WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmic ray variations

  1. Heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavrakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the possible temporal correlation between heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays' activity, on various time scales. Cosmic rays measurements are sparse and cover less extended periods than those of precipitation. Precipitation is largely influenced by local climatic and even physiographic conditions, while cosmic rays' distribution is far more uniform over an area. Thus, in an effort to cover a larger range of climatic characteristics, each cosmic rays station was correlated with several nearby precipitation stations. Selected statistical methods were employed for the data processing. The analysis was preformed on annual, seasonal, monthly and daily basis whenever possible. Wet and dry regions and/or seasons seem to present a different response of precipitation to cosmic rays variations. Also Forbush decreases in most cases will not lead to heavy precipitation, yet this might be sensitive to precipitable water availability.

  2. Causes of Forbush decreases and other cosmic ray variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between neutron monitor variations and the intensity variations of the interplanetary magnetic field is studied by using Deep River data and Imp series satellite data. In over 80% of the cases studied in 1968, identifiable depressions of the cosmic ray intensity are associated with magnetic field enhancements of several hours duration and intensity above 10 gamma. Conversely, almost every magnetic field enhancement has an identifiable effect (though not necessarily a marked depression) on the cosmic ray intensity. Perpendicular gradient drifts are suggested as one possible mechanism producing the individual decreases, and some ideas on the recovery processes are presented. Long-lasting Forbush decreases are found to be the consequence of the action of several successive magnetic field enhancements. Evidence is presented that indicates that most of these enhancements are caused by the steepening of streams in interplanetary space.

  3. Effect of Interplanetary Transients on Cosmic Ray Anisotropic Variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the cosmic ray intensity data recorded with ground-based neutron monitor at Deep River has investigated taking into account the associated interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind plasma data during 1981-1994. A large number of days having abnormally high/low amplitudes for successive number of five or more days as compared to annual average amplitude of diurnal anisotropy have been taken as high/low amplitude anisotropic wave train events (HAE/LAE). The amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy of these events is found to increase on the days of magnetic cloud as compared to the days prior to the event and it found to decrease during the later period of the event as the cloud passes the Earth. The High-Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS) do not play any significant role in causing these types of events. The interplanetary disturbances (magnetic clouds) are also effective in producing cosmic ray decreases. Hα solar flares have a good positive correlation with both amplitude and direction of the anisotropy for HAEs,whereas PMSs have a good positive correlation with both amplitude and direction of the anisotropy for LAEs.The source responsible for these unusual anisotropic wave trains in CR has been proposed.

  4. On cosmic rays flux variations in midlatitudes and their relations to geomagnetic and atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Anna; Blanco, Juan Jose; Mendes Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando

    The cosmic rays flux is globally modulated by the solar cycle and shows anti-correlation with the sunspot number. Near to the Earth it is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The analysis of the secondary cosmic rays produced when they interact in the low stratosphere allows extracting information about solar wind structures surrounding Earth's orbit, the magnetic field of the Earth and the temperature of the stratosphere. Recently, a new cosmic ray detector, the TRAGALDABAS, composed by RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) planes, has been developed and installed to go deeper into the understanding of the cosmic rays arriving to the Earth surface. An international collaboration has been organized for keeping the detector operative and for analyzing the data. Here we present the analysis of the cosmic rays flux variations measured by two cosmic rays detectors of different types located in Spain (Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor - CaLMa - in Guadalajara and TRAGALDABAS in Santiago de Compostela) and their comparison to changes both in the geomagnetic field components measured by the Coimbra Geomagnetic Observatory (Portugal) and in the atmospheric conditions (tropo- and stratosphere) measured by Spanish and Portuguese meteorological stations. The study is focused on a number of recent cosmic rays events and pays specific attention to the comparison of the CaLMa series and the preliminary TRAGALDABAS data.

  5. Cosmic rays, conditions in interplanetary space and geomagnetic variations during solar cycles 19-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktash, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    We have studied conditions in interplanetary space, which can have an influence on galactic and solar cosmic rays (CRs). In this connection the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters and CRs variations have been compared with geomagnetic activity represented by the equatorial Dst and Kp indices beginning from 1955 to the end 2015. The indices are in common practice in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction studies and they are the final product of this interaction. The important drivers in interplanetary medium which have effect on cosmic rays as CMEs (coronal mass ejections) and CIRs (corotating interaction regions) undergo very strong changes during their propagation to the Earth. Correlation of sunspot numbers and long-term variations of cosmic rays do not adequately reflect peculiarities concerned with the solar wind arrival to 1 AU also. Moreover records of in situ space measurements of the IMF and most other indicators of solar activity cover only a few decades and have a lot of gaps for calculations of long-term variations. Because of this, in such investigations, the geomagnetic indices have some inestimable advantage as continuous series other the solar wind measurements. We have compared the yearly average variations of the indices and of the solar wind parameters with cosmic ray data from Moscow, Climax, Halekala and Oulu neutron monitors during the 20-24 solar cycles. During the descending phases of the solar cycles the long-lasting solar wind high speed streams occurred frequently and were the primary contributors to the recurrent Dst variations and had effects on cosmic rays variations. We show that long-term Dst and Kp variations in these solar cycles were correlated with cosmic ray count rates and can be used for prediction of CR variations. Climate change in connection with evolution of CRs variations is discussed.

  6. Changes in cosmic ray cut-off rigidities due to secular variations of the geomagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available An analytical expression is derived for the cutoff rigidity of cosmic rays arriving at a point in an arbitrary direction, when the main geomagnetic field is approximated by that of an eccentric dipole. This expression is used to determine changes in geomagnetic cutoffs due to secular variation of the geomagnetic field since 1835. Effects of westward drift of the quadrupole field and decrease in the effective dipole moment are seen in the isorigidity contours. On account of the immense computer time required to determine the cutoff rigidities more accurately using the particle trajectory tracing technique, the present formulation may be useful in estimating the transmission factor of the geomagnetic field in cosmic ray studies, modulation of cosmogenic isotope production by geomagnetic secular variation, and the contribution of geomagnetic field variation to long term changes in climate through cosmic ray related modulation of the current flow in the global electric circuit.

  7. Solar Activity and Cloud Opacity Variations A Modulated Cosmic-Ray Ionization Model

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, D C; Marsden, David; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The observed correlation between global low cloud amount and the flux of high energy cosmic-rays supports the idea that ionization plays a crucial role in tropospheric cloud formation. We explore this idea quantitatively with a simple model of cosmic-ray ionization enhancement of the formation of cloud condensation nuclei. This model predicts that solar modulation of the cosmic-ray ionization rate should be correlated with cloud opacity where the atmospheric aerosol concentration is low. Using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project database (1983-1993), we find that the mean opacity of low latitude (40 degrees) clouds, on the other hand, show an anti-correlation with cosmic-ray flux, which we suggest may be a feedback effect resulting from the thicker low latitude clouds. We also show that the previously reported correlations of cloud amount with cosmic-ray flux probably result from the variations in longwave emissivity expected from our model, and not from variations in cloud amount. Further g...

  8. On the periodic variations of secondary cosmic rays and the geomagnetic Pc4 pulsations in BMAr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Martin

    Full Text Available In a set of balloon flights in the Brazilian magnetic anomaly region (BMAr short time periodic variations were observed, i.e. pulsation, of secondary charged and neutral particle fluxes, X- and -ray fluxes with amplitudes of about 2–4%. The pulsations are accompanied by the geomagnetic Pc4 pulsations and have similar periodicity. The phenomenon was observed over various local times and in quiet and disturbed magnetospheric conditions. One of the explanations of this effect, i.e. periodic variation of local cut-off rigidity, and following pulsations of primary and secondary cosmic ray intensity is suggested.

  9. Seasonal variation of secondary cosmic rays in the low polar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanenko, Alexey; Balabin, Yury

    Monitoring of different kind of secondary cosmic rays in the low atmosphere is carried out for some years in the Polar Geophysical Institute. At the present moment two monitoring stations (Apatity, Murmansk region and Barentsburg, Spitzbergen) are in operation. Additionally to conventional 18-NM-64 neutron monitor (NM) there are leadless 4-NM-64 section (LLNM), thermal neutron detector (TND) and scintillation detector of gamma-ray (SDG) of 20-400 keV energy range. SDG has 5 cm lead shield at bottom and sides, accepts radiation only from the atmosphere. In a row of neutron detectors from NM to TND seasonal variation grows up from 0 to ˜ 10 %. The distinct and big seasonal variation (˜ 30 %) is on SDG detector. Low energy gamma-rays are caused of pion and muon decay, first of all low energy muons. It was suggested muon seasonal variation, depending on atmosphere temperature and seasonal condition, determines the SDG-variation.

  10. Signatures of thunderstorms in the variations of the secondary cosmic rays registered in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Castillo, J.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of thunderstorms (TS) in the intensity variations of the electromagnetic and muon components of the Cosmic Rays during the year 2004, a year of minimum solar activity. We analyzed the variations in the counting rates of the upper and lower scintillators of the muon telescope installed in Mexico City at times of reported TS and compared those with variations during quiet times. The data were filtered to eliminate long trends, then a wavelet spectrum was calculated, searching for the temporal evolution of diverse periods of high significance; recurrent periodicities and total power distributions were obtained. The results show variations of short period whose main periodicities are arranged in a distribution where the most important are the shortest periodicities. These may be associated to the electric fields of the TS. Significant long period variations were found too, these could be due to other processes linked to rainstorms. No systematic effect on the power of variations due to TS was found.

  11. Variations of three-dimensional anisotropy of cosmic rays during Forbush decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Ogita, N.; Gleeson, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of three-dimensional anisotropy of cosmic rays during Forbush decreases are examined by a spherical harmonic method and by constructing successive isointensity contour maps in the solar ecliptic coordinate system. The east-west and north-south anisotropies are studied statistically and for several individual events; the data are based on cosmic ray records from about 24 stations for the 3-year period from 1966 to 1968. For the individual events, the high anisotropies of about 4% are examined in terms of the convective, diffusive and density gradient components of the differential streaming as well as the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind. In each case, vector gradients are derived that lead to the observed anisotropies, and the magnitude of these gradients is typically 10-20 times that of the quiet time interplanetary gradient.

  12. Cosmic rays on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allkofer, O. C.; Grieder, P. K. F.

    Contents: Cosmic rays in the atmosphere: Charged hadron data. Neutron data. Gamma-ray data. Electron data. Muon data. Data on nuclei. Data on antiparticles. Cosmic rays at sea level: Muon data. Charged hadron data.Neutron data. Electron data. Gamma-ray data. Data on nuclei. Cosmic rays underground: Muon data. Neutrino data.

  13. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  14. MONITORING SHORT-TERM COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS USING NEUTRON MONITOR TIME-DELAY MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Asavapibhop, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Munakata, K., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2016-01-20

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  15. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  16. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  17. Two classes of cosmic ray decrease. [Forbush and 27-day variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschell, H. J.; Mendell, R. B.; Korff, S. A.; Roelof, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    In a study of galactic cosmic ray intensity variations it had been found that there are two distinct classes of transient intensity decrease, which have been called type I and type II. Type I events are flare-associated Forbush decreases. Type II events appear to be associated with 27-day recurrences. It is suggested, on the basis of several characteristics of the decreases, that type II events are simply the subsequent evolution of type I events or quasi-stationary 'corotating' structures loosely associated with active regions.

  18. Atmospheric pressure variations at extratropical latitudes associated with Forbush decreases of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, I.; Veretenenko, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes of troposphere pressure associated with short-time variations of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) taking place in the Northern hemisphere's cold months (October-March) were analyzed for the period 1980-2006, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data being used. Noticeable pressure variations during Forbush decreases of GCRs were revealed at extratropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The maxima of pressure increase were observed on the 3rd-4th days after the event onsets over Northern Europe and the European part of Russia in the Northern hemisphere, as well as on the 4th-5th days over the eastern part of the South Atlantic opposite Queen Maud Land and over the d'Urville Sea in the Southern Ocean. According to the weather chart analysis, the observed pressure growth, as a rule, results from the weakening of cyclones and intensification of anticyclone development in these areas. The presented results suggest that cosmic ray variations may influence the evolution of extratropical baric systems and play an important role in solar-terrestrial relationships.

  19. LISA Pathfinder test-mass charging during galactic cosmic-ray flux short-term variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Fabi, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Telloni, D.

    2015-02-01

    Metal free-floating test masses aboard the future interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space are charged by galactic and solar cosmic rays with energies \\gt 100 MeV/n. This process represents one of the main sources of noise in the lowest frequency band (\\lt 10-3 Hz) of these experiments. We study here the charging of the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) gold-platinum test masses due to galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and helium nuclei with the Fluka Monte Carlo toolkit. Projections of the energy spectra of GCRs during the LISA-PF operations in 2015 are considered. This work was carried out on the basis of the solar activity level and solar polarity epoch expected for LISA-PF. The effects of GCR short-term variations are evaluated here for the first time. Classical Forbush decreases, GCR variations induced by the Sun rotation, and fluctuations in the LISA-PF frequency bandwidth are discussed.

  20. Upper limit for fourth harmonic of cosmic ray solar daily variation: 1963-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Fikani, M. M.

    2017-04-01

    In 1970s we analyzed the neutron monitor (NM) and muon telescope (MT) data from the global network for 1966-1970 to determine the amplitude and phase of the significant harmonics constituting the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) daily anisotropy in solar time. The median rigidity of response (Rm) of detectors to GCR spectrum covered a wide range (16-134 GV). The results were reported at the international cosmic ray conferences (ICRCs) held at Denver [1973], Munich [1975] and Paris [1981]. It was inferred that GCR solar daily anisotropy consists of only three harmonics, namely the diurnal (1 cpd, first harmonic), the semidiurnal (2 cpd, second harmonic) and the tridiurnal (3 cpd, third harmonic), with power spectral densities in the ratio 800:20:1 for the Deep River NM data (Rm = 16 GV) for 1962-1971. The fourth harmonic (4 cpd) was absent in these analyses. Since then the volume of data from the global network of NMs and MTs has increased significantly; particularly the multidirectional MT network, with larger Rm values. This motivates us to ascertain whether 4 cpd peak is absent in the cosmic ray solar daily variation data at the global sites, over a longer time period (1963-2015). Our informed conjecture is that 4 cpd peak is insignificant at 2σ-level of experimental error for a range of Rm values (11-60 GV). The discovery of a physically significant fourth harmonic would challenge the theorists to come up with a model for GCR transport in the heliosphere revealing hitherto unknown feature(s) of solar modulation.

  1. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  2. The stochastic modeling of the short-time variations of the galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynczak, A.; Modzelewska, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present the stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. The model is created based on the numerical solution of the Parker transport equation (PTE) describing the non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium. We present the numerical schemes for the strong order integration of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary PTE. Among the employed methods are the strong order Euler-Maruyama, Milstein and stochastic Runge- Kutta methods. We perform the selection of the method resulting in the highest agreement of the model of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity with the experimental observations.

  3. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  4. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  5. Record of galactic-cosmic-ray variations in terrestrial archives and meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G. [Turin, Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale]|[Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Ist. di Cosmogeofisica

    1996-11-01

    A fundamental contribution to the understanding of several physical processes influencing the galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) variations can be given by proxy data of the past GCR flux obtained in terrestrial archives and meteorites which extend the range of the studies. The most prominent spatial and temporal GCR variations are of solar origin. The solar modulation affect the intensity of GCR, particularly below 1 GeV and, therefore, the isotopes production rates in the Earth`s atmosphere, in planetary surfaces and in meteorites where the GCRs induce nuclear interactions. Measurements and analyses of cosmogenic radioisotopes in terrestrial archives like tree rings, ice cores and sediments are presented. Effects due to variations in the geomagnetic field, climatic changes and exchange within different terrestrial reservoirs which affect the isotopes deposition rates are also discussed. The study of cosmogenic radioisotopes in meteorites, which are exposed to GCR in the interplanetary space, has the advantage that the production of radioisotopes is not affected by terrestrial processes.

  6. Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}= ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic field, and identify periods when the intensity of

  7. On Temporal Variations of the Multi-TeV Cosmic Ray Anisotropy using the Tibet III Air Shower Array

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu,; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Fan, C; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Gou, Q B; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Jiang, L; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren,; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, H C; Li, J Y; Liu, C; Lou, Y -Q; Lu, H; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Ozawa, S; Saito, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the large-scale two-dimensional sidereal anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays by Tibet Air Shower Array, with the data taken from 1999 November to 2008 December. To explore temporal variations of the anisotropy, the data set is divided into nine intervals, each in a time span of about one year. The sidereal anisotropy of magnitude about 0.1% appears fairly stable from year to year over the entire observation period of nine years. This indicates that the anisotropy of TeV Galactic cosmic rays remains insensitive to solar activities since the observation period covers more than a half of the 23rd solar cycle.

  8. On the 27-day Variations of Cosmic Ray Intensity in Recent Solar Minimum 23/24

    CERN Document Server

    Modzelewska, R

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the 27-day variations and their harmonics of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity, solar wind velocity, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components in the recent prolonged solar minimum 23 24. The time evolution of the quasi-periodicity in these parameters connected with the Suns rotation reveals that their synodic period is stable and is aprox 26-27 days. This means that the changes in the solar wind speed and IMF are related to the Suns near equatorial regions in considering the differential rotation of the Sun. However, the solar wind parameters observed near the Earths orbit provide only the conditions in the limited local vicinity of the equatorial region in the heliosphere (within in latitude). We also demonstrate that the observed period of the GCR intensity connected with the Suns rotation increased up to aprox 33-36 days in 2009. This means that the process driving the 27-day variations of the GCR intensity takes place not only in the limited local surroundings of the equato...

  9. Cosmic rays on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted.

  10. Eleventh European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific program was organized under three main headings: cosmic rays in the heliosphere, cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, and properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Selected short communications out of 114 contributed papers were indexed separately for the INIS database.

  11. Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed that the highest energy $\\sim 10^{20}$eV cosmic ray primaries are protons, decay products of a long-lived progenitor whose high kinetic energy arises from decay of a distant (cosmological) superheavy particle, G. Such a scenario can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models, but is more generic; if true, these unusual cosmic rays provide a window into new physics.

  12. Cosmic Rays: What Gamma Rays Can Say

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We will review the main channels of gamma ray emission due to the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, discussing the cases of both galactic and extra-galactic cosmic rays and their connection with gamma rays observations.

  13. Cosmic Rays and Solar Insolation as the Main Control Parameters of the Catastrophe Theory of Climatic Response to Orbital Variations

    OpenAIRE

    V. D. Rusov; Glushkov, A. V.; Vaschenko, V. N.; Pavlovich, V. N.; Zelentsova, T. N.; Mihalus, O. T.; Tarasov, V. A.; Saranuk, D. N.

    2004-01-01

    The energy-balance model of global climate, which is taking into account a nontrivial role of solar and galactic protons, is presented. The model is described by the equation of fold catastrophe relative to increment of temperature, where the variation of a solar insolation and cosmic rays are control parameters. It is shown that the bifurcation equation of the model describes one of two stable states of the climate system. The solution of this equation exhibits the property of the determined...

  14. North-South Asymmetry of Solar Diurnal Variations of Cosmic-Ray Intensity Throughout the Period 1975 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Borie, M. A.; Abdel-halim, A. A.; El-Monier, S. Y.; Bishara, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hourly cosmic-ray intensities, recorded by 15 neutron monitor detectors in both Earth hemispheres, have been analyzed according to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity sense (Toward (T) or Away (A)) to examine the asymmetry of solar diurnal variations (amplitudes and phases) during the time interval from 1975 to 2013. The vertical geomagnetic cut-off rigidity of these detectors is Ro ≤ 13 GV. Previously, the north-south asymmetries of cosmic-ray intensity, between the northern and southern sectors with respect to the neutral sheet, have been studied for different periods to give an explanation as regards the cosmic ray flow in the direction parallel to the rotation axis of the Earth. The observed cosmic ray asymmetries between the two sectors were related to a corresponding N-S asymmetry of solar activity. Our results showed that during the years of minima and maxima solar activity cycles, asymmetric of latitudinal southward or northward gradients have been observed at both hemispheres. In addition, the southward and northward cosmic ray latitudinal gradients were frequently observed at stations on both hemispheres during the active period of the northern and/or southern hemispheres of the Sun. On the other hand, the differences in the solar diurnal (T-A) vectors show that the time of maximum depends on latitude at the point of observation. In addition, when the interplanetary magnetic field IMF was directed away from the Sun north of the current sheet, the northern solar diurnal vectors (T-A) shifted to later hours. Moreover, when the solar magnetic field is reversed, the phase of solar diurnal (T-A) vectors changed from 1 to 11 h, and from 3 to 9 h for northern and southern observations, respectively.

  15. 11-year cycle solar modulation of cosmic ray intensity inferred from C-14 content variation in dated tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C. Y.; Chen, T. M.; Yun, S. X.; Dai, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid scintillation-photomultiplier tube counter system was used to measure the Delta-C-14 values of 60 tree rings, dating from 1866 to 1925, that were taken from a white spruce grown in Canada at 68 deg N, 130 deg W. A 10-percent variation is found which is anticorrelated with sunspot numbers, although the amplitude of the variation is 2-3 times higher than expected in trees grown at lower latitudes. A large dip in the data at about 1875 suggests an anomalously large modulation of cosmic ray intensity during the 1867-1878 AD solar cycle, which was the most active of the 19th century.

  16. A study of daily variation in cosmic ray intensity during high/low amplitude days

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Mishra; Rekha Agarwal Mishra

    2007-03-01

    A detailed study has been conducted on the long-term changes in the diurnal, semi-diurnal and tri-diurnal anisotropies of cosmic rays in terms of the high/low amplitude anisotropic wave train events (HAE/LAE) during the period 1981-94 using the neutron monitor data from Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station. In all, 38 HAE and 28 LAE cases have been studied. An inter-comparison of the first three harmonics during these events has been made so as to understand the basic reason for the occurrence of these types of events. It has been observed that the phase of diurnal anisotropy shifts towards earlier hours for HAEs and it shifts towards earlier hour as compared to 18-h direction for LAEs. For semi-diurnal anisotropy, phase remains statistically the same for both HAE and LAE. In the case of tri-diurnal anisotropy, phase is evenly distributed for both types of events. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind plasma (SWP) parameters during these events are also investigated. It has also been observed that HAE/LAEs are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind velocity. The two types of solar wind streams (corotating streams and flare-generated streams) produce significant deviations in cosmic ray intensity during HAE/LAE.

  17. Antarctic Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duldig, Marc

    Cosmic ray observations related to Antarctica commenced in the austral summer of 1947-48 from sub-Antarctic Heard and Macquarie Islands and from the HMAS Wyatt Earp. Muon telescope observations from Mawson station Antarctica commenced in 1955. The International Geophysical Year was the impetus for the installation of a number of neutron monitors around Antarctica observing the lowest energy cosmic rays accessible by ground based instruments. In 1971 a new observatory was built at Mawson including the only underground muon telescope system at polar latitudes in either hemisphere. In the 1980s the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE) opened the highest energy cosmic ray window over Antarctica and this was followed by the in-ice neutrino experiment AMANDA. Over more than half a century cosmic ray astronomy has been undertaken from Antarctica and its surrounding regions and these observations have been critical to our growing understanding of nearby astrophysical structures. For example the Parker spiral magnetic field of the sun was confirmed through Mawson observations of a Solar flare induced Ground Level Enahncement in 1960 long before spacecraft were able to directly observe the interplanetary magnetic field. A summary of the Antarctic instrumental developments and the scientific advances that resulted will be presented.

  18. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  19. Frontiers in Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Ringwald, Andreas; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Dermer, Charles D.; Ringwald, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This rapporteur review covers selected results presented in the Parallel Session HEA2 (High Energy Astrophysics 2) of the 10th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2003. The subtopics are: ultra high energy cosmic ray anisotropies, the possible connection of these energetic particles with powerful gamma ray bursts, and new exciting scenarios with a strong neutrino-nucleon interaction in the atmosphere.

  20. The Day-night Variation of Cosmic Rays Instensity at Sea Level Under the Influence of Meteorological Fronts and Troughs

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, H M

    2001-01-01

    The day-night variation of cosmic rays intensity at sea level has been observed by a simple G-M counter telescope. We preform two 5 hours counting during the day and night and find that the pattern of variation is closely related to the atmospheric disturbance, especially when the observation station is being affected by meterological front or trough. Such effects may lasts for a few days until the trough or fronts weakened. The pattern of variation may be negatively correlated to the altitude of the 0 degC level of the atmosphere. This is closely related to the muon decay effect in the atmosphere. The phenomenon should be further investigation for possible application in weather forecasting.

  1. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  2. Cosmic rays and molecular clouds

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the cosmic-ray penetration into molecular clouds and with the related gamma--ray emission. High energy cosmic rays interact with the dense gas and produce neutral pions which in turn decay into two gamma rays. This makes molecular clouds potential sources of gamma rays, especially if they are located in the vicinity of a powerful accelerator that injects cosmic rays in the interstellar medium. The amplitude and duration in time of the cosmic--ray overdensity around a giv...

  3. Dual Phase Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Shurtleff, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effective energy that depends on the local gravitational potential. Assumptions are made so that a cosmic ray proton in an ultra-high energy state detected near the Earth was in a much less energetic state in interstellar space. A 300 EeV proton incident on the Earth was a 2 PeV proton in interstellar space. The model predicts such protons are in states with even more energy near the Sun than when near the Earth.

  4. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  5. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  6. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  7. Study on angular variation of cosmic ray secondary particles with atmospheric depth using CORSIKA code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patgiri, P.; Kalita, D.; Boruah, K.

    2017-04-01

    The distribution of the secondary cosmic ray charged particles in the atmosphere as a function of zenith angle of the primary particle depends on various factors such as atmospheric depth, latitude and longitude of the place of observation and possibly other atmospheric conditions. This work is focussed on the investigation of atmospheric attenuation of an Extensive Air Shower using the zenith angle distribution of the secondary charged particles, at different atmospheric depths for pure primary compositions (gamma, proton and iron nucleus) and mixed compositions employing the Monte Carlo Simulation code CORSIKA (versions 6.990 and 7.3500) in the energy range 10 TeV-1 PeV. The secondary charged particles in different zenith angle bins are fitted with a differential distribution dN sp /dθ = A(X)sinθcos n(X)θ, where the power index n(X) is a function of atmospheric depth X. For a given zenith angle θ, the frequency of the showers with secondary charged particle intensity higher than a threshold is also fitted with a relation F(θ,X0) = F(0,X0)exp[-X0(secθ - 1)/λ], where X0 is the vertical atmospheric depth and λ is the attenuation length. Further, the angular distribution parameter n(X) and attenuation co-efficients (λ) from our simulation result for different primaries are compared with available experimental data.

  8. Study on angular variation of cosmic ray secondary particles with atmospheric depth using CORSIKA code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patgiri, P.; Kalita, D.; Boruah, K.

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of the secondary cosmic ray charged particles in the atmosphere as a function of zenith angle of the primary particle depends on various factors such as atmospheric depth, latitude and longitude of the place of observation and possibly other atmospheric conditions. This work is focussed on the investigation of atmospheric attenuation of an Extensive Air Shower using the zenith angle distribution of the secondary charged particles, at different atmospheric depths for pure primary compositions (gamma, proton and iron nucleus) and mixed compositions employing the Monte Carlo Simulation code CORSIKA (versions 6.990 and 7.3500) in the energy range 10 TeV-1 PeV. The secondary charged particles in different zenith angle bins are fitted with a differential distribution dN sp /dθ = A(X)sinθcos n(X)θ, where the power index n(X) is a function of atmospheric depth X. For a given zenith angle θ, the frequency of the showers with secondary charged particle intensity higher than a threshold is also fitted with a relation F(θ,X0) = F(0,X0)exp[-X0(secθ - 1)/λ], where X0 is the vertical atmospheric depth and λ is the attenuation length. Further, the angular distribution parameter n(X) and attenuation co-efficients (λ) from our simulation result for different primaries are compared with available experimental data.

  9. Morphological evidence for azimuthal variations of the cosmic ray ion acceleration at the blast wave of SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Reynoso, Estela M; Badenes, Carles; Moffett, David

    2008-01-01

    Using radio, X-ray and optical observations, we present evidence for morphological changes due to efficient cosmic ray ion acceleration in the structure of the southeastern region of the supernova remnant SN 1006. SN 1006 has an apparent bipolar morphology in both the radio and high-energy X-ray synchrotron emission. In the optical, the shock front is clearly traced by a filament of Balmer emission in the southeast. This optical emission enables us to trace the location of the blast wave (BW) even in places where the synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons is either absent or too weak to detect. The contact discontinuity (CD) is traced using images in the low-energy X-rays (oxygen band) which we argue reveals the distribution of shocked ejecta. We interpret the azimuthal variations of the ratio of radii between the BW and CD plus the X-ray and radio synchrotron emission at the BW using CR-modified hydrodynamic models. We assumed different azimuthal profiles for the injection rate of particles into th...

  10. Isotopic Variations Within the Carbo Iron Meteorite: A Case Study of the Effects from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. L.; Hunt, A. C.; Ek, M. E.; Leya, I.; Schönbächler, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four aliquots of the Carbo (IID) iron meteorite were sampled representing different depths within the original meteoroid. These samples were used to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on the isotopes of Pt, Pd, Fe, and Ni.

  11. Cosmic ray driven Galactic winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S.; Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.

    2016-11-01

    The escape of cosmic rays from the Galaxy leads to a gradient in the cosmic ray pressure that acts as a force on the background plasma, in the direction opposite to the gravitational pull. If this force is large enough to win against gravity, a wind can be launched that removes gas from the Galaxy, thereby regulating several physical processes, including star formation. The dynamics of these cosmic ray driven winds is intrinsically non-linear in that the spectrum of cosmic rays determines the characteristics of the wind (velocity, pressure, magnetic field) and in turn the wind dynamics affects the cosmic ray spectrum. Moreover, the gradient of the cosmic ray distribution function causes excitation of Alfvén waves, that in turn determines the scattering properties of cosmic rays, namely their diffusive transport. These effects all feed into each other so that what we see at the Earth is the result of these non-linear effects. Here, we investigate the launch and evolution of such winds, and we determine the implications for the spectrum of cosmic rays by solving together the hydrodynamical equations for the wind and the transport equation for cosmic rays under the action of self-generated diffusion and advection with the wind and the self-excited Alfvén waves.

  12. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Dynamical evidence for causality between galactic cosmic rays and interannual variation in global temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, Anastasios A; Deyle, Ethan R; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George; Swanson, Kyle; Verbeten, Joshua D; Wang, Geli

    2015-03-17

    As early as 1959, it was hypothesized that an indirect link between solar activity and climate could be mediated by mechanisms controlling the flux of galactic cosmic rays (CR) [Ney ER (1959) Nature 183:451-452]. Although the connection between CR and climate remains controversial, a significant body of laboratory evidence has emerged at the European Organization for Nuclear Research [Duplissy J, et al. (2010) Atmos Chem Phys 10:1635-1647; Kirkby J, et al. (2011) Nature 476(7361):429-433] and elsewhere [Svensmark H, Pedersen JOP, Marsh ND, Enghoff MB, Uggerhøj UI (2007) Proc R Soc A 463:385-396; Enghoff MB, Pedersen JOP, Uggerhoj UI, Paling SM, Svensmark H (2011) Geophys Res Lett 38:L09805], demonstrating the theoretical mechanism of this link. In this article, we present an analysis based on convergent cross mapping, which uses observational time series data to directly examine the causal link between CR and year-to-year changes in global temperature. Despite a gross correlation, we find no measurable evidence of a causal effect linking CR to the overall 20th-century warming trend. However, on short interannual timescales, we find a significant, although modest, causal effect between CR and short-term, year-to-year variability in global temperature that is consistent with the presence of nonlinearities internal to the system. Thus, although CR do not contribute measurably to the 20th-century global warming trend, they do appear as a nontraditional forcing in the climate system on short interannual timescales.

  14. A mechanism for inducing climatic variations through ozone destruction: Screening of galactic cosmic rays by solar and terrestrial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A perturbation analysis, allowing for temperature and opacity feedbacks, is developed to calculate depletions in the O3 abundance and reductions of stratospheric solar heating that result from increases in NOx concentration. A pair of perturbation coefficients give the reduction in O3 and temperature through the stratosphere for a specified NOx increase. This type of analysis illustrates the tendency for various levels to self-heal when a perturbation occurs. Physical arguments indicate that the expected sign of the climatic effect is correct, with colder surface temperatures produced by reduced magnetic shielding. In addition, four qualitative reasons are suggested for thinking that significant ozone reductions by cosmic ray influxes will lead to an increased terrestrial albedo from stratospheric condensation. In this view, long-term (approximately 10,000 years) climatic changes have resulted from secular geomagnetic variations while shorter (approximately 100 years) excursions are related to changes in solar activity.

  15. Cosmic Ray ^3He Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray ^3He/^4He observations, including a new measurement at ~65 MeV/nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation models in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic ray He nuclei.

  16. Study of the longer periodic variation of cosmic ray%宇宙线较长周期变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜一帅; 代武春; 周虹君

    2012-01-01

    With the Yangbajing AS'y array, the longer periodic variation is studied. First, cosmic ray flux re- corded and meteorological parameters between 1994 - 2003 are collected and tided. The annual variation of the cosmic ray flux data is obvious. The annual variation of each meteorological parameter likes cosmic ray flux. There is obvious correlation existing between cosmic ray and each meteorological parameter. After the meteorological effect of cosmic ray being corrected by using multianalysis, there is no annual variation of cos- mic ray. Then the cosmic ray flux after corrected is analyzed with wavelet analysis and statistics. It is found that there is no uniform variation of several diurnal. Statistical result of data shows that there are more 4 diur- nal and 6 diurnal variations of the cosmic ray, the next are 5 diurnal, 7 diurnal and 8 diurnal.%利用羊八井ASγ阵列实验数据分析宇宙线的较长周期变化.收集整理Tibet ASγ阵列1994~2003年间记录的宇宙线触发率数据和气象数据,发现这段时间的宇宙线触发率存在明显的年周期变化,气压、室内温度、室外温度与宇宙线触发率有着相似的年变化,存在较强关联;对宇宙线触发率进行多元气象参量修正,修正后的宇宙线触发率不再有明显的年变化;利用小波分析和数学统计方法分析气象修正后的宇宙线触发率,没有发现确定的几日周期.统计结果显示:宇宙线周期变化中4日周期和6日周期较多,其次是5日7、日和8日周期.

  17. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  18. Acceleration of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhko, E [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: berezhko@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2008-07-15

    Cosmic ray (CR) origin problem is briefly discussed. It is argued that CRs with energies up to 10{sup 17} eV are produced in galactic supernova remnants, whereas ultra high energy CRs are extragalactic. CR composition strongly changes within the transition from galactic to extragalactic CR component, therefore precise measurements of CR composition at energies 10{sup 17} - 10{sup 19} eV are needed for the reliable determination of this transition. The possible sources of extragalactic CRs are briefly discussed. It is argued that CR acceleration at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei has to be considered as a prime candidate for the sources of extragalactic CRs.

  19. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  20. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  1. Cosmic ray driven Galactic winds

    CERN Document Server

    Recchia, S; Morlino, G

    2016-01-01

    The escape of cosmic rays from the Galaxy leads to a gradient in the cosmic ray pressure that acts as a force on the background plasma, in the direction opposite to the gravitational pull. If this force is large enough to win against gravity, a wind can be launched that removes gas from the Galaxy, thereby regulating several physical processes, including star formation. The dynamics of these cosmic ray driven winds is intrinsically non-linear in that the spectrum of cosmic rays determines the characteristics of the wind (velocity, pressure, magnetic field) and in turn the wind dynamics affects the cosmic ray spectrum. Moreover, the gradient of the cosmic ray distribution function causes excitation of Alfven waves, that in turn determine the scattering properties of cosmic rays, namely their diffusive transport. These effects all feed into each other so that what we see at the Earth is the result of these non-linear effects. Here we investigate the launch and evolution of such winds, and we determine the impli...

  2. Study of High and Low Amplitude Wave Trains of Cosmic Ray Diurnal Variation during Solar Cycle 23

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambika Singh; Anil Kumar Tiwari; S. P. Agrawal

    2010-06-01

    A detailed study has been conducted on the long-term changes in the diurnal variation of cosmic rays in terms of high and low amplitude wave trains event (HAEs/LAEs) during the period 1996–2008 (solar cycle 23), using the neutron monitor data from Kiel neutron monitoring station. As such, 17 HAE and 48 LAE cases have been detected and analyzed. These HAEs appear quite dominantly during the declining phase as well as near the maximum of the solar activity cycle 23. In contrast, the low amplitude events (LAEs) are inversely correlated with solar activity cycle. In fact, LAEs appear quite dominantly during the minimum phase of the solar activity. When we compare our results for diurnal phase with that observed on an annual average basis, we notice no significant diurnal phase shift for HAEs as well as for LAEs. Moreover, we find that the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) do not play any significant role in causing these variations. These results are discussed on the basis of that observed in earlier cycles.

  3. Modeling of ground albedo neutrons to investigate seasonal cosmic ray-induced neutron variations measured at high-altitude stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Federico, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates seasonal cosmic ray-induced neutron variations measured over a long-term period (from 2011 to 2016) in both the high-altitude stations located in medium geomagnetic latitude and Antarctica (Pic-du-Midi and Concordia, respectively). To reinforce analysis, modeling based on ground albedo neutrons simulations of extensive air showers and the solar modulation potential was performed. Because the local environment is well known and stable over time in Antarctica, data were used to validate the modeling approach. A modeled scene representative to the Pic-du-Midi was simulated with GEANT4 for various hydrogen properties (composition, density, and wet level) and snow thickness. The orders of magnitudes of calculated thermal fluence rates are consistent with measurements obtained during summers and winters. These variations are dominant in the thermal domain (i.e., En 20 MeV) is weakly impacted. The role of hydrogen content on ground albedo neutron generation was investigated with GEANT4 simulations. These investigations focused to mountain environment; nevertheless, they demonstrate the complexity of the local influences on neutron fluence rates.

  4. On dependence of seismic activity on 11 year variations in solar activity and/or cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhantayev, Zhumabek; Khachikyan, Galina; Breusov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    It is found in the last decades that seismic activity of the Earth has a tendency to increase with decreasing solar activity (increasing cosmic rays). A good example of this effect may be the growing number of catastrophic earthquakes in the recent rather long solar minimum. Such results support idea on existence a solar-lithosphere relationship which, no doubts, is a part of total pattern of solar-terrestrial relationships. The physical mechanism of solar-terrestrial relationships is not developed yet. It is believed at present that one of the main contenders for such mechanism may be the global electric circuit (GEC) - vertical current loops, piercing and electrodynamically coupling all geospheres. It is also believed, that the upper boundary of the GEC is located at the magnetopause, where magnetic field of the solar wind reconnects with the geomagnetic field, that results in penetrating solar wind energy into the earth's environment. The effectiveness of the GEC operation depends on intensity of cosmic rays (CR), which ionize the air in the middle atmosphere and provide its conductivity. In connection with the foregoing, it can be expected: i) quantitatively, an increasing seismic activity from solar maximum to solar minimum may be in the same range as increasing CR flux; and ii) in those regions of the globe, where the crust is shipped by the magnetic field lines with number L= ~ 2.0, which are populated by anomalous cosmic rays (ACR), the relationship of seismic activity with variations in solar activity will be manifested most clearly, since there is a pronounced dependence of ACR on solar activity variations. Checking an assumption (i) with data of the global seismological catalog of the NEIC, USGS for 1973-2010, it was found that yearly number of earthquake with magnitude M≥4.5 varies into the 11 year solar cycle in a quantitative range of about 7-8% increasing to solar minimum, that qualitatively and quantitatively as well is in agreement with the

  5. Study of the Time Variation of 10TeV Cosmic Ray%10TeV宇宙线时间变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾焕玉; 王顺金

    2001-01-01

    利用羊八井AS γ二期阵列实验数据,分析研究了10TeV宇宙线时间变化,以10.4σ和9.6σ的显著性发现了10TeV宇宙线流强气象效应修正后的半太阳日和太阳日周期变化,没有发现有恒星日变化. 同时发现10TeV宇宙线流强有7天左右周期变化的迹象.%With the Yangbajing AS γ array, the time variation of 10TeV cosmic ray was studied. Solar time semi-diurnal and diurnal variations have been detected with 10.4σ and 9.6σ levels for the 10TeV cosmic ray flux and semi diurnal variation with an amplitude 0.13% and a phase 0.2 and diurnal variation with 0.075% and 0.12. The sidereal diurnal variation for 10TeV cosmic ray was not found with 0.7σ level. The analysis result in longer period gives some evidence of 7 days variations.

  6. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...... in cosmic ray intensities. Such changes are in agreement with the sign of cloud radiative forcing associated with cosmic ray variability as estimated from satellite observations....

  7. Radiocarbon content in the annual tree rings during last 150 years and time variation of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharov, G. E.; Metskvarishvili, R. Y.; Tsereteli, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the high accuracy measurements of radiocarbon abundance in precisely dated tree rings in the interval 1800 to 1950 yrs are discussed. Radiocarbon content caused by solar activity is established. The temporal dependence of cosmic rays is constructed, by use of radio abundance data.

  8. Peculiarities of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) anisotropy variation in connection with the recurrent and sporadic Forbush effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskidashvili, B. D.; Nachkebia, N. A.; Tsereteli, G. L.; Shatashvili, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established, that the beginning of the change of vector of Solar-diurnal anisotropy of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) preceeds due to disturbed region (DR) of Solar wind existing time of which is Tau or = 8 days. The meridional gradient delta theta eta of density during the recurrent FD is valued.

  9. Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.; Engel, Ralph; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Cosmic rays; 2. Cosmic ray data; 3. Particle physics; 4. Hadronic interactions and accelerator data; 5. Cascade equations; 6. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos; 7. Neutrino masses and oscillations; 8. Muons and neutrinos underground; 9. Cosmic rays in the Galaxy; 10. Extragalactic propagation of cosmic rays; 11. Astrophysical - rays and neutrinos; 12. Acceleration; 13. Supernovae in the Milky Way; 14. Astrophysical accelerators and beam dumps; 15. Electromagnetic cascades; 16. Extensive air showers; 17. Very high energy cosmic rays; 18. Neutrino astronomy; A.1. Units, constants and definitions; A.2. References to flux measurements; A.3. Particle flux, density, and interaction cross section; A.4. Fundamentals of scattering theory; A.5. Regge amplitude; A.6. Glauber model of nuclear cross sections; A.7. Earth's atmosphere; A.8. Longitudinal development of air showers; A.9. Secondary positrons and electrons; A.10. Liouville's theorem and cosmic ray propagation; A.11. Cosmology and distances measures; A.12. The Hillas splitting algorithm; References; Index.

  10. Cosmic ray driven outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasz, Michal; Naab, Thorsten; Gawryszczak, Artur; Kowalik, Kacper; Wóltański, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    We present simulations of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in models of massive star forming (40 Msun / yr) disk galaxies with high gas surface densities (~100 Msun / pc^2) similar to observed star forming high-redshift disks. We assume that type II supernovae deposit 10 per cent of their energy into the ISM as cosmic rays and neglect the additional deposition of thermal energy or momentum. With a typical Galactic diffusion coefficient for CRs (3e28 cm^2 / s) we demonstrate that this process alone can trigger the local formation of a strong low density galactic wind maintaining vertically open field lines. Driven by the additional pressure gradient of the relativistic fluid the wind speed can exceed 1000 km/s, much higher than the escape velocity of the galaxy. The global mass loading, i.e. the ratio of the gas mass leaving the galactic disk in a wind to the star formation rate becomes of order unity once the system has settled into an equilibrium. We conclude that relativistic particles accelerated i...

  11. Cosmic Ray Helium Hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations by CREAM, ATIC-2 and PAMELA experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR proton below the knee $10^15 eV$ and (2) all CR spectra become hard at $\\gtrsim 10^{11} eV/n$. We propose a new picture that higher energy CRs are generated in more helium-rich region to explain the hardening (1) without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium to proton ratio at $\\sim 100$ TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance $Y=0.25$ by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in the chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium when escaping from the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening (2) because of the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with $\\sim 10^6$ K. Our model predicts hard and con...

  12. Cosmic rays from thermal sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wlodarczyk, Z

    2007-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays (CR) exhibits very characteristic power-like behavior with the "knee" structure. We consider a generalized statistical model for the production process of cosmic rays which accounts for such behavior in a natural way either by assuming the existence of temperature fluctuations in the source of CR, or by assuming specific temperature distribution of the CR sources. Both possibilities yield the so called Tsallis statistics and lead to the power-like distribution.

  13. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  14. Analysis of the ambient dose variation due to cosmic rays in Daejeon by using a neutron monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Ho; Kang, Jeongsoo; Jang, Doh-Yun; Son, Jae Bum; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Kim, Sung Joong

    2013-12-01

    The Basic Atomic Energy Research Institute of Hanyang University in Korea has constructed a cosmic-ray detection system that is presently being operated. In this study, the impact of cosmic-rays on 18-tube NM64-type neutron monitor installed in Daejeon was confirmed for the first time. In order to evaluate the reliability of the neutron monitor, we predicted the count rates from the neutron flux by using the Excel-based Program for calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS); these predictions were then compared with experimental results. The predictions agree well with the results, with differences no greater than 3.95%. Also, changes in the neutron ambient dose equivalent rate from cosmic rays due to different environmental conditions were analyzed using EXPACS; the results obtained were compared with those of previous studies and were thus, confirmed to be reliable, suggesting that the detection system is suitable for making the relevant measurements. That detection system was then used to evaluate the neutron ambient dose equivalent rate for various environmental conditions in Daejeon. Finally, a conversion coefficient, defined as the ratio of counts from the neutron monitor to the neutron ambient dose equivalent, was obtained and included considerations of the impacts of geological factors and of meteorological factors of relative humidity and atmospheric depth. The derived formula fit the source data with an adjusted coefficient of determination ( R 2) of 0.9894 and a root-mean-square error of 1.7056 × 10-10, equivalent to about 1%. This confirmed satisfactory accuracy and reliability of the formula, thereby showing this methodology to be legitimate for use in evaluating the neutron ambient dose equivalent by using the Daejeon neutron monitor.

  15. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-11-01

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  16. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-11-15

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  17. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, Roger; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  18. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  19. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempa, J., E-mail: kempa@pw.plock.pl [Warsaw University of Technology Branch Plock (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  20. Cosmic rays and hadronic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipari Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of cosmic rays, and more in general of the “high energy universe” is at the moment a vibrant field that, thanks to the observations by several innovative detectors for relativistic charged particles, gamma–rays, and neutrinos continue to generate surprising and exciting results. The progress in the field is rapid but many fundamental problems remain open. There is an intimate relation between the study of the high energy universe and the study of the properties of hadronic interactions. High energy cosmic rays can only be studied detecting the showers they generate in the atmosphere, and for the interpretation of the data one needs an accurate modeling of the collisions between hadrons. Also the study of cosmic rays inside their sources and in the Galaxy requires a precise description of hadronic interactions. A program of experimental studies at the LHC and at lower energy, designed to address the most pressing problems, could significantly reduce the existing uncertainties and is very desirable. Such an experimental program would also have a strong intrinsic scientific interest, allowing the broadening and deepening of our understanding of Quantum Chromo Dynamics in the non–perturbative regime, the least understood sector of the Standard Model of particle physics. It should also be noted that the cosmic ray spectrum extends to particles with energy E ∼ 1020 eV, or a nucleon–nucleon c.m. energy √s ≃ 430 TeV, 30 times higher than the current LHC energy. Cosmic ray experiments therefore offer the possibility to perform studies on the properties of hadronic interactions that are impossible at accelerators.

  1. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  2. Cosmic Rays and Radiative Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W; Falle, S A E G; Pittard, J M; Van Loo, S

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of magnetic fields and cosmic rays, radiative cooling laws with a range of dependences on temperature affect the stability of interstellar gas. For about four and a half decades, astrophysicists have recognised the importance of the thermal instablity for the formation of clouds in the interstellar medium. Even in the past several years, many papers have concerned the role of the thermal instability in the production of molecular clouds. About three and a half decades ago, astrophysicists investigating radiative shocks noticed that for many cooling laws such shocks are unstable. Attempts to address the effects of cosmic rays on the stablity of radiative media that are initially uniform or that have just passed through shocks have been made. The simplest approach to such studies involves the assumption that the cosmic rays behave as a fluid. Work based on such an approach is described. Cosmic rays have no effect on the stability of initially uniform, static media with respect to isobaric perturb...

  3. Cosmology, Relativity and Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rebeca; Martínez, Humberto; Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2009-04-01

    This is a short review of the evolution of ideas and concepts about the Universe. It is based on the introductory talk given on the 25 of July 2008 within the Third School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics held in Arequipa, Peru.

  4. Surprising results from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, G. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Wlodarczyk, Z. [Institute for Physics, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland)

    1996-10-01

    A number of seemingly exotic phenomena seen in the highest cosmic-ray experiments are briefly discussed. We argue that they indicate existence of non-statistical fluctuations and strong correlations in the fragmentation region of multiparticle production processes unaccessible to the present accelerators. (author) 12 refs, 3 figs

  5. Cosmic-Ray Detectors With Interdigitated Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Mazed, Mohammed; Holtzman, Melinda J.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1995-01-01

    Detectors measure both positions of incidence and energies of incident charged particles. Stack of detector wafers intercept cosmic ray. Measure positions of incidence to determine cosmic-ray trajectory and charge generated within them (proportional to cosmic-ray energy dissipated within them). Interdigital electrode pattern repeated over many rows and columns on tops of detector wafers in stack. Electrode pattern defines pixels within which points of incidence of incident cosmic rays located.

  6. Study of the Intensity Time Variations of the Cosmic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    different neutron multiplicities at Durham and Mt. Washington, and of the Pioneer 8 cosmic-ray telescope indicated the form of the modulation was different for the 11-year variation and for Forbush decreases during 1968-1970.

  7. Cosmic Ray elimination using the Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Cruz, J.; Altamirano, L.; Serrano, A.

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.

  8. COSMIC RAY ELIMINATION USING THE WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Orozco-Aguilera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.

  9. Galactic cosmic ray propagation models using Picard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissmann, Ralf; Strong, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from our newly developed Galactic cosmic-ray transport code PICARD, that solves the cosmic-ray transport equation. This code allows for the computation of cosmic-ray spectra and the resulting gamma-ray emission. Relying on contemporary numerical solvers allows for efficient computation of models with deca-parsec resolution. PICARD can handle locally anisotropic spatial diffusion acknowledging a full diffusion tensor. We used this framework to investigate the transition from axisymmetric to spiral-arm cosmic-ray source distributions. Wherever possible we compare model predictions with constraining observables in cosmic-ray astrophysics.

  10. Anomalous solar-diurnal variation of Cosmic Ray Neutron and Hard Components intensity,cosmic phenomena and the problem of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotashvili, M. A.

    It is shown that from all cosmophysical phenomena connected directly or indirectly with the strong destructive earthquakes(SDE), the process of the Earth's passage through the neutral current sheet of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is most powerful for their stimulation. To prove this statement, the results of the analysis of multiple histograms, the distribution of the Earth's passage through the neutral IMF sheets relative to the cases of SDE with the magnitude ≥6.0 are presented according to the data of 1958-1988. According to the considered histograms the probability of the initiation of SDE is of cyclic character with a 11-year period. The increase (a day before) and significant decrease of Solar-diurnal cosmic ray anisotropy (SDCRA) are demonstrated according to the averaged data of Tokyo neutron monitor and Nagoya meson telescope.

  11. Neutralino Clumps and Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Salati, P

    2007-01-01

    The halo of the Miky Way might contain numerous and dense substructures inside which the putative weakly interacting massive particles (suggested as the main constituent of the astronomical dark matter) would produce a stronger annihilation signal than in the smooth regions. The closer the nearest clump, the larger the positron and antiproton cosmic ray fluxes at the Earth. But the actual distribution of these substructures is not known. The predictions on the antimatter yields at the Earth are therefore affected by a kind of cosmic variance whose analysis is the subject of this contribution. The statistical tools to achieve that goal are presented and Monte Carlo simulations are compared to analytic results.

  12. Global diffusion of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Snodin, A P; Sarson, G R; Bushby, P J; Rodrigues, L F S

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of charged particles, including cosmic rays, in a partially ordered magnetic field is characterized by a diffusion tensor whose components depend on the particle's Larmor radius $R_L$ and the degree of order in the magnetic field. This prescription relies explicitly on the assumption of a scale separation between random and mean magnetic fields, which usually applies in laboratory plasmas, but not in most astrophysical environments such as the interstellar medium (ISM). Direct estimates of the cosmic-ray diffusion tensor from test particle simulations have explored the range of particle energies corresponding to $10^{-2} \\lesssim R_L/l_c \\lesssim 10^{3}$, where $l_c$ is the magnetic correlation length. Modern simulations of the ISM have numerical resolution of order 1 pc, so the Larmor radius of the cosmic ray particles that dominate in their energy density is at least $10^{6}$ times smaller than the numerically resolved scales of the random magnetic field. Large-scale simulations of cosmic ra...

  13. Cosmic rays and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated for the second edition, this book introduces the growing and dynamic field of particle astrophysics. It provides an overview of high-energy nuclei, photons and neutrinos, including their origins, their propagation in the cosmos, their detection on Earth and their relation to each other. Coverage is expanded to include new content on high energy physics, the propagation of protons and nuclei in cosmic background radiation, neutrino astronomy, high-energy and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sources and acceleration mechanisms, and atmospheric muons and neutrinos. Readers are able to master the fundamentals of particle astrophysics within the context of the most recent developments in the field. This book will benefit graduate students and established researchers alike, equipping them with the knowledge and tools needed to design and interpret their own experiments and, ultimately, to address a number of questions concerning the nature and origins of cosmic particles that have arisen in recent resea...

  14. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  15. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    , it will be possible to develop the experiment to cover additional processes involved in the route to cloud droplet formation. The experiment will be conducted at the Danish National Space Center where a clean room facility has been provided. It comprises a 7 m3 reaction chamber across which an electric field......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start...

  16. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-15

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test “vanilla” models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at “Neutrino 2012”.

  17. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  18. Cosmic ray penetration in diffuse clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic rays are a fundamental source of ionization for molecular and diffuse clouds, influencing their chemical, thermal, and dynamical evolution. The amount of cosmic rays inside a cloud also determines the $\\gamma$-ray flux produced by hadronic collisions between cosmic rays and cloud material. We study the spectrum of cosmic rays inside and outside of a diffuse cloud, by solving the stationary transport equation for cosmic rays including diffusion, advection and energy losses due to ionization of neutral hydrogen atoms. We found that the cosmic ray spectrum inside a diffuse cloud differs from the one in the interstellar medium for energies smaller than $E_{br}\\approx 100$ MeV, irrespective of the model details. Below $E_{br}$, the spectrum is harder (softer) than that in the interstellar medium if the latter is a power law $\\propto p^{-s}$ with $s$ larger (smaller) than $\\sim0.42$.

  19. Solar induced long- and short-term variations of the cosmic ray intensity in the past, and predictions and opportunities for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K. G.; McDonald, F. B.; Beer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide data from the past 10,000 years, and the instrumental cosmic ray data since 1936 provide detailed information on the possible consequences of the present long and deep solar minimum. Furthermore, the cosmic ray transport equation has been used to estimate the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) throughout the past 10,000 years. This paper presents a series of figures that document the behavior of both the cosmic radiation and the IMF at Earth in the past. In particular, the 11-year cycles in both quantities for the past 600 years are displayed; and estimates given of the cosmic ray spectrum at Earth for situations that history tells us may occur in the near future. Over the longer term, a minimum of the Hallstatt cycle (2200 yr periodicity) of solar activity occurred ~500 years ago and the Sun is now on a steadily rising plane of activity. The historic record shows that the cosmic ray intensity has decreased extremely rapidly after earlier prolonged deep minima and this suggests rapid and large changes in the heliospheric conditions that we may see replicated. The paper will also display data from the deep, isolated solar minimum of 1956 that exhibited unusual low energy cosmic ray fluxes, and a highly anomalous cosmic ray gradient in the inner heliosphere. Paleo-cosmic ray evidence will also be displayed of an episode of intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the interval of reduced solar activity, 1892-1900, that may possibly be repeated. If the present long, deep solar minimum is a precursor to a “Grand Minimum” such as the Dalton minimum, it will provide a much improved insight into the spectrum of the cosmic radiation in interstellar space, and to the cosmic ray modulation process in the heliosphere. With this in mind, the paper suggests key measurements, and speculates on experimental conditions that may be markedly different from those encountered in the instrumental era.

  20. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  1. ACORDE - A Cosmic Ray Detector for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00247175; Pagliarone, C.

    2006-01-01

    ACORDE, the ALICE COsmic Ray DEtector is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. This array will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around $10^{15-17}$ eV. In this paper we will describe the ACORDE detector, trigger design and electronics.

  2. Cosmic rays: extragalactic and Galactic

    CERN Document Server

    Istomin, Ya N

    2014-01-01

    From the analysis of the flux of high energy particles, $E>3\\cdot 10^{18}eV$, it is shown that the distribution of the power density of extragalactic rays over energy is of the power law, ${\\bar q}(E)\\propto E^{-2.7}$, with the same index of $2.7$ that has the distribution of Galactic cosmic rays before so called 'knee', $E3\\cdot 10^{15}eV$, from the Galaxy because of the dependence of the coefficient of diffusion of cosmic rays on energy, $D\\propto E^{0.7}$. The obtained index of the density distribution of particles over energy, $N(E)\\propto E^{-2.7-0.7/2}=E^{-3.05}$, for $E>3\\cdot 10^{15}eV$ agrees well with the observed one, $N(E)\\propto E^{-3.1}$. Estimated time of termination of the jet in the Galaxy is $4.2\\cdot 10^{4}$ years ago.

  3. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...... between cosmic ray flux and low cloud top temperature. The temperature of a cloud depends on the radiation properties determined by its droplet distribution. Low clouds are warm (> 273 K) and therefore consist of liquid water droplets. At typical atmospheric supersaturations (similar to1%) a liquid cloud...

  4. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  5. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  6. The Cosmic Ray Lepton Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Pierre; Cirelli, Marco; Moulin, Emmanuel; Glicenstein, Jean-Francois; Iocco, Fabio; Pieri, Lidia

    2010-01-01

    Recent measurements of cosmic ray electrons and positrons by PAMELA, ATIC, Fermi and HESS have revealed interesting excesses and features in the GeV-TeV range. Many possible explanations have been suggested, invoking one or more nearby primary sources such as pulsars and supernova remnants, or dark matter. Based on the output of the TANGO in PARIS --Testing Astroparticle with the New GeV/TeV Observations in Positrons And electRons : Identifying the Sources-- workshop held in Paris in May 2009, we review here the latest experimental results and we discuss some virtues and drawbacks of the many theoretical interpretations proposed so far.

  7. Dark Matter detection via lepton cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Lineros, Roberto A

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations of lepton cosmic rays, coming from the PAMELA and FERMI experiments, have pushed our understanding of the interstellar medium and cosmic rays sources to unprecedented levels. The imprint of dark matter on lepton cosmic rays is the most exciting explanation of both PAMELA's positron excess and FERMI's total flux of electrons. Alternatively, supernovae are astrophysical objects with the same potential to explain these observations. In this work, we present an updated study of the astrophysical sources of lepton cosmic rays and the possible trace of a dark matter signal on the positron excess and total flux of electrons.

  8. Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    We review the main observational and theoretical facts about acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays in supernova remnants, discussing the arguments in favor and against a connection between cosmic rays and supernova remnants, the so-called supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Recent developments in the modeling of the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration are discussed, with emphasis on the role of 1) magnetic field amplification, 2) acceleration of nuclei heavier than hydrogen, 3) presence of neutrals in the circumstellar environment. The status of the supernova-cosmic ray connection in the time of Fermi-LAT and Cherenkov telescopes is also discussed.

  9. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  10. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  11. Cosmic ray escape from supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Gabici, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be accelerated at supernova remnants via diffusive shock acceleration. Though this mechanism gives fairly robust predictions for the spectrum of particles accelerated at the shock, the spectrum of the cosmic rays which are eventually injected in the interstellar medium is more uncertain and depends on the details of the process of particle escape from the shock. Knowing the spectral shape of these escaping particles is of crucial importance in order to assess the validity of the supernova remnant paradigm for cosmic ray origin. Moreover, after escaping from a supernova remnant, cosmic rays interact with the surrounding ambient gas and produce gamma rays in the vicinity of the remnant itself. The detection of this radiation can be used as an indirect proof of the fact that the supernova remnant was indeed accelerating cosmic rays in the past.

  12. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  13. THE COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY NEAR THE ARCHEAN EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kota, J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We employ three-dimensional state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic models of the early solar wind and heliosphere and a two-dimensional model for cosmic-ray transport to investigate the cosmic-ray spectrum and flux near the Archean Earth. We assess how sensitive the cosmic-ray spectrum is to changes in the sunspot placement and magnetic field strength, the large-scale dipole magnetic field strength, the wind ram pressure, and the Sun's rotation period. Overall, our results confirm earlier work that suggested the Archean Earth would have experienced a greatly reduced cosmic-ray flux than is the case today. The cosmic-ray reduction for the early Sun is mainly due to the shorter solar rotation period and tighter winding of the Parker spiral, and to the different surface distribution of the more active solar magnetic field. These effects lead to a global reduction of the cosmic-ray flux at 1 AU by up to two orders of magnitude or more. Variations in the sunspot magnetic field have more effect on the flux than variations in the dipole field component. The wind ram pressure affects the cosmic-ray flux through its influence on the size of the heliosphere via the pressure balance with the ambient interstellar medium. Variations in the interstellar medium pressure experienced by the solar system in orbit through the Galaxy could lead to order of magnitude changes in the cosmic-ray flux at Earth on timescales of a few million years.

  14. Some Aspects of Galactic Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y M

    2003-01-01

    I give a synopsis of two aspects of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) acceleration problem: the importance of the medium energy gamma-ray window, and several specific astrophysical sources which merit further investigation.

  15. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  16. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Supernovae are among the most energetic events in the Universe. During the event, they expel their material with enormous speeds into the surroundings. In addition, supernovae are thought to transfer a sizable fraction of their energy into just a few particles: cosmic rays. These cosmic rays acquire

  17. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, J. N.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A.; Barenthien, N.; Barkhausen, M.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertaina, M. E.; Biermann, P. L.; Bilhaut, R.; Billoir, P.; Blaes, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bolz, H.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifaz, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Camin, D.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Castera, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chiosso, M.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Colombo, E.; Colonges, S.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Courty, B.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, C.; Dolron, P.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Epele, L. N.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Genolini, B.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Giudice, N.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gotink, W.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Grygar, J.; Guardone, N.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guglielmi, L.; Habraken, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Kopmann, A.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martina, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, N.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nicotra, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Ohnuki, T.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; PakkSelmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Porter, T.; Pouryamout, J.; Pouthas, J.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Pryke, C. L.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Randriatoamanana, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenua, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schreuder, F.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schuessler, F.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Sequeiros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Speelman, R.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Sutter, M.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Trung, T. N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varnav, D. M.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verkooijen, H.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vlcek, B.; Vorenholt, H.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Widom, A.; Wiebusch, C.; Wiencke, L.; Wijnen, T.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wild, N.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Woerner, G.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10(17) eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic par

  18. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  19. Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X

    2006-01-01

    The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

  20. Cosmic Ray Removal in Fiber Spectroscopic Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongrui; Zhang, Haotong; Yuan, Hailong; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Li, Guangwei; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao; Yang, Huiqin; Zhao, Yongheng; Cao, Zihuang

    2017-02-01

    Single-exposure spectra in large spectral surveys are valuable for time domain studies such as stellar variability, but there is no available method to eliminate cosmic rays for single-exposure, multi-fiber spectral images. In this paper, we describe a new method to detect and remove cosmic rays in multi-fiber spectroscopic single exposures. Through the use of two-dimensional profile fitting and a noise model that considers the position-dependent errors, we successfully detect as many as 80% of the cosmic rays and correct the cosmic ray polluted pixels to an average accuracy of 97.8%. Multiple tests and comparisons with both simulated data and real LAMOST data show that the method works properly in detection rate, false detection rate, and validity of cosmic ray correction.

  1. Status of cosmic-ray antideuteron searches

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P; Boggs, S; Bufalino, S; Dal, L; Donato, F; Fornengo, N; Fuke, H; Grefe, M; Hailey, C; Hamilton, B; Ibarra, A; Mitchell, J; Mognet, I; Ong, R A; Pereira, R; Perez, K; Putze, A; Raklev, A; Salati, P; Sasaki, M; Tarle, G; Urbano, A; Vittino, A; Wild, S; Xue, W; Yoshimura, K

    2015-01-01

    The precise measurement of cosmic-ray antiparticles serves as important means for identifying the nature of dark matter. Recent years showed that identifying the nature of dark matter with cosmic-ray positrons and higher energy antiprotons is difficult, and has lead to a significantly increased interest in cosmic-ray antideuteron searches. Antideuterons may also be generated in dark matter annihilations or decays, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. Low-energy antideuterons are an important approach because the flux from dark matter interactions exceeds the background flux by more than two orders of magnitude in the low-energy range for a wide variety of models. This review is based on the "dbar14 - dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop", which brought together theorists and experimentalists in the field to discuss the current status, perspectives, and challenges for cosmic-ray antideuteron searches and discusses the motivation for antideuteron searches, the theor...

  2. Cosmic Ray transport in turbulent magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Huirong

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) transport and acceleration is determined by the properties of magnetic turbulence. Recent advances in MHD turbulence call for revisions in the paradigm of cosmic ray transport. We use the models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that were tested in numerical simulation, in which turbulence is injected at large scale and cascades to to small scales. We shall address the issue of the transport of CRs, both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We shall demonstrate compressible fast modes are dominant cosmic ray scatterer from both quasilinear and nonlinear theories. We shall also show that the self-generated wave growth by CRs are constrained by preexisting turbulence and discuss the process in detail in the context of shock acceleration at supernova remnants and their implications. In addition, we shall dwell on the nonlinear growth of kinetic gyroresonance instability of cosmic rays induced by large scale compressible turbulence. This gyroresonance of cosmic rays on turbulence is d...

  3. The Cosmic Ray Intensity Near the Archean Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, O; Kota, J

    2012-01-01

    We employ three-dimensional state of the art magnetohydrodynamic models of the early solar wind and heliosphere and a two-dimensional model for cosmic ray transport to investigate the cosmic ray spectrum and flux near the Archean Earth. We assess how sensitive the cosmic ray spectrum is to changes in the sunspot placement and magnetic field strength, the large scale dipole magnetic field strength, the wind ram pressure, and the Sun's rotation period. Overall, our results confirm earlier work that suggested the Archean Earth would have experienced a greatly reduced cosmic ray flux than is the case today. The cosmic ray reduction for the early Sun is mainly due to the shorter solar rotation period and tighter winding of the Parker spiral, and to the different surface distribution of the more active solar magnetic field. These effects lead to a global reduction of the cosmic ray flux at 1AU by up to two orders of magnitude or more. Variations in the sunspot magnetic field have more effect on the flux than variat...

  4. Cosmic Connections:. from Cosmic Rays to Gamma Rays, Cosmic Backgrounds and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Combined data from gamma-ray telescopes and cosmic-ray detectors have produced some new surprising insights regarding intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, as well as extragalactic background light. We review some recent advances, including a theory explaining the hard spectra of distant blazars and the measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields based on the spectra of distant sources. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions in the Milky Way, to the observed ux of ultrahigh-energy cosmicrays nuclei. The need for a holistic treatment of gamma rays, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields serves as a unifying theme for these seemingly unrelated phenomena.

  5. Cosmic rays: a review for astrobiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Franco; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Cosmic rays represent one of the most fascinating research themes in modern astronomy and physics. Significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the astrophysics of the sources of cosmic rays and the physics of interactions in the ultrahigh-energy range. This is possible because several new experiments in these areas have been initiated. Cosmic rays may hold answers to a great number of fundamental questions, but they also shape our natural habitat and influence the radiation environment of our planet Earth. The importance of the study of cosmic rays has been acknowledged in many fields, including space weather science and astrobiology. Here, we concentrate on the astrobiological aspects of cosmic rays with regard to the enormous amount of new data available, some of which may, in fact, improve our knowledge about the radiation of cosmic origin on Earth. We focus on fluxes arriving at Earth and doses received, and will guide the reader through the wealth of scientific literature on cosmic rays. We have prepared a concise and self-contained source of data and recipes useful for performing interdisciplinary research in cosmic rays and their effects on life on Earth.

  6. Protostars: forge of cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, M; Hennebelle, P; Ferrière, K

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR) are particles presumably accelerated in supernova remnant shocks that propagate in the interstellar medium up to the densest parts of molecular clouds, losing energy as well as their ionisation efficiency because of the presence of magnetic fields and collisions with molecular hydrogen. Recent observations hint at high levels of ionisation and to the presence of synchrotron emission in protostellar systems, therefore leading to an apparent contradiction. We want to explain the origin of these CRs accelerated within young protostars as suggested by observations. Our modelling consists of a set of conditions that has to be satisfied in order to have an efficient CR acceleration through diffusive shock acceleration. We analyse three main acceleration sites, then we follow the propagation of these particles through the protostellar system up to the hot spot region. We find that jet shocks can be strong accelerators of CR protons, which can be boosted up to relativistic energies. Another ...

  7. Regional cosmic ray induced ionization and geomagnetic field changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kovaltsov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray induced ionization (CRII is an important factor of outer space influences on atmospheric properties. Variations of CRII are caused by two different processes – solar activity variations, which modulate the cosmic ray flux in interplanetary space, and changes of the geomagnetic field, which affects the cosmic ray access to Earth. Migration of the geomagnetic dipole axis may greatly alter CRII in some regions on a time scale of centuries and longer. Here we present a study of CRII regional effects of the geomagnetic field changes during the last millennium for two regions: Europe and the Far East. We show that regional effects of the migration of the geomagnetic dipole axis may overcome global changes due to solar activity variations.

  8. Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic-rays constitute the main ionising and heating agent in dense, starless, molecular cloud cores. We reexamine the physical quantities necessary to determine the cosmic-ray ionisation rate (especially the cosmic ray spectrum at E < 1 GeV and the ionisation cross sections), and calculate the ionisation rate as a function of the column density of molecular hydrogen. Available data support the existence of a low-energy component (below about 100 MeV) of cosmic-ray electrons or protons responsible for the ionisation of diffuse and dense clouds. We also compute the attenuation of the cosmic-ray flux rate in a cloud core taking into account magnetic focusing and magnetic mirroring, following the propagation of cosmic rays along flux tubes enclosing different amount of mass and mass-to-flux ratios. We find that mirroring always dominates over focusing, implying a reduction of the cosmic-ray ionisation rate by a factor of 3-4 depending on the position inside the core and the magnetisation of the core.

  9. Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    The Chinese collaboration team at YangBaJing Cosmi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on some 40 billion cosmic ray events collected from 1997 to 2005 by the Tibet Air Shower Array experiment (a major scientific collaboration between China and Japan) operating at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (90.522 E, 30. 102 N; 4300 m above sea level) near Lhasa in Tibet, a two-dimensiondl cosmic-ray intensity map in the sky was obtained with very high directional granularity and unprecedented precision in intensity at a level of 10-4.

  10. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  11. Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- & Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, the heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.

  12. On the Long-Term Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays: Convection-Diffusion and Drift Modulations in the Heliosphere, Expected Radiation Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Lev

    On the basis of results obtained in our investigations of CR-SA hysteresis effects we determine the dimension of Heliosphere (modulation region), radial diffusion coefficient and other param-eters of convection-diffusion and drift mechanisms of cosmic ray (CR) long term variation in dependence of particles energy, level of solar activity (SA) and general solar magnetic field. This important information we obtain on the basis of CR and SA data in the past taking into account the theory of convection-diffusion and drift global modulation of galactic CR in the Heliosphere. By using these results and published regularly elsewhere predictions of expected sunspot number variation in near future and prediction of future next SA cycle we may made prediction of expected in near future (up to 10-12 years) long-term CR intensity variation. From other hand, we use estimated properties of connection between CR intensity long-term variation and some part of global climate change, controlled by solar activity through CR. We show that by this way we may made prediction of expected in near future (up to 10-12 years) radiation hazard from galactic CR in interplanetary space at different distances from the Sun (what is important for space probes and long-term missions to Mars and other planets and their satellites) and long-living objects on different orbits in the Earth's magnetosphere, as well as in the Earth's atmosphere (e.g. for airplanes at altitude about 10 km). Let us underline that in the last two cases become important to take into account also expected long-term changes in the planetary distribution of cutoff rigidities, which also influenced on observed galactic CR intensity, and corresponding radiation hazard.

  13. Cosmic ray penetration in diffuse clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Krause, J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic rays are a fundamental source of ionization for molecular and diffuse clouds, influencing their chemical, thermal, and dynamical evolution. The amount of cosmic rays inside a cloud also determines the $\\gamma$-ray flux produced by hadronic collisions between cosmic rays and cloud material. We study the spectrum of cosmic rays inside and outside of a diffuse cloud, by solving the stationary transport equation for cosmic rays including diffusion, advection and energy losses due to ionization of neutral hydrogen atoms. We found that the cosmic ray spectrum inside a diffuse cloud differs from the one in the interstellar medium (ISM) for energies smaller than $E_{br}\\approx 100$ MeV, irrespective of the model details. Below $E_{br}$, the spectrum is harder (softer) than that in the ISM if the latter is a power law $\\propto p^{-s}$ with $s$ larger (smaller) than $\\sim0.42$. As a consequence also the ionization rate due to CRs is strongly affected. Assuming an average Galactic spectrum similar to the one infe...

  14. Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Potgieter, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This is an overview of the solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on. The review focuses on the basic paradigms and departure points without presenting advanced theoretical or observational details for which there exists a large number of comprehensive reviews. Instead, emphasis is placed on numerical modeling which has played an increasingly signi?cant role as computational resources have become more abundant. A main theme is the progress that has been made over the years. The emphasis is on the global features of CR modulation and on the causes of the observed 11-year and 22-year cycles and charge-sign dependent modulation. Illustrative examples of some of the theoretical and observational milestones are presented, without attempting to review all details or every contribution made in this ?eld of research. Controversial aspects are discussed where appro- priate, with accompanying c...

  15. Cosmic ray physics with ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The ARGO--YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than five years at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l.). The detector collected about $5\\times10^{11}$ events in a wide energy range from few TeVs up to the PeV region. In this work we summarize the latest results in cosmic ray physics particularly focusing on the cosmic ray energy spectrum. The results of the measurement of the all-particle and proton plus helium energy spectra in the energy region between $10^{12} - 10^{16}$ eV are discussed. A precise measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in this energy region allows a better understanding of the origin of the knee and provides a powerful cross-check among different experimental techniques.

  16. A Simplified Model for the Acceleration of Cosmic Ray Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gron, Oyvind

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not…

  17. Longevity and Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H; Ng, Y J; Frampton, Paul H.; Keszthelyi, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    It is proposed that the highest energy $\\sim 10^{20}$eV cosmic ray primaries are protons, decay products of a long-lived progenitor which has propagated from typically $\\sim 100$Mpc. Such a scenario can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models, but is more generic; if true, these unusual cosmic rays provide a window into new physics.

  18. Cosmic ray test of INO RPC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K.; Nagaraj, P.; Pal, S.; Reddy, L.V.; Redij, A.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M.N. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Satyanarayana, B., E-mail: bsn@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Shinde, R.R.; Verma, P. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a 50 kt magnetised iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector using glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements. A stack of 12 such glass RPCs of 1 m Multiplication-Sign 1 m in area is tracking cosmic ray muons for over three years. In this paper, we will review the constructional aspects of the stack and discuss the performance of the RPCs using this cosmic ray data.

  19. Are there strangelets in cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, M; Wilk, G

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere contain a small admixture of nuggets of strange quark matter in form of strangelets one can explain a number of apparently "strange" effects observed in different cosmic rays experiments. We shall demonstrate here that the mass spectrum of such strangelets filles the "nuclear desert" gap existing between the heaviest elements observed in Universe and the next "nuclear-like objects" represented by neutron and strange stars.

  20. Cosmic Ray Interaction Models: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the state-of-the-art concerning the treatment of high energy cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, discussing in some detail the underlying physical concepts and the possibilities to constrain the latter by current and future measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. The relation of basic characteristics of hadronic interactions tothe properties of nuclear-electromagnetic cascades induced by primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere is addressed.

  1. Recent developments in cosmic ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 50125 Firenze (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi 6, 60100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    The search for a theory of the origin of cosmic rays that may be considered as a standard, agreeable model is still ongoing. On one hand, much circumstantial evidence exists of the fact that supernovae in our Galaxy play a crucial role in producing the bulk of cosmic rays observed on Earth. On the other hand, important questions about their ability to accelerate particles up to the knee remain unanswered. The common interpretation of the knee as a feature coinciding with the maximum energy of the light component of cosmic rays and a transition to a gradually heavier mass composition is mainly based on KASCADE results. Some recent data appear to question this finding: YAC1 – Tibet Array and ARGO-YBJ find a flux reduction in the light component at ∼ 700 TeV, appreciably below the knee. Whether the maximum energy of light nuclei is as high as 3000 TeV or rather as low as a few hundred TeV has very important consequences on the supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, as well on the crucial issue of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. In such a complex phenomenological situation, it is important to have a clear picture of what is really known and what is not. Here I will discuss some solid and less solid aspects of the theory (or theories) for the origin of cosmic rays and the implications for future searches in this field.

  2. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  3. Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

  4. Phantom Cosmic Ray Decreases and their Extraterrestrial Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon; Owens, Mathew; Lockwood, Mike; Scott, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are extremely high energy charged particles accelerated at extra-solar sources such as supernovae, active galactic nuclei, quasars, and gamma-ray bursts. Upon arrival at Earth's atmosphere, they collide with air molecules to produce a shower of secondary particles. One product of this air shower is energetic neutrons, which can be detected at the Earth's surface. Neutron monitors have been routinely operating for more than half a century and have shown that the cosmic ray flux at the top of the atmosphere is modulated by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), both at solar cycle time scales and due to shorter-term HMF variations, such as result from coronal mass ejections (CMEs). When a CME passes over the Earth, the neutron monitor counts are reduced sharply and suddenly (in a matter of hours) due to the modulation of cosmic rays by the enhancement in the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF). Such a drop in neutron counts is known as a Forbush Decrease. We present examples of unusual Forbush Decreases where there is no disturbance in the HMF at Earth at the time, which we name 'Phantom Cosmic Ray Decreases' (PCRDs). For recent PCRD events, we examine STEREO in-situ data and in each case, we find a large CME in either STEREO-A or -B. We also study neutron counts for each event from a number of neutron monitors at different longitudes. Differences between the size of the cosmic ray decreases at different longitudes are shown to give information on the location of the cosmic ray modulation source. We thus propose that these PCRDs are caused by CMEs which have missed Earth but which are large and intense enough to block out galactic cosmic rays on trajectories toward Earth.

  5. Cosmic ray effects in microcalorimeter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, C.K. E-mail: cak@lheapop.gsfc.nasa.gov; Boyce, K.R.; Brown, G.V.; Cottam, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.L.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F.S.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Tillotson, W.A

    2004-03-11

    We have identified signals resulting from cosmic rays and environmental gamma rays depositing energy in the pixels and in the silicon frame of the Astro-E2/X-Ray Spectrometer microcalorimeter array. Coincidences between pixels and between the array and an anti-coincidence detector determined the nature of the events. Pulse shapes and amplitudes from the cosmic ray events helped refine the thermal model of the array chip. We discuss how future arrays can be optimized either for the greatest background rejection or for the highest source count rates.

  6. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-12-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  7. Measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of the spectral variations of the cosmic-ray-induced neutrons at the Pic du Midi over a 2-y period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminet, A; Hubert, G; Lacoste, V; Boscher, D

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer extended to high energies (HERMEIS) was employed to measure continuously the cosmic-ray-induced neutron spectra over a long-term period (2 y) at mountain altitude and medium geomagnetic latitude (Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees, +2885 m, 5.6 GV). The results showed 1-y sinusoidal oscillations in the integrated fluence rates. The amplitude of these oscillations depends on the neutron energetic domain. The fluence rate of thermal neutrons was 53 % higher in August than that in February. Those of epithermal neutrons with energies between 0.4 eV and 0.1 MeV and evaporation neutrons (from 0.1 to 20 MeV) were ∼25 % higher in the summer than those in the winter. Finally, the cascade neutron fluence rate (>20 MeV) remained quite the same (<10 % variation). To understand the effects of local and seasonal changes in the measurement environment, GEANT4 simulations were performed. The nature of rock and thickness of the snow cover during the winter period (given by meteorological data) were investigated. A reasonable agreement between experiments and calculations was found.

  8. Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Kissmann, R.; Strong, A. W.; Reimer, O.

    2015-04-01

    The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy with (or without) a bar-like central structure. There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants, are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We investigate and measure how the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays is affected by a cosmic ray source distribution associated with spiral arm structures. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar finding have been obtained for low energy protons and electrons albeit at smaller magnitude. We find that even fractional contributions of a spiral arm component to the total cosmic ray source distribution influences the spectra on the Earth. This is apparent when compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution as well as with respect to the Earth's position relative to the spiral arm structure. We demonstrate that the presence of a Galactic bar manifests itself as an overall excess of low energy electrons at the Earth. Using a spiral arm geometry as a cosmic ray source distributions offers a genuine new quality of modeling and is used to explain features in cosmic ray spectra at the Earth

  9. Cosmic ray composition measurements and cosmic ray background free gamma-ray observations with Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A; Vovk, Ie; Mirzoyan, R

    2016-01-01

    Muon component of extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by cosmic ray particles carries information on the primary particle identity. We show that the muon content of EAS could be measured in a broad energy range from 10-100 TeV up to ultra-high-energy cosmic ray range using wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes observing strongly inclined or nearly horizontal EAS from the ground of from high altitude. Cherenkov emission from muons in such EAS forms a distinct component (halo or tail) of the EAS image in the telescope camera. We show that detection of the muon signal could be used to measure composition of the cosmic ray spectrum in the energy ranges of the knee, the ankle and of the Galactic-to-extragalactic transition. It could also be used to veto the cosmic ray background in gamma-ray observations. This technique provides a possibility for up to two orders of magnitude improvement of sensitivity for gamma-ray flux in the energy band above 10 PeV, compared to KASCADE-Grande, and an or...

  10. Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    “The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ∼3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

  11. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Observations of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    We describe measurements of GeV and TeV cosmic rays with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, or HAWC. The measurements include the observation of the shadow of the moon; the observation of small-scale and large-scale angular clustering of the TeV cosmic rays; the prospects for measurement of transient solar events with HAWC; and the observation of Forbush decreases with the HAWC engineering array and HAWC-30.

  12. Observations of cosmic-ray modulations in the fall, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsti, J. J.; Nieminen, M.; Valtonen, E.; Arvela, H.; Lumme, M.; Peltonen, J.; Vainikka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Modulation of cosmic-ray energy spectrum was studied by using the Turku double neutron monitor. The multiplicity region of detected neutrons produced by cosmic ray hadrons in the monitor was divided into seven categories corresponding to mean energies 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.2, 8.6, 21, and 94 GeV of hadrons at sea level. Based on 24-hour frequencies, a statistical analysis showed that modulation of the intensity in all categories occurred during several periods in the fall 1984. The magnitude of the variation was a few per cent.

  13. Jupiter as a Giant Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Paul B; Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of using the atmosphere of Jupiter to detect Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's). The large surface area of Jupiter allows us to probe cosmic rays of higher energies than previously accessible. Cosmic ray extensive air showers in Jupiter's atmosphere could in principle be detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi observatory. In order to be observed, these air showers would need to be oriented toward the Earth, and would need to occur sufficiently high in the atmosphere that the gamma rays can penetrate. We demonstrate that, under these assumptions, Jupiter provides an effective cosmic ray "detector" area of $3.3 \\times 10^7$ km$^2$. We predict that Fermi-LAT should be able to detect events of energy $>10^{21}$ eV with fluence $10^{-7}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ at a rate of about one per month. The observed number of air showers may provide an indirect measure of the flux of cosmic rays $\\gtrsim 10^{20}$ eV. Extensive air showers also produce a synchrotron signature that may ...

  14. Stopping Cooling Flows with Cosmic Ray Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, William G

    2009-01-01

    Multi-Gyr two-dimensional calculations describe the gasdynamical evolution of hot gas in the Virgo cluster resulting from intermittent cavities formed with cosmic rays. Without cosmic rays, the gas evolves into a cooling flow, depositing about 85 solar masses per year of cold gas in the cluster core -- such uninhibited cooling conflicts with X-ray spectra and many other observations. When cosmic rays are produced or deposited 10 kpc from the cluster center in bursts of about 10^{59} ergs lasting 20 Myrs and spaced at intervals of 200 Myrs, the central cooling rate is greatly reduced to 0.1 - 1 solar masses per year, consistent with observations. After cosmic rays diffuse through the cavity walls, the ambient gas density is reduced and is buoyantly transported 30-70 kpc out into the cluster. Cosmic rays do not directly heat the gas and the modest shock heating around young cavities is offset by global cooling as the cluster gas expands. After several Gyrs the hot gas density and temperature profiles remain sim...

  15. Long-term modulation of the cosmic ray fluctuation spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, S.A.; Grigoryev, A.V. [Yu.G. Shafer Inst. of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, SB RAS, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Usoskin, I.G. [Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Mursula, K. [Dept. of Physical Sciences, Univ of Oulu (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    Here we study the power level of rapid cosmic ray fluctuations in the frequency range of 10{sup -4}-1.67 . 10{sup -3} Hz (periods from 10 min to about 3h), using measurements by space-borne instruments for the period since 1974. We find that the power level of these fluctuations varies over the solar cycle, but the phase of this variation depends on the energy of cosmic ray particles. While the power level of these fluctuations in the higher energy channels (corresponding to galactic cosmic rays) changes in phase with the solar cycle, the fluctuation level for lower energy channels (predominantly of solar/interplanetary origin) is roughly in an opposite phase with the solar cycle. The results prove conclusively that these fluctuations originate in the near-Earth space, excluding their atmospheric or magnetospheric origin. We present these new results and discuss a possible scenario explaining the observed energy-dependence. (orig.)

  16. Long-term modulation of the cosmic ray fluctuation spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starodubtsev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the power level of rapid cosmic ray fluctuations in the frequency range of 10-4-1.67·10-3 Hz (periods from 10 min to about 3 h, using measurements by space-borne instruments for the period since 1974. We find that the power level of these fluctuations varies over the solar cycle, but the phase of this variation depends on the energy of cosmic ray particles. While the power level of these fluctuations in the higher energy channels (corresponding to galactic cosmic rays changes in phase with the solar cycle, the fluctuation level for lower energy channels (predominantly of solar/interplanetary origin is roughly in an opposite phase with the solar cycle. The results prove conclusively that these fluctuations originate in the near-Earth space, excluding their atmospheric or magnetospheric origin. We present these new results and discuss a possible scenario explaining the observed energy-dependence.

  17. Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

  18. Molecular Clouds as Cosmic-Ray Barometers

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, S; Fukui, Y; Gabici, S; Jones, D I; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T; Rowell, G; Torii, K; Yamamoto, H

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the flux of cosmic-rays observed at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is representative of the flux in the Galaxy at large. The advent of high sensitivity, high resolution gamma-ray detectors, together with a knowledge of the distribution of the atomic hydrogen and especially of the molecular hydrogen in the Galaxy on sub-degree scales, as provided by the NANTEN survey, creates a unique opportunity to explore the flux of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. We present a methodology which aims to provide a test bed for current and future gamma-ray observatories to explore the cosmic ray flux at various positions in our Galaxy. In particular, for a distribution of molecular clouds and local cosmic ray density as measured at the Earth, we estimate the expected GeV to TeV gamma-ray signal, which can then be compared with observations. An observed gamma-ray flux less than predicted would imply a CR density in specific regions of the Galaxy less than that observed at Earth, and vice versa. The me...

  19. Tracks of cosmic rays in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, R L; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Filz, R C; Fukui, K; Friedlander, M W; Holeman, E; Rajan, R S; Tamhane, A S

    1967-01-13

    Cosmic ray nuclei have been observed with the use of plastic trackdetecting solids in satellites and high-altitude balloon flights. Nuclear emulsions in the stacks of plastic sheets allowed the positive identification of cosmic raynuclei as light as nitrogen. The most striking new information was the failure to observe relativistic iron nuclei, a result which has led to an advance in the understanding of track registration criteria.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon processing by cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Micelotta, E R; Tielens, A G G M

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cosmic rays are present in almost all phases of the ISM. PAHs and cosmic rays represent an abundant and ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. However, the interaction between them has never before been fully investigated. Aims: To study the effects of cosmic ray ion (H, He, CNO and Fe-Co-Ni) and electron bombardment of PAHs in galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We calculate the nuclear and electronic interactions for collisions between PAHs and cosmic ray ions and electrons with energies between 5 MeV/nucleon and 10 GeV, above the threshold for carbon atom loss, in normal galaxies, starburst galaxies and cooling flow galaxy clusters. Results: The timescale for PAH destruction by cosmic ray ions depends on the electronic excitation energy Eo and on the amount of energy available for dissociation. Small PAHs are destroyed faster, with He and the CNO group being the more effective projectiles. For electron collisions, the lifetime is independent of the PAH size and varies with ...

  1. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  2. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  3. Cosmic Time Variation of the Gravitational Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    A pre-relativistic cosmological approach to electromagnetism and gravitation is explored that leads to a cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. Space itself is supposed to have physical substance, which manifests by its permeability. The scale factors of the permeability tensor induce a time variation of the fundamental constants. Atomic radii, periods, and energy levels scale in cosmic time, which results in dispersionless redshifts without invoking a space expansion. Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are reviewed in this context. The time variation of the gravitational constant at the present epoch can be expressed in terms of these quantities. This provides a completely new way to restrain the deceleration parameter from laboratory bounds on the time variation of the gravitational constant. This variation also affects the redshift dependence of angular diameters and the surface brightness, and we study in some detail the redshift scaling of the linear sizes of radio sources. The effec...

  4. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  5. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  6. He-3 in galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewaldt, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    Cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 observations, including a new measurement around 65 MeV per nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation calculations in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic-ray He nuclei. A survey of spacecraft and balloon observations of the He-3/He-4 ratio shows improved consistency among measurements in the 50-300 MeV per nucleon energy range when a previously neglected contribution from atmospheric secondary He-3 is taken into account. These low-energy observations imply a mean escape length of 6-8 g/sq cm in the standard leaky box model for cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy, a value consistent with that derived from studies of heavier nuclei. No evidence is found for an excess of low-energy He-3 such as that reported at high energies. 42 references.

  7. Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons provide a powerful tool to probe dark matter annihilations in our galaxy. The sensitivity of this important channel is, however, diluted by sizable uncertainties in the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we improve the calculation of secondary antiproton production with a particular focus on the high energy regime. We employ the most recent collider data and identify a substantial increase of antiproton cross sections with energy. This increase is driven by the violation of Feynman scaling as well as by an enhanced strange hyperon production. The updated antiproton production cross sections are made publicly available for independent use in cosmic ray studies. In addition, we provide the correlation matrix of cross section uncertainties for the AMS-02 experiment. At high energies, the new cross sections improve the compatibility of the AMS-02 data with a pure secondary origin of antiprotons in cosmic rays.

  8. High Energy Cosmic Rays From Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays are charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with extremely high energies, providing striking evidence of the existence of effective accelerators in the Universe. Below an energy around $\\sim 10^{17}$ eV cosmic rays are believed to be produced in the Milky Way while above that energy their origin is probably extragalactic. In the early '30s supernovae were already identified as possible sources for the Galactic component of cosmic rays. After the '70s this idea has gained more and more credibility thanks to the the development of the diffusive shock acceleration theory, which provides a robust theoretical framework for particle energization in astrophysical environments. Afterwards, mostly in recent years, much observational evidence has been gathered in support of this framework, converting a speculative idea in a real paradigm. In this Chapter the basic pillars of this paradigm will be illustrated. This includes the acceleration mechanism, the non linear effects produced by accelerate...

  9. Cosmic-ray diffusion in magnetized turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tautz, R C

    2015-01-01

    The problem of cosmic-ray scattering in the turbulent electromagnetic fields of the interstellar medium and the solar wind is of great importance due to the variety of applications of the resulting diffusion coefficients. Examples are diffusive shock acceleration, cosmic-ray observations, and, in the solar system, the propagation of coronal mass ejections. In recent years, it was found that the simple diffusive motion that had been assumed for decades is often in disagreement both with numerical and observational results. Here, an overview is given of the interaction processes of cosmic rays and turbulent electromagnetic fields. First, the formation of turbulent fields due to plasma instabilities is treated, where especially the non-linear behavior of the resulting unstable wave modes is discussed. Second, the analytical and the numerical side of high-energy particle propagation will be reviewed by presenting non-linear analytical theories and Monte-Carlo simulations. For the example of the solar wind, the im...

  10. Origin of the Cosmic Ray Spectral Hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, N

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA indicate that the cosmic ray energy spectra of protons and nuclei exhibit a remarkable hardening at energies above 100 GeV per nucleon. We propose that the hardening is an interstellar propagation effect that originates from a spatial change of the cosmic ray transport properties in different regions of the Galaxy. The key hypothesis is that the diffusion coefficient is not separable into energy and space variables as usually assumed. Under this scenario, we can reproduce well the observational data. Our model has several implications for the cosmic ray acceleration/propagation physics and can be tested by ongoing experiments such as AMS or Fermi/LAT.

  11. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 ......), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth.......The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km...

  12. Thirty-Year Periodicity of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez-Peraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmogenic isotopes have frequently been employed as proxies of ancient cosmic ray fluxes. On the basis of periodicities of the 10Be time series (using data from both the South and North Poles and the 14C time series (with data from Intercal-98, we offer evidence of the existence of cosmic ray fluctuations with a periodicity of around 30 years. Results were obtained by using the wavelet transformation spectral technique, signal reconstruction by autoregressive spectral analysis (ARMA, and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. This 30-year periodicity seems to be significant in nature because several solar and climatic indexes exhibit the same modulation, which may indicate that the 30-year frequency of cosmic rays is probably a modulator agent for terrestrial phenomena, reflecting the control source, namely, solar activity.

  13. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  14. Cosmic ray-driven winds in the Galactic environment and the cosmic ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S.; Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic rays escaping the Galaxy exert a force on the interstellar medium directed away from the Galactic disc. If this force is larger than the gravitational pull due to the mass embedded in the Galaxy, then galactic winds may be launched. Such outflows may have important implications for the history of star formation of the host galaxy, and in turn affect in a crucial way the transport of cosmic rays, both due to advection with the wind and to the excitation of waves by the same cosmic rays, through streaming instability. The possibility to launch cosmic ray-induced winds and the properties of such winds depend on environmental conditions, such as the density and temperature of the plasma at the base of the wind and the gravitational potential, especially the one contributed by the dark matter halo. In this paper, we make a critical assessment of the possibility to launch cosmic ray-induced winds for a Milky Way-like galaxy and how the properties of the wind depend upon the conditions at the base of the wind. Special attention is devoted to the implications of different conditions for wind launching on the spectrum of cosmic rays observed at different locations in the disc of the galaxy. We also comment on how cosmic ray-induced winds compare with recent observations of Oxygen absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines from blank sky, as measured by XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS.

  15. Cosmic Rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Alessandro [INFN and Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (Italy); LIP/IST Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  16. Cosmic rays from trans-relativistic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Budnik, R; MacFadyen, A; Waxman, E

    2007-01-01

    We derive constraints which must be satisfied by the sources of ~10^{15} to ~10^{18} eV cosmic rays, under the assumption that the sources are Galactic. We show that while these constraints are not satisfied by ordinary supernovae, which are believed to be the sources of 10^{-2}, of the explosion energy in mildly relativistic, \\gamma\\beta>1, ejecta. Galactic TRSNe may therefore be the sources of cosmic rays with energies up to ~10^{18} eV.

  17. Microphysics of cosmic ray driven plasma instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, A M; Malkov, M A; Osipov, S M

    2013-01-01

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  18. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  19. A database of charged cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, D.; Melot, F.; Taillet, R.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: This paper gives a description of a new online database and associated online tools (data selection, data export, plots, etc.) for charged cosmic-ray measurements. The experimental setups (type, flight dates, techniques) from which the data originate are included in the database, along with the references to all relevant publications. Methods: The database relies on the MySQL5 engine. The web pages and queries are based on PHP, AJAX and the jquery, jquery.cluetip, jquery-ui, and table-sorter third-party libraries. Results: In this first release, we restrict ourselves to Galactic cosmic rays with Z ≤ 30 and a kinetic energy per nucleon up to a few tens of TeV/n. This corresponds to more than 200 different sub-experiments (i.e., different experiments, or data from the same experiment flying at different times) in as many publications. Conclusions: We set up a cosmic-ray database (CRDB) and provide tools to sort and visualise the data. New data can be submitted, providing the community with a collaborative tool to archive past and future cosmic-ray measurements. http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/crdb; Contact: crdatabase@lpsc.in2p3.fr

  20. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renyi Ma; Dongsu Ryu; Hyesung Kang

    2011-03-01

    Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  1. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the XXVIth International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  2. Cosmic ray muons in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumand Collaboration; Babson, J.; Barish, B.; Becker-Szenzy, R.; Bradner, H.; Cady, R.; Clem, J.; Dye, S.; Gaidos, J.; Gorham, P.; Grieder, P.; Kitamura, T.; Kropp, W.; Learned, J.; Matsuno, S.; March, R.; Mitsui, K.; O'Conner, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C.; Sobel, H.; Stenger, V.; Webster, M.; Wilson, C.

    1990-03-01

    A measurement of cosmic ray muon flux was obtained at ocean depths ranging from 2 km to 4 km at 500 m intervals off the West Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. A brief description of the experiment and the results will be presented in this paper.

  3. Cosmic ray muons in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babson, J.; Becker-Szenzy, R.; Cady, R.; Dye, S.; Gorham, P.; Learned, J.; Matsuno, S.; O' Conner, D.; Peterson, V.; Roberts, A.; Stenger, V. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA)); Barish, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Bradner, H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)); Clem, J.; Roos, C.; Webster, M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Gaidos, J.; Wilson, C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Grieder, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research); Kropp, W.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); March, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA)); DUMAND Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    A measurement of cosmic ray muon flux was obtained at ocean depths ranging from 2 km to 4 km at 500 m intervals off the West Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. A brief description of the experiment and the results will be presented in this paper. (orig.).

  4. Recent developments in cosmic ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, P

    2014-01-01

    The search for a theory of the origin of cosmic rays that may be considered as a standard, agreeable model is still ongoing. On one hand, much circumstantial evidence exists of the fact that supernovae in our Galaxy play a crucial role in producing the bulk of cosmic rays observed on Earth. On the other hand, important questions about their ability to accelerate particles up to the knee remain unanswered. The common interpretation of the knee as a feature coinciding with the maximum energy of the light component of cosmic rays and a transition to a gradually heavier mass composition is mainly based on KASCADE results. Some recent data appear to question this finding: YAC1 - Tibet Array and ARGO-YBJ find a flux reduction in the light component at $\\sim 700$ TeV, appreciably below the knee. Whether the maximum energy of light nuclei is as high as $3000$ TeV or rather as low as a few hundred TeV has very important consequences on the supernova remnant paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, as well on the crucia...

  5. Spiral Arms as Cosmic Ray Source Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M; Strong, A W; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar f...

  6. Annual Variations of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity and Seasonal Distribution of the Cloudless Days and Cloudless Nights in Abastumani (41.75oN, 42.82oE; Georgia): (1) experimental study and (2) theoretical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Alania, M V; Modzelewska, R; Todua, M; Wawrzynczak, A

    2015-01-01

    We study a possible relationships between seasonal distributions of the visually observed cloudless days (CD) and cloudless nights (CN) at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (41.75N, 42.82E; Georgia) in 1957-1993. The annual variations of monthly numbers of CD and CN have been observed, with maximum in August for CD and in September for CN. During geomagnetic disturbances it is also observed the growth of number of CD in September andMarch (equinoctial months), and for CN, together with September, in June, April and February. We assume that this phenomenon indicates an influence of cosmic factors on cloudiness, as well as the existence of semiannual and possibly shorter-periodicity variations. This cosmic factor can be the manifestation of different rates of the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) flux variations in CD and CN periods. The influence of GCR flux on ionization of lower atmosphere and variations of density of cloud condensation nuclei also can be connected to the annual and seasonal changes of temperat...

  7. Isotopic Composition of Cosmic Rays:. Results from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer on the Ace Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M. H.

    Over the past seven years the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the ACE spacecraft has returned data with an unprecedented combination of excellent mass resolution and high statistics, describing the isotopic composition of elements from lithium through nickel in the energy interval ~ 50 to 500 MeV/nucleon. These data have demonstrated: * The time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration of the cosmic-ray nuclei is at least 105 years. The supernova in which nucleosynthesis takes place is thus not the same supernova that accelerates a heavy nucleus to cosmic-ray energy. * The mean confinement time of cosmic rays in the Galaxy is 15 Myr. * The isotopic composition of the cosmic-ray source is remarkably similar to that of solar system. The deviations that are observed, particularly at 22Ne and 58Fe, are consistent with a model in which the cosmic-ray source is OB associations in which the interstellar medium has solar-system composition enriched by roughly 20% admixture of ejecta from Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae. * Cosmic-ray secondaries that decay only by electron capture provide direct evidence for energy loss of cosmic rays as they penetrate the solar system. This invited overview paper at ECRS 19 was largely the same as an invited paper presented a month earlier at the 8th Nuclei in the Cosmos Conference in Vancouver. The proceedings of that conference will be published shortly by Elsevier as a special edition of Nuclear Physics A. For further summary of results from CRIS, the reader is referred to URL and links on that page to CRIS and to Science News.

  8. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  9. Impact of Cosmic Ray Transport on Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ryan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Despite playing a fundamental role in galaxy evolution, the physical mechanisms responsible for driving galactic winds remain unclear. The role of cosmic rays generated by supernovae and young stars has very recently begun to receive significant attention due to the realization that cosmic rays can efficiently accelerate galactic winds. Microscopic cosmic ray transport processes are fundamental for determining the efficiency of cosmic ray wind driving. Previous studies focused on modeling of cosmic ray transport either via constant diffusion coefficient or via streaming proportional to the Alfv{é}n speed. However, in predominantly neutral gas, cosmic rays can propagate faster than in the ionized medium and the effective transport can be substantially larger, i.e., cosmic rays are decoupled from the gas. We perform three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of patches of galactic disks including the effects of cosmic rays. Our simulations include the decoupling of cosmic rays in the neutral ISM phases. We find that, compared to the ordinary diffusive cosmic ray transport case, accounting for the decoupling leads to significantly different wind properties such as the cosmic ray spatial distribution, wind speed, density, and temperature. These results have implications for the magnetization of the circumgalactic medium and the pollution of the circumgalactic medium with cosmic rays.

  10. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  11. Re-evaluation of cosmic ray cutoff terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. J.; Humble, J. E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Lund, N.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Byrnak, B.; Goret, P.; Petrou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray access to locations inside the geomagnetic field has evolved in a manner that has led to some misunderstanding and misapplication of the terminology originally developed to describe particle access. This paper presents what is believed to be a useful set of definitions for cosmic ray cutoff terminology for use in theoretical and experimental cosmic ray studies.

  12. Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, G. Cini

    SH.3.6.14 Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Environment G. Cini Castagnoli, G. Bonino, P. Della Monica, C. Taricco Istituto di Cosmogeofisica, CNR, Corso Fiume 4, 10133 Torino, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino Recently Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997) reported an indication that the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) modulated by the solar wind may contribute to the variations in the formation of clouds, which in turn should follow the 11 y solar cycle. On the other hand experiments, conducted in vitro, on the variations of δ3C in symbiont bearing 1 foraminifera have shown that the carbon isotope fractionation from sea water, of the calcite of their shells, depends mainly on the photosynthetic activity (primary productivity) of the symbionts and therefore from the illumination level of their habitat. We have measured and analyzed (Cini Castagnoli et al., 1999) the δ3C profile of G. ruber in an Ionian sea 1 shallow water core very precisely dated. This allows us to acquire information on the ambient light level (connected to the solar irradiance modulation and to the cloud coverage) of the Gallipoli terrace in the past Millenium. The record (1205-1975 AD) of 200 points with time resolution 3.87 years shows a highly significant 11 y cyclicity covariant with Sunspots of amplitude 0.04 ‰ . A test for determining the δ3C-irradiance relation has been 1 13 performed by studying variations of δ C and the percentage annual number of rainy days during the last century in this region. Our results agree with the expectations on the basis of experiments performed in vitro on G. sacculifer ( on G. ruber is not available). The amplitude of the 11 y δ3C signal turns out to be of the order of 1.5 W/m2. This value seems to be 1 quite high (although of the same order) to be directly induced solely by changes in the solar constant, if in past times they were similar to those measured in space during solar cycles 22-23. The

  13. Z-Burst Scenario for the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z; Ringwald, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV < m_nu < 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in th...

  14. Cosmic ray propagation with CRPropa 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Batista, R.; Erdmann, M.; Evoli, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kuempel, D.; Mueller, G.; Sigl, G.; Van Vliet, A.; Walz, D.; Winchen, T.

    2015-05-01

    Solving the question of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) requires the development of detailed simulation tools in order to interpret the experimental data and draw conclusions on the UHECR universe. CRPropa is a public Monte Carlo code for the galactic and extragalactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei above ∼ 1017 eV, as well as their photon and neutrino secondaries. In this contribution the new algorithms and features of CRPropa 3, the next major release, are presented. CRPropa 3 introduces time-dependent scenarios to include cosmic evolution in the presence of cosmic ray deflections in magnetic fields. The usage of high resolution magnetic fields is facilitated by shared memory parallelism, modulated fields and fields with heterogeneous resolution. Galactic propagation is enabled through the implementation of galactic magnetic field models, as well as an efficient forward propagation technique through transformation matrices. To make use of the large Python ecosystem in astrophysics CRPropa 3 can be steered and extended in Python.

  15. Interactions of Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere: Growth Curves Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, A; Hörandel, J; Müller, D

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic-ray abundances on balloons are affected by interactions in the residual atmosphere above the balloon. Corrections for such interactions are particularly important for observations of rare secondary particles such as boron, antiprotons and positrons. These corrections can either be calculated if the relevant cross sections in the atmosphere are known, or may be empirically determined by extrapolation of the "growth curves", i. e. the individual particle intensities as functions of atmospheric depth. The growth-curve technique is particularly attractive for long-duration balloon flights where the periodic daily altitude variations permit rather precise determinations of the corresponding particle intensity variations. We determine growth curves for nuclei from boron (Z=5) to iron (Z=26), using data from the 2006 Arctic balloon flight of the TRACER detector for cosmic-ray nuclei, and we compare the growth curves with predictions from published cross section values. In general, good agreeme...

  16. Resolving photons from cosmic ray in DAMPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zunlei; Chang, Jin; Li, Xiang; Dong, TieKuang; Zang, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer(DAMPE), which took to the skies on 17 December, is designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. The proportion of photons in the cosmic ray is very small, so it's difficult to distinguish between photons and 'background', but necessary for any DAMPE gamma-ray science goals.The paper present a algorithm to identify photons from 'background' mainly by the tracker/converter, which promote pair conversion and measure the directions of incident particles, and an anticoincidence detector,featuring an array of plastic scintillator to detect the charged particles.The method has been studied by simulating using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code and adjusted by the BeamTest at CERN in December,2014.In addition,DAMPE photon detection capabilities can be checked using the flight data.

  17. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from beta-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of their prime energy sources. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massi...

  18. Cosmic ray physics with the ALEPH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Besier, H; Kempa, J; Luitz, S; Maggi, M; Maier, D; Misiejuk, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Schreiber, V; Wachsmuth, H W; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2000-01-01

    ALEPH is one of the four detectors at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) at a depth of about 320 m.w.e. Its hadron calorimeter and scintillator arrays installed at distances up to about 1 km away from ALEPH are used to measure cosmic muon induced time coincidences over large distances. The aim of this experiment (CosmoALEPH) is (1) to study the muon component above 70 GeV of extensive air showers (EAS) and (2) to test the feasibility of searching for time correlations over even larger distances (up to 8 km) between the four LEP detectors. Layout and first results of CosmoALEPH are presented demonstrating the potential for cosmic ray physics in the LEP tunnel. The multiplicity distribution of muons in cosmic events recorded in ALEPH's tracking detector is presented. (28 refs).

  19. Cosmic rays, geomagnetic field and climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M.; Smart, D.

    The possibility of a connection between cosmic radiation and climate has intrigued scientists for the past several decades. The recent studies of Friis -Christensen and Svensmark has shown an observed variation of 3-4% of the global cloud cover between 1980 and 1995 that appeared to be directly correlated with the change in galactic cosmic radiation flux over the solar cycle. However, in studies of this type, not only the solar cycle modulation of cosmic radiation must be considered, but also the changes in the cosmic radiation impinging at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the long term evolution of the geomagnetic field. We present preliminary results of an on-going study of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities over a 400-year interval. These results show (1) the change in cutoff rigidity is sufficient large so that the change in cosmic radiation flux impacting the earth is approximately equal to the relative change in flux over a solar cycle, and (2) the changes in cutoff rigidity are non- uniform over the globe with both significant increases and decreases at mid-latitude locations.

  20. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  1. Long-lived staus from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Illana, J.I.; Masip, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE y Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Meloni, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Spienza (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The collision of a high energy cosmic ray with a nucleon in the upper atmosphere could produce long-lived heavy particles. Such particles would be very penetrating, since the energy loss in matter scales as the inverse mass, and could reach a neutrino telescope like IceCube from large zenith angles. Here we study this possibility and focus on the long-lived stau of SUSY models with a gravitino LSP. The signal would be a pair of muon-like parallel tracks separated by 50 meters along the detector. We evaluate the background of muon pairs and show that any events from zenith angles above 80. could be explained by the production of these heavy particles by cosmic rays. (orig.)

  2. Cosmic Ray physics with ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacovacci, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Napoli ”Federico II” and INFN Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the Yang-BaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R.China, 4300 m a.s.l.). It exploits the full coverage and the high altitude to detect air showers with an energy threshold as low as a few hundred GeV. The detector is made of a single layer of RPCs operated in streamer mode, fully instrumenting a central carpet of about 5800 m{sup 2}. A guard ring extends the partially instrumented area to about 11,000 m{sup 2}. The main results so far achieved on Cosmic Ray physics are reported.

  3. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  4. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  5. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays: Strangelets?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁新; 吴飞

    2003-01-01

    The conjecture that ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are actually strangelets is discussed. Besides the reason that strangelets can do as cosmic rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin-cutoff, another argument to support the conjecture is addressed by the study of formation of Te V-scale microscopic black holes when UHECRs bombarding bare strange stars. It is proposed that the exotic quark surface of a bare strange star could be an effective astro-laboratory in the investigations of the extra dimensions and of the detection of ultra-high-energy neutrino fluxes. The flux of neutrinos (and other point-like particles) with energy larger than 2.3 × 1020 eV could be expected to be smaller than 10-26 cm-2 s-1 if there are two extra spatial dimensions.

  6. Are ultrahigh energy cosmic rays heavy nuclei?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A.A. [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    A new approach to estimate the composition of cosmic rays is proposed. It is found that the zenith angle distributions and muon components of extensive air showers observed by the Yakutsk and AGASA arrays for energies E>10{sup 19} eV and E>4x10{sup 19} eV differ from each other. It is suggested that the primary cosmic rays at E>4x10{sup 19}eV are heavier than those at E{approx}10{sup 19} eV. In our method we selected one variant to estimate the shower energy from two variants, as suggested by physicists of the SUGAR array. According to the 'Hillas-E' model, the SUGAR array has detected 8 showers with energy E>10{sup 20} eV.

  7. Cosmic Ray Electron Science with GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Moiseev, Alexander; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    Cosmic ray electrons at high energy carry information about their sources, their diffusion in local magnetic fields and their interactions with the photon fields through which they travel. The spectrum of the particles is affected by inverse Compton losses and synchrotron losses, the rates of which are proportional to the square of the particle's energy making the spectra very steep. However, GLAST will be able to make unique and very high statistics measurements of electrons from {approx}20 to {approx}700 GeV that will allow us to search for anisotropies in arrival direction and spectral features associated with some dark matter candidates. Complementary information on electrons of still higher energy will be required to see effects of possible individual cosmic ray sources.

  8. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  9. Cosmic ray acceleration at modified shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Meli, A; Dimitrakoudis, S

    2007-01-01

    The non-linear back reaction of accelerated cosmic rays at the shock fronts, leads to the formation of a smooth precursor with a length scale corresponding to the diffusive scale of the energetic particles. Past works claimed that shocklets could be created in the precursor region of a specific shock width, which might energize few thermal particles to sufficient acceleration and furthermore this precursor region may act as confining large angle scatterer for very high energy cosmic rays. On the other hand, it has been shown that the smoothing of the shock front could lower the acceleration efficiency. These controversies motivated us to investigate numerically by Monte Carlo simulations the particle acceleration efficiency in oblique modified shocks. The results show flatter spectra compared to the spectra of the pressumed sharp discontinuity shock fronts. The findings are in accordance with theoretical predictions, since the scattering inside the precursor confines high energy particles to further scatterin...

  10. Solar cosmic rays fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty

    2015-01-01

    The book summarizes the results of solar cosmic ray (SCR) investigations since 1942. The present monograph, unlike the reviews published earlier, treats the problem in self-contained form, in all its associations—from fundamental astrophysical aspects to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical applications. It includes a large amount of new data, accumulated during the last several decades of space research. As a result of the "information burst" in space physics, there are a lot of new interesting theoretical concepts, models and ideas that deserve attention. The author gives an extensive bibliography, which covers non-partially the main achievements and failures in this field. The book will be helpful for a wide audience of space physicists and it will be relevant to graduate and postgraduate courses. The book will serve as a reference work for researchers and students in solar physics and astrophysical plasma physics, as well as in cosmic rays physics, astroparticle physics, space science, solar-terr...

  11. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  12. Cosmic-ray knee and flux of secondaries from interactions of cosmic rays with dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Masip, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    We discuss possible implications of a large interaction cross section between cosmic rays and dark matter particles due to new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, in models with extra dimensions and a low fundamental scale of gravity the cross section grows very fast at transplanckian energies. We argue that the knee observed in the cosmic ray flux could be caused by such interactions. We show that this hypothesis implies a well defined flux of secondary gamma rays that seems consistent with MILAGRO observations.

  13. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: New Physics or Old Physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2004-01-01

    We consider the advantages of and the problems associated with hypotheses to explain the origin of ulthrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR: E > 10 EeV) and the "trans GZK" cosmic rays (TGZK: E > 100 EeV), both through "old physics" (acceleration in cosmic sources) and "new physics" (new particles, topological defects, fat neutrino cross sections, Lorentz invariance violation).

  14. Longevity and Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.; Keszthelyi, Bettina; Ng, Y. Jack

    It is proposed that the highest energy ~1020 eV cosmic ray primaries are protons which are decay products of a superheavy particle, G. The protons may be decay products either directly of a nearby (galactic) G or of a long-lived intermediate particle X which arises from decay of a distant (cosmological) G, then decays in or near our Galaxy. Such scenarios can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models.

  15. Cosmic ray test station for ATLAS RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Pietra, M Della; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Iengo, P; Patricelli, S; Romanó, L; Sekhniaidze, G; Della Volpe, D

    2003-01-01

    We describe the facility for RPC test with cosmic rays, designed and built at the laboratory of INFN and University of Naples. Trigger and tracking systems consist of a scintillator hodoscope and two drift chambers with track reconstruction resolution of similar to 400 mum. Trigger is provided by the twofold coincidence of scintillators covering a surface of 1 m**2. Two step motors move chambers synchronously along the station for RPC scanning. Up to eight RPCs can be tested simultaneously.

  16. Cosmic ray air showers from sphalerons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Schichtel, Peter; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson marks a key ingredient to establish the electroweak structure of the Standard Model. Its non-abelian gauge structure gives rise to, yet unobserved, non-perturbative baryon and lepton number violating processes. We propose to use cosmic ray air showers, as measured, for example, at the Pierre Auger Observatory, to set a limit on the hadronic production cross section of sphalerons. We identify several observables to discriminate between sphaleron and QCD induced air showers.

  17. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  18. High energy cosmic ray and neutrino astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies exceeding 10^{19} eV are referred to as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). The sources of these particles and their acceleration mechanism are unknown, and for many years have been the issue of much debate. The first part of this review describes the main constraints, that are implied by UHECR observations on the properties of candidate UHECR sources, the candidate sources, and the related main open questions. In order to address the challenges of identifying the UHECR sources and of probing the physical mechanisms driving them, a "multi-messenger" approach will most likely be required, combining electromagnetic, cosmic-ray and neutrino observations. The second part of the review is devoted to a discussion of high energy neutrino astronomy. It is shown that detectors, which are currently under construction, are expected to reach the effective mass required for the detection of high energy extra-Galactic neutrino sources, and may therefore play a key role in the near future in re...

  19. Electrons and Positrons in Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Panov, A D

    2013-01-01

    This review concentrates on the results obtained, over the last ten years, on the astrophysics of high-energy cosmic ray electrons and positrons. The anomalies, observed in the data of recent experiments (possible bump in the electron spectrum and the PAMELA anomaly in the positron fraction) are discussed through the systematic use of simple analytical solutions of the transport equations for cosmic ray electrons. Three main ways of explaining the origin of the anomalies are considered: the conservative way supposing the positrons to be pure secondary particles; the nearby sources like pulsars origin; and the dark matter origin. This review discusses, also, the inability to select the pulsars model or the dark matter model to explain the electron anomalies on the basis of the electron spectra with the usual large energy binning ($\\gtrsim15%$). It is argued that the signature of nearby pulsars origin of the anomalies against the dark matter origin could be the fine structure of the cosmic ray electron spectrum...

  20. Solar panels as cosmic-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Carlo; Assis, Pedro; Brogueira, Pedro; Santo, Catarina Espirito; Goncalves, Patricia; Pimenta, Mario; De Angelis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Due to fundamental limitations of accelerators, only cosmic rays can give access to centre-of- mass energies more than one order of magnitude above those reached at the LHC. In fact, extreme energy cosmic rays (1018 eV - 1020 eV) are the only possibility to explore the 100 TeV energy scale in the years to come. This leap by one order of magnitude gives a unique way to open new horizons: new families of particles, new physics scales, in-depth investigations of the Lorentz symmetries. However, the flux of cosmic rays decreases rapidly, being less than one particle per square kilometer per year above 1019 eV: one needs to sample large surfaces. A way to develop large-effective area, low cost, detectors, is to build a solar panel-based device which can be used in parallel for power generation and Cherenkov light detection. Using solar panels for Cherenkov light detection would combine power generation and a non-standard detection device.

  1. A study of the effects of Forbush decreases and the 11-year variation of cosmic rays out to approximately 16 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Trainor, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    In this study the onset of the new solar modulation cycle in late 1977 has been observed out to 16 AU. 27-day average cosmic-ray data (E greater than 60 MeV) from Pioneers 10, 11 and IMP 8 for the period for 1973-1978, normalized to the ground-based neutron monitor rates, have been used. Observations indicate that the long-term modulation effects propagate outward radially at 200-300 Km/sec. Forbush decreases, in contrast, are local phenomena and the associated time delays between their occurrence at earth and out to a few AU are much shorter. The data yield a radial gradient of 2-3% per AU.

  2. Cosmic X-ray background and solitars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    In this paper the authors has examined the observational consequences of a class of new astronomical objects proposed by Friedberg, Lee and Pang, called solitars which are degenerate vacuum states embedded with particles. A study is made to include finite temperature effect and pair creation. Quark is believed to be the only species that can exist in the interior of solitars. Massive quark solitars are primarily X-ray emitters and may account for the large unexplained thermal component of the cosmic X-ray background.

  3. 3D Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography from an Underground Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Rowe, Charlotte; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily; Roy, Mousumi; George, Nicolas; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey; Durham, Matthew; Morley, Deborah; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Poulson, Daniel; Baker, Diane; Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We present an underground cosmic ray muon tomographic experiment imaging 3D density of overburden, part of a joint study with differential gravity. Muon data were acquired at four locations within a tunnel beneath Los Alamos, New Mexico, and used in a 3D tomographic inversion to recover the spatial variation in the overlying rock-air interface, and compared with a priori knowledge of the topography. Densities obtained exhibit good agreement with preliminary results of the gravity modeling, which will be presented elsewhere, and are compatible with values reported in the literature. The modeled rock-air interface matches that obtained from LIDAR within 4 m, our resolution, over much of the model volume. This experiment demonstrates the power of cosmic ray muons to image shallow geological targets using underground detectors, whose development as borehole devices will be an important new direction of passive geophysical imaging.

  4. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Y.; Salati, P.; Serpico, P. D.; Taillet, R.

    2017-03-01

    Context. In the new "precision era" for cosmic ray astrophysics, scientists making theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, together with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) play an important role in this sense. Aims: We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P(Ψ) to obtain a flux Ψ at the Earth and the single-source probability p(ψ) to contribute with a flux ψ. The main difficulty arises from the fact that p(ψ) is a "heavy tail" distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behavior up to very large fluxes, for which the central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to distributions different from Gaussian. The functional form of the distribution for the aggregated flux is nonetheless unchanged by its own convolution, that is, it belongs to the so-called stable laws class. Methods: We analytically discuss the regime of validity of the stable laws associated with the distributions arising in cosmic ray astrophysics, as well as the limitations to the treatment imposed by causal considerations and partial source catalog knowledge. We validate our results with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, for different regimes of propagation parameters and energies. Results: We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P(Ψ). We also find that a naive Gaussian fit to simulation results would underestimate the probability of very large fluxes, that is, several times above the average, while overestimating the probability of relatively milder excursions. At large energies, large flux fluctuations are prevented by causal considerations, while at low energies, a partial knowledge of the recent and nearby population of

  5. Behavior of the cosmic ray density during the initial phase of the Forbush effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Abunina, M. A.; Abunin, A. A.; Oleneva, V. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    Variations in the cosmic ray density during the initial phase of the Forbush effect during the first hours after the arrival of the interplanetary shock wave have been studied with the use of data on variations in the cosmic ray density with a rigidity of 10 GV obtained by the global survey method by the world network of neutron monitors in 1957‒2012. It is found that behavior of this parameter after the arrival of the shock wave demonstrates high variability. A small ( 1/5 of total number), though distinct, group of Forbush effects, in which the density of the cosmic ray increases (not decreases) after the arrival of the shock wave, is defined. As a whole, the initial variation in cosmic ray density is correlated with the Forbush effect magnitude and the strength of the associated geomagnetic disturbance.

  6. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivity...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  7. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  8. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray escape from gamma-ray bursts, and the cosmic ray-neutrino connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerwald, Philipp; Bustamante, Mauricio; Huemmer, Svenja; Winter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Spector, Amyad; Waxman, Eli [Physics Faculty, Weizman Institute of Science, POB 26, Rehovot (Israel)

    2013-07-01

    Recent IceCube searches for GRB neutrinos have strongly constrained current models predicting GRBs as the source of UHECR. We show that updated calculations based on the connection of gamma-rays and neutrinos give significantly lower neutrino bounds [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 231101]. However additional constraints from the theoretical connection of cosmic rays to neutrinos, based on the assumption that UHECR escape as neutrons, still persist. We therefore explore the possibility of having an additional direct cosmic ray escape component which circumvents these constraints. We show that it is possible to distinguish three distinct regimes with this approach, with the standard (one neutrino per cosmic ray) escape via neutrons only accounting for a small range in the parameter space. Moreover we show how this additional component could improve cosmic ray predictions.

  9. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  10. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  11. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Antoine S. G.; Metzler, Knut; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Leya, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    If chondrules were exposed to cosmic rays prior to meteorite compaction, they should retain an excess of cosmogenic noble gases. Beyersdorf-Kuis et al. (2015) showed that such excesses can be detected provided that the chemical composition of each individual chondrule is precisely known. However, their study was limited to a few samples as they had to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis. We developed a novel analytical protocol that combines the measurements of He and Ne isotopic concentrations with a fast method to correct for differences in chemical composition using micro X-ray computed tomography. Our main idea is to combine noble gas, nuclear track, and petrography data for numerous chondrules to understand the precompaction exposure history of the chondrite parent bodies. Here, we report our results for a total of 77 chondrules and four matrix samples from NWA 8276 (L3.00), NWA 8007 (L3.2), and Bjurböle (L/LL4). All chondrules from the same meteorite have within uncertainty identical 21Ne exposure ages, and all chondrules from Bjurböle have within uncertainty identical 3He exposure ages. However, most chondrules from NWA 8276 and a few from NWA 8007 show small but resolvable differences in 3He exposure age that we attribute to matrix contamination and/or gas loss. The finding that none of the chondrules has noble gas excesses is consistent with the uniform track density found for each meteorite. We conclude that the studied chondrules did not experience a precompaction exposure longer than a few Ma assuming present-day flux of galactic cosmic rays. A majority of chondrules from L and LL chondrites thus rapidly accreted and/or was efficiently shielded from cosmic rays in the solar nebula.

  12. The basis for cosmic ray feedback: Written on the wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Ellen G

    2017-05-01

    Star formation and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies appear to be self-limiting. The mechanisms for self-regulation are known as feedback. Cosmic rays, the relativistic particle component of interstellar and intergalactic plasma, are among the agents of feedback. Because cosmic rays are virtually collisionless in the plasma environments of interest, their interaction with the ambient medium is primarily mediated by large scale magnetic fields and kinetic scale plasma waves. Because kinetic scales are much smaller than global scales, this interaction is most conveniently described by fluid models. In this paper, I discuss the kinetic theory and the classical theory of cosmic ray hydrodynamics (CCRH) which follows from assuming cosmic rays interact only with self-excited waves. I generalize CCRH to generalized cosmic ray hydrodynamics, which accommodates interactions with extrinsic turbulence, present examples of cosmic ray feedback, and assess where progress is needed.

  13. Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of the solar nebula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolginov, A. Z.; Stepinski, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the nebular gas may be further impaired by the influence of the magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays. When cosmic rays enter the nebular disk they ionize the gas and make the dynamo generation of magnetic fields possible. However, once magnetic fields are embedded in the nebular gas, the upcoming cosmic rays can no longer penetrate directly into the nebular disk because they start to interact with the magnetic field and lose their energy before propagating significantly toward the midplane. That, in turn, undercuts the ionization source within the bulk of the gas stopping the dynamo action. Nebular dynamo models ignored this back reaction of magnetic fields on cosmic rays. We calculate this back reaction effect, but for the sake of mathematical simplicity, we ignore the effect of magnetic field weakening due to diminishing ionization by cosmic rays.

  14. Cosmic-ray Acceleration and Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays (CRs) has puzzled scientists since the pioneering discovery by Victor Hess in 1912. In the last decade, however, modern supercomputers have opened a new window on the processes regulating astrophysical collisionless plasmas, allowing the study of CR acceleration via first-principles kinetic simulations. At the same time, a new-generation of X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray telescopes has been collecting evidence that Galactic CRs are accelerated in the blast waves of supernova remnants (SNRs). I present state-of-the-art particle-in-cells simulations of non-relativistic shocks, in which ion and electron acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are studied in detail as a function of the shock parameters. I then discuss the theoretical and observational counterparts of these findings, comparing them with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory and with multi-wavelength observations of young SNRs. I especially outline some major open questions, such as the possible cause...

  15. Bremsstrahlung Energy Losses for Cosmic Ray Electrons and Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently cosmic ray electrons and positrons, i.e. cosmic ray charged leptons, have been observed. To understand the distances from our solar system to the sources of such lepton cosmic rays, it is important to understand energy losses from cosmic electrodynamic fields. Energy losses for ultra-relativistic electrons and/or positrons due to classical electrodynamic bremsstrahlung are computed. The energy losses considered are (i) due to Thompson scattering from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the background cosmic thermal black body radiation and (ii) due to the synchrotron radiation losses from quasi-static domains of cosmic magnetic fields. For distances to sources of galactic length proportions, the lepton cosmic ray energy must be lass than about a TeV.

  16. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  17. Particle Physics Outreach: Engaging Students by Chartering a Plane for Cosmic Ray Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvojka, Jesse

    2011-04-01

    New York State has a very prescriptive physics curriculum with little room for adding material from frontier research, but significant requirements for laboratory projects. As a beginning PhD student, I collaborated with a teacher and her classroom on a project to study the variation of cosmic rays with altitude. The students helped build a cosmic ray detector that was flown on a chartered plane which took data at various altitudes. The students analyzed the data to verify relativistic time dilation in cosmic ray muons and then presented the results to their peers. I discuss the outcome of the project and lessons that I took away from the effort.

  18. Latitudinal dependence of low cloud amount on cosmic ray induced ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usoskin, I.G.; Marsh, N.; Kovaltsov, G.A.;

    2004-01-01

    A significant correlation between the annual cosmic ray flux and the amount of low clouds has recently been found for the past 20 years. However, of the physical explanations suggested, none has been quantitatively verified in the atmosphere by a combination of modelling and experiment. Here we...... study the relation between the global distributions of the observed low cloud amount and the calculated tropospheric ionization induced by cosmic rays. We find that the time evolution of the low cloud amount can be decomposed into a long-term trend and inter-annual variations, the latter depicting...... dependence gives strong support for the hypothesis that the cosmic ray induced ionization modulates cloud properties....

  19. Observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    19 Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts were detected by the WATCH wide field X-ray monitor during the 11 months flight of EURECA. The identification of the bursts were complicated by a high frequency of background of events caused by high energy cosmic ray interactions in the detector and by low energy, trap...

  20. Celestial messengers. Cosmic rays. The story of a scientific adventure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotti, Mario [Roma Univ. (Italy). Dipt. die Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI)

    2013-07-01

    The book describes from a historical point of view how cosmic rays were discovered. The book describes the research in cosmic rays. The main focus is on how the knowledge was gained, describing the main experiments and the conclusions drawn. Biographical sketches of main researchers are provided. Cosmic rays have an official date of discovery which is linked to the famous balloon flights of the Austrian physicist Hess in 1912. The year 2012 can therefore be considered the centenary of the discovery.

  1. New approach to cosmic ray investigations above the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is assumed that at energies around the knee the nucleus-nucleus interaction is drastically changed due to production of blobs of quark-gluon matter with very large orbital momentum. This approach allows explain all so-called unusual events observed in cosmic rays and gives a new connection between results of EAS investigations and energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays. To check this approach, the experiments in cosmic rays and at LHC are proposed.

  2. Cosmic rays during great geomagnetic storms in cycle 23 of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, M. V.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the cosmic ray intensity (specifically, Forbush effects) and in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity planetary system during powerful geomagnetic disturbances in cycle 23 were studied based on worldwide station network data by the global spectrographic survey method. The cosmic ray variation spectra during these periods and the spectral indices of these variations when the spectrum was approximated by the power function of the particle rigidity varying from 10 to 50 GV during different Forbush effect development phases are presented. It was indicated that the spectral indices of cosmic ray variations during spectrum approximation by the power function of the particle rigidity are larger during the maximal modulation phase than during the cosmic ray intensity decline and recovery phases. The fact that the amplitude of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy did not increase on November 20, 2003, confirms that the Earth fell into a Sun-independent spheromark magnetic cloud. The increased amplitudes of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy during other Forbush effects in July 2000, March-April 2001, October 2003, and November 2004 indicate that the Earth was in the coronal mass ejection region, in which the interplanetary magnetic field structure was loop-like during these periods.

  3. Supernova-Remnant Origin of Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y M; Romero, G E; Dame, T M; Combi, J A; Butt, Yousaf M.; Torres, Diego F.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Dame, Thomas M.; Combi, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    It is thought that Galactic cosmic ray (CR) nuclei are gradually accelerated to high energies (up to ~300 TeV/nucleon, where 1TeV=10^12eV) in the expanding shock-waves connected with the remnants of powerful supernova explosions. However, this conjecture has eluded direct observational confirmation^1,2 since it was first proposed in 1953 (ref. 3). Enomoto et al.^4 claim to have finally found definitive evidence that corroborates this model, proposing that the very-high-energy, TeV-range, gamma-rays from the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 are due to the interactions of energetic nuclei in this region. Here we argue that their claim is not supported by the existing multiwavelength spectrum of this source. The search for the origin(s) of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei may be closing in on the long-suspected supernova-remnant sources, but it is not yet over.

  4. Origin and propagation of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarsky, Catherine J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

    1987-01-01

    The study of systematic trends in elemental abundances is important for unfolding the nuclear and/or atomic effects that should govern the shaping of source abundances and in constraining the parameters of cosmic ray acceleration models. In principle, much can be learned about the large-scale distributions of cosmic rays in the galaxy from all-sky gamma ray surveys such as COS-B and SAS-2. Because of the uncertainties in the matter distribution which come from the inability to measure the abundance of molecular hydrogen, the results are somewhat controversial. The leaky-box model accounts for a surprising amount of the data on heavy nuclei. However, a growing body of data indicates that the simple picture may have to be abandoned in favor of more complex models which contain additional parameters. Future experiments on the Spacelab and space station will hopefully be made of the spectra of individual nuclei at high energy. Antiprotons must be studied in the background free environment above the atmosphere with much higher reliability and presion to obtain spectral information.

  5. Correlation between cosmic rays and ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q-B

    2009-03-20

    This Letter reports reliable satellite data in the period of 1980-2007 covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles, clearly showing the correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone loss (hole) over Antarctica. The results provide strong evidence of the physical mechanism that the CR-driven electron-induced reaction of halogenated molecules plays the dominant role in causing the ozone hole. Moreover, this mechanism predicts one of the severest ozone losses in 2008-2009 and probably another large hole around 2019-2020, according to the 11-yr CR cycle.

  6. Cosmic rays from active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) acceleration at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is studied. It is shown that above the energy $10^{18}$ eV the overall energy spectrum of CRs, produced during the AGN evolution and released in the intergalactic space, has the form $N\\propto \\epsilon^{-\\gamma}$, with $\\gamma\\approx 2.6$, which extends up to $\\epsilon_{max}\\sim 10^{20}$ eV. It is concluded that cocoons shocks have to be considered as a main source of extragalactic CRs, which together with Galactic supernova remnants provide the observed CR spectrum.

  7. Cosmic Ray Acceleration by Supernova Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the results of recent measurements of nonthermal emission from individual supernova remnants (SNRs) and their correspondence to the nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. It is shown that the theory fits these data in a satisfactory way and provides the strong evidences for the efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. Magnetic field amplification leads to considerable increase of CR maximum energy so that the spectrum of CRs accelerated in SNRs is consistent with the requirements for the formation of Galactic CR spectrum up to the energy ~10^17 eV.

  8. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, N D; Marsh, Nigel D; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Here we show that the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (<= 3.2km). These are liquid water clouds which points to a microphysical mechanism involving enhanced aerosol formation. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the Heliosphere is important for climate on Earth. The estimated response in low clouds due to a doubling of solar activity is a 1.4 W/m2 warming.

  9. 3D heliospheric simulations of cosmic rays in the light of Ulysses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokipii, J.R.; Kota, J. [Tucson, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Recent Ulysses observations in the polar regions of the heliosphere have provided fundamental new insights into the modes of cosmic-ray transport in the heliosphere. Ulysses discovered variations in the magnetic field which are large enough to produce significant cosmic-ray effects, and which are consistent which a previous prediction. In addition to impeding the inward, radial diffusive and drift access of cosmic rays over the poles as discussed previously, the magnetic fluctuations imply a significantly larger latitudinal diffusion. These effects directly lead to both a much reduced latitudinal gradient and significant 27 day time variations near the pole. The author concludes that the general picture of cosmic-ray transport and modulation development over the past decade, with reasonable parameters, can account for most of the observed global, large-scale phenomena.

  10. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  11. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Ron E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chapline, George F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Andrew M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nakae, Les F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pawelczak, Iwona A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, Steven A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  12. Acoustic instability driven by cosmic-ray streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1994-01-01

    We study the linear stability of compressional waves in a medium through which cosmic rays stream at the Alfven speed due to strong coupling with Alfven waves. Acoustic waves can be driven unstable by the cosmic-ray drift, provided that the streaming speed is sufficiently large compared to the thermal sound speed. Two effects can cause instability: (1) the heating of the thermal gas due to the damping of Alfven waves driven unstable by cosmic-ray streaming; and (2) phase shifts in the cosmic-ray pressure perturbation caused by the combination of cosmic-ray streaming and diffusion. The instability does not depend on the magnitude of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, and occurs whether or not cosmic-ray diffusion is important relative to streaming. When the cosmic-ray pressure is small compared to the gas pressure, or cosmic-ray diffusion is strong, the instability manifests itself as a weak overstability of slow magnetosonic waves. Larger cosmic-ray pressure gives rise to new hybrid modes, which can be strongly unstable in the limits of both weak and strong cosmic-ray diffusion and in the presence of thermal conduction. Parts of our analysis parallel earlier work by McKenzie & Webb (which were brought to our attention after this paper was accepted for publication), but our treatment of diffusive effects, thermal conduction, and nonlinearities represent significant extensions. Although the linear growth rate of instability is independent of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, the onset of nonlinear eff ects does depend on absolute value of DEL (vector differential operator) P(sub c). At the onset of nonlinearity the fractional amplitude of cosmic-ray pressure perturbations is delta P(sub C)/P(sub C) approximately (kL) (exp -1) much less than 1, where k is the wavenumber and L is the pressure scale height of the unperturbed cosmic rays. We speculate that the instability may lead to a mode of cosmic-ray transport in which plateaus of uniform cosmic-ray

  13. The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

  14. Galactic cosmic rays on extrasolar Earth-like planets I. Cosmic ray flux

    CERN Document Server

    Grießmeier, J -M; Stadelmann, A; Grenfell, J L; Atri, D

    2015-01-01

    (abridged abstract) Theoretical arguments indicate that close-in terrestial exoplanets may have weak magnetic fields, especially in the case of planets more massive than Earth (super-Earths). Planetary magnetic fields, however, constitute one of the shielding layers that protect the planet against cosmic-ray particles. In particular, a weak magnetic field results in a high flux of Galactic cosmic rays that extends to the top of the planetary atmosphere. We wish to quantify the flux of Galactic cosmic rays to an exoplanetary atmosphere as a function of the particle energy and of the planetary magnetic moment. We numerically analyzed the propagation of Galactic cosmic-ray particles through planetary magnetospheres. We evaluated the efficiency of magnetospheric shielding as a function of the particle energy (in the range 16 MeV $\\le$ E $\\le$ 524 GeV) and as a function of the planetary magnetic field strength (in the range 0 ${M}_\\oplus$ $\\le$ {M} $\\le$ 10 ${M}_\\oplus$). Combined with the flux outside the planeta...

  15. Transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays and cosmic ray anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigl G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This talk based on results of ref. [1], where we constrain the energy at which the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs by computing the anisotropy at Earth of cosmic rays emitted by Galactic sources. Since the diffusion approximation starts to loose its validity for E/Z ≳ 10(16−17 eV, we propagate individual cosmic rays using Galactic magnetic field models and taking into account both their regular and turbulent components. The turbulent field is generated on a nested grid which allows spatial resolution down to fractions of a parsec. If the primary composition is mostly light or intermediate around E ∼ 1018 eV, the transition at the ankle is ruled out, except in the unlikely case of an extreme Galactic magnetic field with strength >10 μG. Therefore, the fast rising proton contribution suggested by KASCADE-Grande data between 1017 eV and 1018 eV should be of extragalactic origin. In case heavy nuclei dominate the flux at E > 1018 eV, the transition energy can be close to the ankle, if Galactic cosmic rays are produced by sufficiently frequent transients as e.g. magnetars.

  16. Long-term variation of the solar diurnal anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays observed with the Nagoya multi-directional muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munakata, K.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C. [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Kóta, J., E-mail: kmuna00@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 87721 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    We analyze the three-dimensional anisotropy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensities observed independently with a muon detector at Nagoya in Japan and neutron monitors over four solar activity cycles. We clearly see the phase of the free-space diurnal anisotropy shifting toward earlier hours around solar activity minima in A > 0 epochs, due to the reduced anisotropy component parallel to the mean magnetic field. This component is consistent with a rigidity-independent spectrum, while the perpendicular anisotropy component increases with GCR rigidity. We suggest that this harder spectrum of the perpendicular component is due to contribution from the drift streaming. We find that the bi-directional latitudinal density gradient is positive in the A > 0 epoch, while it is negative in the A < 0 epoch, in agreement with the drift model prediction. The radial density gradient of GCRs, on the other hand, varies with a ∼11 yr cycle with maxima (minima) in solar maximum (minimum) periods, but we find no significant difference between the radial gradients in the A > 0 and A < 0 epochs. The corresponding parallel mean free path is larger in A < 0 than in A > 0. We also find, however, that the parallel mean free path (radial gradient) appears to persistently increase (decrease) in the last three cycles of weakening solar activity. We suggest that simple differences between these parameters in A > 0 and A < 0 epochs are seriously biased by these long-term trends.

  17. The role of cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmospheric processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devendraa Siingh; R P Singh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have provided an overview of cosmic ray effects on terrestrial processes such as electrical properties, global electric circuit, lightning, cloud formation, cloud coverage, atmospheric temperature, space weather phenomena, climate, etc. It is suggested that cosmic rays control short-term and long-term variations in climate. There are many basic phenomena which need further study and require new and long-term data set. Some of these have been pointed out.

  18. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  19. Cosmic Rays in a Galactic Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the non-thermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through Galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a Galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to gamma-ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of $\\approx 200$ GV.

  20. Transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Berezinsky, V

    2007-01-01

    The transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays is discussed. One of critical indications for transition is given by the Standard Model of Galactic cosmic rays, according to which the maximum energy of acceleration for iron nuclei is of order of $E_{\\rm Fe}^{\\rm max} \\approx 1\\times 10^{17}$ eV. At $E > E_{\\rm Fe}^{\\rm max}$ the spectrum is predicted to be very steep and thus the Standard Model favours the transition at energy not much higher than $E_{\\rm Fe}^{\\rm max}$. As observations are concerned there are two signatures of transition: change of energy spectra and elongation rate (depth of shower maximum in the atmosphere $X_{\\rm max}$ as function of energy). Three models of transition are discussed: dip-based model, mixed composition model and ankle model. In the latter model the transition occurs at the observed spectral feature, ankle, which starts at $E_a \\approx 1\\times 10^{19}$ eV and is characterised by change of mass compostion from galactic iron to extragalactic protons. In the dip mode...

  1. Cosmic ray studies with the MINOS detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habig, Alec; Minos Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The MINOS experiment uses two layered scintillator and steel detectors along with a muon neutrino beam to search for νμ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. The Far Detector ('FD') is situated in a former iron mine in the Soudan Underground Mine State Park in Northeastern MN, 700 m (2070 mwe) below the surface. This 5.4 kt steel/scintillator calorimeter measures the neutrino flux after they have traveled the 735 km baseline. It also detects atmospheric neutrinos at a rate of several per week, and is the first magnetized atmospheric neutrino detector, able to discriminate between νμ and νμ on an event-by-event basis. The similar 1 kt Near Detector ('ND') is 100 m (220 mwe) underground at Fermilab. This poster discusses the science being done with the high energy cosmic ray muons which penetrate the rock overburden and are seen by the detectors. The typical surface energy of those seen at the FD are ~1 TeV (coming from ~8 TeV primary cosmic rays) and ~110 GeV at the ND (~900 GeV primaries).

  2. Optical and Ionization Basic Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Julian; Andrade, Diego A.; Araujo, Aurora C.; Arceo, Luis; Cervantes, Carlos A.; Molina, Jorge A.; Palacios, Luz R.

    2014-03-01

    There are drift tubes, operating in the Geiger mode, to detect ionization radiation and there are Cerenkov radiation detectors based on photomultiplier tubes. Here is the design, the construction, the operation and the characterization of a hybrid detector that combines both a drift tube and a Cerenkov detector, used mainly so far to detect cosmic rays. The basic cell is a structural Aluminum 101.6 cm-long, 2.54 cm X 2.54 cm-cross section, 0.1 cm-thick tube, interiorly polished to mirror and slightly covered with TiCO2, and filed with air, and Methane-Ar at different concentrations. There is a coaxial 1 mil Tungsten wire Au-coated at +700 to +1200 Volts electronically instrumented to read out in both ends; and there is in each end of the Aluminum tube a S10362-11-100U Hamamatsu avalanche photodiode electronically instrumented to be read out simultaneously with the Tungsten wire signal. This report is about the technical operation and construction details, the characterization results and potential applications of this hybrid device as a cosmic ray detector element. CONACYT, Mexico.

  3. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Genolini, Yoann; Serpico, Pasquale; Taillet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In the new precision era for cosmic ray astrophysics, theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, joined with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) plays an important role in this sense. We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P({\\Psi}) to obtain a flux {\\Psi} at the Earth to the single-source probability p({\\psi}) to contribute with a flux {\\psi}. The main difficulty arises since p({\\psi}) is a fat tail distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behaviour up to very large fluxes for which central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to well-known stable laws as opposed to Gaussian distributions. We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P({\\Psi}). We ...

  4. On the correlation between cosmic ray intensity and cloud cover

    OpenAIRE

    Erlykin, A. D.; Gyalai, G.; Kudela, K.; Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the connection between cloud cover (CC) and cosmic rays (CR) are analysed. Many features of this connection indicate that there is no direct causal connection between low cloud cover (LCC) and CR in spite of the evident long-term correlation between them. However, most of these features are indirect. If only some part of the LCC is connected and varies with CR, then its value, obtained from the joint analysis of their 11-year variations, and averaged over the globe, should ...

  5. Cosmic Rays in Magnetospheres of the Earth and other Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2009-01-01

    This monograph describes the behaviour of cosmic rays in the magnetosphere of the Earth and of some other planets. Recently this has become an important topic both theoretically, because it is closely connected with the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and practically, since cosmic rays determine a significant part of space weather effects on satellites and aircraft. The book contains eight chapters, dealing with – The history of the discovery of geomagnetic effects caused by cosmic rays and their importance for the determination of the nature of cosmic rays or gamma rays – The first explanations of geomagnetic effects within the framework of the dipole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field – Trajectory computations of cutoff rigidities, transmittance functions, asymptotic directions, and acceptance cones in the real geomagnetic field taking into account higher harmonics – Cosmic ray latitude-longitude surveys on ships, trains, tracks, planes, balloons and satellites for determining the...

  6. A Study of the Link between Cosmic Rays and Clouds with a Cloud Chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laakso, L K; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P K; Duarte branco da silva santos, F; Stojkov, Y; Jud, W; Wurm, F; Pinterich, T; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Kreissl, F C; Minginette, P; Azeredo lima, J M; Kulmala, M T; Petaja, T T; Schafer, M; Rodrigues tome, A; Viisanen, Y A; Onnela, A T O; Kristic, R; Ehrhart, S K; Amorim, A J; Maksumov, O; Kupc, A; Sitals, R P; Dunne, E M; Riipinen, I A; Downard, A J; Virtanen, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Schuchmann, S; Kvashnin, A; Hansel, A; Vrtala, A; Schallhart, S; Yan, C; Stratmann, F; Pinto mogo, S I; Makhmutov, V; Riccobono, F; Weingartner, E P; Kurten, C A; Rondo, L; Ruuskanen, T M; Laaksonen, A J; De menezes, L; Hauser, D; Kajos, M K; Schmitt, T M; Mathot, S; Wasem, A; Guida, R; Metzger, A E; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Flagan, R C; Wex, H D

    2002-01-01

    Three recent independent observations suggest that galactic cosmic rays may exert a significant influence on the climate. Firstly, satellite data suggest a positive correlation between variations of cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of Earth covered by low clouds. Secondly, palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for an association between cosmic ray intensity and climate over the last 10 kyr and at earlier times. Finally, the presence of ion-induced nucleation of new aerosol in the atmosphere is supported by recent observations. If cosmic rays do indeed enhance aerosol production and low cloud formation, this could exert a strong cooling influence on the radiative energy balance of Earth. Physical mechanisms by which cosmic rays may affect aerosol and clouds have been proposed and modelled, but definitive experiments are lacking. The aim of CLOUD is to investigate the nature and significance of cosmic ray-aerosol-cloud mechanisms under controlled laboratory conditions using the T11 beam at the CER...

  7. Observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    19 Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts were detected by the WATCH wide field X-ray monitor during the 11 months flight of EURECA. The identification of the bursts were complicated by a high frequency of background of events caused by high energy cosmic ray interactions in the detector and by low energy......, trapped particle streams. These background events may simulate the count rate increases characteristic of cosmic gamma bursts. For 12 of the detected events, their true cosmic nature have been confirmed through consistent localizations of the burst sources based on several independent WATCH data sets...

  8. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...... sections, thus it depends only weakly on the LECR spectrum and not on any other parameter. Observations with HEPC will allow us to derive the bremsstrahlung spectrum over the weakly extended gamma-ray emission regions....

  9. CRIME - cosmic ray interactions in molecular environments

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Julian; Gabici, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Molecular clouds act as targets for cosmic rays (CR), revealing their presence through either gamma-ray emission due to proton-proton interactions, and/or through the ionization level in the cloud, produced by the CR flux. The ionization rate is a unique tool, to some extent complementary to the gamma-ray emission, in that it allows to constrain the CR spectrum especially for energies below the pion production rate ($\\approx 280$ MeV). Here we study the effect of ionization on $H_2$ clouds due to both CR protons and electrons, using the fully relativistic ionization cross sections, which is important to correctly account for the contribution due to relativistic CRs. The contribution to ionization due to secondary electrons is also included self-consistently. The whole calculation has been implemented into a numerical code which is publicly accessible through a web-interface. The code also include the calculation of gamma-ray emission once the CR spectrum

  10. The Heliosphere as Seen in TeV Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2016-11-01

    Measurements from several cosmic-ray air shower experiments reveal that the anisotropy of TeV cosmic-ray flux does not agree with a dipole pattern commonly expected from the Compton-Getting effect or from the diffusion of cosmic rays in Galactic magnetic fields. TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy maps often show fine features, some of which are slightly time-dependent. Because the size of the heliosphere is larger than the gyroradius of TeV cosmic rays in the interstellar magnetic field, the electric and magnetic fields of the heliosphere may distort the pattern of cosmic-ray anisotropy that one would see in the local interstellar medium without the presence of the heliosphere. We have developed a method of mapping cosmic-ray anisotropy using Liouville's theorem. In this paper, we show how to use cosmic-ray anisotropy features to determine the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field, the hydrogen deflection plane, the size and shape of the heliotail, and the geometry of the heliosphere bow wave.

  11. From cosmic ray source to the Galactic pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, K. M.; Bell, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Galactic cosmic ray spectrum is a remarkably straight power law. Our current understanding is that the dominant sources that accelerate cosmic rays up to the knee (3 × 1015 eV) or perhaps even the ankle (3 × 1018 eV), are young Galactic supernova remnants. In theory, however, there are various reasons why the spectrum may be different for different sources, and may not even be a power law if non-linear shock acceleration applies during the most efficient stages of acceleration. We show how the spectrum at the accelerator translates to the spectrum that makes up the escaping cosmic rays that replenish the Galactic pool of cosmic rays. We assume that cosmic ray confinement, and thus escape, is linked to the level of magnetic field amplification, and that the magnetic field is amplified by streaming cosmic rays according to the non-resonant hybrid or resonant instability. When a fixed fraction of the energy is transferred to cosmic rays, it turns out that a source spectrum that is flatter than E-2 will result in an E-2 escape spectrum, whereas a steeper source spectrum will result in an escape spectrum with equal steepening. This alleviates some of the concern that may arise from expected flat or concave cosmic ray spectra associated with non-linear shock modification.

  12. MAGIC contributions to the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Jogler, T; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Gimenez, I Puerto; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vankov, H; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2011-01-01

    Compilation of the papers contributed by the MAGIC collaboration to the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, which took place between August 11 and 18, 2011 in Beijing, China. The papers are sorted in 6 categories: Overview and Highlight papers; Instrument, software and techniques; Galactic sources; Extragalactic sources; Multi-wavelength and joint campaigns; Fundamental physics, dark matter and cosmic rays.

  13. Direct Measurements, Acceleration and Propagation of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG1 session of the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference, held in Merida (Yucatan, Mexico). The subsessions (OG1.1, OG1.2, OG1.3, OG1.4 and OG1.5) summarized here were mainly devoted to direct measurements, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays.

  14. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate cosmi

  15. Study of cosmic ray nuclei detection by an image calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Ozerov, Yu.V.; Zemskov, V.M.; Zverev, V.G.; Galper, A.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Carlson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fuglesang, C. [ESA-EAC, Cologne (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that a cosmic gamma-ray telescope made of a multilayer silicon tracker and a imaging CsI calorimeter, is capable of identifying cosmic ray nuclei. The telescope charge resolution is estimated around 4% independently of charge. Simulation methods are used to determine the telescope properties for nuclei detection.

  16. Measurement of cosmic ray chemical composition at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Harada, D.; Tokunou, H.; Burgoa, O.; Tsunesada, Y. [Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Tokuo (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Okayama University, Dept. of Physics, Oakayama (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nagoya University, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Institute de Investigaciones Fisicas, La Paz (Bolivia); Mizumoto, T. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    BASJE group has measured the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around the knee with several methods. These measurements show that the averaged mass number of cosmic ray particles increases with energy up to the knee. In order to measure the chemical composition in much wider energy range, it was started a new experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya in 2000.

  17. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vink

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate cosmi

  18. Energetic-Particle Populations and Cosmic-Ray Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-17

    H., E. Fl~ickiger. H. von Mandach , and M. Arens, Determina- tion of the ring current radii from cosmic ray neutron monitor data for the 17 December... Mandach , and M. Arens, Determination of the ring current radii from cosmic ray neutron monitor data for the 17 December 1971 magnetic storm, Planet. Space

  19. Fermi bubble $\\gamma$-rays as a result of diffusive injection of Galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the {\\it{Fermi}} space telescope has discovered two large $\\gamma$-ray emission regions, the so-called "Fermi bubbles", that extend up to $\\sim 50^\\circ$ above and below the Galactic center. The $\\gamma$-ray emission from the bubbles are found to follow a hard spectrum with no significant spatial variation in intensity and spectral shape. The origin of the emission is still not clearly understood. Suggested explanations include injection of cosmic-ray nuclei from the Galactic center by high-speed Galactic winds, electron acceleration by multiple shocks and stochastic electron acceleration inside the bubbles. In this letter, it is proposed that the $\\gamma$-rays can be the result of diffusive injection of Galactic cosmic-ray protons during their propagation through the Galaxy. Considering that cosmic rays undergo much slower diffusion inside the bubbles than in the averaged Galaxy and at the same time suffer from inelastic collisions with the bubble plasma, this model can explain the observed intensi...

  20. Cosmic-ray diffusion in a sectored magnetic field in the distant heliosheath

    CERN Document Server

    Florinski, V; Kota, J; Guo, X; 10.1088/0004-637X/754/1/31

    2013-01-01

    Very high intensities of galactic cosmic rays measured by Voyager 1 in the heliosheath appear to be incompatible with the presence of a modulation "wall" near the heliopause produced by a pile up of the heliospheric magnetic field. We propose that the modulation wall is a structure permeable to cosmic rays as a result of a sectored magnetic field topology compressed by plasma slowdown on approach to the heliopause and stretched to high latitudes by latitudinal flows in the heliosheath. The tightly folded warped current sheet permits efficient cosmic-ray transport in the radial direction via a drift-like mechanism. We show that when stochastic variations in the sector widths are taken into account, particle transport becomes predominantly diffusive both along and across the magnetic sectors. Using a test-particle model for cosmic rays in the heliosheath we investigate the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the properties of the sector structure and on particle energy.

  1. COSMIC-RAY DIFFUSION IN A SECTORED MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE DISTANT HELIOSHEATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Alouani-Bibi, F.; Guo, X. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Kota, J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Very high intensities of galactic cosmic rays measured by Voyager 1 in the heliosheath appear to be incompatible with the presence of a modulation 'wall' near the heliopause produced by a pile up of the heliospheric magnetic field. We propose that the modulation wall is a structure permeable to cosmic rays as a result of a sectored magnetic field topology compressed by plasma slowdown on approach to the heliopause and stretched to high latitudes by latitudinal flows in the heliosheath. The tightly folded warped current sheet permits efficient cosmic-ray transport in the radial direction via a drift-like mechanism. We show that when stochastic variations in the sector widths are taken into account, particle transport becomes predominantly diffusive both along and across the magnetic sectors. Using a test-particle model for cosmic rays in the heliosheath we investigate the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the properties of the sector structure and on particle energy.

  2. Clusters of Galaxies Shock Waves and Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, D; Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung

    2002-01-01

    Recent observations of galaxy clusters in radio and X-ray indicate that cosmic rays and magnetic fields may be energetically important in the intracluster medium. According to the estimates based on theses observational studies, the combined pressure of these two components of the intracluster medium may range between $10% \\sim 100 %$ of gas pressure, although their total energy is probably time dependent. Hence, these non-thermal components may have influenced the formation and evolution of cosmic structures, and may provide unique and vital diagnostic information through various radiations emitted via their interactions with surrounding matter and cosmic background photons. We suggest that shock waves associated with cosmic structures, along with individual sources such as active galactic nuclei and radio galaxies, supply the cosmic rays and magnetic fields to the intracluster medium and to surrounding large scale structures. In order to study 1) the properties of cosmic shock waves emerging during the larg...

  3. Cosmic ray energetics and mass (CREAM) calibrating a cosmic ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, S H; Alford, R; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Malinin, A; Schindhelm, E; Wang, J Z; Wu, J; Beatty, J J; Coutu, S; Minnick, S A; Nutter, S; Duvernois, M A; Choi, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Park, I H; Swordy, S P

    2002-01-01

    CREAM is slated to fly as the first NASA ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) payload in late 2003. On this 60-plus-day flight CREAM is expected to collect more direct high-energy cosmic ray events than the current world total. With three such flights CREAM is expected to have a proton energy reach above 5*10/sup 14/ eV, probing near 100 Te V for the predicted kink in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. With a transition radiation detector (TRD) above a sampling tungsten /scintillator calorimeter, an in-flight cross-calibration of the absolute energy scale becomes possible with heavy ions. We report on results from a 2001 beam test of the calorimeter in an SPS beam at the European High Energy Physics lab (CERN) and on the planned in- flight calibration. (7 refs).

  4. Cosmic ray neon, Wolf-Rayet stars, and the superbubble origin of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Binns, W R; Arnould, M; Cummings, A C; George, J S; Goriely, S; Israel, M H; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Meynet, G; Scott, L M; Stone, Edward C; Von Rosenvinge, T T

    2005-01-01

    The abundances of neon isotopes in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are reported using data from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We compare our ACE-CRIS data for neon and refractory isotope ratios, and data from other experiments, with recent results from two-component Wolf-Rayet (WR) models. The three largest deviations of GCR isotope ratios from solar-system ratios predicted by these models are indeed present in the GCRs. Since WR stars are evolutionary products of OB stars, and most OB stars exist in OB associations that form superbubbles, the good agreement of these data with WR models suggests that superbubbles are the likely source of at least a substantial fraction of GCRs.

  5. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis....... The array operates in the Pyhäsalmi Mine, Finland, at a depth of 75 metres (or 210 m.w.e) corresponding to the cut-off energy of approximately 50 GeV for vertical muons. The data recording with a partial array has started and preliminary results of the first test runs are presented....

  6. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.

    2011-10-01

    We performed kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). The preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration, while magnetic field strength and CR injection rate are secondary parameters. SNRs in the hot ISM, with an injection fraction smaller than 10-4, are inefficient accelerators with less than 10 % energy getting converted to CRs. The shock structure is almost test-particle like and the ensuing CR spectrum can be steeper than E-2. Although the particles can be accelerated to the knee energy of 1015.5ZeV with amplified magnetic fields in the precursor, Alfvénic drift of scattering centers softens the source spectrum as steep as E-2.1 and reduces the CR acceleration efficiency.

  7. Global Atmospheric Models for Cosmic Ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of atmospheric parameters -- such as temperature, pressure, and humidity -- is very important for a proper reconstruction of air showers, especially with the fluorescence technique. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) provides altitude-dependent profiles of these state variables of the atmosphere and several more. Every three hours, a new data set on 23 constant pressure level plus an additional surface values is available for the entire globe. These GDAS data are now used in the standard air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The validity of the data was verified by comparisons with monthly models that were averaged from on-site meteorological radio soundings and weather station measurements obtained at the Observatory in Malarg\\"ue. Comparisons of reconstructions using the GDAS data and the monthly models are also presented. Since GDAS is a global model, the data can potentially be used for other cosmic and gamma ray detectors. Several studies were already performed ...

  8. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M T

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  9. Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Huirong

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perp...

  10. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2011-01-01

    We performed kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). The preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration, while magnetic field strength and CR injection rate are secondary parameters. SNRs in the hot ISM, with an injection fraction smaller than 10^{-4}, are inefficient accelerators with less than 10 % energy getting converted to CRs. The shock structure is almost test-particle like and the ensuing CR spectrum can be steeper than E^{-2}. Although the particles can be accelerated to the knee energy of 10^{15.5}Z eV with amplified magnetic fields in the precursor, Alfv'enic drift of scattering centers softens the source spectrum as steep as E^{-2.1} and reduces the CR acceleration efficiency.

  11. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, H.V. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1993-03-01

    A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3% in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Cosmic-ray acceleration in young protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Marcowith, Alexandre; Ferrière, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The main signature of the interaction between cosmic rays and molecular clouds is the high ionisation degree. This decreases towards the densest parts of a cloud, where star formation is expected, because of energy losses and magnetic effects. However recent observations hint to high levels of ionisation in protostellar systems, therefore leading to an apparent contradiction that could be explained by the presence of energetic particles accelerated within young protostars. Our modelling consists of a set of conditions that has to be satisfied in order to have an efficient particle acceleration through the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. We find that jet shocks can be strong accelerators of protons which can be boosted up to relativistic energies. Another possibly efficient acceleration site is located at protostellar surfaces, where shocks caused by impacting material during the collapse phase are strong enough to accelerate protons. Our results demonstrate the possibility of accelerating particles du...

  13. Composition of UHE Cosmic Ray Primaries

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, J; Gress, J; Lin, T F; Rösch, A

    2000-01-01

    Project GRAND presents results on the atomic composition of primary cosmic rays. This is accomplished by determining the average height of primary particles that cause extensive air showers detected by Project GRAND. Particles with a larger cross sectional area, such as iron nuclei, are likely to start an extensive air shower higher in the atmosphere whereas protons, with a smaller cross section, would pass through more air before interacting and thus start showers at lower heights. Such heights can be determined by extrapolating identified muon tracks backward (upward) to determine their height of origin (Gress et al., 1997). Since muons are from the top, hadronic part of the shower, they are a good estimator for the beginning of the shower. The data for this study were taken during the previous year with 20 million shower events.

  14. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  15. On the slow time geomagnetic field modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Kingsley

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic rays of galactic origin are modulated by both heliospheric and geomagnetic conditions. The mutual (and mutually exclusive) contribution of both heliospheric and geomagnetic conditions to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) modulation is still an open question. While the rapid-time association of the galactic cosmic ray variation with different heliophysical and geophysical phenomena has been well studied, not so much attention has been paid to slow-time variations especially with regards to local effects. In this work, we employed monthly means of cosmic ray count rates from two mid latitude (Hermanus and Rome), and two higher latitude (Inuvik and Oulu) neutron monitors (NM), and compared their variability with geomagnetic stations that are in close proximity to the NMs. The data spans 1966 to 2008 and covers four (4) solar cycles. The difference (DeltaCR)between the mean count rate of all days and the mean of the five quietest days for each month was compared with the Dst-related disturbance (DeltaH) derived from the nearby geomagnetic stations. Zeroth- and First- correlation between the cosmic ray parameters and geomagnetic parameters was performed to ascertain statistical association and test for spurious association. Our results show that solar activity is generally strongly correlated (>0.75) with mean strength of GCR count rate and geomagnetic field during individual solar cycles. The correlation between mean strength of cosmic ray intensity and Geomagnetic field strength is spurious and is basically moderated by the solar activity. The signature of convection driven disturbances at high latitude geomagnetic stations was evident during the declining phase of the solar cycles close to the solar minimum. The absence of this feature in the slow-time varying cosmic ray count rates in all stations, and especially in the mid latitude geomagnetic stations suggest that the local geomagnetic disturbance contributes much less in modulating the cosmic ray flux.

  16. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Aix-en-Provence (France). CEREGE, College de France; Abarca-del-Rio, R. [Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) (Chile). Dept. de Geofisica (DGEO)

    2014-10-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  17. Gamma rays and the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ona Wilhelmi, Emma

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) are highly energetic nuclei (plus a small fraction of electrons) which fill the Galaxy and carry on average as much energy per unit volume as the energy density of starlight, the interstellar magnetic fields, or the kinetic energy density of interstellar gas. The CR spectrum extends as a featureless power-law up to ~2 PeV (the 'knee') and it is believed to be the result of acceleration of those CRs in Galactic Sources and later diffusion and convection in galactic magnetic fields. Those energetic CRs can interact with the surrounding medium via proton-proton collision resulting in secondary gamma-ray photons, observed from 100 MeV to a few tens of TeV. The results obtained by the current Cherenkov telescopes and gamma-ray satellites with the support of X-ray observations have discovered and identified more than 50 Galactic gamma-ray sources. Among them, the number of Supernova remnants (SNRs) and very-high-energy hard-spectrum sources (natural candidates to originate CRs) are steadily increasing. We expect to increase by a factor 10 at least this population of source with the future CTA experiment. I will review our current knowledge of Galactic gamma-ray sources and their connection with energetic CRs and the scientific prospects for CTA in this field. Those observations, together with a strong multi-wavelenght support from radio to hard X-rays, will finally allow us to establish the origin of the Galactic CRs.

  18. Cosmic-ray composition measurements and cosmic ray background-free γ -ray observations with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Vovk, Ievgen; Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2016-12-01

    The muon component of extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by cosmic-ray particles carries information on the primary particle identity. We show that the muon content of EAS could be measured in a broad energy range from 10-100 TeV up to ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray range using wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes observing strongly inclined or nearly horizontal EAS from the ground of from high altitude. Cherenkov emission from muons in such EAS forms a distinct component (halo or tail) of the EAS image in the telescope camera. We show that detection of the muon signal could be used to measure composition of the cosmic-ray spectrum in the energy ranges of the knee, the ankle and of the Galactic-to-extragalactic transition. It could also be used to veto the cosmic-ray background in gamma-ray observations. This technique provides a possibility for up to 2 orders of magnitude improvement of sensitivity for γ -ray flux in the energy band above 10 PeV, compared to KASCADE-Grande, and an order-of-magnitude improvement of sensitivity in the multi-EeV energy band, compared to Pierre Auger Observatory.

  19. Cosmic Ray Excesses from Multi-component Dark Matter Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Tsai, Lu-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    We use multi-component decaying dark matter (DM) scenario to explain the possible cosmic ray excesses in the positron fraction recently confirmed by AMS-02 and the total $e^+ +e^-$ flux observed by Fermi-LAT. In the two-component DM models, we find an interesting variation of the flavor structure along with the cutoff of the heavy DM. For the three-component DM case, we focus on a particular parameter range in which the best fits prefer to open only 2 DM decay channels with a third DM contributing nothing to the electron and positron spectra. We show that all models give the reasonable fits to both the AMS-02 positron fraction and the Fermi-LAT total $e^++e^-$ flux, which are also consistent with the measured diffuse $\\gamma$-ray flux by Fermi-LAT.

  20. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION: IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu, E-mail: gudlaugu@glast2.stanford.edu, E-mail: aws@mpe.mpg.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2012-05-01

    The {gamma}-ray sky >100 MeV is dominated by the diffuse emissions from interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar gas and radiation fields of the Milky Way. Observations of these diffuse emissions provide a tool to study cosmic-ray origin and propagation, and the interstellar medium. We present measurements from the first 21 months of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) mission and compare with models of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission generated using the GALPROP code. The models are fitted to cosmic-ray data and incorporate astrophysical input for the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, interstellar gas, and radiation fields. To assess uncertainties associated with the astrophysical input, a grid of models is created by varying within observational limits the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, the size of the cosmic-ray confinement volume (halo), and the distribution of interstellar gas. An all-sky maximum-likelihood fit is used to determine the X{sub CO} factor, the ratio between integrated CO-line intensity and H{sub 2} column density, the fluxes and spectra of the {gamma}-ray point sources from the first Fermi-LAT catalog, and the intensity and spectrum of the isotropic background including residual cosmic rays that were misclassified as {gamma}-rays, all of which have some dependency on the assumed diffuse emission model. The models are compared on the basis of their maximum-likelihood ratios as well as spectra, longitude, and latitude profiles. We also provide residual maps for the data following subtraction of the diffuse emission models. The models are consistent with the data at high and intermediate latitudes but underpredict the data in the inner Galaxy for energies above a few GeV. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed, including the contribution by undetected point-source populations and spectral variations of cosmic rays throughout the Galaxy. In the outer Galaxy, we find that the data prefer models with a flatter

  1. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakau, Steffen; Schlickeiser, Reinhard [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ{sub b} ∼ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times which are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilize and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the intergalactic medium.

  2. From cosmic ray source to the Galactic pool

    CERN Document Server

    Schure, K M

    2013-01-01

    The Galactic cosmic ray spectrum is a remarkably straight power law. Our current understanding is that the dominant sources that accelerate cosmic rays up to the knee ($3 \\times 10^{15}$ eV) or perhaps even the ankle ($3 \\times 10^{18}$ eV), are young Galactic supernova remnants. In theory, however, there are various reasons why the spectrum may be different for different sources, and may not even be a power law if nonlinear shock acceleration applies during the most efficient stages of acceleration. We show how the spectrum at the accelerator translates to the spectrum that make up the escaping cosmic rays that replenish the Galactic pool of cosmic rays. We assume that cosmic ray confinement, and thus escape, is linked to the level of magnetic field amplification, and that the magnetic field is amplified by streaming cosmic rays according to the non-resonant hybrid or resonant instability. When a fixed fraction of the energy is transferred to cosmic rays, it turns out that a source spectrum that is flatter t...

  3. Astrophysical origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Diego F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-413, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Anchordoqui, Luis A [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    In the first part of this review we discuss the basic observational features at the end of the cosmic ray (CR) energy spectrum. We also present there the main characteristics of each of the experiments involved in the detection of these particles. We then briefly discuss the status of the chemical composition and the distribution of arrival directions of CRs. After that, we examine the energy losses during propagation, introducing the Greisen-Zaptsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff, and discuss the level of confidence with which each experiment has detected particles beyond the GZK energy limit. In the second part of the review, we discuss the astrophysical environments that are able to accelerate particles up to such high energies, including active galactic nuclei, large scale galactic wind termination shocks, relativistic jets and hot-spots of Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies, pulsars, magnetars, quasar remnants, starbursts, colliding galaxies, and gamma ray burst fireballs. In the third part of the review we provide a brief summary of scenarios which try to explain the super-GZK events with the help of new physics beyond the standard model. In the last section, we give an overview on neutrino telescopes and existing limits on the energy spectrum and discuss some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Finally, we outline how extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be used to probe new physics beyond the electroweak scale.

  4. The Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Djorgovski, S G; Kulkarni, S R; Sari, R; Bloom, J S; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; Price, P A; Fox, D; Reichart, D; Yost, S; Berger, E; Diercks, A H; Goodrich, R; Chaffee, F H

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray bursts are one of the great frontiers of astrophysics today. They are a playground of relativists and observers alike. They may teach us about the death of stars and the birth of black holes, the physics in extreme conditions, and help us probe star formation in the distant and obscured universe. In this review we summarise some of the remarkable progress in this field over the past few years. While the nature of the GRB progenitors is still unsettled, it now appears likely that at least some bursts originate in explosions of very massive stars, or at least occur in or near the regions of massive star formation. The physics of the burst afterglows is reasonably well understood, and has been tested and confirmed very well by the observations. Bursts are found to be beamed, but with a broad range of jet opening angles; the mean gamma-ray energies after the beaming corrections are ~ 10^51 erg. Bursts are associated with faint ~ 25 mag) galaxies at cosmological redshifts, with ~ 1. The host gal...

  5. Effect of cosmic ray on global high cloud from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's climate is affected by not only internal forcings but also external forcings related with solar activities. The energetic particles called "cosmic rays" from outer space have been considered as a potentially important external climate forcing since the first report by Svensemark and Friis-Christensen (1997) which showed a significant correlation between cloudiness and cosmic ray. This correlation is a basis of a couple of hypotheses in microphysical processes: ion-aerosol clear-air mechanism and ion-aerosol near-cloud mechanism. These mechanisms have been either supported or objected by many successive studies, most of which correlated long-term trends of cloud and cosmic ray. However, it is most likely that such methodology is not suitable to find actual connection, because long-term trends of clouds may invite affection by many factors other than cosmic ray. It is therefore necessary to find the relation at shorter time scale, since cosmic ray affect the process of cloud formation in a moment. Here we show spatial distributions of correlation between global high cloud fraction data from MODIS and cosmic ray of neutron monitor data from McMurdo, Antarctic. We removed 3-month running means from the original data in order to get high frequency fluctuations. As results, positive correlations are dominant in the spatial distribution, especially over lands on the northern hemisphere and oceans on the Southern hemisphere. On the other hand, negative correlations exist over limited area including the Indian Ocean. According to the cross-correlation (with time lags), the areas with positive correlation is widely distributed at zero lag. At ±1 month lags, the signs of correlations become the opposite of that at zero lag. Furthermore, the correlation between relative high cloud amount to total cloud and cosmic ray shows similar distribution to the correlation between absolute high cloud amount and cosmic ray, implying stronger high cloud response to cosmic ray

  6. Markov Stochastic Technique to Determine Galactic Cosmic Ray Sources Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashraf Farahat

    2010-06-01

    A new numerical model of particle propagation in the Galaxy has been developed, which allows the study of cosmic-ray production and propagation in 2D. The model has been used to solve cosmic ray diffusive transport equation with a complete network of nuclear interactions using the time backward Markov stochastic process by tracing the particles’ trajectories starting from the Solar System back to their sources in the Galaxy. This paper describes a further development of the model to calculate the contribution of various galactic locations to the production of certain cosmic ray nuclei observed at the Solar System.

  7. AMS results on positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the cosmic ray particles are presented with the emphasis on the measurements of positrons and antiprotons. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of AMS.

  8. Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  9. Measurements at LHC and their relevance for cosmic ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many LHC measurements are already used to improve hadronic interaction models used in cosmic ray analyses. This already had a positive effect on the model dependence of crucial data analyses. Some of the data and the model tuning is reviewed. However, the LHC still has a lot more potential to provide crucial information. Since the start of Run2 the highest accelerator beam energies are reached and no further increase can be expected for a long time. First data of Run2 are published and the fundamental performance of cosmic ray hadronic interaction models can be scrutinized. The relevance of LHC data in general for cosmic ray data analyses is demonstrated.

  10. Observation of a rare cosmic ray event at mountain altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Basudhara; Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K.; Biswas, Sukumar; Dey, Sandhya; Maulik, Atanu; Mazumdar, Amal; Saha, Satyajit; Syam, Debapriyo

    2015-02-01

    Existence of strangelets in cosmic rays has been predicted even at mountain altitudes ∼ 3-4 km with extremely low abundance. We exposed an appropriate passive detector to cosmic rays at Darjeeling, India, at an atmospheric pressure of 765 hPa, as a pilot study to determine its suitability for the detection of strangelets in a large area detector array through long-term exposure. During the analysis we found a highly unusual event consisting of a cluster of six identical nuclear tracks. We argue that even the most mundane explanation of this event requires unusual physics, the first possible observation of multifragmentation involving cosmic rays.

  11. The Telescope Array Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Obsrevatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  12. Restrictive scenarios from Lorentz Invariance Violation to cosmic rays propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Huerta, H

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz Invariance Violation introduced as a generic modification to particle dispersion relations is used to study high energy cosmic ray attenuation processes. It is shown to reproduce the same physical effects for vacuum Cherenkov radiation, as in models with spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry. This approximation is also implemented for the study of photon decay in vacuum, where stringent limits to the violation scale are derived from the direct observation of very high energy cosmic ray photon events on gamma telescopes. Photo production processes by cosmic ray primaries on photon background are also addressed, to show that Lorentz violation may turn off this attenuation process at energies above a well defined secondary threshold.

  13. Cosmic rays as regulators of molecular cloud properties

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Galli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays are the main agents in controlling the chemical evolution and setting the ambipolar diffusion time of a molecular cloud. We summarise the processes causing the energy degradation of cosmic rays due to their interaction with molecular hydrogen, focusing on the magnetic effects that influence their propagation. Making use of magnetic field configurations generated by numerical simulations, we show that the increase of the field line density in the collapse region results in a reduction of the cosmic-ray ionisation rate. As a consequence the ionisation fraction decreases, facilitating the decoupling between the gas and the magnetic field.

  14. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Pogorelov, Nikolai, E-mail: mzhang@fit.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research and Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    This paper provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. The heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.

  15. Fibre laser hydrophones for cosmic ray particle detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.J.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of ultra high energetic cosmic neutrinos provides a unique means to search for extragalactic sources that accelerate particles to extreme energies. It allows to study the neutrino component of the GZK cut-off in the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the search for neutrinos beyond this li

  16. Reconstructing the Chronology of Supernovae: Determining Major Variations in the History of the Cosmic-ray Flux Incident on the Earth's Surface by Measuring the Concentration of 22Ne in Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahill, N. D.; Giegengack, R.; Lande, K.; Omar, G.

    2008-12-01

    We plan to measure the inventory of cosmogenically produced 22Ne atoms preserved in the mineral lattice of halite in deposits of rock salt, and to use that inventory to measure variations in the cosmic-ray flux to enable us to reconstruct the history of supernovae. Bedded rock salt consists almost entirely of the mineral halite (NaCl). Any neon trapped in the halite crystals during precipitation is primarily 20Ne, with a 22Ne concentration of 9% or less. Any neon resulting from cosmic-ray interactions with 23Na is solely 22Ne; therefore, 22Ne atoms in excess of 9% of the total neon are cosmogenic in origin. Measurement of the 22Ne inventory in halite from deposits covering a range of geologic ages may enable us to document the systematic growth of 22Ne through geologic time and, thus, establish the cosmic-ray flux and a chronology of supernovae. The cosmic-ray flux is attenuated in direct proportion to the mass of material overlying a halite deposit. To adjust the 22Ne inventory to account for that attenuation, we must reconstruct the post-depositional history of accumulation and removal of superjacent sediment for each halite deposit we study. As an example of our procedure, we reconstruct here the shielding history of the Permian halite deposit, the Salado Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico. The stratigraphy of the Delaware Basin has been well documented via exploration and production wells drilled in search of oil and gas, exploration boreholes associated with potash mining, and comprehensive geologic site assessment of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is a subsurface repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes, located in southeastern New Mexico, 42 km east of Carlsbad and approximately 655 m beneath the surface in the Salado Fm. The Salado Fm is part of the Late Permian Ochoan Series, and consists of 1) a lower member, 2) the McNutt Potash Zone, and 3) an upper member. WIPP lies between marker bed (MB)139 and MB136 in the

  17. Analysis of North Sky Cosmic Ray Anisotropy with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Elizabeth; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cosmic Ray anisotropy, no experiment has definitively discovered the source of this unexpected phenomenon. Studying the cosmic rays' neutral daughter particles with pointing capabilities, like neutrinos, could shed new light. This can be done at two levels; a source which produces cosmic rays must also produce high energy astrophysical neutrinos, and low energy atmospheric neutrinos are made when the cosmic rays interact with the atmosphere. This analysis focuses on atmospheric neutrinos detected by IceCube, a Cherenkov detector instrumenting a kilometer cubed of glacial ice at the South Pole. The anisotropy and its energy dependence have been studied in the Southern sky using atmospheric muons by IceCube. In the North, gamma ray detectors, such as HAWC, and Argo-YBJ, have observed this anisotropy in cosmic ray showers. Thus far, no single- detector full-sky map exists of the anisotropy. Using IceCube's neutrino data, we can complement these studies with an exploration of the northern sky anisotropy at higher energies of cosmic rays. This could bring us much closer to understanding the complete picture of this anisotropy across energy levels and the whole sky.

  18. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2010-01-01

    We perform kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Bohm-like diffusion assumed, and simple models for Alfvenic drift and dissipation are adopted. Phenomenological models for thermal leakage injection are considered as well. We find that the preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration efficiency and energy spectrum, while the CR injection rate is a secondary parameter. For SNRs in the warm ISM, if the injection fraction is larger than 10^{-4}, the DSA is efficient enough to convert more than 20 % of the SN explosion energy into CRs and the accelerated CR spectrum exhibits a concave curvature flattening to E^{-1.6}. Such a flat source spectrum near the knee energy, however, may not be reconciled with the CR spectrum observed at Earth. On the other hand, SNRs in the hot ISM, with an injection fraction smaller than 10^{-4}, are inefficient accelerators with...

  19. Solar Cosmic Ray Acceleration and Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Podgorny, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    The GOES data for emission of flare protons with the energies of 10 - 100 MeV are analyzed. Proton fluxes of ~1032 accelerated particles take place at the current sheet decay. Proton acceleration in a flare occurs along a singular line of the current sheet by the Lorentz electric field, as in the pinch gas discharge. The duration of proton flux measured on the Earth orbit is by 2 - 3 orders of magnitude longer than the duration of flares. The high energy proton flux from the flares that appear on the western part of the solar disk arrives to Earth with the time of flight. These particles propagate along magnetic lines of the Archimedes spiral connecting the flare with the Earth. Protons from the flare on the eastern part of the solar disk begin to register with a delay of several hours. Such particles cannot get on the magnetic field line connecting the flare with the Earth. These protons reach the Earth, moving across the interplanetary magnetic field. The particles captured by the magnetic field in the solar wind are transported with solar wind and due to diffusion across the magnetic field. The patterns of solar cosmic rays generation demonstrated in this paper are not always observed in the small ('1 cm-2 s-1 ster-1) proton events.

  20. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    CERN Document Server

    Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...

  1. Propagation of cosmic rays into diffuse clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We study the capability of low-energy cosmic rays (CR) to penetrate into diffuse clouds when they move from the hot ionized plasma to a cool cloud embedded in that plasma. The spectrum of CR inside a cloud can be remarkably different from the the one present in the hot interstellar medium because when CRs pass through a dense cloud of matter, they suffer energy losses due to ionization and nuclear interactions. Hence there is a net flux of CRs towards the cloud that can excite Alfv\\'en waves. In turn, self-excited Alfv\\'en waves enhances the diffusion of CRs near the edge of the cloud, forcing CRs to spend more time in this layer and increasing the amount of energy losses. The final effect is that the flux of CR entering into the cloud is strongly suppressed below an energy threshold whose value depends on ambient parameters. For the first time we use the full kinetic theory to describe this problem, coupling CRs and Alfv\\'en waves through the streaming instability, and including the damping of the waves due ...

  2. The ATLAS Trigger Commissioning with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aielli, G; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Antonelli, S; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Bahat Treidel, O; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Bauss, B; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Ya; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Bressler, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Chiodini, G; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Coluccia, M R; Conde-Muíño, P; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfield, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Curtis, C J; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; DeAsmundis, R; DellaPietra, M; DellaVolpe, D; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dogaru, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M -A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Etzion, E; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W F; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Fonseca-Martin, T; Francis, D; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; Gee, C N P; George, S; Geweniger, C; Giagu, S; Gillman, A R; Giusti, P; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, F; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Galllno, P; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Idarraga, J; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Inada, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jain, V; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kadosaka, T; Kajomovitz, E; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E E; Kobayashi, T; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurashige, H; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Landon, M; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Lendermann, V; Levinson, L; Leyton, M; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lupu, N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martínez, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meier, K; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Niwa, T; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Ochi, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V; Perera, V J O; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Perrino, R; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinto, F; Pinzon, G; Polini, A; Pope, B; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Primavera, M; Qian, W; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Rosati, S; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Salvatore, D; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Schmitt, K; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Schäfer, U; Scott, W; Segura, E; Sekhniaidze, G; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Silva, L; Silverstein, S; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Solfaroli, E; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, D; Strong, J; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Tokoshuku, K; Tomoto, M; Torrence, E; Touchard, F

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5$\\mu$s. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorit...

  3. Measurement of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, L.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.

    2016-05-01

    The LOw Frequency ARay (LOFAR) is a multipurpose radio-antenna array aimed to detect radio signals in the 10 - 240 MHz frequency range, covering a large surface in Northern Europe with a higher density in the Northern Netherlands. Radio emission in the atmosphere is produced by cosmic-ray induced air showers through the interaction of charged particles with the Earth magnetic field. The detection of radio signals allows to reconstruct several properties of the observed cascade. We review here all important results achieved in the last years. We proved that the radio-signal distribution at ground level is described by a two-dimensional pattern, which is well fitted by a double Gaussian function. The radio-signal arrival time and polarization have been measured, thus providing additional information on the extensive air shower geometry, and on the radio emission processes. We also showed that the radio signal reaches ground in a thin, curved wavefront which is best parametrized by a hyperboloid shape centred around the shower axis. Radio emission has also been studied under thunderstorm conditions and compared to fair weather conditions. Moreover, by using a hybrid reconstruction technique, we performed mass composition measurements in the energy range 1017 - 1018 eV.

  4. Cosmic-ray ionisation in collapsing clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Marco; Galli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CR) play an important role in dense molecular cores, affecting their thermal and dynamical evolution and initiating the chemistry. Several studies have shown that the formation of protostellar discs in collapsing clouds is severely hampered by the braking torque exerted by the entrained magnetic field on the infalling gas, as long as the field remains frozen to the gas. We examine the possibility that the concentration and twisting of the field lines in the inner region of collapse can produce a significant reduction of the ionisation fraction. To check whether the CR ionisation rate (CRir) can fall below the critical value required to maintain good coupling, we first study the propagation of CRs in a model of a static magnetised cloud varying the relative strength of the toroidal/poloidal components and the mass-to-flux ratio. We then follow the path of CRs using realistic magnetic field configurations generated by numerical simulations of a rotating collapsing core. We find that an increment of...

  5. Cosmic ray measurements around the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Primary cosmic rays of energy greater than ˜ 1014 eV must be studied by indirect experiments measuring the particles generated in the EAS (Extensive Air Shower) development in atmosphere. These experiments are mainly limited by the systematic errors due to their energy calibration. I will discuss the main sources of these errors: the choice of the hadronic interaction model and of the mass of the primary particle (that cannot be measured on a event by event basis). I will then summarize some recent measurements of the all particle spectrum, and I will show that, keeping into account the differences due to the energy calibration, they all agree on the spectral shape. Then I will describe the measurements of the light and heavy primaries mass groups spectra, discussing the claimed features. Using a simple calculation of the elemental spectra (based on the hypothesis that the knee energies follow a Peter's cycle) I will try to discuss if all these results can be interpreted in a common picture.

  6. Cosmic Ray Results from the CosmoALEPH Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, C; Jost, B; Maciuc, F; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2008-01-01

    CosmoALEPH is an experiment operated in conjunction with the ALEPH detector. The ALEPH experiment took data from 1989 until the year 2000 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at CERN. It provides, among others, high resolution tracking and calorimetry. CosmoALEPH used this e+e− detector for cosmic ray studies. In addition, six scintillator telescopes were installed in the ALEPH pit and the LEP tunnel. The whole experiment operated underground at a vertical depth of 320 meter water equivalent. Data from ALEPH and the scintillator telescopes provide informaton on the lateral distribution of energetic cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers. The decoherence curve of these remnant air shower muons is sensitive to the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays and to the interaction characteristics of energetic hadrons in the atmosphere. An attempt is made to extract the various interdependencies in describing the propagation of primary and secondary cosmic rays through the atmosphere and the rock ov...

  7. Cosmic Rays. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-04-01

    Measurement techniques, isotopic composition, distribution, intensity, anisotropy, and sources of cosmic rays are covered in the citations. This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  8. The 1953 Cosmic Ray Conference at Bagneres de Bigorre

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James W

    2011-01-01

    The cosmic ray conference at Bagn`eres de Bigorre in July, 1953 organized by Patrick Blackett and Louis Leprince-Ringuet was a seminal one. It marked the beginning of sub atomic physics and its shift from cosmic ray research to research at the new high energy accelerators. The knowledge of the heavy unstable particles found in the cosmic rays was essentially correct in fact and interpretation and defined the experiments that needed to be carried out with the new accelerators. A large fraction of the physicists who had been using cosmic rays for their research moved to the accelerators. This conference can be placed in importance in the same category as two other famous conferences, the Solvay congress of 1927 and the Shelter Island Conference of 1948.

  9. CORRELATIVE ANALYSIS OF COSMIC RAY INTENSITY AND SOLAR ACTIVITY PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROY

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incoming cosmic ray shows significant intensity modulation in association with different solar geo parameters during their passage through heliosphere. Cosmic ray intensity is found anticorrelated with solar activity parameters. Using pressure corrected data of Mcmurdo neutron monitor, modulation of cosmic ray is analyzed covering solar cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (from 1976 to 2013. Negative and high correlations are obtained with some time lag for most of the solar parameters. Difference in shapes of hysteresis curves CRI~SSN, CRI~SRF. CRI~CI and CRI~FI for odd and even cycles pointed out that different mechanisms convection and diffusion are the dominating factors to drift cosmic ray particles.

  10. Cosmic Rays - A Word-Wide Student Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuarkNet program has distributed hundreds of cosmic ray detectors for use in high schools and research facilities throughout the world over the last decade. Data collected by those students has been uploaded to a central server where web-based analysis tools enable users to characterize and to analyze everyone's cosmic ray data. Since muons rain down on everyone in the world, all students can participate in this free, high energy particle environment. Through self-directed inquiry students have designed their own experiments: exploring cosmic ray rates and air shower structure; and using muons to measure their speed, time dilation, lifetime, and affects on biological systems. We also plan to expand our annual International Muon Week project to create a large student-led collaboration where similar cosmic ray measurements are performed simultaneously throughout the world.

  11. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  12. The anisotropy of multi-TeV cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Brenda

    2013-02-01

    The arrival directions of cosmic rays will be isotropized by the deflection of these charged particles in the Galactic magnetic fields. For example, a 10 TeV proton in a typical Galactic field of 2 micro Gauss has a gyroradius of only 0.005 parsec (=1000 AU) which is much smaller than the distance to any postulated sources. However, observations of TeV cosmic rays by Milagro, Tibet III, ARGO, and IceCube, show anisotropies on both large and small angular scales. These observations require the detection of large numbers of cosmic rays because the anisotropies are less than a few parts in 1000. The large angular scale anisotropies, such as a dipole, could point to diffusion from a nearby source, but the smaller scale anisotropies of extent ~10 degrees are much more difficult to explain. Possibilities that have been explored in the literature include magnetic funneling of cosmic rays from nearby sources and acceleration by magnetic reconnection in the heliosphere's magnetotail. No matter what the mechanism, these observations provide new information about cosmic ray production, nearby magnetic fields, and how the cosmic rays observed at Earth are affected by their propagation.

  13. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  14. Galactic cosmic-ray modulation near the heliopause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Florinski, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We investigate the modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the inner and outer heliosheaths using three-dimensional numerical simulations. The model is based on the Parker transport equation integrated using a stochastic phase-space trajectory method. Integration is performed on a plasma background obtained from a global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our results predict a negligible amount of modulation in the outer heliosheath because of weak scattering of cosmic ray ions owing to very low levels of magnetic fluctuation power at wavenumbers relevant to the transport of cosmic rays with MeV to GeV energies. This means that the heliopause may be treated as a Dirichlet-type boundary for the purpose of energetic particle modeling. We present models with and without drift velocity to facilitate comparison with papers published earlier. We also attempt to reproduce the sudden step-like increases of cosmic-ray intensity observed by Voyager 1 before its encounter with the heliopause. Our results indicate that very slow cross-field diffusion in the outer heliosheath could produce a large gradient of cosmic rays inside the heliospheric boundary. The resulting large gradient in cosmic-ray intensity near the heliopause qualitatively agrees with recent Voyager 1 observations.

  15. Review and interpretation of recent cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-04-26

    Be/sup 10/ has long been of interest for cosmic ray propagation, because its radioactive decay half-life is well matched to the expected cosmic ray age. Recent beryllium isotope measurements from satellites and balloons have covered an energy range from about 30 to 300 MeV/nucleon/sup 1-3/. At the lowest energies, most of the Be/sup 10/ is absent, indicating a cosmic ray lifetime of order 2 x 10/sup 7/ years and the rather low average density of 0.2 atoms/cc traversed by the cosmic rays. At higher energies, a greater proportion of Be/sup 10/ is observed, indicating a somewhat shorter lifetime. These experiments will be reviewed and then compared with a new experiment covering from 100 to 1000 Mev/nucleon/sup 4/. Although improved experiments will be necessary to realize the full potential of cosmic ray beryllium isotope measurements, these first results are already disclosing interesting and unexpected facts about cosmic ray acceleration and propagation.

  16. Cosmic rays and space weather: effects on global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider possible effects of cosmic rays and some other space factors on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the climate is very unstable; decreasing planetary temperature leads to an increase of snow surface, and decrease of the total solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more, etc. From this it follows that even energetically small factors may have a big influence on climate change. In our opinion, the most important of these factors are cosmic rays and cosmic dust through their influence on clouds, and thus, on climate.

  17. On the correlation between cosmic ray intensity and cloud cover

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D; Kudela, K; Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the connection between cloud cover (CC) and cosmic rays (CR) are analysed. Many features of this connection indicate that there is no direct causal connection between low cloud cover (LCC) and CR in spite of the evident long-term correlation between them. However, most of these features are indirect. If only some part of the LCC is connected and varies with CR, then its value, obtained from the joint analysis of their 11-year variations, and averaged over the globe, should be most likely less than 20%. The most significant argument against a causal connection of CR and LCC is the anticorrelation between LCC and the medium cloud cover (MCC). The scenario of the parallel influence of the solar activity on the global temperature and CC on one side and CR on the other, which can lead to the observed correlations, is discussed and advocated.

  18. Ionization and heating by X-rays and cosmic rays*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy radiation from the central T Tauri and protostars plays an important role in shaping protoplanetary disks and influences their evolution. Such radiation, in particular X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV radiation, is predominantly generated in unstable stellar magnetic fields (e.g., the stellar corona, but also in accretion hot spots. Even jets may produce X-ray emission. Cosmic rays, i.e., high-energy particles either from the interstellar space or from the star itself, are of crucial importance. Both highenergy photons and particles ionize disk gas and lead to heating. Ionization and heating subsequently drive chemical networks, and the products of these processes are accessible through observations of molecular line emission. Furthermore, ionization supports the magnetorotational instability and therefore drives disk accretion, while heating of the disk surface layers induces photoevaporative flows. Both processes are crucial for the dispersal of protoplanetary disks and therefore critical for the time scales of planet formation. This chapter introduces the basic physics of ionization and heating starting from a quantum mechanical viewpoint, then discusses relevant processes in astrophysical gases and their applications to protoplanetary disks, and finally summarizes some properties of the most important high-energy sources for protoplanetary disks.

  19. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-ray Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and alpha-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse gamma-rays and dimsses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near fume. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  20. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; BenZvi, S.; Bravo, S.; Jensen, K.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Peacock, J.; Plewa, M.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Schultz, D.; Simons, A. L.; Tosi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available.

  1. A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y

    2015-01-01

    We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.

  2. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning?: A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-08-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow, cause the local atmosphere in a thundercloud to transition to a conducting state. In response to this claim, other researchers have published simulations showing that the electron density produced by RREA is far too small to be able to affect the conductivity in the cloud sufficiently to initiate lightning. In this paper, we compare 74 days of cosmic ray air shower data collected in north central Florida during 2013-2015, the recorded CRASs having primary energies on the order of 1016 eV to 1018 eV and zenith angles less than 38°, with Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data, and we show that there is no evidence that the detected cosmic ray air showers initiated lightning. Furthermore, we show that the average probability of any of our detected cosmic ray air showers to initiate a lightning flash can be no more than 5%. If all lightning flashes were initiated by cosmic ray air showers, then about 1.6% of detected CRASs would initiate lightning; therefore, we do not have enough data to exclude the possibility that lightning flashes could be initiated by cosmic ray air showers.

  3. Galactic origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A.A. [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    The arrival directions of ultrahigh energy extensive air showers (EAS) by Yakutsk, AGASA, P. Auger array data are analyzed. For the first time, the maps of equal exposition of celestial sphere for the distribution of particles by AGASA and P. Auger arrays data have been constructed. The large-scale anisotropy of cosmic particles at E>4x10{sup 19} eV by Yakutsk, AGASA and P. Auger array data has been detected. The problem of cosmic particle origin is discussed.

  4. Hunting for Cosmic-Ray Origins with SuperTIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Illustration of cosmic-ray nuclei impacting Earths atmosphere and decaying into lighter particles. [ESA]The SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) experiment flew over Antarctica for 55 days, collecting millions of galactic cosmic rays. What can it tell us about the origins of these high-energy particles?High-Energy ImpactsGalactic cosmic rays are immensely high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that impact our atmosphere, originating from outside of our solar system. Where do they come from, and how are they accelerated? These are both open topics of research.One of the leading theories is that cosmic-ray source material is primarily a mixture of material that has been ejected from massive stars either from supernovae or in stellar wind outflows and normal interstellar medium (ISM). This material is then accelerated to cosmic-ray energies by supernova shocks.Number of nuclei of each element detected by SuperTIGER. Note the change of scale between the two plots (click for a closer look)! [Murphy et al. 2016]How can we test this model? An important step is understanding the composition of galactic cosmic rays: what elemental nuclei are they made up of? If abundances are similar to solar-system abundances, then the material is likely mostly ISM. If the abundances of rarer heavy elements are high, however, then the material is more likely to have come from massive stars in star-forming regions.Balloon-Borne DetectionsEnter SuperTIGER, an experiment designed to collect cosmic rays and measure the abundances of the rare heavy elements those with atomic number between iron (Z=26) and zirconium (Z=40).The path that SuperTIGER took over Antarctica during its flight, with a different color denoting each circuit around the pole. Note where it got stuck in an eddy over the Transarctic Mountains at the end of its second circuit! [Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility]To gather galactic cosmic rays, the detector must be above the Earths atmosphere; interactions with

  5. News from Cosmic Gamma-ray Line Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays at MeV energies from cosmic radioactivities is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and how they shape objects such as massive stars and supernova explosions. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this same astronomical window, and positrons are often produced from radioactive beta decays. Nuclear gamma-ray telescopes face instrumental challenges from penetrating gamma rays and cosmic-ray induced backgrounds. But the astrophysical benefits of such efforts are underlined by the discoveries of nuclear gamma~rays from the brightest of the expected sources. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivity gamma~rays have been measured in spectral detail, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of origins in deep supernova interiors, from the decay of $^{56}$Ni, $^{56}$Co, and $^{44}$Ti. The diffuse afterglow in gamma rays of radioa...

  6. Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, N. K.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the

  7. Low energy secondary cosmic ray flux (gamma rays) monitoring and its constrains

    CERN Document Server

    Raghav, Anil; Yadav, Virendra; Bijewar, Nitinkumar

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variation of secondary cosmic rays (SCR) flux was measured during the several full and new moon and days close to them at Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai (Geomagnetic latitude: 10.6 N), India. The measurements were done by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energy threshold of 200 keV. The SCR flux shows sudden enhancement for approximately about 2 hour in counts during couple of events out of all experimental observations. The maximum Enhancement SCR flux is about 200% as compared to the diurnal trend of SCR temporal variations. Weather parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were continuously monitored during all observation. The influences of geomagnetic field, interplanetary parameters and tidal effect on SCR flux have been considered. Summed spectra corresponding to enhancement duration indicates appearance of atmospheric radioactivity which shows single gamma ray line. Detail investigation revealed the presence of radioactive Ar 41 . This measurements puts lim...

  8. Cosmic-Ray Injection from Star-Forming Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano; Linden, Tim

    2016-09-01

    At present, all physical models of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission assume that the distribution of cosmic-ray sources traces the observed populations of either OB stars, pulsars, or supernova remnants. However, since H_{2}-rich regions host significant star formation and numerous supernova remnants, the morphology of observed H_{2} gas (as traced by CO line surveys) should also provide a physically motivated, high-resolution tracer for cosmic-ray injection. We assess the impact of utilizing H_{2} as a tracer for cosmic-ray injection on models of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission. We employ state-of-the-art 3D particle diffusion and gas density models, along with a physical model for the star-formation rate based on global Schmidt laws. Allowing a fraction, f_{H_{2}}, of cosmic-ray sources to trace the observed H_{2} density, we find that a theoretically well-motivated value f_{H_{2}}∼0.20-0.25 (i) provides a significantly better global fit to the diffuse Galactic γ-ray sky and (ii) highly suppresses the intensity of the residual γ-ray emission from the Galactic center region. Specifically, in models utilizing our best global fit values of f_{H_{2}}∼0.20-0.25, the spectrum of the galactic center γ-ray excess is drastically affected, and the morphology of the excess becomes inconsistent with predictions for dark matter annihilation.

  9. Reconstruction of the Galactic Cosmic ray Spectrum during the June 2015 Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Alberto; Lara, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    During the final week of June 2015, a Forbush decrease was observed by different detectors around the world. We have used data from Neutron Monitors of the North-west University, South Africa, and a force free model to reconstruct the variations of the primary spectrum of the galactic cosmic rays during this event. The validity of our method was confirmed by convolving the computed spectrum with the appropriate Yield function, to reproduce the observations of different Neutron Monitors reported in the Neutron Monitor database. We found a very good agreement between the observed and computed data. We present the method, the results and its possible application to different cosmic ray detectors.

  10. The relation between post-shock temperature, cosmic-ray pressure, and cosmic-ray escape for non-relativistic shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Yamazaki, R.; Helder, E.A.; Schure, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays. This requires that at least 5% of the available energy is transferred to cosmic rays, implying a high cosmic-ray pressure downstream of SNR shocks. Recently, it has been shown that the downstream temperature in

  11. Winds, Clumps, and Interacting Cosmic Rays in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Gallagher, J S; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2013-01-01

    We construct a family of models for the evolution of energetic particles in the starburst galaxy M82 and compare them to observations to test the calorimeter assumption that all cosmic ray energy is radiated in the starburst region. Assuming constant cosmic ray acceleration efficiency with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations as a function of energy. Cosmic rays are injected with Galactic energy distributions and electron-to-proton ratio via type II supernovae at the observed rate of 0.07/yr. From the cosmic ray spectra, we predict the radio synchrotron and \\gamma-ray spectra. To more accurately model the radio spectrum, we incorporate a multiphase interstellar medium in the starburst region of M82. Our model interstellar medium is highly fragmented with compact dense molecular clouds and dense photoionized gas, both embedded in a hot, low density medium in overall pressure equilibrium. The spectra predicted by this one-zone model are...

  12. WINDS, CLUMPS, AND INTERACTING COSMIC RAYS IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Gallagher, J. S. III, E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We construct a family of models for the evolution of energetic particles in the starburst galaxy M82 and compare them to observations to test the calorimeter assumption that all cosmic ray energy is radiated in the starburst region. Assuming constant cosmic ray acceleration efficiency with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations as a function of energy. Cosmic rays are injected with Galactic energy distributions and electron-to-proton ratio via Type II supernovae at the observed rate of 0.07 yr{sup -1}. From the cosmic ray spectra, we predict the radio synchrotron and {gamma}-ray spectra. To more accurately model the radio spectrum, we incorporate a multiphase interstellar medium in the starburst region of M82. Our model interstellar medium is highly fragmented with compact dense molecular clouds and dense photoionized gas, both embedded in a hot, low density medium in overall pressure equilibrium. The spectra predicted by this one-zone model are compared to the observed radio and {gamma}-ray spectra of M82. {chi}{sup 2} tests are used with radio and {gamma}-ray observations and a range of model predictions to find the best-fit parameters. The best-fit model yields constraints on key parameters in the starburst zone of M82, including a magnetic field strength of {approx}250 {mu}G and a wind advection speed in the range of 300-700 km s{sup -1}. We find that M82 is a good electron calorimeter but not an ideal cosmic-ray proton calorimeter and discuss the implications of our results for the astrophysics of the far-infrared-radio correlation in starburst galaxies.

  13. Atmospheric Effect on Cosmic Ray Muons at High Cut-Off Rigidity Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullrahman Maghrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray data and radiosonde measurements from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Rc = 14.4 GV, for the period 2002–2012, were used to study the effect of atmospheric pressure, level of pion production, and temperature at that level, on cosmic ray muons. We found that, even if corrections were made to the detected muons using these three parameters, seasonal variations of the cosmic rays still exist. This suggests that other terrestrial and/or extraterrestrial causes may be considered. The levels of pion production and atmospheric pressure are inversely correlated with the muon rate. On the other hand, the temperature at the pion production level is correlated with muons in spring and winter and inversely correlated in fall and summer. There is no clear explanation for this behavior.

  14. LET spectra of trapped anomalous cosmic rays in low-Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, A. J.; Boberg, P. R.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Observations aboard Cosmos satelites discovered trapped anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs), tracked the variation in their intensity in 1986-1988, and measured their fluence, spectrum, and composition at solar minimum in the previous solar cycle. The MAST instrument aboard the SAMPEX satellite has observed trapped anomalous cosmic rays in the present solar cycle, confirmed the general features of the Cosmos data, and provided the first detailed observations of trapped ACRs. In this paper we apply theoretical modeling of trapped ACRs, which is shown to provide a reasonably good description of both the Cosmos and SAMPEX data, to calculate the integral linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra due to trapped ACRs in typical low-Earth orbits. We compare these calculations with the LET spectra produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and non-trapped ACRs in order to assess the relative radiation hazard posed by trapped ACRs.

  15. Cosmic-ray Propagation and Interactions in the Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ptuskin, Vladimir S.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN

    2007-01-22

    We survey the theory and experimental tests for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy up to energies of 10{sup 15} eV. A guide to the previous reviews and essential literature is given, followed by an exposition of basic principles. The basic ideas of cosmic-ray propagation are described, and the physical origin of its processes are explained. The various techniques for computing the observational consequences of the theory are described and contrasted. These include analytical and numerical techniques. We present the comparison of models with data including direct and indirect--especially gamma-ray--observations, and indicate what we can learn about cosmic-ray propagation. Some particular important topics including electrons and antiparticles are chosen for discussion.

  16. Cosmological Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies with Cosmic Ray Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingjing; Salem, Munier

    2016-01-01

    We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic-rays generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain cosmic ray parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8-30 $\\times 10^{10}$ Msun. We find that including cosmic ray feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disk dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.

  17. Cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Tyumentsev, Alexander; Volkov, Nikolay

    The spectra of cosmic rays measured at Earth are different from their source spectra. A key to understanding this difference, being crucial for solving the problem of cosmic-ray origin, is the determination of how cosmic-ray (CR) particles propagate through the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). If the medium is a quasi-homogeneous the propagation process can be described by a normal diffusion model. However, during a last few decades many evidences, both from theory and observations, of the existence of multiscale structures in the Galaxy have been found. Filaments, shells, clouds are entities widely spread in the ISM. In such a highly non-homogeneous (fractal-like) ISM the normal diffusion model certainly is not kept valid. Generalization of this model leads to what is known as "anomalous diffusion". The main goal of the report is to retrieve the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources in the framework of the anomalous diffusion (AD) model. The anomaly in this model results from large free paths ("Levy flights") of particles between galactic inhomogeneities. In order to evaluate the CR spectrum at the sources, we carried out new calculation of the CR spectra at Earth. AD equation in terms of fractional derivatives have been used to describe CR propagation from the nearby (r≤1 kpc) young (t≤ 1 Myr) and multiple old distant (r > 1 kpc) sources. The assessment of the key model parameters have been based on the results of the particles diffusion in the cosmic and laboratory plasma. We show that in the framework of the anomalous diffusion model the locally observed basic features of the cosmic rays (difference between spectral exponents of proton, He and other nuclei, "knee" problem, positron to electron ratio) can be explained if the injection spectrum at the main galactic sources of cosmic rays has spectral exponent p˜ 2.85. The authors acknowledge support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant No. 14-02-31524.

  18. Cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D. [Department of Astronomy, MC-221, 1002 W. Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Cosmic rays in galaxies interact with the interstellar medium and give us a direct view of nuclear and particle interactions in the cosmos. For example, cosmic-ray proton interactions with interstellar hydrogen produce gamma rays via PcrPism→π{sup 0}→γγ. For a 'normal' star-forming galaxy like the Milky Way, most cosmic rays escape the Galaxy before such collisions, but in starburst galaxies with dense gas and huge star formation rate, most cosmic rays do suffer these interactions [1,2]. We construct a 'thick-target' model for starburst galaxies, in which cosmic rays are accelerated by supernovae, and escape is neglected. This model gives an upper limit to the gamma-ray emission. Only two free parameters are involved in the model: cosmic-ray proton acceleration energy rate from supernova and the proton injection spectral index. The pionic gamma-radiation is calculated from 10 MeV to 10 TeV for the starburst galaxy NGC 253, and compared to Fermi and HESS data. Our model fits NGC 253 well, suggesting that cosmic rays in this starburst are in the thick target limit, and that this galaxy is a gamma-ray calorimeter.

  19. Ultra High Energy Comic Rays in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), for energies greater than E > 10^{14} eV but less than E < 10^{26} eV, in the cosmic medium of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We find that the CMB plays a pivot role in this energy range. As example, the observed "knee(s)" and the "ankle" could be understood in reasonable terms. What we may observe at energy near 10^{25} eV (W^\\pm bursts or Z^0 bursts) is also briefly discussed.

  20. The Eddington Limit in Cosmic Rays: An Explanation for the Observed Faintness of Starbursting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    We show that the luminosity of a star forming galaxy is capped by the production and subsequent expulsion of cosmic rays from its interstellar medium. By defining an Eddington luminosity in cosmic rays, we show that the star formation rate of a given galaxy is limited by its mass content and the cosmic ray mean free path. When the cosmic ray luminosity and pressure reaches a critical value as a result of vigorous star formation, hydrostatic balance is lost, a cosmic ray-driven wind develops, and star formation is choked off. Cosmic ray pressure-driven winds are likely to produce wind velocities significantly in excess of the galactic escape velocity. It is possible that cosmic ray feedback results in the Faber-Jackson relation for a plausible set of input parameters that describe cosmic ray production and transport, which are calibrated by observations of the Milky Way's interstellar cosmic rays.

  1. A general detector testing system using cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Chengguang

    2013-01-01

    A cosmic ray hodoscope with two-dimensional spacial sensitivity and good time resolution has been developed. The system is designed to use the cosmic muons as probes to test the performances of charged particle sensitive detectors. This paper will present the structure of this system, the timing calibration and the resulted performance of this system. The results of the test of the prototype electron detector for LHAASO project are presented as well.

  2. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  3. COSMOS: The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Area-average soil moisture at the sub-kilometer scale is needed but until the advent of the cosmic-ray method (Zreda et al., 2008, it was difficult to measure. This new method is now being implemented routinely in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (sometimes called "neutronavka" measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. COSMOS has already deployed 53 of the eventual 500 neutronavkas distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its hectometer horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in COSMOS, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  4. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  5. Cosmic Rays and Stochastic Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliotail

    CERN Document Server

    Desiati, P

    2012-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be generated by diffusive shock acceleration processes in Supernova Remnants, and the arrival direction is likely determined by the distribution of their sources throughout the Galaxy, in particular by the nearest and youngest ones. Transport to Earth through the interstellar medium is expected to affect the cosmic ray properties as well. However, the observed anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays and its energy dependence cannot be explained with diffusion models of particle propagation in the Galaxy. Within a distance of a few parsec, diffusion regime is not valid and particles with energy below about 100 TeV must be influenced by the heliosphere and its elongated tail. The observation of a highly significant localized excess region of cosmic rays from the apparent direction of the downstream interstellar flow at 1-10 TeV energies might provide the first experimental evidence that the heliotail can affect the transport of energetic particles. In particular, TeV cosmic rays propa...

  6. The Transport of Cosmic Rays Across Magnetic Fieldlines

    CERN Document Server

    Desiati, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The long residence times and small anisotropies of cosmic rays suggest that they are well confined and well scattered by the Galactic magnetic field. Due to the disklike shape of the confinement volume, transport in the vertical direction, perpendicular to the mean Galactic magnetic field, is key to cosmic ray escape. It has long been recognized that this vertical transport depends both on the vertical component of the fieldlines themselves and on the extent to which the cosmic rays are tied to the fieldlines. In this paper we use magnetic fields with very simple spatial and temporal structure to isolate some important features of cross field transport. We show that even simple magnetic nonuniformities combined with pitch angle scattering can enhance cross field transport by several orders of magnitude, while pitch angle scattering is unnecessary for enhanced transport if the field is chaotic. Nevertheless, perpendicular transport is much less than parallel transport in all the cases we study. We apply the re...

  7. Cosmic Ray Small Scale Anisotropies and Local Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    López-Barquero, Vanessa; Xu, S; Desiati, P; Lazarian, A

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray anisotropy is observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments. However, a comprehensive and satisfactory explanation has been elusive for over a decade now. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays on Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium and small angular scale structure could be an effect of non diffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation of the observed small scale anisotropy observed at TeV energy scale, may come from the effect of particle scattering in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low-$\\beta$ compressible mag...

  8. A Cosmic Ray Resolution to the Superbubble Energy-Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Yousaf M

    2008-01-01

    Superbubbles (SBs) are amongst the greatest injectors of energy into the Galaxy, and have been proposed to be the acceleration site of Galactic cosmic rays. They are thought to be powered by the fast stellar winds and powerful supernova explosions of massive stars in dense stellar clusters and associations. Observations of the SB 'DEM L192' in the neighboring Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) galaxy show that it contains only about one-third the energy injected by its constituent stars via fast stellar winds and supernovae. It is not yet understood where the excess energy is going, thus, the so-called 'energy crisis'. We show here that it is very likely that a significant fraction of the unaccounted for energy is being taken up in accelerating cosmic rays, thus bolstering the argument for the SB origin of cosmic rays.

  9. Pinpointing cosmic ray propagation with the AMS-02 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pato, Miguel [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Simet, Melanie, E-mail: pato@iap.fr, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: msimet@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is scheduled to be deployed onboard the International Space Station later this year, will be capable of measuring the composition and spectra of GeV-TeV cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. In this paper, we study how the projected measurements from AMS-02 of stable secondary-to-primary and unstable ratios (such as boron-to-carbon and beryllium-10-to-beryllium-9) can constrain the models used to describe the propagation of cosmic rays throughout the Milky Way. We find that within the context of fairly simple propagation models, all of the model parameters can be determined with high precision from the projected AMS-02 data. Such measurements are less constraining in more complex scenarios, however, which allow for departures from a power-law form for the diffusion coefficient, for example, or for inhomogeneity or stochasticity in the distribution and chemical abundances of cosmic ray sources.

  10. Investigation of cosmic ray-cloud connections using MISR

    CERN Document Server

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have analyzed International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data and reached contradictory conclusions regarding the influence of solar-modulated galactic cosmic rays on cloud fraction and cloud properties. The Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite has been in continuous operation for 13 years and thus provides an independent (and previously unutilized) cloud data set to investigate purported solar-cloud links. Furthermore, unlike many previous solar-climate studies that report cloud fraction MISR measures albedo, which has clearer climatological relevance. Our long-term analysis of MISR data finds no statistically significant correlations between cosmic rays and global albedo or globally averaged cloud height, and no evidence for any regional or lagged correlations. Moreover, epoch superposition analysis of Forbush decreases reveals no detectable albedo response to cosmic ray decreases, thereby placing an upper limit on the possible influ...

  11. Can Cosmic Ray Catalysed Vacuum Decay Dominate Over Tunnelling?

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, Kari; Enqvist, Kari; Donald, John Mc

    1997-01-01

    We consider the question of whether cosmic ray catalysed false vacuum decay can be phenomenologically more important than spontaneous decay via quantum tunnelling. We extend the zero bubble wall width Landau-WKB analysis of catalysed false vacuum decay to include the leading order effects of finite wall width and derive an expression for the thin-wall bubble action. Using this we calculate the exponential suppression factor for the catalysed decay rate at the critical bubble energy, corresponding to the largest probability of catalysed decay. We show that, in general, cosmic ray catalysed decay is likely to be more important than spontaneous decay for sufficiently thin-walled bubbles (wall thickness less than about 30 % of the initial bubble radius), but that spontaneous decay will dominate for the case of thick-walled bubbles. Since any perturbative model with a cosmologically significant false vacuum decay rate will almost certainly produce thick-walled bubbles, we can conclude that cosmic ray catalysed fal...

  12. Restrictions from Lorentz invariance violation on cosmic ray propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huerta, H.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.

    2017-03-01

    Lorentz invariance violation introduced as a generic modification to particle dispersion relations is used to study high energy cosmic ray attenuation processes. It is shown to reproduce the same physical effects for vacuum Cherenkov radiation, as in some particular models with spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry. This approximation is also implemented for the study of photon decay in vacuum, where stringent limits to the violation scale are derived from the direct observation of very high energy cosmic ray photon events on gamma telescopes. Photo production processes by cosmic ray primaries on photon background are also addressed, to show that Lorentz violation may turn off this attenuation process at energies above a well-defined secondary threshold.

  13. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huege, T.; Apel, W.D. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [IPE, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, A.F. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bercuci, A. [Nat. Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Eng., 7690 Bucharest (Romania); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); IEKP, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Nat. Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Eng., 7690 Bucharest (Romania); Buitink, S. [Dpt. Astrophysics, Radboud Univ., 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57072 Siegen (Germany); Butcher, H. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [IEKP, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-03-15

    In the last few years, radio detection of cosmic ray air showers has experienced a true renaissance, becoming manifest in a number of new experiments and simulation efforts. In particular, the LOPES project has successfully implemented modern interferometric methods to measure the radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES has confirmed that the emission is coherent and of geomagnetic origin, as expected by the geosynchrotron mechanism, and has demonstrated that a large scale application of the radio technique has great potential to complement current measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We describe the current status, most recent results and open questions regarding radio detection of cosmic rays and give an overview of ongoing research and development for an application of the radio technique in the framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers with LOPES

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T; Asch, T; Badea, A F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blumer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buitink, S; Bruggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Hakenjos, A; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Isar, P G; Kampert, K H; Kolotaev, Yu; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Meurer, C; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Petrovic, J; Pierog, T; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Sima, O; Singh, K; Stumpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D; Huege, Tim; al, et

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, radio detection of cosmic ray air showers has experienced a true renaissance, becoming manifest in a number of new experiments and simulation efforts. In particular, the LOPES project has successfully implemented modern interferometric methods to measure the radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES has confirmed that the emission is coherent and of geomagnetic origin, as expected by the geosynchrotron mechanism, and has demonstrated that a large scale application of the radio technique has great potential to complement current measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We describe the current status, most recent results and open questions regarding radio detection of cosmic rays and give an overview of ongoing research and development for an application of the radio technique in the framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  15. Testing the proposed link between cosmic rays and cloud cover

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, T

    2008-01-01

    A decrease in the globally averaged low level cloud cover, deduced from the ISCCP infra red data, as the cosmic ray intensity decreased during the solar cycle 22 was observed by two groups. The groups went on to hypothesise that the decrease in ionization due to cosmic rays causes the decrease in cloud cover, thereby explaining a large part of the presently observed global warming. We have examined this hypothesis to look for evidence to corroborate it. None has been found and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence, we estimate that less than 23%, at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle change in the globally averaged cloud cover observed in solar cycle 22 is due to the change in the rate of ionization from the solar modulation of cosmic rays.

  16. Cosmic rays,Climate and the CERN CLOUD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    For more than two centuries, scientists have been puzzled by observations of solar-climate variability yet the lack of any established physical mechanism. Some recent observations, although disputed, suggest that clouds may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind. The CLOUD experiment aims to settle the question of whether or not cosmic rays have a climatically-significant effect on clouds by carrying out a series of carefully-controlled measurements in a large cloud chamber exposed to a beam from the CERN PS. This talk will present the scientific motivation for CLOUD and the first results, which have recently been published in Nature (Kirkby et al. (2011). Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Nature 476, 429-433).

  17. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  18. Precision Cosmic Ray physics with space-born experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incagli, Marco

    2016-07-01

    More than 100 years after their discoveries, cosmic rays have been extensively studied, both with balloon experiments and with ground observatories. More recently, the possibility of mounting detectors on satellites or on the International Space Station has allowed for a long duration (several years) continuous observation of primary cosmic rays, i.e. before their interaction with the earth atmosphere, thus opening a new regime of precision measurements. In this review, recent results from major space experiments, as Pamela, AMS02 and Fermi, as well as next generation experiments proposed for the International Space Station, for standalone satellites or for the yet to come Chinese Space Station, will be presented. The impact of these experiment on the knowledge of Cosmic Ray propagation will also be discussed.

  19. High-energy cosmic rays measured with KASCADE-Grande

    CERN Document Server

    Haungs, A; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

    2013-01-01

    The detection of high-energy cosmic rays above a few hundred TeV is realized by the observation of extensive air-showers. By using the multi-detector setup of KASCADE-Grande, energy spectrum, elemental composition, and anisotropies of high-energy cosmic rays in the energy range from below the knee up to 2 EeV are investigated. In addition, the large high-quality data set permits distinct tests of the validity of hadronic interaction models used in interpreting air-shower measurements. After more than 16 years, the KASCADE-Grande experiment terminated measurements end of 2012. This contribution will give an overview of the main results of the data analysis achieved so far, and will report about the status of KCDC, the KASCADE Cosmic-ray Data Center, where via a web-based interface the data will be made available for the interested public.

  20. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    CERN Document Server

    Haungs, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeVto EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to 10 pagesextragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  1. Solar modulation of low energy galactic cosmic rays in the near-earth space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; González, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    This is an overview of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays as seen from the Earth and spacecrafts closeby, where we have put the contributions of Latin-American researchers in the global context in the last five to ten years. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on, therefore we have put our emphasis on measurements of the cosmic ray flux, without attempting to review all details or every contribution made in this field of research. In consequence, after establishing the basic characteristics of the cosmic radiation such as composition and energy spectrum, we focus on a few selected subjects, almost all within the framework of solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays such as Forbush decreases, periodic variations, space and atmospheric weather cosmic ray relationships, to which we add a general description of ground level enhancement observations. Controversial aspects are discussed where the appropriate results are presented, some of the challenges and prospects of key issues are also pointed out. At the end of the paper, a brief summary of the last decade Latin-American contributions to the subjects treated is given.

  2. Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jan; Reimer, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  3. Global simulations of galactic winds including cosmic ray streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Zweibel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows play an important role in galactic evolution. Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the driving of these winds is lacking. In an effort to gain more insight into the nature of these flows, we perform global three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an isolated Milky Way-size starburst galaxy. We focus on the dynamical role of cosmic rays injected by supernovae, and specifically on the impact of the streaming and anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays along the magnetic fields. We find that these microphysical effects can have a significant effect on the wind launching and mass loading factors depending on the details of the plasma physics. Due to the cosmic ray streaming instability, cosmic rays propagating in the interstellar medium scatter on self-excited Alfven waves and couple to the gas. When the wave growth due to the streaming instability is inhibited by some damping process, such as the turbulent damping, the cosmic ...

  4. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Facts, Myths, and Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-06-27

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics/particle theory/particle experiment. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > 10^8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos which should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from ...

  5. Cosmic-Ray Modulation: an Ab Initio Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of cosmic-ray modulation in the heliosphere can only be gained through a proper understanding of the effects of turbulence on the diffusion and drift of cosmic rays. We present an ab initio model for cosmic-ray modulation, incorporating for the first time the results yielded by a two-component turbulence transport model. This model is solved for periods of minimum solar activity, utilizing boundary values chosen so that model results are in fair to good agreement with spacecraft observations of turbulence quantities, not only in the solar ecliptic plane but also along the out-of-ecliptic trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft. These results are employed as inputs for modelled slab and 2D turbulence energy spectra. The latter spectrum is chosen based on physical considerations, with a drop-off at the very lowest wavenumbers commencing at the 2D outerscale. There currently exist no models or observations for this quantity, and it is the only free parameter in this study. The modelled turbulence spectra are used as inputs for parallel mean free path expressions based on those derived from quasi-linear theory and perpendicular mean free paths from extended nonlinear guiding center theory. Furthermore, the effects of turbulence on cosmic-ray drifts are modelled in a self-consistent way, employing a recently developed model for drift along the wavy current sheet. The resulting diffusion coefficients and drift expressions are applied to the study of galactic cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons using a three-dimensional, steady-state cosmic-ray modulation code, and sample solutions in fair agreement with multiple spacecraft observations are presented.

  6. Cosmic rays and stochastic magnetic reconnection in the heliotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Desiati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be generated by diffusive shock acceleration processes in Supernova Remnants, and the arrival direction is likely determined by the distribution of their sources throughout the Galaxy, in particular by the nearest and youngest ones. Transport to Earth through the interstellar medium is expected to affect the cosmic ray properties as well. However, the observed anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays and its energy dependence cannot be explained with diffusion models of particle propagation in the Galaxy. Within a distance of a few parsec, diffusion regime is not valid and particles with energy below about 100 TeV must be influenced by the heliosphere and its elongated tail. The observation of a highly significant localized excess region of cosmic rays from the apparent direction of the downstream interstellar flow at 1–10 TeV energies might provide the first experimental evidence that the heliotail can affect the transport of energetic particles. In particular, TeV cosmic rays propagating through the heliotail interact with the 100–300 AU wide magnetic field polarity domains generated by the 11 yr cycles. Since the strength of non-linear convective processes is expected to be larger than viscous damping, the plasma in the heliotail is turbulent. Where magnetic field domains converge on each other due to solar wind gradient, stochastic magnetic reconnection likely occurs. Such processes may be efficient enough to re-accelerate a fraction of TeV particles as long as scattering processes are not strong. Therefore, the fractional excess of TeV cosmic rays from the narrow region toward the heliotail direction traces sightlines with the lowest smearing scattering effects, that can also explain the observation of a harder than average energy spectrum.

  7. The study of variations of low energy cosmic helium's flux (up to 6 MeV) due to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, M.; Davoudifar, P.; Bagheri, Z.

    2017-04-01

    In General, the flux of low energy cosmic rays varies with time due to solar activities. The cosmic particle fluxes were studied using data of satellites near the Earth. In this work, first we studied the variations of particle fluxes from 1 Jan to 31 Dec 2000 and 35 events were selected. Then we proposed a relation for cosmic particle flux as a function of time and rigidity in the time of approaching ejecta to the Earth. The coefficients of the relation were calculated using experimental data of particle fluxes from ACE satellite. Finally, we compare time variations of these coefficients for different events.

  8. A study of cosmic ray flux based on the noise in raw CCD data from solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.-N.; Qin, G.

    2016-11-01

    Raw solar images from CCDs are often contaminated with single-pixel noise which is thought to be made by cosmic ray hits. The cosmic ray-affected pixels are usually outstanding when compared with the perimeter zone. In this work, we use a method based on the median filtering algorithm to identify and count the cosmic ray traces from SOHO/EIT solar images to estimate the cosmic ray (CR) flux. With such cosmic ray flux, we study the transient variations associated with the violent solar activities, such as the solar proton events (SPEs), which show good similarity with the observations of GOES 11 P6 channel with an energy interval 80-165 MeV. Further, using SPE list observed by SOHO/ERNE proton channels with more narrow energy intervals, it is found that CRs in the energy range 118-140 MeV affect the SOHO/EIT images the most. In addition, by using a robust automatic despiking method, we get the background of the cosmic ray flux from solar images, which is considered to be the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. The GCR flux from solar images shows an 11 year period due to the solar modulation, similar to the SOHO/ERNE GCR flux and Newark neutron monitor count rates. Furthermore, GCRs from solar images have a 27 day period and show good anticorrelation with the changes of solar wind velocity.

  9. On the radial distribution of Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S.; Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum and morphology of the diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission carries valuable information on cosmic ray (CR) propagation. Recent results obtained by analyzing Fermi-LAT data accumulated over 7 yr of observation show a substantial variation of the CR spectrum as a function of the distance from the Galactic Centre. The spatial distribution of the CR density in the outer Galaxy appears to be weakly dependent upon the galactocentric distance, as found in previous studies as well, while the density in the central region of the Galaxy was found to exceed the value measured in the outer Galaxy. At the same time, Fermi-LAT data suggest a gradual spectral softening while moving outwards from the centre of the Galaxy to its outskirts. These findings represent a challenge for standard calculations of CR propagation based on assuming a uniform diffusion coefficient within the Galactic volume. Here, we present a model of non-linear CR propagation in which transport is due to particle scattering and advection off self-generated turbulence. We find that for a realistic distribution of CR sources following the spatial distribution of supernova remnants and the space dependence of the magnetic field on galactocentric distance, both the spatial profile of CR density and the spectral softening can easily be accounted for.

  10. On the radial distribution of Galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Recchia, S; Morlino, G

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum and morphology of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission carries valuable information on cosmic ray (CR) propagation. Recent results obtained by analyzing Fermi-LAT data accumulated over seven years of observation show a substantial variation of the CR spectrum as a function of the distance from the Galactic Center. The spatial distribution of the CR density in the outer Galaxy appears to be weakly dependent upon the galactocentric distance, as found in previous studies as well, while the density in the central region of the Galaxy was found to exceed the value measured in the outer Galaxy. At the same time, Fermi-LAT data suggest a gradual spectral softening while moving outward from the center of the Galaxy to its outskirts. These findings represent a challenge for standard calculations of CR propagation based on assuming a uniform diffusion coefficient within the Galactic volume. Here we present a model of non-linear CR propagation in which transport is due to particle scattering and advectio...

  11. Atmospheric Effects on Cosmic Ray Air Showers Observed with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray detector (HAWC), currently under construction on the Sierra Negra volcano near Puebla, Mexico, can be used to study solar physics with its scaler data acquisition system. Increases in the scaler rates are used to observe GeV cosmic rays from solar flares while decreases in the rates show the heliospheric disturbances associated with coronal mass ejections. However, weather conditions and height-dependent state variables such as pressure and temperature affect the production of extensive particle air showers that can be detected by the scaler system. To see if these atmospheric effects can be removed, we obtained local weather data from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) and the local weather station at HAWC. The scaler pulse rates were then correlated to the pressure and temperature. We present data from a Forbush decrease observed by HAWC following a significant coronal mass ejection in April 2013, and describe our efforts to remove atmospheric variations from the scaler counts. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation’s REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  12. Analysis of cosmic-ray events with ALICE at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Cahuantzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALICE is one of the four main experiments of the LHC at CERN. Located 40 meters underground, with 30 m of overburden rock, it can also operate to detect muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. An analysis of the data collected with cosmic-ray triggers from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to about 31 days of live time, is presented. Making use of the ability of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC to track large numbers of charged particles, a special emphasis is given to the study of muon bundles, and in particular to events with high-muon density.

  13. Atmospheric ionization and cosmic rays: studies and measurements before 1912

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World and took place during a period characterised by nationalism and lack of communication. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Several important contributions to the discovery of the origin of cosmic rays have been forgotten; historical, political and personal facts might have contributed to their substantial disappearance from the history of science.

  14. Light Elements and Cosmic Rays in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaty, R; Lingenfelter, R E

    1996-01-01

    We derive constraints on the cosmic rays responsible for the Be and part of the B observed in stars formed in the early Galaxy: the cosmic rays cannot be accelerated from the ISM; their energy spectrum must be relatively hard (the bulk of the nuclear reactions should occur at $>$30 MeV/nucl); and only 10$^{49}$ erg/SNII in high metallicity, accelerated particle kinetic energy could suffice to produce the Be and B. The reverse SNII shock could accelerate the particles.

  15. Primary Cosmic-Ray Spectra in the Knee Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel V.; Biermann, P. L.

    2003-07-01

    Using EAS inverse approach and KASCADE EAS data the primary energy spectra for different primary nuclei at energies 1015 - 1017 eV are obtained in the framework of multi-comp onent model of primary cosmic ray origin and QGSJET and SIBYLL interaction models. The rigidity-dep endent behavior of spectra is the same for two interaction models. The extrap olation of the obtained primary spectra in a 1017 - 1018 eV energy range displays a presence of the extragalactic component of primary cosmic rays.

  16. An orientable time of flight detector for cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, M

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic ray studies, in particular UHECR, can be in general supported by a directional, easy deployable, simple and robust detector. The design of this detector is based on the time of flight between two parallel tiles of scintillator, to distinguish particle passing through in opposite directions; by fine time resolution and pretty adjustable acceptance it is possible to select upward(left)/downward(right) cosmic rays. It has been developed for an array of detectors to measure upward $\\tau$ from Earth-Skimming neutrino events with energy above $10^8 GeV$. The properties and performances of the detector are discussed. Test results from a high noise environment are presented.

  17. Cosmic Ray Sun Shadow in Soudan 2 Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, W W M; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cobb, J H; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. We report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a $3.3\\sigma$ shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  18. Radio data and synchrotron emission in consistent cosmic ray models

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Torsten; Lineros, Roberto A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the propagation of electrons in phenomenological two-zone diffusion models compatible with cosmic-ray nuclear data and compute the diffuse synchrotron emission resulting from their interaction with galactic magnetic fields. We find models in agreement not only with cosmic ray data but also with radio surveys at essentially all frequencies. Requiring such a globally consistent description strongly disfavors both a very large (L>15 kpc) and small (L<1 kpc) effective size of the diffusive halo. This has profound implications for, e.g., indirect dark matter searches.

  19. Are EeV cosmic rays isotropic at intermediate scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Zotov, M Yu

    2014-01-01

    We study anisotropy of cosmic rays in the energy range 0.2-1.4 EeV at intermediate angular scales using the public data set of the Pierre Auger Observatory. At certain scales, the analysis reveals a number of deviations from the isotropic distribution with the statistical significance above three standard deviations. It also demonstrates that the anisotropy evolves with energy. If confirmed with the complete Auger or Telescope Array data sets, the result can shed new light on the structure of galactic magnetic fields and the problem of transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays.

  20. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotcher, Jonathan [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multi-purpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February - May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  1. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotcher, Jonathan [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February -May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  2. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the gravitational wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole mergers, provided that the black holes have spin as seems inevitable and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the black holes or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency $< 0.01$ required per event per unit of gravitational wave energy release, merging black holes potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies.

  3. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  4. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  5. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.;

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  6. An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in γ-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülβ, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, M. W. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 1018electronvolts. GRBs (γ-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources. In the GRB `fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and γ-rays. Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux. Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions. This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1018electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.

  7. Drift effects on the galactic cosmic ray modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurenza, M.; Storini, M. [INAF/IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Vecchio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Sede di Cosenza, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Carbone, V., E-mail: monica.laurenza@iaps.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) modulation is driven by both solar activity and drift effects in the heliosphere, although their role is only qualitatively understood as it is difficult to connect the CR variations to their sources. In order to address this problem, the Empirical Mode Decomposition technique has been applied to the CR intensity, recorded by three neutron monitors at different rigidities (Climax, Rome, and Huancayo-Haleakala (HH)), the sunspot area, as a proxy for solar activity, the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude, directly related to CR propagation, and the tilt angle (TA) of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), which characterizes drift effects on CRs. A prominent periodicity at ∼six years is detected in all the analyzed CR data sets and it is found to be highly correlated with changes in the HCS inclination at the same timescale. In addition, this variation is found to be responsible for the main features of the CR modulation during periods of low solar activity, such as the flat (peaked) maximum in even (odd) solar cycles. The contribution of the drift effects to the global Galactic CR modulation has been estimated to be between 30% and 35%, depending on the CR particle energy. Nevertheless, the importance of the drift contribution is generally reduced in periods nearing the sunspot maximum. Finally, threshold values of ∼40°, ∼45°, and >55° have been derived for the TA, critical for the CR modulation at the Climax, Rome, and HH rigidity thresholds, respectively.

  8. Diffusion coefficient and radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Modzelewska, Renata

    2015-01-01

    We present the temporal changes of the diffusion coefficient K of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at the Earth orbit calculated based on the experimental data using two different methods. The first approach is based on the Parker convection-diffusion approximation of GCR modulation [1]: i.e. K~Vr=dI where dI is the variation of the GCR intensity measured by neutron monitors (NM),V is the solar wind velocity and r is the radial distance. The second approach is based on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data. It was suggested that parallel mean free path can be expressed in terms of B as in [2]-[4]. Using data of the product of the parallel mean free path and radial gradient of GCR calculated based on the GCR anisotropy data (Ahluwalia et al., this conference ICRC 2013, poster ID: 487 [5]), we estimate the temporal changes of the radial gradient of GCR at the Earth orbit. We show that the radial gradient exhibits a strong solar cycle dependence (11-year variation) and a weak solar magnetic cycle dependence (2...

  9. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Later, the enhancement of atmospheric aerosol particle formation by ions generated from cosmic rays was proposed as a physical mechanism explaining this correlation. Here, we report unique observations on atmospheric aerosol formation based on measurements at the SMEAR II station, Finland, over a solar cycle (years 1996–2008 that shed new light on these presumed relationships. Our analysis shows that none of the quantities related to aerosol formation correlates with the cosmic ray-induced ionisation intensity (CRII. We also examined the contribution of ions to new particle formation on the basis of novel ground-based and airborne observations. A consistent result is that ion-induced formation contributes typically significantly less than 10% to the number of new particles, which would explain the missing correlation between CRII and aerosol formation. Our main conclusion is that galactic cosmic rays appear to play a minor role for atmospheric aerosol formation events, and so for the connected aerosol-climate effects as well.

  10. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Later, the enhancement of atmospheric aerosol particle formation by ions generated from cosmic rays was proposed as a physical mechanism explaining this correlation. Here, we report unique observations on atmospheric aerosol formation based on measurements at the SMEAR II station, Finland, over a solar cycle (years 1996–2008 that shed new light on these presumed relationships. Our analysis shows that none of the quantities related to aerosol formation correlates with the cosmic ray-induced ionisation intensity (CRII. We also examined the contribution of ions to new particle formation on the basis of novel ground-based and airborne observations. A consistent result is that ion-induced formation contributes typically less than 10% to the number of new particles, which would explain the missing correlation between CRII and aerosol formation. Our main conclusion is that galactic cosmic rays appear to play a minor role for atmospheric aerosol formation, and so for the connected aerosol-climate effects as well.

  11. An Absence of Neutrinos Associated with Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Besson, D Bertrand D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Degner, T; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, B; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hülβ, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, M W E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Stüer, M; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a leading candidate for acceleration of ultra high-energy cosmic rays, which would be accompanied by emission of TeV neutrinos produced in proton-photon interactions during acceleration in the GRB fireball. Two analyses using data from two years of the IceCube detector produced no evidence for this neutrino emission, placing strong constraints on models of neutrino and cosmic-ray production in these sources.

  12. The Galactic Center: A Petaelectronvolt Cosmic-ray Acceleration Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Qing; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Li, Hai-Jin; Chen, Tian-Lu

    2017-02-01

    The multiteraelectronvolt γ-rays from the galactic center (GC) have a cutoff at tens of teraelectronvolts, whereas the diffuse emission has no such cutoff, which is regarded as an indication of petaelectronvolt proton acceleration by the HESS experiment. It is important to understand the inconsistency and study the possibility that petaelectronvolt cosmic-ray acceleration could account for the apparently contradictory point and diffuse γ-ray spectra. In this work, we propose that the cosmic rays are accelerated up to greater than petaelectronvolts in the GC. The interaction between cosmic rays and molecular clouds is responsible for the multiteraelectronvolt γ-ray emissions from both the point and diffuse sources today. Enhanced by the small volume filling factor (VFF) of the clumpy structure, the absorption of the γ-rays leads to a sharp cutoff spectrum at tens of teraelectronvolts produced in the GC. Away from the GC, the VFF grows, and the absorption enhancement becomes negligible. As a result, the spectra of γ-ray emissions for both point and diffuse sources can be successfully reproduced under such a self-consistent picture. In addition, a “surviving tail” at ∼100 TeV is expected from the point source, which can be observed by future projects CTA and LHAASO. Neutrinos are simultaneously produced during proton-proton (PP) collision. With 5–10 years of observations, the KM3Net experiment will be able to detect the petaelectronvolt source according to our calculation.

  13. Probing Solar Magnetic Field with the "Cosmic-Ray Shadow" of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Chen, T L; Chen, W Y; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu,; Ding, L K; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; Hakamada, K; He, H H; He, Z T; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Jiang, L; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren,; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, H J; Li, W J; Liu, C; Liu, J S; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Munakata, K; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ozawa, S; Qian, X L; Qu, X B; Saito, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shao, J; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, H; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yang, Z; Yasue, S; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhai, L M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X

    2013-01-01

    We report on a clear solar-cycle variation of the Sun's shadow in the 10 TeV cosmic-ray flux observed by the Tibet air shower array during a full solar cycle from 1996 to 2009. In order to clarify the physical implications of the observed solar cycle variation, we develop numerical simulations of the Sun's shadow, using the Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model and the Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model for the coronal magnetic field. We find that the intensity deficit in the simulated Sun's shadow is very sensitive to the coronal magnetic field structure, and the observed variation of the Sun's shadow is better reproduced by the CSSS model. This is the first successful attempt to evaluate the coronal magnetic field models by using the Sun's shadow observed in the TeV cosmic-ray flux.

  14. New fermionic dark matters, extended Standard Model and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwang

    2017-08-01

    Three generations of leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges (LCs) in this work. Then, the leptons have the electric charges (ECs) and LCs. The quarks have the ECs, LCs and color charges (CCs). Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced to make the missing third flavor of EC. Then the three new particles which have the ECs are proposed as the bastons (dark matters) with the rest masses of 26.121 eV/c2, 42.7 GeV/c2 and 1.9 × 1015 eV/c2. These new particles are applied to explain the origins of the astrophysical observations like the ultra-high energy cosmic rays and supernova 1987A anti-neutrino data. It is concluded that the 3.5 keV X-ray peak observed from the cosmic X-ray background spectra is originated not from the pair annihilations of the dark matters but from the X-ray emission of the Q1 baryon atoms which are similar in the atomic structure to the hydrogen atom. The presence of the 3.5 keV cosmic X-ray supports the presence of the Q1 quark with the EC of ‑4/3. New particles can be indirectly seen from the astrophysical observations like the cosmic ray and cosmic gamma ray. In this work, the systematic quantized charges of EC, LC and CC for the elementary particles are used to consistently explain the decay and reaction schemes of the elementary particles. Also, the strong, weak and dark matter forces are consistently explained.

  15. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  16. The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC for use in data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shuttleworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture status in land surface models (LSMs can be updated by assimilating cosmic-ray neutron intensity measured in air above the surface. This requires a fast and accurate model to calculate the neutron intensity from the profiles of soil moisture modeled by the LSM. The existing Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX model is sufficiently accurate but too slow to be practical in the context of data assimilation. Consequently an alternative and efficient model is needed which can be calibrated accurately to reproduce the calculations made by MCNPX and used to substitute for MCNPX during data assimilation. This paper describes the construction and calibration of such a model, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC, which is simple, physically based and analytic, and which, because it runs at least 50 000 times faster than MCNPX, is appropriate in data assimilation applications. The model includes simple descriptions of (a degradation of the incoming high-energy neutron flux with soil depth, (b creation of fast neutrons at each depth in the soil, and (c scattering of the resulting fast neutrons before they reach the soil surface, all of which processes may have parameterized dependency on the chemistry and moisture content of the soil. The site-to-site variability in the parameters used in COSMIC is explored for 42 sample sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS, and the comparative performance of COSMIC relative to MCNPX when applied to represent interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and moist soil is explored. At an example site in Arizona, fast-neutron counts calculated by COSMIC from the average soil moisture profile given by an independent network of point measurements in the COSMOS probe footprint are similar to the fast-neutron intensity measured by the COSMOS probe. It was demonstrated that, when used within a data assimilation framework to assimilate COSMOS probe counts into the Noah land surface

  17. Study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, J.C. dos [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We show that the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles used for self-calibration of the water- Cherenkov detectors of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory are highly sensitive, after correcting for atmospheric effects, to modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and to transient events. The technique consists in recording low threshold rates - scalers - with all the surface detectors of the array. Transient events such as Gamma Ray Bursts and solar flares are expected to be seen as a significant change of the counting rates from the expected value. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. We will present the available data collected since March 2005 together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, transient events characterized by short-term periods of strong depression of the cosmic ray flux observed at earth caused by the transit of a solar ejecta from a Coronal Mass Ejection from the Sun. A strong correlation with neutron monitor data from the close-by Observatory Los Cerrilos is observed, showing that water-Cherenkov detectors operating in scaler mode are highly sensitive to Forbush decreases and other transient events related to solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays. (author)

  18. Cosmic ray composition investigations using ICE/ISEE-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of data from the high energy cosmic experiment on ISEE-3 and associated modeling and interpretation activities are discussed. The ISEE-3 payload included two instruments capable of measuring the composition of heavy cosmic rays. The designs of these two instruments incorporated innovations which made it possible, for the first time, to measure isotopic as well as the chemical composition for a wide range of elements. As the result of the demonstrations by these two instruments of the capability to resolve individual cosmic ray isotopes, a new generation of detectors was developed using very similar designs, but having improved reliability and increased sensitive area. The composition measurements which were obtained from the ISEE-3 experiment are summarized.

  19. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  20. Cosmic Rays Induced Background Radiation on Board of Commercial Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, S; Núñez, L A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the total integrated flux of cosmic radiation which a commercial aircraft is exposed to along specific flight trajectories. To study the radiation background during a flight and its modulation by effects such as altitude, latitude, exposure time and transient magnetospheric events, we perform simulations based on Magnetocosmics and CORSIKA codes, the former designed to calculate the geomagnetic effects on cosmic rays propagation and the latter allows us to simulate the development of extended air showers in the atmosphere. In this first work, by considering the total flux of cosmic rays from 5 GeV to 1 PeV, we obtained the expected integrated flux of secondary particles on board of a commercial airplane during the Bogot\\'a-Buenos Aires trip by point-to-point numerical integration.

  1. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: the highest energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, João R T de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy messengers of the present universe, with energies up to $10^{20}$ eV. Studies of astrophysical particles (nuclei, electrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. The primary particles interact in the atmosphere and generate extensive air showers. Analysis of those showers enables one not only to estimate the energy, direction and most probable mass of the primary cosmic particles, but also to obtain information about the properties of their hadronic interactions at an energy more than one order of magnitude above that accessible with the current highest energy human-made accelerator. In this contribution we will review the state-of-the-art in UHECRs detection. We will present the leading experiments Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and discuss the cosmic ray energy spectrum, searches for directional anisotropy, studies of mass composition, the determ...

  2. X-Ray Emission from Star-Forming Galaxies - Signatures of Cosmic Rays and Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic fields in galaxies is still an open problem in astrophysics. In nearby galaxies the far-infrared-radio correlation indicates the coupling between magnetic fields and star formation. The correlation arises from the synchrotron emission of cosmic ray electrons traveling through the interstellar magnetic fields. However, with an increase of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), inverse Compton scattering becomes the dominant energy loss mechanism of cosmic ray electrons with a typical emission frequency in the X-ray regime. The ISRF depends on the one hand on the star formation rate and becomes stronger in starburst galaxies, and on the other hand increases with redshift due to the evolution of the cosmic microwave background. With a model for the star formation rate of galaxies, the ISRF, and the cosmic ray spectrum, we can calculate the expected X-ray luminosity resulting from the inverse Compton emission. Except for galaxies with an active galactic nucleus the main additional cont...

  3. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2008-11-15

    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects

  4. Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corres...

  5. Further delays hit troubled $2bn cosmic-ray detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    "A $2bn mission to study cosmic rays will have to wait another few months before being sent to the International Space Station (ISS) after NASA announced last month that it was pushing back the launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour until 26 February 2011" (0.5 page)

  6. Concerning the Nature of the Cosmic Ray Power Law Exponents

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the cosmic ray energy distributions as detected on earthbound, low flying balloon or high flying satellite detectors can be computed by employing the heats of evaporation of high energy particles from astrophysical sources. In this manner, the experimentally well known power law exponents of the cosmic ray energy distribution have been theoretically computed as 2.701178 for the case of ideal Bose statistics, 3.000000 for the case of ideal Boltzmann statistics and 3.151374 for the case of ideal Fermi statistics. By "ideal" we mean virtually zero mass (i.e. ultra-relativistic) and noninteracting. These results are in excellent agreement with the experimental indices of 2.7 with a shift to 3.1 at the high energy ~ PeV "knee" in the energy distribution. Our purpose here is to discuss the nature of cosmic ray power law exponents obtained by employing conventional thermal quantum field theoretical models such as quantum chromodynamics to the cosmic ray sources in a thermodynamic scheme w...

  7. Measurement of camera image sensor depletion thickness with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, J; Bravo, S; Jensen, K; Karn, P; Meehan, M; Peacock, J; Plewa, M; Ruggles, T; Santander, M; Schultz, D; Simons, A L; Tosi, D

    2015-01-01

    Camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. In particular, cosmic-ray muons are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of cosmic-ray muon tracks recorded by the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a commercial smart phone, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution prefers a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution over an isotropic distribution. Allowing either distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be between 13.9~$\\mu$m and 27.7~$\\mu$m. The same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with ...

  8. 1912 – 2012: a century of studying cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    One year ago, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was docked to the International Space Station. This state-of-the-art tool for studying cosmic rays has revolutionised methods of detecting cosmic radiation, which was discovered barely a century ago.   Victor Francis Hess (in the basket), back from his balloon flight in August 1912. Source: American Physical Society. Exactly one hundred years ago, the Austrian-American physicist Victor Francis Hess discovered cosmic rays. The researcher observed the phenomenon while on board a balloon; he found that at an altitude of 1,000 to 5,000 metres, the wires of his Wulf electrometer (a tool used to measure radiation) showed an increase in electrical charge. Hess had just proven the existence of ionising radiation coming from outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Twenty years or so later, the invention of the Geiger-Müller counter enabled physicists to study the properties of the rays more precisely. One century later, cosmic rays and the ques...

  9. Excesses of Cosmic Ray Spectra from A Single Nearby Source

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei; Lin, Su-Jie; Wang, Bing-Bing; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence reveals universal hardening on various cosmic ray spectra, e.g. proton, positron, as well as antiproton fraction. Such universality may indicate they have a common origin. In this paper, we argue that these widespread excesses can be accounted for by a nearby supernova remnant surrounded by a giant molecular cloud. Secondary cosmic rays ($\\rm p$, $\\rm e^+$) are produced through the collisions between the primary cosmic ray nuclei from this supernova remnant and the molecular gas. Different from the background, which is produced by the ensemble of large amount of sources in the Milky Way, the local injected spectrum can be harder. The time-dependent transport of particles would make the propagated spectrum even harder. Under this scenario, the anomalies of both primary ($\\rm p$, $\\rm e^-$) and secondary ($\\rm e^+$, $\\rm \\bar{p}/p$) cosmic rays can be properly interpreted. We further show that the TeV to sub-PeV anisotropy of proton is consistent with the observations if the local source is rel...

  10. Observing The Cosmic Ray Moon Shadow With VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The Earth is subjected to a uniform flux of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) cosmic rays unless they are obscured by an object, such as the Moon, in which case a deficit or shadow is created. Since cosmic rays are charged this deficit is deflected by the Earth's magnetic field, enabling the rigidity of the obstructed cosmic rays to be determined. Measurement of the relative deficits of different species enables the positron fraction and the antiproton ratio to be measured. The April 15, 2014 lunar eclipse was visible with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes, which allowed (with special UV bandpass filters) 74 minutes of direct observations of the Moon and the associated deficit in the cosmic-ray flux. The results of this observation are presented. In addition VERITAS has been conducting a series of observations by pointing close to a partially illuminated Moon, with a reduced photomultiplier tube high voltage and UV bandpass filters. We present the technique developed for these observations and their current ...

  11. Cosmic ray propagation and interactions in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zirakashvili, V N

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy is shortly reviewed. In particular we consider the self-consistent models of CR propagation. In these models CR streaming instability driven by CR anisotropy results in the Alfv\\'enic turbulence which in turn determines the scattering and diffusion of particles.

  12. Modelling cosmic ray intensities along the Ulysses trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Time dependent cosmic ray modulation in the inner heliosphere is studied by comparing results from a 2-D, time-dependent cosmic ray transport model with Ulysses observations. A compound approach, which combines the effects of the global changes in the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude with drifts to establish a realistic time-dependence, in the diffusion and drift coefficients, are used. We show that this model results in realistic cosmic ray modulation from the Ulysses launch (1990 until recently (2004 when compared to 2.5-GV electron and proton and 1.2-GV electron and Helium observations from this spacecraft. This approach is also applied to compute radial gradients present in 2.5-GV cosmic ray electron and protons in the inner heliosphere. The observed latitude dependence for both positive and negative charged particles during both the fast latitude scan periods, corresponding to different solar activity conditions, could also be realistically computed. For this an additional reduction in particle drifts (compared to diffusion toward solar maximum is needed. This results in a realistic charge-sign dependent modulation at solar maximum and the model is also applied to predict charge-sign dependent modulation up to the next expected solar minimum.

  13. Discrepant hardening observed in cosmic-ray elemental spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, J; Nam, S; Nutter, S L; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y; 10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L89

    2010-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here we report results from the first two flights of ~70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above ~200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at ~1015 eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible ...

  14. Where does the heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    The long outstanding question of where the heliospheric (solar) modulation of galactic cosmic rays actually begins, in terms of spatial position, as well as at what high kinetic energy, can now be answered. Both answers are possible by using the results of an advanced numerical model, together with appropriate observations. Voyager 1 has been exploring the outskirts of the heliosphere and is presently entering what can be called the very local interstellar medium. It has been generally expected, and accepted, that once the heliopause is crossed, the local interstellar spectrum (LIS) should be measured in situ by the Voyager spacecraft. However, we show that this may not be the case and that modulation effects on galactic cosmic rays can persist well beyond the heliopause. For example, proton observations at 100 MeV close to the heliopause can be lower by ∼25% to 40% than the LIS, depending on solar modulation conditions. It is also illustrated quantitatively that significant solar modulation diminishes above ∼50 GeV at Earth. It is found that cosmic ray observations above this energy contain less that 5% solar modulation effects and should therefore reflect the LIS for galactic cosmic rays. Input spectra, in other words the very LIS, for solar modulation models are now constrained by in situ observations and can therefore not any longer be treated arbitrarily. It is also possible for the first time to determine the lower limit of the very LIS from a few MeV/nuc to very high energies.

  15. Excesses of cosmic ray spectra from a single nearby source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Su-Jie; Wang, Bing-Bing; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2017-07-01

    Growing evidence reveals universal hardening on various cosmic ray spectra, e.g., proton, positron, as well as antiproton fractions. Such universality may indicate they have a common origin. In this paper, we argue that these widespread excesses can be accounted for by a nearby supernova remnant surrounded by a giant molecular cloud. Secondary cosmic rays (p , e+ ) are produced through the collisions between the primary cosmic-ray nuclei from this supernova remnant and the molecular gas. Different from the background, which is produced by the ensemble of a large number of sources in the Milky Way, the local injected spectrum can be harder. The time-dependent transport of particles would make the propagated spectrum even harder. Under this scenario, the anomalies of both primary (p , e-) and secondary (e+, p ¯ /p ) cosmic rays can be properly interpreted. We further show that the TeV to sub-PeV anisotropy of the proton is consistent with the observations if the local source is relatively young and lying at the anti-Galactic center direction.

  16. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  17. The Cosmic-Ray Dominated Region of Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, G. Chaparro; Kamp, I.; Torres, Diego F.; Reimer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    - We investigate the chemical evolution in the midplane of protoplanetary disks in the region 1 AU ≤ r ≤ 10 AU, focusing on cosmic ray induced processes. These processes drive the chemical pathways of formation of gas phase molecules which later can be adsorbed onto the surface of grains

  18. Design of a transition radiation detector for cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Mueller, D.; Prince, T.

    1975-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors consisting of sandwiches of plastic foam radiators and multiwire proportional chambers can be used to identify cosmic ray particles with energies gamma ? E/mc-squared is greater than 10 to the 3rd and to measure their energy in the region gamma is roughly equal to 10 to the 3rd

  19. On Anisotropy of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kashti, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    We briefly summarize our study on anisotropy of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic-Rays (UHECRs), in which we define a statistics that measures the correlation between UHECRs and Large Scale Structure (LSS). We also comment here on recently published paper by Koers and Tinyakov that compared our statistics to improved KS statistics.

  20. CMS (LHC) Measurements and Unusual Cosmic Ray Events

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E

    2010-01-01

    At the LHC, for the first time, laboratory energies are sufficiently large to reproduce the kind of reactions that occur when energetic cosmic rays strike the top of the atmospheric. The reaction products of interest for cosmic ray studies are produced at small angles, even with colliding beams. Most of the emphasis at the LHC is on rare processes that are studied with detectors at large angles. It is precision measurements at large angles that are expected to lead to discoveries of Higgs bosons and super symmetric particles. CMS currently has two small angle detectors, CASTOR and a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC). CASTOR, at 0.7 degrees down to 0.08 degrees, is designed to study "Centauro "and "long penetrating" events, observed in VHE cosmic-ray data. As a general purpose detector it also makes measurements of reactions products at forward angles from p-p collisions, which provide input for cosmic ray shower codes. The ZDC is small, 9 cm. wide, between the incoming and outgoing beam pipes out at a distance of...

  1. CMS (LHC) Measurements and Unusual Cosmic Ray Events

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E

    2010-01-01

    At the LHC, for the first time, laboratory energies are sufficiently large to reproduce the kind of reactions that occur when energetic cosmic rays strike the top of the atmosphere. The reaction products of interest for cosmic ray studies are produced at small angles, even with colliding beams. Most of the emphasis at the LHC is on rare processes that are studied with detectors at large angles. It is precision measurements at large angles that are expected to lead to discoveries of Higgs bosons and super symmetric particles. CMS currently has two small angle detectors, CASTOR and a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC). CASTOR, at 0.7º down to 0.08º, is designed to study "Centauro" and "long penetrating" events, observed in VHE cosmic-ray data. As a general purpose detector it also makes measurements of reaction products at forward angles from p-p collisions, which provide input for cosmic ray shower codes. The ZDC is small, 9 cm. wide, between the incoming and outgoing beam pipes out at a distance of 140 m. The ZD...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik;

    Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up an expe...

  3. Cosmic rays intensity and atmosphere humidity at near earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskomov, V. V.; Sedov, A. N.; Saduyev, N. O.; Kalikulov, O. A.; Naurzbayeva, A. Zh; Alimgazinova, N. Sh; Kenzhina, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of estimation the mutual influence of humidity and flux of cosmic rays in first approximation were carried out. Normalized cross-correlation function of time series of neutron monitors count rate and level of relative atmosphere humidity near cosmic rays registration point is studied. Corrected and uncorrected on pressure minute and hour data of 6NM64 neutron monitor count rate were used for the study. Neutron monitor is located in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, at an altitude of 850 m above sea level. Also, data from NM64 neutron monitor of Tien Shan mountain research station of Institute of Ionosphere, located at an altitude of 3340 m above sea level were used. Uncorrected on pressure cosmic rays intensity better reflects the changes in relative atmosphere humidity. Average and sometimes strong relationship is often observed by time changes of atmosphere humidity near the point of cosmic rays detection and their intensity: the value of normalized cross-correlation function of respective signals, even in case of their long duration and a large number of data (eg, for minute changes at intervals of up to several months) covers 0.5 - 0.75 range, sometimes falling to ∼⃒ 0.4.

  4. Anomalous Cosmic Rays as Probes of Magnetic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-20

    study of Forbush decreases in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at MCs, Zhang & Burlaga (1988) noted that these decreases were much...from the sweeping effect of the turbulent sheath of the shock and its downstream compression region that dominates the Forbush decreases in GCR

  5. Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of protoplanetary disks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolginov, Arkady Z.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal uncertainty in studying the magnetic properties of protoplanetary disks concerns the ionization levels of the disk's gas. The low gas temperature precludes thermal ionization, leaving cosmic rays as the dominant source of ionization. It has been shown that the resulting electrical conductivity is just high enough for a MHD dynamo to produce contemporaneously a magnetic field in most of the extended parts of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Here we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the gas is impaired by the influence of the generated magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays within a disk. Cosmic rays scatter on magnetic inhomogeneities, and, as a result, their penetration depth decreases to only a fraction of the disk half-thickness, resulting in a severe depletion of free charge from the midplane regions of a disk. That, in turn, undercuts the dynamo mechanism, so extended parts of the disk are free from a dynamically significant magnetic field. We also point out that any additional, even small, in situ source of ionization, such as radioactive Al-26, may again make a dynamo a viable regeneration process capable of producing a dynamically important magnetic field.

  6. The Cosmic-Ray Dominated Region of Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, G. Chaparro; Kamp, I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the chemical evolution in the midplane of protoplanetary disks in the region 1 AU ≤ r ≤ 10 AU, focusing on cosmic ray induced processes. These processes drive the chemical pathways of formation of gas phase molecules which later can be adsorbed onto the surface of grains. We improve o

  7. The isotopes of neon in the galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.; Wefel, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the results obtained by the University of Chicago instrument on board the IMP 7 satellite used to measure the abundances of Ne-20 and Ne-22 in the galactic cosmic rays during 1973-1977, over the general energy range of 60-230 MeV per nucleon. It is reported that the instrument shows a mass resolution of 0.7 amu(sigma) which was confirmed by calibrating a backup instrument at the LBL Bevalac with separated beams of neon isotopes. Through the use of standard solar modulation and cosmic-ray propagation models, the cosmic-ray source ratio inferred is Ne-22/Ne-20 = 0.38 = or -0.07 which is significantly greater than the present solar system ratio. It is concluded that propagation effects or cross-section uncertainties cannot account for such a large abundance of Ne-22, and thus this measurement provides evidence that the cosmic rays come from a source region where the Ne-22 abundance is substantially greater than in solar system material.

  8. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as a Grand Unification signal

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the spectrum of the ultrahigh energy (above \\approx 10^{9} GeV) cosmic rays. With a maximum likelihood analysis we show that the observed spectrum is consistent with the decay of extragalactic GUT scale particles. The predicted mass for these superheavy particles is m_X=10^b GeV, where b=14.6_{-1.7}^{+1.6}.

  9. Solar cosmic ray bursts and solar neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevakaya, G. A.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Charakhchyan, T. N.

    1985-01-01

    The neutrino flux detected in the C1-Ar experiment seems to respond to the powerful solar cosmic ray bursts. The ground-based detectors, the balloons and the satellites detect about 50% of the bursts of soalr cosmic ray generated on the Sun's visible side. As a rule, such bursts originate from the Western side of the visible solar disk. Since the solar cosmic ray bursts are in opposite phase withthe 11-year galactic cosmic ray cycle which also seems to be reflected by neutrino experiment. The neutrino generation in the bursts will flatten the possible 11-year behavior of the AR-37 production rate, Q, in the Cl-Ar experiment. The detection of solar-flare-generated gamma-quanta with energies above tens of Mev is indicative of the generation of high-energy particles which in turn may produce neutrinos. Thus, the increased Q during the runs, when the flare-generated high energy gamma-quanta have been registered, may be regarded as additional evidence for neutrino geneation in the solar flare processes.

  10. CERN explores link between cosmic rays and clouds

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Scientists at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, have started a new experiment to investigate the possible influence of galactic cosmic rays on the Earths clouds and climate. This is the first time that a high energy physics accelerator has been used for atmospheric and climate science." (1 page)

  11. Cosmic rays, CCN and clouds – a reassessment using MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kristjánsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of clouds to sudden decreases in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (Forbush decrease events has been investigated using cloud products from the space-borne MODIS instrument, which has been in operation since 2000. By focusing on pristine Southern Hemisphere ocean regions we examine areas which are particularly susceptible to changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations, and where a cosmic ray signal should be easier to detect than elsewhere. While previous studies on the subject have mainly considered cloud cover, the high spatial and spectral resolution of MODIS allows for a more thorough study of microphysical parameters such as cloud droplet size, cloud water content and cloud optical depth, in addition to cloud cover. Averaging the results from the 13 Forbush decrease events that were considered, no systematic correlation was found between any of the four cloud parameters and galactic cosmic radiation, with a seemingly random distribution of positive and negative correlations. When only the three Forbush decrease events with the largest amplitude are studied, the correlations fit the hypothesis better, with 8 out of 12 correlations having the expected sign. Splitting the area of study into several sub-regions, one sub-region in the Atlantic Ocean showed statistically significant correlations compatible with a cosmic ray-induced enhancement of CCN and cloud droplet number concentrations. However, the lack of correlation in any of the other 5 sub-regions suggests that this may be a statistical co-incidence. Introducing a time lag of a few days for clouds to respond to the cosmic ray signal did not change the overall results. Singling out low clouds of intermediate optical depth with large susceptibility did not lead to higher correlations. In conclusion, no response to variations in cosmic rays associated with Forbush decrease events was found in marine low clouds in remote regions using MODIS data.

  12. Cosmic ray research in India: 1912-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, Suresh C.

    2013-02-01

    The progress of research in cosmic rays in India over the last 100 years is reviewed, starting with the pioneering work of Debendra Mohan Bose and Homi Bhabha. Experimental research in cosmic rays in India received a big push with the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research by Homi Bhabha in Bombay in 1945, the Physical Research Laboratory by Vikram Sarabhai in Ahemedabad in 1947 and the setting up of a cosmic ray research group by Piara Singh Gill at the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh in 1949. Studies on high energy interactions by B.V. Sreekantan and colleagues and on muons and neutrinos deep underground in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon and coworkers were the highlights of the research work in India in 1950's and 60's. In 1970's and 80's, important advances were made in India in several areas, for example, search for proton decay in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon et al, search for TeV cosmic gamma-ray sources at Ooty and Pachmari by P.V. Ramanamurthy and colleagues, search for PeV cosmic gamma ray sources by S.C. Tonwar et al at Ooty and by M.V.S. Rao and coworkers at KGF. In 1990's, Sreekantan and Tonwar initiated the GRAPES-3 project at Ooty to determine the composition of cosmic ray flux around the 'knee' in the primary energy spectrum at PeV energies using a large muon detector and a compact air shower array. Another major effort to search for TeV gamma-ray sources was initiated by H. Razdan and C.L. Bhat, initially at Gulmarg in Kashmir in the 1980's, leading to successful observations with a stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope at Mount Abu in early 2000. In recent years the Pachmari group and the Mount Abu group have joined together to install a sophisticated system of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors at Hanle in the Ladakh region at an altitude of 4200 m to continue studies on VHE sources of cosmic gammarays.

  13. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  14. Is the Galactic Cosmic Ray Spectrum Constant in Time?

    CERN Document Server

    Eichler, David; Pohl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis is considered that the present Galactic cosmic ray spectrum is at present softer than its time average due to source intermittency. Measurements of muogenic nuclides underground could provide an independent measurement of the time averaged spectrum. Source intermittency could also account for the surprising low anisotropy reported by the IceCube collaboration. Predictions for Galactic emission of ultrahigh-energy quanta, such as UHE gamma rays and neutrinos, might be higher or lower than previously estimated.

  15. Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial Life: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2012-01-01

    "The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest." - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. ...

  16. Gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray acceleration, propagation, and confinement in the era of CTA

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Casanova, S; de Cea, E; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y; Hadasch, D; Marcowith, A; Pedaletti, G; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Torres, D F; Volpe, F

    2012-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are commonly believed to be accelerated at supernova remnants via diffusive shock acceleration. Despite the popularity of this idea, a conclusive proof for its validity is still missing. Gamma-ray astronomy provides us with a powerful tool to tackle this problem, because gamma rays are produced during cosmic ray interactions with the ambient gas. The detection of gamma rays from several supernova remnants is encouraging, but still does not constitute a proof of the scenario, the main problem being the difficulty in disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the emission. Once released by their sources, cosmic rays diffuse in the interstellar medium, and finally escape from the Galaxy. The diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic disk, as well as the gamma-ray emission detected from a few galaxies is largely due to the interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium. On much larger scales, cosmic rays are also expected to permeate the intracluster medium, since the...

  17. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  18. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  19. Dependence of the neutron monitor count rate and time delay distribution on the rigidity spectrum of primary cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeard, P.-S.; Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Nuntiyakul, W.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron monitors are the premier instruments for precisely tracking time variations in the Galactic cosmic ray flux at GeV-range energies above the geomagnetic cutoff at the location of measurement. Recently, a new capability has been developed to record and analyze the neutron time delay distribution (related to neutron multiplicity) to infer variations in the cosmic ray spectrum as well. In particular, from time delay histograms we can determine the leader fraction L, defined as the fraction of neutrons that did not follow a previous neutron detection in the same tube from the same atmospheric secondary particle. Using data taken during 2000-2007 by a shipborne neutron monitor latitude survey, we observe a strong dependence of the count rate and L on the geomagnetic cutoff. We have modeled this dependence using Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and in the neutron monitor. We present new yield functions for the count rate of a neutron monitor at sea level. The simulation results show a variation of L with geomagnetic cutoff as observed by the latitude survey, confirming that these changes in L can be attributed to changes in the cosmic ray spectrum arriving at Earth's atmosphere. We also observe a variation in L with time at a fixed cutoff, which reflects the evolution of the cosmic ray spectrum with the sunspot cycle, known as solar modulation.

  20. Single particle effects, Biostack, and risk evaluation - Studies on the radiation risk from Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    The possible health risks posed by Galactic cosmic rays, especially the possible heightened cancer risk, are examined. The results of the Biostack studies of the biological effects of high-energy cosmic rays are discussed. The biological mechanisms involved in possible harm due to cosmic rays are considered.

  1. Influence of the Atmospheric Mass on the High Energy Cosmic Ray Muons during a Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Maghrabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the detected cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric mass, height of pion production level, and temperature. Corrections for the changes in these parameters are importance to know the properties of the primary cosmic rays. In this paper, the effect of atmospheric mass, represented here by the atmospheric pressure, on the cosmic ray was studied using data from the KACST muon detector during the 2002–2012 period. The analysis was conducted by calculating the barometric coefficient (α using regression analysis between the two parameters. The variation of α over different time scales was investigated. The results revealed a seasonal cycle of α with a maximum in September and a minimum in March. Data from Adelaide muon detector were used, and different monthly variation was found. The barometric coefficient displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. Study of the annual variations of α indicated cyclic variation with maximums between 2008 and 2009 and minimums between 2002 and 2003. This variable tendency is found to be anticorrelated with the solar activity, represented by the sunspot number. This finding was compared with the annual trend of α for the Adelaide muon detector for the same period of time, and a similar trend was found.

  2. Cosmic Ray contribution to the WMAP polarization data on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Wibig, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    We have updated our analysis of the 9-year WMAP data using the collection of polarization maps looking for the presence of additional evidence for a finite 'cosmic ray foreground' for the CMB. We have given special attention to high Galactic latitudes, where the recent BICEP2 findings were reported. The method of examining the correlation with the observed gamma ray flux proposed in our earlier papers and applied to the polarization data shows that the foreground related to cosmic rays is still observed even at high Galactic altitudes and conclusions about gravitational waves are not yet secure. Theory has it that there is important information about inflationary gravitational waves in the fine structure of the CMB polarization properties (polarization vector and angle) and it is necessary to examine further the conclusions that can be gained from studies of the CMB maps, in view of the disturbing foreground effects.

  3. A Tale of cosmic rays narrated in γ rays by Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibaldo, Luigi, E-mail: ltibaldo@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Because cosmic rays are charged particles scrambled by magnetic fields, combining direct measurements with other observations is crucial to understanding their origin and propagation. As energetic particles traverse matter and electromagnetic fields, they leave marks in the form of neutral interaction products. Among those, γ rays trace interactions of nuclei that inelastically collide with interstellar gas, as well as of leptons that undergo Bremsstrahlung and inverse-Compton scattering. Data collected by the Fermi large area telescope (LAT) are therefore telling the story of cosmic rays along their journey from sources through their home galaxies. Supernova remnants emerge as a notable γ -ray source population, and older remnants interacting with interstellar matter finally show strong evidence of the presence of accelerated nuclei. Yet the maximum energy attained by shock accelerators is poorly constrained by observations. Cygnus X, a massive star-forming region established by the LAT as housing cosmic-ray sources, provides a test case to study the impact of wind-driven turbulence on the early propagation. Interstellar emission resulting from the large-scale propagation of cosmic rays in the Milky Way is revealed in unprecedented detail that challenges some of the simple assumptions used for the modeling. Moreover, the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray luminosities of galaxies-scale quasi-linearly with their massive-star formation rates: the overall normalization of that relation below the calorimetric limit suggests that for most systems, a substantial fraction of energy in cosmic rays escapes into the intergalactic medium. The nuclear production models and the distribution of target gas and radiation fields, not determined precisely enough yet, are key to exploiting the full potential of γ - ray data. Nevertheless, data being collected by Fermi and complementary multiwavelength/multi messenger observations are bringing ever closer to solving the cosmic-ray mystery

  4. Modelling the cosmic ray electron propagation in M 51

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, D D; Beck, R; Mitra, D; Scaife, A M M

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic ray electrons (CREs) are a crucial part of the ISM and are observed via synchrotron emission. While much modelling has been carried out on the CRE distribution and propagation of the Milky Way, little has been done on normal external star-forming galaxies. Recent spectral data from a new generation of radio telescopes enable us to find more robust estimations of the CRE propagation. We model the synchrotron spectral index of M 51 using the time-dependent diffusion energy-loss equation and to compare the model results with the observed spectral index determined from recent low-frequency observations with LOFAR. This is the first time that this model for CRE propagation has been solved for a realistic distribution of CRE sources, which we derive from the observed star formation rate, in an external galaxy. The radial variation of the synchrotron spectral index and scale-length produced by the model are compared to recent LOFAR and older VLA observational data and also to new observations of M 51 at 325MH...

  5. The scaler mode in the Pierre Auger Observatory to study heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dasso, S

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the solar activity on the heliosphere has a strong influence on the modulation of the flux of low energy galactic cosmic rays arriving at Earth. Different instruments, such as neutron monitors or muon detectors, have been recording the variability of the cosmic ray flux at ground level for several decades. Although the Pierre Auger Observatory was designed to observe cosmic rays at the highest energies, it also records the count rates of low energy secondary particles (the scaler mode) for the self-calibration of its surface detector array. From observations using the scaler mode at the Pierre Auger Observatory, modulation of galactic cosmic rays due to solar transient activity has been observed (e.g., Forbush decreases). Due to the high total count rate coming from the combined area of its detectors, the Pierre Auger Observatory (its detectors have a total area greater than $16\\,000$\\,m$^2$) detects a flux of secondary particles of the order of $\\sim 10^8$\\,counts per minute. Time variations of...

  6. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COSMIC-RAY MODULATION NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xi; Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Ming [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology,150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Potgieter, Marius [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Based on a hybrid galactic cosmic-ray transport model, which incorporated MHD global heliospheric data into Parker’s cosmic-ray transport equation, we studied the behavior of the transport of galactic cosmic rays and the corresponding gradients in their flux near the heliopause (HP). We found that, (1) by increasing the ratio of the parallel diffusion coefficient to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient in the interstellar magnetic field of the outer heliosheath, the simulated radial flux near the HP increases as well. As the ratio multiplying factor reached 10{sup 10}, the radial flux experienced a sudden jump near the HP, similar to what Voyager 1 observed in 2012. (2) The effect of changing the diffusion coefficients’ ratio on the radial flux variation depends on the energy of the cosmic rays, the lower the energy, the more pronounced the effect is. (3) The magnitude of the diffusion coefficients also affect the radial flux near the HP, the modulation beyond the HP varies by adjusting the magnitude multiplying factor.

  7. CMS Data Processing Workflows during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00165402; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration conducted a month-long data taking exercise, the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla, during October-November 2008, with the goal of commissioning the experiment for extended operation. With all installed detector systems participating, CMS recorded 270 million cosmic ray events with the solenoid at a magnetic field strength of 3.8 T. This paper describes the data flow from the detector through the various online and offline computing systems, as well as the workflows used for recording the data, for aligning and calibrating the detector, and for analysis of the data.

  8. Cosmic ray tests of large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Kim, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2007-01-01

    We have built Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with six gas gaps and an active area of . The signals are generated on 2.5 cm wide copper pickup strips; these are read out at each end thus allowing the position of the hit along the strip to be obtained from the time difference. Using three of these chambers we have set up a cosmic tracking system in a similar manner as planned for the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project. The details of the set-up are presented in this paper. In addition we discuss the time and position resolution of these MRPCs measured using cosmic rays.

  9. CMS Data Processing Workflows during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    The CMS Collaboration conducted a month-long data taking exercise, the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla, during October-November 2008, with the goal of commissioning the experiment for extended operation. With all installed detector systems participating, CMS recorded 270 million cosmic ray events with the solenoid at a magnetic field strength of 3.8 T. This paper describes the data flow from the detector through the various online and offline computing systems, as well as the workflows used for recording the data, for aligning and calibrating the detector, and for analysis of the data.

  10. CMS Data Processing Workflows during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; Olesen, G; Onnela, A; Orimoto, T; Orsini, L; Perez, E; Perinic, G; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petiot, P; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Pintus, R; Pirollet, B; Postema, H; Racz, A; Ravat, S; Rew, S B; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Ryjov, V; Sakulin, H; Samyn, D; Sauce, H; Schäfer, C; Schlatter, W D; Schröder, M; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Segoni, I; Sharma, A; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Sinanis, N; Sobrier, T; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Stöckli, F; Traczyk, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Veillet, L; Veres, G I; Voutilainen, M; Wertelaers, P; Zanetti, M; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Meier, F; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Sibille, J; Starodumov, A; Betev, B; Caminada, L; Chen, Z; Cittolin, S; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Dambach, S; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Eggel, C; Eugster, J; Faber, G; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hervé, A; Hintz, W; Lecomte, P; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Marchica, C; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Zeyrek, M; Deliomeroglu, M; Demir, D; Gülmez, E; Halu, A; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Levchuk, L; Lukyanenko, S; Soroka, D; Zub, S; Bostock, F; Brooke, J J; Cheng, T L; Cussans, D; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grant, N; Hansen, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hill, C; Huckvale, B; Jackson, J; Mackay, C K; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Smith, V J; Velthuis, J; Walton, R; Bell, K W; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Geddes, N I; Harder, K; Harper, S; Kennedy, B W; Murray, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Williams, J H; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Bainbridge, R; Ball, G; Ballin, J; Beuselinck, R; Buchmuller, O; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Foudas, C; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Hays, J; Iles, G; Karapostoli, G; MacEvoy, B C; Magnan, A M; Marrouche, J; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Papageorgiou, A; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rompotis, N; Rose, A; Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration conducted a month-long data taking exercise, the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla, during October-November 2008, with the goal of commissioning the experiment for extended operation. With all installed detector systems participating, CMS recorded 270 million cosmic ray events with the solenoid at a magnetic field strength of 3.8 T. This paper describes the data flow from the detector through the various online and offline computing systems, as well as the workflows used for recording the data, for aligning and calibrating the detector, and for analysis of the data.

  11. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  12. Understanding cosmic rays with Balloon and Space Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozza, P., E-mail: piergiorgio.picozza@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Di Felice, V. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Measurements of cosmic rays provide important information on their sources and on the mechanisms of acceleration and propagation of cosmic particles through the Galaxy. Positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays are also the major candidates for searching signals from annihilation of dark matter and contributions from other exotic sources as nearby pulsars. Many balloon-borne experiments have been performed since the sixties, obtaining important results that strongly suggested the realization of the PAMELA and Fermi satellite missions, the latter mainly for gamma rays, and AMS-02 on the ISS. The precision of the measurements and the high statistics highlighted unexpected features in the cosmic particle energy spectra that are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter and are contributing to change our basic vision of their origin and propagation. The continuous particle detection in space experiments is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms.

  13. Cosmological Cosmic Rays: Sharpening the Primordial Lithium Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Prodanovic, Tijana

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic structure formation leads to large-scale shocked baryonic flows which are expected to produce a cosmological population of structure-formation cosmic rays (SFCRs). Interactions between SFCRs and ambient baryons will produce lithium isotopes via \\alpha+\\alpha \\to ^{6,7}Li. This pre-Galactic (but non-primordial) lithium should contribute to the primordial 7Li measured in halo stars and must be subtracted in order to arrive to the true observed primordial lithium abundance. In this paper we point out that the recent halo star 6Li measurements can be used to place a strong constraint to the level of such contamination, because the exclusive astrophysical production of 6Li is from cosmic-ray interactions. We find that the putative 6Li plateau, if due to pre-Galactic cosmic-ray interactions, implies that SFCR-produced lithium represents Li_{SFCR}/Li_{plateau}\\approx 15% of the observed elemental Li plateau. Taking the remaining plateau Li to be cosmological 7Li, we find a revised (and slightly worsened) disc...

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations of Cosmic Rays Hadronic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Orrell, John L.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2011-04-01

    This document describes the construction and results of the MaCoR software tool, developed to model the hadronic interactions of cosmic rays with different geometries of materials. The ubiquity of cosmic radiation in the environment results in the activation of stable isotopes, referred to as cosmogenic activities. The objective is to use this application in conjunction with a model of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR components, from extraction to deployment, to evaluate cosmogenic activation of such components before and after deployment. The cosmic ray showers include several types of particles with a wide range of energy (MeV to GeV). It is infeasible to compute an exact result with a deterministic algorithm for this problem; Monte Carlo simulations are a more suitable approach to model cosmic ray hadronic interactions. In order to validate the results generated by the application, a test comparing experimental muon flux measurements and those predicted by the application is presented. The experimental and simulated results have a deviation of 3%.

  15. Galactic cosmic-ray intensity to a heliocentric distance of 18 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports observations to heliocentric radial distances of 8.6 and 18.4 AU with Pioneer 11 and Pioneer 10 respectively. During a seven year period from March 1972 to March 1979, the galactic cosmic-ray intensity of greater than 80 MeV, as measured by detectors on Pioneers 10 and 11, exhibited aperiodic temporal variations by about a factor of 2 and on a time scale of the order of a year, and quasipersistent cyclic variations of a 26 day period and an amplitude of a few percent. For protons of an energy greater than 80 MeV, there is a fairly consistent heliocentric radial gradient of +2.1 (plus or minus 0.3%) per AU in integral intensity until 1978 April-May, at which time a substantial disruption of the distribution of cosmic rays in the heliosphere occurred.

  16. On the Origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new estimation of the photodisintegration and propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for photodisintegration and energy loss of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, and also collateral information from TeV gamma-ray observations of two nearby BL Lac objects. Our results indicate that a 200 EeV Fe nucleus can propagate apx. 100 Mpc through the IBR. We argue that it is possible that the highest energy cosmic rays observed may be heavy nuclei.

  17. Cosmic Ray Monitoring and Space Dangerous Phenomena, 2. Methods of Cosmic Ray Using For Forecasting of Major Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Iucci, N.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.

    We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) for forecasting on the basis of neutron monitor hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon tele- scopes hourly data from different directions) geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These geomagnetic storms are dangerous for peo- ple technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous geo- magnetic storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be avail- able 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of ge- omagnetic storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre- decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major ge- omagnetic storms. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting fea- tures for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).

  18. Observation of Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Westerhoff, S

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100 m above sea level near Sierra Negra (19$^\\circ$ N) in Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at these energies shows significant anisotropy on several angular scales, with a relative intensity ranging between 10$^{-3}$ and 10$^{-4}$. We present the results of a study of cosmic-ray anisotropy based on more than 86 billion cosmic-ray air showers recorded with HAWC since June 2013. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map, which has a median energy of 2 TeV, exhibits several regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux. We present the energy dependence of the anisotropy and the cosmic-ray spectrum in the regions of significant excess.

  19. Radio Detection of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Falcke, Heino

    2008-01-01

    The radio technique for the detection of cosmic particles has seen a major revival in recent years. New and planned experiments in the lab and the field, such as GLUE, Anita, LUNASKA, Codalema, LOPES as well as sophisticated Monte Carlo experiments have produced a wealth of new information and I review here briefly some of the main results with the main focus on air showers. Radio emission of ultra-high energy cosmic particles offers a number of interesting advantages. Since radio waves suffer no attenuation, radio measurements allow the detection of very distant or highly inclined showers, can be used day and night, and provide a bolometric measure of the leptonic shower component. The LOPES experiment has detected the radio emission from cosmic rays, confirmed the geosynchrotron effect for extensive air showers, and provided a good calibration fomula to convert the radio signal into primary particle energy. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that also the shower maximum and the particle composition c...

  20. Fundamental Physics With Cosmic High-Energy Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    High-energy photons (above the MeV) are a powerful probe for astrophysics and for fundamental physics under extreme conditions. During the recent years, our knowledge of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has impressively progressed thanks to the advent of new detectors for cosmic gamma rays, at ground (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS, HAWC) and in space (AGILE, Fermi). This presentation reviews the present status of the studies of fundamental physics problems with high-energy gamma rays, and discusses the expected experimental developments.

  1. RESPONSE OF NEUTRON MONITORS TO COSMIC RAY COUNTS: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BHATTACHARYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of cosmic ray became a subject of study with the invention of neutron monitor by Simpson. But recording of cosmic ray counts was started regularly from International Geophysical Year at different locations having different climatic zones over the globe. Here statistical analysis is performed to investigate the degree of response of different monitors towards cosmic ray counts. No significant difference is observed in statistical analysis if cosmic ray counts are normalized with respect to their mean counts in respective solar cycles. Correlation between cosmic ray counts of any two stations is found ranges from 0.88 to 0.99.

  2. Study on the Contribution of the Galactic Cosmic Rays to the Galactic Halo Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Xiao-bo; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Hong-bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the measured cosmic ray anisotropy, a model was built to calculate the Galactic cosmic ray's contribution to the large scale Galactic magnetic field. The general agreement in the large scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field between the calculation and the observations is obtained. This result shows that the model is in the right approach in understanding the cosmic ray's contribution to the Galactic magnetic field, and in the mean while, it indicates that the observed anisotropy of cosmic rays on the earth is not just a local behavior in solar vicinity but represents a microcosm of the global anisotropy of the Galactic cosmic rays.

  3. Interpretation of spectral paradox of cosmic X-ray background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志青; 周又元

    1997-01-01

    The integrated spectrum of discrete X-ray sources (mainly the active galactic nuclei, AGN) is inconsistent with the observed spectrum of cosmic X-ray background (CXB), and it is so called CXB spectral paradox. The medium X-ray spectra of 68 AGNs are adopted, the evolution function of X-ray spectral indices is analyzed statistically, the fraction of CXB is calculated due to AGNs X-ray emission, which shows that almost 100% CXB comes from AGNs X-ray emission. Especially, the integrated spectrum in 2-10 keV is consistent with the observed spectrum of CXB. The spectral paradox of CXB can be interpreted by this result.

  4. Long Term Time Variability of Cosmic Rays and Possible Relevance to the Development of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the `high energy’ cosmic rays ( E > 1014 eV; =0.1 PeV) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth’s biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the `building blocks of life’. Attention is also given to the well known generation of the oxides of nitrogen by lightning strokes which are poisonous to animal life but helpful to plant growth; here, too, the violent swings of cosmic ray intensities may have had relevance to evolutionary changes. A particular variant of the cosmic ray acceleration model, put forward by us, predicts an increase in lightning rate in the past and this has been sought in Korean historical records. Finally, the time dependence of the overall cosmic ray intensity, which manifests itself mainly at sub-10 GeV energies, has been examined. The relevance of cosmic rays to the `global electrical circuit’ points to the importance of this concept.

  5. PREFACE: Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2008-02-01

    The physics of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos has become nowadays a subject of fast development. On the other hand present and planed experimental facilities installed in the American continent, attract and facilitate the involvement of local young researchers. For these reasons Professor Oscar Saavedra and his team of the high altitude cosmic ray Chacaltaya laboratory and the Universidad Mayor de San Andres in La Paz Bolivia, conceived the idea of organizing the First School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics in La Paz 9-20 August 2004. That school was possible, in spite of the scarcity of funds, thanks to the solidary participation of several distinguish lecturers who paid their travel and local expenses. Their lectures were made available on a CD by the local students. It was then decided that a second school be organized for 2006 in Mexico. It was held from 28 August to 15 September 15. Some of the lecturers in this Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics were too busy to write their lectures, but here we put at the disposal of the interested community the contributions of Roberto Battiston, Karen S Caballero, Edgar Casimiro, David Delepine, Giorgio Giacomelli, Gonzalo Rodríguez and Luis Villaseñor. This School was possible thanks to the financial assistance of CONACyT (Mexico), the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), the University of Torino and the Centro Latino Americano de Fisica. Arnulfo Zepeda The editors of these proceedings are: Rebeca López Rodrigo Pelayo Oscar Saavedra Arnulfo Zepeda

  6. Emission of SN 1006 produced by accelerated cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G; Völk, H J

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear kinetic model of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is used to describe the properties of the remnant of SN 1006. It is shown, that the theory fits the existing data in a satisfactory way within a set of parameters which is consistent with the idea that SN 1006 is a typical Galactic CR source. The adjusted parameters are those that are not very well determined by present theory or not directly amenable to astronomical observations. The calculated expansion law and the radio-, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions produced by the accelerated CRs in SN 1006 agree quite well with the observations. A quite large interior magnetic field of about 0.1 mG is required to give a good fit for the radio and X-ray synchrotron emission. In the observed TeV gamma-ray flux from SN 1006, the pion-decay gamma-rays, generated by the nuclear CR component, dominate over the inverse Compton (IC) gamma-rays, generated by the CR electrons in the cosmic microwave background. The predicted hard integral ga...

  7. The TAIGA experiment: From cosmic-ray to gamma-ray astronomy in the Tunka valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnev, N.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Barnyakov, A.; Bezyazeekov, P.; Bogdanov, A.; Boreyko, V.; Brückner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Fedorov, O.; Fedoseev, E.; Gafarov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grinyuk, A.; Grishin, O.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Horns, D.; Huege, T.; Ivanova, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Yu.; Kirilenko, P.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kleifges, M.; Kokoulin, R.; Kompaniets, K.; Korosteleva, E.; Kostunin, D.; Kozhin, V.; Kravchenko, E.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Osipova, E.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Perevalov, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pivovarov, S.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Postnikov, E.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Pushnin, A.; Rubtsov, G.; Rybov, E.; Samoliga, V.; Saunkin, A.; Schröder, F.; Semeney, Yu.; Silaev, A.; Silaev, A.; Skurikhin, A.; Sokolov, A.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tarashchansky, B.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Voronin, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Yashin, I.; Yurin, K.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zirakashvili, V.; Zurbanov, V.

    2017-02-01

    We present physical motivations and advantages of the new gamma-observatory TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and gamma-ray astronomy). TAIGA will be located in the Tunka valley, 50 km to the west of Lake Baikal, at the same place as the integrating air Cherenkov detector for cosmic rays Tunka-133. The TAIGA array is a complex, hybrid detector for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy for energies from a few TeV to several PeV as well as for cosmic ray studies from 100 TeV to several EeV. The array will consist of a wide angle Cherenkov array - TAIGA-HiSCORE with 5km2 area, a net of 16 IACT telescopes (with FOV of about 9.72°×9.72°) as well as muon and other detectors. We present the current status of the array construction.

  8. Buoyancy Instabilities in Galaxy Clusters: Convection Due to Adiabatic Cosmic Rays and Anisotropic Thermal Conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, P; Quataert, E; Parrish, I J

    2009-01-01

    Using a linear stability analysis and two and three-dimensional nonlinear simulations, we study the physics of buoyancy instabilities in a combined thermal and relativistic (cosmic ray) plasma, motivated by the application to clusters of galaxies. We argue that cosmic ray diffusion is likely to be slow compared to the buoyancy time on large length scales, so that cosmic rays are effectively adiabatic. If the cosmic ray pressure $p_{cr}$ is $\\gtrsim 25 %$ of the thermal pressure, and the cosmic ray entropy ($p_{\\rm cr}/\\rho^{4/3}$; $\\rho$ is the thermal plasma density) decreases outwards, cosmic rays drive an adiabatic convective instability analogous to Schwarzschild convection in stars. Global simulations of galaxy cluster cores show that this instability saturates by reducing the cosmic ray entropy gradient and driving efficient convection and turbulent mixing. At larger radii in cluster cores, the thermal plasma is unstable to the heat flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), a convective instability genera...

  9. Preheating of the Universe by cosmic rays from primordial supernovae at the beginning of cosmic reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Sazonov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The 21-cm signal from the cosmic reionization epoch can shed light on the history of heating of the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM) at z~30-10. It has been suggested that X-rays from the first accreting black holes could significantly heat the Universe at these early epochs. Here we propose another IGM heating mechanism associated with the first stars. As known from previous work, the remnants of powerful supernovae (SNe) ending the lives of massive Population III stars could readily expand out of their host dark matter minihalos into the surrounding IGM, aided by the preceeding photoevaporation of the halo's gas by the UV radiation from the progenitor star. We argue that during the evolution of such a remnant a significant fraction of the SN kinetic energy can be put into low-energy (E<30 MeV) cosmic rays that will eventually escape into the IGM. These subrelativistic cosmic rays could propagate through the Universe and heat the IGM by ~10-100 K by z~15, before more powerful reionization/heating mec...

  10. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  11. Fingerprints of disoriented chiral condensates in cosmic ray showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, R. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Fraga, E. S.; Santos, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    Although the generation of disoriented chiral condensates (DCCs), where the order parameter for chiral symmetry breaking is misaligned with respect to the vacuum direction in isospin state, is quite natural in the theory of strong interactions, they have so far eluded experiments in accelerators and cosmic rays. If DCCs are formed in high-energy nuclear collisions, the relevant outcome are very large event-by-event fluctuations in the neutral-to-charged pion fraction. In this note we search for fingerprints of DCC formation in observables of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers. We present simulation results for the depth of the maximum (Xmax) and number of muons on the ground, evaluating their sensitivity to the neutral-to-charged pion fraction asymmetry produced in the primary interaction.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik

    to develop the experiment to cover additional processes involved in the route to cloud droplet formation. The experiment will be conducted at the Danish National Space Center where a clean room facility has been provided. It comprises an 8 m3 reaction chamber across which an electric field is applied......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets.We have chosen to start our...

  13. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    CERN Document Server

    Laken, Benjamin A; Calogovic, Jasa; Dunne, Eimear M; 10.1051/swsc/2012018

    2012-01-01

    Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth's cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: 1) monthly to decadal timescale correlations, and 2) daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite) analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush Decrease (FD) events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS). Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983 to 1995 per...

  14. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  15. Detecting cosmic rays with the LOFAR radio telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schellart, P; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; James, C W; Krause, M; Mevius, M; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Akker, M van den; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Avruch, I M; Bähren, L; Beck, R; Bell, M E; Bennema, P; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Brentjens, M; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Coolen, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; de Jong, A; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Ferrari, C; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Grit, T; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Klijn, W; Kohler, J; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Macario, G; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Miller-Jones, J C A; Mol, J D; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nijboer, R; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Overeem, R; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Renting, A; Romein, J W; Röttgering, H; Schoenmakers, A; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Toribio, C; van Leeuwen, J; van Nieuwpoort, R; van Weeren, R J; Vermaas, N; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Vogt, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wijnholds, S J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Zensus, A

    2013-01-01

    The low frequency array (LOFAR), is the first radio telescope designed with the capability to measure radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers in parallel with interferometric observations. In the first $\\sim 2\\,\\mathrm{years}$ of observing, 405 cosmic-ray events in the energy range of $10^{16} - 10^{18}\\,\\mathrm{eV}$ have been detected in the band from $30 - 80\\,\\mathrm{MHz}$. Each of these air showers is registered with up to $\\sim1000$ independent antennas resulting in measurements of the radio emission with unprecedented detail. This article describes the dataset, as well as the analysis pipeline, and serves as a reference for future papers based on these data. All steps necessary to achieve a full reconstruction of the electric field at every antenna position are explained, including removal of radio frequency interference, correcting for the antenna response and identification of the pulsed signal.

  16. Photodisintegration of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays A New Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a new calculation of the photodisintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for energy loss and photodisintegration of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the 2.73K cosmic background radiation (CBR) and with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, consistent with direct measurements and upper limits from TeV gamma- ray observations. We have also improved the calculation by including the specific threshold energies for the various photodisintegration interactions in our Monte Carlo calculation. With the new smaller IBR flux, the steepness of the Wien side of the now relatively more important CBR makes their inclusion essential for more accurate results. Our results indicate a significant increase in the propagation time of UHCR nuclei of a given energy over previous results. We disc...

  17. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response....../I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively...

  18. Digital radio detection of cosmic rays: achievements, status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, radio detection of cosmic rays has matured from small-scale prototype experiments to installations spanning several km$^2$ with more than a hundred antennas. The physics of the radio signal is well understood and simulations and measurements are in good agreement. We have learned how to extract important cosmic ray parameters such as the geometry of the air shower and the energy of the primary particle from the radio signal, and have developed very promising approaches to also determine the mass of the primary particles. At the same time, limitations have become increasingly clear. I review the progress made in the past decade and provide a personal view on further potential for future development.

  19. Ultimate precision in cosmic-ray radio detection --- the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Huege, Tim; Buitink, Stijn; Butler, David; Dallier, Richard; Ekers, Ron D; Enßlin, Torsten; Falcke, Heino; Haungs, Andreas; James, Clancy W; Martin, Lilian; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katharine; Revenu, Benoît; Scholten, Olaf; Schröder, Frank G; Tingay, Steven; Winchen, Tobias; Zilles, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As of 2023, the low-frequency part of the Square Kilometre Array will go online in Australia. It will constitute the largest and most powerful low-frequency radio-astronomical observatory to date, and will facilitate a rich science programme in astronomy and astrophysics. With modest engineering changes, it will also be able to measure cosmic rays via the radio emission from extensive air showers. The extreme antenna density and the homogeneous coverage provided by more than 60,000 antennas within an area of one km$^2$ will push radio detection of cosmic rays in the energy range around 10$^{17}$ eV to ultimate precision, with superior capabilities in the reconstruction of arrival direction, energy, and an expected depth-of-shower-maximum resolution of 6~g/cm${^2}$.

  20. KCDC - The KASCADE Cosmic-ray Data Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Haungs, A; Fuchs, B; Kang, D; Schoo, S; Wochele, D; Wochele, J; Apel, W D; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Fuhrmann, D; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K H; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Zabierowski, J

    2015-01-01

    KCDC, the KASCADE Cosmic-ray Data Centre, is a web portal, where data of astroparticle physics experiments will be made available for the interested public. The KASCADE experiment, financed by public money, was a large-area detector for the measurement of high-energy cosmic rays via the detection of air showers. KASCADE and its extension KASCADE-Grande stopped finally the active data acquisition of all its components including the radio EAS experiment LOPES end of 2012 after more than 20 years of data taking. In a first release, with KCDC we provide to the public the measured and reconstructed parameters of more than 160 million air showers. In addition, KCDC provides the conceptional design, how the data can be treated and processed so that they are also usable outside the community of experts in the research field. Detailed educational examples make a use also possible for high-school students and early stage researchers.