to any detailed understanding of how string theory was related to nature. (1) There is a vast array of possible string ground states, distinguished, for example, by various topological features. (2) Only those ground states with a unbroken supersymmetry were at all understood quantum mechanically. (3) Among candidate non-supersymmetric states, there were always (pseudo)moduli (scalar fields with potentials which at least asymptotically tend to zero). It seemed that any stable or metastable minima of their potentials would lie in a region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari; /more authors..
2012-03-30
Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse {gamma}-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200{sup o} to 260{sup o} and latitude |b| from 22{sup o} to 60{sup o}) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of {gamma}-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual {gamma}-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated {gamma}-ray emissivity is (1.63 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} and (0.66 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of {approx}10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within {approx}10%.
Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.
1988-01-01
The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings
Strings draw theorists together
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Michael [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2000-03-01
Theorists are confident that they are closer than ever to finding a quantum theory that unites gravity with the three other fundamental forces in nature. Many of the leading figures in the world of string theory met at the California Institute of Technology in January to discuss recent progress in the field and to reflect on the state of the theory. The enthusiastic mood of the gathering was based on the fact that string theory provides an elegant framework for a unified theory of all the forces and particles in nature, and also gives a consistent quantum-mechanical description of general relativity. String theory, and more precisely superstring theory, describes the assortment of elementary particles such as quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons responsible for mediating forces in a unified manner as different modes of vibration of a single extended string. This version of the theory also embodies supersymmetry a conjectured symmetry that unifies fermions and bosons. Furthermore, the fact that the string has a fundamental length scale - the ''string length'' - apparently cures the short-distance problems of uniting general relativity with quantum theory. The main problem with the early formulations of superstring theory was that they emphasized the ''perturbative'' point of view, an approximation that describes string-like quantum-mechanical particles moving through classical (that is non quantum-mechanical) space-time. However, very general arguments require that any quantum theory of gravity should also describe space-time geometry in a quantum-mechanical manner. The classical geometry of space-time should then emerge as an approximate description at distance scales much larger than the so-called Planck scale of 10{sup -33} m. This requires an understanding of the theory beyond the perturbative approximation. It is the quest for this more fundamental description of string theory that has provided the main challenge for
Device for balancing parallel strings
Mashikian, Matthew S.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.
Tomaschitz, R
1998-01-01
A prerelativistic approach to particle dynamics is explored in an expanding Robertson-Walker cosmology. The receding galactic background provides a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time. In this context the relativistic, purely geometric space-time concept is criticized. Physical space is regarded as a permeable medium, the cosmic ether, which effects the world-lines of particles and rays. We study in detail a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved, open three-space; we choose the permeability tensor of the ether in such a way that the semiclassical approximation is exact. Galactic red-shifts depend on the refractive index of the ether. In the local Minkowskian limit the ether causes a time variation of mass, which scales inversely proportional to cosmic time. In the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers the ether manifests itself in an unbounded speed of signal transfer, in bifurcations of world-lines, and in time inversion effects.
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
2015-08-01
Cosmic Topology is the name given to the study of the overall shape of the universe, which involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. Whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected like a torus, smaller or greater than the portion of the universe that we can directly observe, are questions that refer to topology rather than curvature. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected "small" universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the most recent cosmological data fit the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they are also consistent with compact topologies of the three homogeneous and isotropic geometries of constant curvature, such as, for instance, the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. After a "dark age" period, the field of Cosmic Topology has recently become one of the major concerns in cosmology, not only for theorists but also for observational astronomers, leaving open a number of unsolved issues.
Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics - Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gawin, J.
1997-01-01
Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of the asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions from the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. -Studies of structure and properties of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. -Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. -Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. -Studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear interactions for energies exceeding those obtained by modern particle accelerators are performed employing results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. The Lodz hodoscope can register electromagnetic components of cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere as well as muons at two energy thresholds. Data collected by the Lodz array are also used to study mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. The Lodz group collaborates with foreign institutes and laboratories on construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, the Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the University of Durham, and the University of Perpignan. (author)
Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gawin, J.
1998-01-01
(full text) The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. -Studies of the structure and properties of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range l0 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear interactions for energies exceeding those obtained by modern particle accelerators are performed based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. The Lodz hodoscope can register the electromagnetic component of cosmic ray showers developing in the atmosphere as well as muons of two energy thresholds. Data collected by the Lodz array are also used to study the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany), College de' France, the Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Science, the University of Perpignan (France) and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu
2007-02-15
In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian
String networks in ZN Lotka–Volterra competition models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avelino, P.P.; Bazeia, D.; Menezes, J.; Oliveira, B.F. de
2014-01-01
In this Letter we give specific examples of Z N Lotka–Volterra competition models leading to the formation of string networks. We show that, in order to promote coexistence, the species may arrange themselves around regions with a high number density of empty sites generated by predator–prey interactions between competing species. These configurations extend into the third dimension giving rise to string networks. We investigate the corresponding dynamics using both stochastic and mean field theory simulations, showing that the coarsening of these string networks follows a scaling law which is analogous to that found in other physical systems in condensed matter and cosmology