WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmic radiation radiacna

  1. What is cosmic radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The earth was indeed receiving ionizing radiations from the heavens. This cosmic radiation consists of particles travelling near the speed of light. It consists of two components, the first of which is permanent and of galactic origin, while the other is more sporadic, depending on the sun's activities. Natural land-based sources expose each of us to an average total dose of 2.4 mSv per year (source UNSCEAR). In addition, the human activities using ionizing radiation contribute to an average annual exposure of 1.4 mSv, originating primarily with medical activities ( radiodiagnostic and radiation therapy). Members of flights crew are subject to exposure. The total dose of cosmic radiation received is is directly proportional with the duration of exposure, and thus with the duration of the flight. Measurement taken on board aircraft during the 1990's showed that flight personnel (on long haul flights) receive an average dose of approximately the same magnitude as the one due to exposure to natural radioactivity in France. The damage caused by ionizing radiation depends on the quantity of energy released by radiation into the cells of each organ or tissue of the human body(exposure dose). For a given quantity of absorbed energy (dose expressed in Gray), the damage will vary according to the nature of the radiation and the affected organ. These effects are of two types: acute effects and deferred effects. Two measurements are essential for radiation protection: the measurements of the dose of radiation absorbed by the body and the assessment of the risk associated with the absorbed dose. Two units were thus created: the gray and the sievert. (N.C.)

  2. Primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    The term cosmic radiation means the charged particle flux that reaches the earth from outside its magnetosphere with energies above the solar wind energy of a few keV. There are two sources of flux. Sporadically the sun produces such particles, generally within the energy range 1--200 MeV, and these solar cosmic rays arrive at the earth for a period ranging from hours to days. There may be a small, rather constant flux from the sun also, but the bulk of the steady flux originates outside the earth's orbit. Although some have conjectured that part of this latter flux may be accelerated in the outer portions of the solar system where the outward flowing interplanetary medium meets the interstellar medium, it is generally thought that most or all of it arises in unique systems such as supernovae, and is distributed throughout the galaxy. These galactic particles range in energy from a few MeV to at least 10 13 MeV and consist primarily of protons with significant numbers of heavier nuclei, positrons and electrons. They are supposed to fill our galaxy, or at least the disc, more or less uniformly. However, the flux with energies below a few GeV that reaches earth's orbit is modulated by the interplanetary medium so that the number at earth varies inversely with solar activity and is always somewhat below the interstellar flux. A discussion is presented of primary galactic radiation at earth, its modulation by solar activity, and its interaction with the geomagnetic field. (U.S.)

  3. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  4. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  5. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  6. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  7. Cerenkov radiation from cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turver, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is almost 40 years since it was suggested that Cerenkov radiations may be produced in the atmosphere by the passage of the cosmic radiation and account for a small part of the night sky brightness. The first detection of this visible Cerenkov radiation followed within a few years and by the 1960s the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique was established as a tool in high energy astrophysics. An exciting new field of astronomy, high energy gamma ray astronomy, has developed which relies on the atmospheric Cerenkov light. We here review the mechanism for the production of Cerenkov light in the atmosphere and summarize the contributions to high energy astrophysics made using the technique. (author)

  8. Cosmic Dark Radiation and Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Archidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB by the Planck mission have greatly increased our knowledge about the universe. Dark radiation, a weakly interacting component of radiation, is one of the important ingredients in our cosmological model which is testable by Planck and other observational probes. At the moment, the possible existence of dark radiation is an unsolved question. For instance, the discrepancy between the value of the Hubble constant, H0, inferred from the Planck data and local measurements of H0 can to some extent be alleviated by enlarging the minimal ΛCDM model to include additional relativistic degrees of freedom. From a fundamental physics point of view, dark radiation is no less interesting. Indeed, it could well be one of the most accessible windows to physics beyond the standard model, for example, sterile neutrinos. Here, we review the most recent cosmological results including a complete investigation of the dark radiation sector in order to provide an overview of models that are still compatible with new cosmological observations. Furthermore, we update the cosmological constraints on neutrino physics and dark radiation properties focusing on tensions between data sets and degeneracies among parameters that can degrade our information or mimic the existence of extra species.

  9. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizot, E.

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  10. Search for Antihelium in the Cosmic Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streitmatter, R.E.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on July 16-17, 1992. Sixteen hours of data were taken. Measurements of multiple dE/dX, rigidity, and time of flight were used to search for antihelium in the cosmic radiation. A report on the r......The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba Canada on July 16-17, 1992. Sixteen hours of data were taken. Measurements of multiple dE/dX, rigidity, and time of flight were used to search for antihelium in the cosmic radiation. A report...

  11. Cosmic Radiation Detection and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Chavez, Juan; Troncoso, Maria

    Cosmic rays consist of high-energy particles accelerated from remote supernova remnant explosions and travel vast distances throughout the universe. Upon arriving at earth, the majority of these particles ionize gases in the upper atmosphere, while others interact with gas molecules in the troposphere and producing secondary cosmic rays, which are the main focus of this research. To observe these secondary cosmic rays, a detector telescope was designed and equipped with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Each SiPM is coupled to a bundle of 4 wavelength shifting optical fibers that are embedded inside a plastic scintillator sheet. The SiPM signals were amplified using a fast preamplifier with coincidence between detectors established using a binary logic gate. The coincidence events were recorded with two devices; a digital counter and an Arduino micro-controller. For detailed analysis of the SiPM waveforms, a DRS4 sensory digitizer captured the waveforms for offline analysis with the CERN software package Physics Analysis Workstation in a Linux environment. Results from our experiments would be presented. Hartnell College STEM Internship Program.

  12. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  13. Dosimetry of environmental radiations (cosmic ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Keizo

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic ray is dominant as environmental radiation, though the experimental determination made on cosmic ray doses is few in Japan. The free air ionization intensity at sea level due to cosmic ray has been estimated in the Bay of Wakasa, Japan, at middle geomagnetic latitude (25 deg. N), in October 1977. The ionization chambers used were two air and one argon types. Where the responses to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were equal, the ionization intensity due to cosmic ray was obtained by subtracting the ionization intensity due to terrestrial gamma ray from the total ionization intensity. As the terrestrial gamma ray, (1) U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40 in seawater, (2) K-40 in the material of a wooden ship, and (3) Rn-222 and its daughter products in the atmosphere were considered. The result of free air ionization due to cosmic ray with the argon chamber was slightly smaller than those with the other two air chambers; however, both were in good agreement within standard errors. (JPN.)

  14. Cosmic radiation doses at flight level altitudes of airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, E.; Petr, I.

    1985-01-01

    Changes are discussed in flux density of cosmic radiation particles with time as are the origin of cosmic radiation, the level of cosmic radiation near the Earth's surface, and the determination of cosmic radiation doses in airliners. Doses and dose rates are given measured on different flight routes. In spite of the fact that the flight duration at an altitude of about 10 km makes for about 80% of the total flight time, the overall radiation burden of the crews at 1000 flight hours a year is roughly double that of the rest of the population. (J.C.)

  15. Cosmic radiation algorithm utilizing flight time tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Mika Helminen, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [Tampere Univ., School of Public Health (Finland); Gerhard Leuthold, D.Sc. [GSF - Research Center, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Cosmic radiation is considerably higher on cruising altitudes used in aviation than at ground level. Exposure to cosmic radiation may increase cancer risk among pilots and cabin crew. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended that air crew should be classified as radiation workers. Quantification of cosmic radiation doses is necessary for assessment of potential health effects of such occupational exposure. For Finnair cabin crew (cabin attendants and stewards), flight history is not available for years prior to 1991 and therefore, other sources of information on number and type of flights have to be used. The lack of systematically recorded information is a problem for dose estimation for many other flight companies personnel as well. Several cosmic radiation dose estimations for cabin crew have been performed using different methods (e.g. 2-5), but they have suffered from various shortcomings. Retrospective exposure estimation is not possible with personal portable dosimeters. Methods that employ survey data for occupational dose assessment are prone to non-differential measurement error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number of past flights. Assessment procedures that utilize surrogate measurement methods i.e. the duration of employment, lack precision. The aim of the present study was to develop an assessment method for individual occupational exposure to cosmic radiation based on flight time tables. Our method provides an assessment method that does not require survey data or systematic recording of flight history, and it is rather quick, inexpensive, and possible to carry out in all other flight companies whose past time tables for the past periods exist. Dose assessment methods that employ survey data are prone to random error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number or types of routes that they have flown during the past. Our method avoids this since survey data are not needed

  16. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S.; Latocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H * (10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  17. Focusing of cosmic radiation by power lines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vistnes, A.I.; Strand, T.

    1996-12-01

    In 1992 Anthony Hopwood introduced a hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields close to power lines might focus electrically charged particles in cosmic radiation so that people living close by would be exposed to higher doses of ionizing radiation than if the power line was not present. This hypothesis has been tested using thermoluminescent dosemeter as detectors, which are free from electric noise artifacts that might influence Geiger-Mueller detectors. Detectors were placed on snow covered cultivated land at low altitudes as well as on an ice covered lake in a mountain area to reduce background radiation from the ground. In neither case could a focusing effect be demonstrated. 10 refs., 3 figs

  18. Cosmic thermalization and the microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    A different origin of the microwave background radiation (MBR) is suggested in view of some of the difficulties associated with the standard interpretation. Extensive stellar-type nucleosynthesis could provide radiation with the requisite energy density of the MBR and its spectral features are guaranteed by adequate thermalization of the above radiation by an ambient intergalactic dust medium. This thermalization must have occurred in quite recent epochs, say around epochs of redshift z = 7. The model emerges with consistent limits on the cosmic abundance of helium, the general luminosity evolution of the extragalactic objects, the baryonic matter density in the Universe (or, equivalently the deceleration parameter) and the degree of isotropy of MBR. The model makes definite predictions on issues like the properties of the intergalactic thermalizers, the degree of isotropy of MBR at submillimetre wavelengths and cluster emission in the far infrared. (author)

  19. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  20. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7 0 beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38 0 N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12 0 S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38 0 declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits

  1. Nobel Prize in Physics 2006-Cosmic Background Radiation and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 2. Nobel Prize in Physics 2006 - Cosmic Background Radiation and Precision Cosmology. T Padmanabhan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 2 February 2007 pp 4-16 ...

  2. Angular anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation is reviewed. Anisotropy on large-scale (dipole and quadrupole) and on small scales is discussed. The smoothing effects of secondary ionization (fractional ionization x) are found to be unimportant over an angular scale greater than approx.= 5(OMEGAx)sup(1/3) degrees. (author)

  3. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, J.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Cosmic gamma radiation of ultra high energy of primordial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Filho, F.G. de.

    1984-01-01

    The quantum mechanical effects near a collapsing black hole as shown by Stephen W.Hawking in 1974 to produce streaming particles through tunneling effect was explored in the context of cosmic gamma ray production. In this thesis, we show the possible production of gamma rays of high energies (ν approx 10 41 Hz) in the initial stages of the formation of the Universe by the explosion of primordial mini black holes. These mini black hole explosions happening at 10 -43 s to 10 -37 s after the start perhaps may account for the existing universal cosmic background radiation of 2.7 0 K. (Author) [pt

  5. Limitations on space flight due to cosmic radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CURTIS, H J

    1961-02-03

    These conclusions (10) may be summarized as follows: 1) Flight below the Van Allen belts seems reasonably safe without radiation shielding. 2) It is probably impractical to shield a rocket sufficiently to permit a man to remain in the inner Van Allen belt for more than about an hour, but it should be possible for him to go through it without serious harm. 3) Shielding for the outer Van Allen belt is possible but would have to be quite heavy if a stay of more than a few hours were contemplated. 4) The primary cosmic radiation is not intense enough to deliver a serious radiation dose, even for exposures of a few weeks, and the heavy cosmic ray primaries do not seem to present an unusual hazard.

  6. On the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will try to give a pale idea to the reader of what could be the Cosmic Microwave Background (RCFM that, according to the traditional Big Bang model, was generated by a primordial explosion. With this purpose we find it very important to present a brief historical summary of how the Microcosm, based on the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics (MPPE, and the Macrocosm, based on the Standard Big Bang Model (MPBB, have evolved over time. In addition, in the final part of the article we will analyze the two physical processes presented in the literature that seek to explain the RCFM: Bariogenesis and Plasma Quark-Gluon.

  7. Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, H.; Sato, T.; Yonehara, H.; Kosako, T.; Fujitaka, K.; Sasaki, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y -1 . The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program. (authors)

  8. Anisotropy of the cosmic blackbody radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D T

    1986-06-20

    The universe is filled with thermal radiation having a current temperature of 2.75 K. Originating in the very early universe, this radiation furnishes strong evidence that the Big Bang cosmology best describes our expanding universe from an incredibly hot, compacted early stage until now. The model can be used to extrapolate our physics backward in time to predict events whose effects might be observable in the 2.75 K radiation today. The spectrum and isotropy are being studied with sophisticated microwave radiometers on the ground, in balloons, and in satellites. The results are as predicted by the simple theory: the spectrum is that of a blackbody (to a few percent) and the radiation is isotropic (to 0.01 percent) except for a local effect due to our motion through the radiation. However, a problem is emerging. Primordial fluctuations in the mass density, which later became the great clusters of galaxies that we see today, should have left an imprint on the 2.75 K radiation-bumpiness on the sky at angular scales of about 10 arc minutes. They have not yet been seen.

  9. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meier, M.; Trompier, F.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Matthia, D.; Ploc, Ondřej; Santen, N.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, MAY (2016), A24 ISSN 2115-7251 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : aviation * radiation exposure of aircrew * comparison of radiation detectors * galactic cosmic radiation * ambient dose equivalent Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016

  10. Cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-11-01

    Modifying slightly the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. This new cosmological model is consistent with the Mach principle, Einsteinian general theory of relativity, and observations of the universe. The origin, structure, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published recently in a scientific journal: Progress in Physics. This paper explains the observed 2.725 K cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present universe with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses. According to the black hole universe model, the observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe, which can be considered as an ideal black body. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient materials and merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. A governing equation that expresses the possible thermal history of the black hole universe is derived from the Planck law of black body radiation and radiation energy conservation. The result obtained by solving the governing equation indicates that the radiation temperature of the present universe can be ˜2.725 K if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and is therefore consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A smaller or younger black hole universe usually cools down faster. The characteristics of the original star-like or supermassive black hole are not critical to the physical properties of the black hole universe at present, because matter and radiation are mainly from the outside space, i.e., the mother universe.

  11. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  12. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  13. Radiative processes of two entangled atoms in cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huabing; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the radiative processes of two static two-level atoms in a maximally entangled state coupled to vacuum electromagnetic field in the cosmic string spacetime. We find that the decay rate from the entangled state to the ground state crucially depends on the atomic separation, the polarization directions of the individual atoms, the atom-string distance and the deficit angle induced by the string. As the atom-string distance increases, the decay rate oscillates around the result in Minkowski spacetime and the amplitude gradually decreases. The oscillation is more severe for larger planar angle deficit. We analyze the decay rate in different circumstances such as near zone and specific polarization cases. Some comparisons between symmetric and antisymmetric states are performed. By contrast with the case in Minkowski spacetime, we can reveal the effects of the cosmic string on the radiative properties of the entangled atoms.

  14. Is there a cosmological cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, Thierry.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that cosmological cosmic rays ('CCR': protons and α particles) may have existed in the post recombination era of the early universe (z approximately 100) is examined. In this context, the CCR interact with the ambient gaseous medium. High energy collisions (> 1 GeV/n) give rise to diffuse background γ-rays via π 0 decay, and low energy collisions (10-100 MeV/n) give rise to light nuclei: 6 Li, 7 Li and 7 Be (via the α+α reaction), D and 3 He (via p + α reactions). Taking expansion and ionization losses into account, a system of coupled time-dependent transport equations is solved in the case of a CCR burst. The 1-100 MeV γ-ray background spectrum and the light element abundances are then taken as observational constraints on the CCR hypothesis. It is found that, in this framework, it is possible to account simultaneously for the γ-ray background spectrum and for the 7 Li/H ratio, but there are some difficulties with the 7 Li/ 6 Li ratio. To avoid these, it is possible, because of the spread in the γ-ray data, to lower the CCR flux, so that the CCR hypothesis cannot be ruled out on this basis at present. The theoretical possibility of observing in 1-100 MeV γ-ray background some definite features (e.g. matter antimatter regions annihilating) at any redshift up to z sub(c) approximately 100 is, in the case of π 0 -decay theories, rather restricted with present experiments, and this is shown by the introduction of a 'visibility function' which folds the theoretical γ-ray background intensity as a function of redshift through the efficiency of a given experiment [fr

  15. Effects of microgravity and cosmic radiations on human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pippia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In space living organisms, including cells, are affected by two new environmental conditions: microgravity and cosmic radiations. Several experiments in dedicated space missions and in simulated microgravity have shown that low gravity causes a dramatic depression of the mitogenic in vitro activation of T lymphocytes. The goal of this reserch was to determine in space (on board the International Space Station the ability of adherent monocytes to migrate, as well as to interact with T-cells. A reduced motility of the J-111 cells and changes in the structures of actin, tubulin and vinculin were observed. Moreover, we demonstrated that LFA-I/ICAM-I interactions occur in space and are dependent on activation time but show differences in number, arrangement and fluorescence intensity, depending on time and experimental conditions. In order to evaluate the effects of cosmic radiations on the gene expression in human T lymphocytes we exposed these cells to high quote cosmic radiation during two stratospheric balloon trans-mediterranean flights (BIRBA missions. The gene expression was analized by cDNA microarray hybridization technology. Activated T cells react to the ionizing stress by activating genes involved in cell cycle check-point, oxidative stress response, heat shock proteins production or by repressing denes involved in antigen recognition.

  16. Cosmic microwave background radiation in an inhomogeneous spherical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R; Lustig, S; Kramer, P

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in spherical three-spaces with nontrivial topology. The focus is on an inhomogeneous space which possesses observer-dependent CMB properties. The suppression of the CMB anisotropies on large angular scales is analysed with respect to the position of the CMB observer. The equivalence of a lens space to a Platonic cubic space is shown and used for the harmonic analysis. We give the transformation of the CMB multipole radiation amplitude as a function of the position of the observer. General sum rules are obtained in terms of the squares of the expansion coefficients for invariant polynomials on the three-sphere.

  17. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  18. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, M

    1999-07-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 ({+-}0.4) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 ({+-}0.5) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 {mu}Sv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 {mu}Sv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 {mu}Sv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshaw, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 (±0.4) μSv.h -1 . Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 (±0.5) μSv.h -1 and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 μSv.h -1 for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 μSv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 μSv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 μSv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 μSv.h -1 , against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 μSv.h -1 . (author)

  20. PROTECTION FROM COSMIC RADIATION IN LONG-TERM MANNED SPACEFLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Durante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of health risks. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Unfortunately, passive (bulk shielding is currently unable to provide adequate protection, because cosmic rays have very high energy and nuclear fragmentation in the absorbers produce light fragments. Material science could provide new materials with better shielding properties for space radiation. Active (magnetic shielding could be an interesting alternative, pending technical improvements.

  1. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the SIEVERT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottolier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milliSieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - PaulEmile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available since more than two years on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft. Various results obtained are presented: experimental validation, in particular for the ground level event model (large solar eruption), and statistics on routes and personal doses. (author)

  2. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the Sievert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Biau, A.; Clairand, I.; Saint-Lo, D.; Valero, M.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2003-01-01

    The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milli-sieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft Various results obtained are presented. (authors)

  3. Computation of cosmic radiation spectra and application to aircrew dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Song Jae

    2002-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA- 99, secondary cosmic radiation energy spectra and intensities of neutrons, protons, photons, electrons, and muons were calculated for different geographical latitude and longitude at the commercial jet's altitudes ranging from 27000 ft to 41000 ft. The Badhwar's proton model was used to construct the primary cosmic radiation spectrum and effect of the vertical cutoff rigidity was considered after spectra similar to those given in literature were resulted. By applying the effective dose conversion factors, a calculation tool for aircrew doses was developed. According to the resulting dose rate distribution, effective dose rate over North pole region is around three times of that over equator region due to the geomagnetical shielding effect. Illustrative assessments of aircrew doses were made for four distinctive routes of Korean airliners : Seoul - New York (USA), London (UK), Sydney (Australia) and Mumbai(India). The effective doses to aircrew incurred from a round trip were 0.047, 0.055, 0.018, and 0.018μSv, respectively. If aircrew work 500 hour s a year at the cruise altitude of a international airline, the individual dose would reach 2 mSv which is about the same size as the average annual dose of workers at a nuclear power plant

  4. Control of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation outside the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki; Kaneko, Masahito

    2000-01-01

    Japan is participating in the project of constructing ISS, International Space Station, and taking part of constructing JEM, Japan Experimental Module. It is expected that people working in this module upon completion should be controlled their exposure to cosmic radiation according to Japanese laws. Hence, the issue has been studied by a committee in NASDA, National Space Development Agency of Japan. In 1999, its interim report was released and public comments had been invited. In this presentation, following the introduction of the gist of the interim report as well as comments by the authors, countermeasures are proposed. (author)

  5. Radiation in the Einstein universe and the cosmic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the cosmic background radiation is not at all uniquely or scientifically relatively economically indicative of a ''big bang.'' Specifically, essentially any temporally homogeneous theory in the Einstein universe is consistent with the existence of a cosmic background radiation (CBR) conforming to the Planck law; in particular, the chronometric cosmology is such. It is noted that the Einstein universe appears particularly natural as a habitat for photons by virtue of the absence of infrared divergences and of the absolute convergence of the trace for associated Gibbs-state density matrices. These features are connected with the closed character of space in the Einstein universe, and facilitate the use of the latter in modeling local phenomena, in place of Minkowski space with periodic boundary conditions or the like, with minimal loss of covariance or effect on the wave functions. In particular, the Einstein universe may be used in the analysis of the perturbation of a Planck-law spectrum due to a local nonvanishing isotropic angular momentum of the CBR, of whatever origin. The estimated distortion of the spectrum due to such a kinematically admissible effect is in very good agreement with that observed by Woody and Richards, which is opposite in direction to those earlier predicted by big-bang theories. The theoretical analysis involves a preliminary treatment of equilibria of linear quantum fields with supplementary quasilinear constraints

  6. Characteristic angular scales in cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, F.; Bahraminasab, A.; Movahed, M.S.; Rahvar, S.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Tabar, M.R.R.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the stochasticity in temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We show that the angular fluctuation of the temperature is a Markov process with a Markov angular scale, Markov 1.01 -0.07 +0.09 . We characterize the complexity of the CMB fluctuations by means of a Fokker-Planck or Langevin equation and measure the associated Kramers-Moyal coefficients for the fluctuating temperature field T(n-circumflex) and its increment, ΔT = T(n-circumflex 1 ) - T(n-circumflex 2 ). Through this method we show that temperature fluctuations in the CMB have fat tails compared to a Gaussian distribution. (author)

  7. Far Infrared Spectrometry of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    I describe two experiments to measure the cosmic background radiation near 1 mm wavelength. The first was a ground-based search for spectral lines, made with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and an InSb detector. The second is a measurement of the spectrum from 3 to 18 cm{sup -1}, made with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a polarizing Michelson interferometer, cooled in liquid helium, and operated with a germanium bolometer. I give the theory of operation, construction details, and experimental results. The first experiment was successfully completed but the second suffered equipment malfunction on its first flight. I describe the theory of Fourier transformations and give a new understanding of convolutional phase correction computations. I discuss for infrared bolometer calibration procedures, and tabulate test results on nine detectors. I describe methods of improving bolometer sensitivity with immersion optics and with conductive film blackening.

  8. Interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonyan, F.A.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Vardanyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of the bump and black-body cutoff in the cosmic-ray (CR) spectrum arising from the π-meson photoproduction reaction in collisions of CR protons with the microwave background radiation (MBR) photons is studied. A kinetic equation which describes CR proton propagation in MBR with account of a catastrophic of the π-meson photoproduction process is derived. The equilibrium CR proton spectrum obtained from the solution of the stationary kinetic equation is in general agreement with spectrum obtained under assumption of continuous energy loss approximation. However spectra from local sources especially for the times of propagation t>10 9 years differ noticeably from those obtained in the continuous loss approximation. 24 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Investigations of characteristics of solar cosmic radiation by ''Meteor'' satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyaslova, N.K.; Nazarova, M.N.; Petrenko, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    Within the period from 1969 to 1978, 73 proton events of solar cosmic radiation (SCR) in which the proton flux (Esub(p) > 5 MeV) in the event maximum exceed approximatly 10 protonxcm -2 s -1 have been investigated at the ''Meteor'' satellite in high-latitude regions of the Earth magnetosphere. A considerable asymmetry of proton fluxes is detected. A considerable effect on the SCR space-and-time characteristics is produced by a large-scale interplanetary magnetic field. To study SCR spectral distributions, data are considered on proton fluxes within energy ranges from 5 to 90 MeV (''Meteor'' satellite) and from 10 to 60 MeV (''Explorer'' satellite). The spectra are approximated by the power law. Results of investigations have shown that there is connection between the SCR space-and-time and spectral characteristics and the direction and structure of the solar magnetic fields, the interplanetary space and the geomagnetic field

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure of future hypersonic flight missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koops, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, air crews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. (author)

  11. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Future Hypersonic Flight Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, L

    2017-06-15

    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, aircrews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Claudio Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  13. Constraining the cosmic radiation density due to lepton number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    The cosmic energy density in the form of radiation before and during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is typically parameterized in terms of the effective number of neutrinos N eff , and it is a key parameters in cosmological models slightly more general than the successful minimal ΛCDM scenario. This quantity, in case of no extra degrees of freedom, depends upon the chemical potential and the temperature characterizing the three active neutrino distributions, as well as by their possible non-thermal features. We summarize here the results of a recent analysis to determine the BBN bound on N eff from primordial neutrino–antineutrino asymmetries, with a careful treatment of the dynamics of neutrino oscillations, and considering quite a wide range for the total lepton number in the neutrino sector, η ν =η ν e +η ν μ +η ν τ and the initial electron neutrino asymmetry η ν e in . Comparing these results with the forthcoming measurement of N eff by the Planck satellite will give insight on the nature of the radiation content of the universe

  14. Aircrew Exposure from Cosmic Radiation on Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Schrewe, U.J.; O' Brien, K.; Felsberger, E

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semi-empirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle. (author)

  15. Radiation dosimetry for crewmember exposure to cosmic radiation during astronaut training operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavers, M.R.; Gersey, B.B.; Wilkins, R.T.; Semones, E.J.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    'Atmospheric exposures' of astronauts to cosmic ions and secondary particles during air-flight training are being measured and analytically modeled for inclusion in the astronaut medical records database. For many of the ∼170 astronauts currently in the astronaut corps, their occupational radiation exposure history will be dominated by cosmic ion exposures during air-travel rather than short-duration spaceflight. Relatively low (usually <10 μSv hr -1 ) and uniform organ dose rates result from the penetrating mix of cosmic particles during atmospheric exposures at all altitudes, but at rates that vary greatly due to differences in flight profiles and the geomagnetic conditions at the time of flight. The precision and accuracy to which possible deleterious effects of the exposures can be assessed suffers from limitations that similarly impact assessment of human exposures in low-Earth orbit: uncertainties associated with the environmental measurements and their interpretation, uncertainties associated with the analytical tools that transport the cosmic radiation environment, and uncertain biological responses to low-dose-rate exposures to radiation fields of mixed radiation 'quality'. Lineal energy spectra will be measured using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter designed for training and operational sorties frequently flown in T-38, Space Shuttle Trainer, and high altitude WB-57 aircraft. Linear energy spectra will be measured over multiple flights using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors, as well. Flight records are available for nearly 200,000 sorties flown in NASA aircraft by astronauts and flight officers in the Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division over the past 25 years, yet this database only partially documents the complete exposure histories. Age-dependent risk analysis indicates significant impact, particularly to young women who anticipate lengthy on-orbit careers

  16. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy in an open inflation, cold dark matter cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We compute the cosmic background radiation anisotropy, produced by energy-density fluctuations generated during an early epoch of inflation, in an open cosmological model based on the cold dark matter scenario. At Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalized open model appears to be consistent with most observations.

  17. Multilayer Polymeric Shielding to Protect Humans from Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic X4.01, NASA has identified a need for advanced radiation-shielding materials and structures to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic...

  18. Analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation in the presence of Lorentz violation

    OpenAIRE

    Mewes, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects Lorentz violation on observations of cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, we focus on changes in polarization caused by vacuum birefringence. We place stringent constraints on previously untested violations.

  19. Multilayer Polymeric Shielding to Protect Humans from Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic X4.01, NASA has identified a need for advanced radiation-shielding materials and structures to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic...

  20. Contribution gives the cosmic radiation to the doses for exhibition to the natural radiation in the Cuban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Peres Sanchez, D.; Prendes Alonso, M

    1998-01-01

    With the objective to specify the preponderant contribution the cosmic component the radiation in the dose that the Cuban population receives you carries out a program she gives mensurations she gives this component in the whole country

  1. The anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation from local dynamic density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.C.; Ip, P.S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual assumption, it is shown here that the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation need not be dominated by perturbations at the last scattering surface. The results of computer simulations are shown in which local dynamic density perturbations, in the form of Swiss cheese holes with finite, uniform density central lumps, are the main source of anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation. (author)

  2. Evaluation of viscera and other tissues. [cosmic radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. T.; Kraft, L. M.; Lushbaugh, C. C.; Humason, G. L.; Hartroft, W. S.; Porta, E. A.; Bailey, O. T.; Greep, R. O.; Leach, C. S.; Laird, T.

    1975-01-01

    Histopathological findings in the lungs, livers, bone marrows, small intestines, gonads, kidneys, and other tissues of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived the Apollo XVII flight were evaluated in the light of their immediate environment and as targets of HZE cosmic ray particles. Results of this study failed to disclose changes that could be ascribed to the HZE particle radiation. Decreased numbers of erythropoietic cells in the bone marrow of the flight mice were probably related to the increased oxygen pressure. The small intestine showed no changes. Ovaries and testes appeared normal. Two of the three surviving male flight mice displayed early stages of spermatogenesis, just as ground-based controls did at the same season. Abnormalities were also not found in the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, or kidneys. The status of the juxtaglomerular apparatus could not be evaluated. The lungs exhibited nonspecific slight reactions. A variety of incidental lesions were noted in the livers of both the flight mice and their controls. The heart muscle showed nothing that could be regarded as pathological. Sections of skeletal muscle examined were free from significant change.

  3. DNDO Report: Predicting Solar Modulation Potentials for Modeling Cosmic Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behne, Patrick Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    The modeling of the detectability of special nuclear material (SNM) at ports and border crossings requires accurate knowledge of the background radiation at those locations. Background radiation originates from two main sources, cosmic and terrestrial. Cosmic background is produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) entering the atmosphere and inducing a cascade of particles that eventually impact the earth’s surface. The solar modulation potential represents one of the primary inputs to modeling cosmic background radiation. Usosokin et al. formally define solar modulation potential as “the mean energy loss [per unit charge] of a cosmic ray particle inside the heliosphere…” Modulation potential, a function of elevation, location, and time, shares an inverse relationship with cosmic background radiation. As a result, radiation detector thresholds require adjustment to account for differing background levels, caused partly by differing solar modulations. Failure to do so can result in higher rates of false positives and failed detection of SNM for low and high levels of solar modulation potential, respectively. This study focuses on solar modulation’s time dependence, and seeks the best method to predict modulation for future dates using Python. To address the task of predicting future solar modulation, we utilize both non-linear least squares sinusoidal curve fitting and cubic spline interpolation. This material will be published in transactions of the ANS winter meeting of November, 2016.

  4. COMPARISON OF COSMIC RAYS RADIATION DETECTORS ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL JET AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Jakoubek, J.; Kyselová, D.; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, J.; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 484-488 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cosmic radiation * commercial jet aircraft * radiation dose Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  5. The influence of cosmic radiation on the properties of different polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea Adamne; Boja, David

    2017-10-01

    During our research we investigated the influence of cosmic radiation on the properties of different polymers. Polypropylene, polyamide 6.6 and polycarbonate were used as raw materials. Test pieces were injection molded. The test pieces were "flying" at different heights (on Earth, at 5500 m, at 12000 m). Thermal properties were investigated: DSC and TGA. We found that cosmic relay influences change in the thermal properties of polypropylene, polyamide 6.6 and polycarbonate.

  6. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  7. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  8. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos; Rayons cosmiques et rayonnement du cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, E

    2005-12-01

    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  9. LOWER BOUND ON THE COSMIC TeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Yasuyuki T., E-mail: yinoue@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation in the GeV band. However, investigation on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation still remains sparse. Here, we report the lower bound on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background spectrum placed by the cumulative flux of individual detected extragalactic TeV sources including blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies. The current limit on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background above 0.1 TeV is obtained as 2.8 × 10{sup −8}(E/100 GeV){sup −0.55} exp(−E/2100GeV)[GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1}] < E{sup 2}dN/dE < 1.1 × 10{sup −7}(E/100 GeV){sup −0.49} [GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1}], where the upper bound is set by requirement that the cascade flux from the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation can not exceed the measured cosmic GeV gamma-ray background spectrum. Two nearby blazars, Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, explain ∼70% of the cumulative background flux at 0.8–4 TeV, while extreme blazars start to dominate at higher energies. We also provide the cumulative background flux from each population, i.e., blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies which will be the minimum requirement for their contribution to the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation.

  10. Elucidation of the fluctuation history of cosmic radiation and global environmental using AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho

    2008-01-01

    Recently, accuracy of AMS has further been raised in trace amounts of sample. Besides application of 14 C to the age estimation, it has been able to restore in detail the past fluctuation of cosmic radiation strength using the other radioactive isotopes ( 10 Be, 36 Cl etc) in environmental samples and to elucidate the correlation of this with the fluctuation of climate and environment. In this report, the attempts to elucidate the fluctuation history of cosmic radiation and global environment with ice cores using AMS are presented. (M.H.)

  11. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - HNX/TIGERISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    2017-01-01

    The Heavy Nuclei eXplorer (HNX) mission will measure the abundances of nuclei from Carbon (Z =6) to Curium (Z =96) in the cosmic radiation with the resolution to identify the atomic number of each detected nucleus. HNX will measure a significant number of actinides. HNX utilizes two high-precision instruments, the Extremely-heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer (ECCO) and the Cosmic-Ray Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (CosmicTIGER), located in a SpaceX DragonLab capsule orbiting the Earth. This talk will discuss the motivating science, the HNX mission, the design and performance of the HNX instruments, and another new instrument, TIGERISS (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder on the ISS), that will be proposed as an intermediate between SuperTIGER and HNX.

  12. Cosmic Radiation Dose Measurements from the RaD-X Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; hide

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 degrees North, 104.2 degrees West) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 hours of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 kilometers. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  13. Distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zotti, G.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of the origin and evolution of distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum is reviewed. Some proposed experiments, designed to substantially improve our knowledge of that portion of the spectrum, are briefly described. (author)

  14. CALIBRATION OF MODIFIED LIULIN DETECTOR FOR COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselová, Dagmar; Ambrožová, Iva; Krist, Pavel; Kubančák, Ján; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Liulin detector * on-board aircraft * cosmic radiation measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  15. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6. 3 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.

    1984-06-15

    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths.

  16. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6.3 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.

    1984-01-01

    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew: compilation of measured and calculated data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Beck, P.; McAulay, I.; Schnuer, K.; Schraube, H.; Spurný, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 417-422 ISSN 0144-8420 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : cosmic radiation exposure * aircraft crew * measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  18. Attempt to measure the cosmic background radiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, Jacques; Le Boiteux, Henri

    1959-01-01

    Results are given of the measurement by G.M. tubes of hard component of cosmic background between o and 60 km of altitude, at 43 deg. N latitude, on january 27, 1959 (17 h. GMT). The counting rate starts at 0.3 pulses per second (sea level) reaches a maximum value of 15.6 (18 km) and remains constant at 5.7 above 40 km. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 573, may 1959

  19. INCA project for investigation of primary cosmic radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Erlykin, A.D.; Zhdanov, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific purposes of the INCA project and application of the ionization-neutron calorimeter for direct measurements of the cosmic rays spectrum and composition in the knee area and the primary electrons spectrum by 10 14 - 10 13 eV are discussed. The new effective method for the primary electrons and protons separation with the complex rejection coefficient of 10 -5 - 10 -6 is proposed for studying the primary electrons spectrum by E e > 1 TeV. The experimental and calculation data are in good agreement [ru

  20. Dark energy and the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, S.; Knox, L.

    2000-01-01

    We find that current cosmic microwave background anisotropy data strongly constrain the mean spatial curvature of the Universe to be near zero, or, equivalently, the total energy density to be near critical-as predicted by inflation. This result is robust to editing of data sets, and variation of other cosmological parameters (totaling seven, including a cosmological constant). Other lines of argument indicate that the energy density of nonrelativistic matter is much less than critical. Together, these results are evidence, independent of supernovae data, for dark energy in the Universe.

  1. Natural environmental radioactivity with particular regard to radon gas and cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    A paper given at the previous workshop described the growth of our knowledge of the nature and sources of human exposure to naturally-occurring radiation and radionuclides, and summarized assessments of the individual components of this exposure. Here, some recent developments relevant to the earlier conclusions are described, and a closer look is taken at the increasingly important human exposure contribution of cosmic radiation, especially at aircraft altitudes. (author). 21 refs, 1 tab

  2. A Cherenkov imager for the charge measurement of the elements of nuclear cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallaz-Damaz, Y.

    2008-10-01

    A Cherenkov imager, CHERCAM (Cherenkov Camera) has been designed and built for the CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) balloon-borne experiment. The instrument will perform charge measurements of nuclear cosmic-ray over a range extending from proton to iron in the energy domain from 10 10 to 10 15 eV. This work has focused on the development of CHERCAM by creating a simulation of the detector and on the aerogel plan characterization for the radiator. But it has also expanded on the technical aspects of the construction of the detector and its various tests, as well as the development of calibration software and data analysis. (author)

  3. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  4. Upper limit to antiproton flux in cosmic radiation above 100 GeV using muon charge ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Upper limits to the fraction of antiprotons in cosmic radiation have been estimated from the observed charge ratio of muons at sea-level. Using these values, it is shown that constraints can be set on the extragalactic hypothesis of the observed antiprotons in the framework of energy-dependent confinement of cosmic rays in the galaxy.

  5. High energy radiation from black holes gamma rays, cosmic rays, and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray flares observed from sources far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy are best explained if enormous amounts of energy are liberated by black holes. The highest- energy particles in nature--the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays--cannot be confined by the Milky Way's magnetic field, and must originate from sources outside our Galaxy. Understanding these energetic radiations requires an extensive theoretical framework involving the radiation physics and strong-field gravity of black holes. In High Energy Radiation from Black Holes, Charles Dermer and Govind Menon present a systemat

  6. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  7. Shielding from cosmic radiation for interplanetary missions Active and passive methods

    CERN Document Server

    Spillantini, P; Durante, M; Müller-Mellin, R; Reitz, G; Rossi, L; Shurshakov, V; Sorbi, M

    2007-01-01

    Shielding is arguably the main countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during interplanetary exploratory missions. However, shielding of cosmic rays, both of galactic or solar origin, is problematic, because of the high energy of the charged particles involved and the nuclear fragmentation occurring in shielding materials. Although computer codes can predict the shield performance in space, there is a lack of biological and physical measurements to benchmark the codes. An attractive alternative to passive, bulk material shielding is the use of electromagnetic fields to deflect the charged particles from the spacecraft target. Active shielding concepts based on electrostatic fields, plasma, or magnetic fields have been proposed in the past years, and should be revised based on recent technological improvements. To address these issues, the European Space Agency (ESA) established a Topical Team (TT) in 2002 including European experts in the field of space radiation shielding and superconducting magn...

  8. A Robust Algorithm to Determine the Topology of Space from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave back-ground radiation will soon provide an opportunity to test whether the universe is multiply connected. This paper presents a new algorithm for deducing the topology of the universe from the microwave background data. Unlike an older algorithm, the new algorithm gives the curvature of space and the radius of the last scattering surface as outputs, rather than requiring them as inputs. The new algorithm is also more tolerant of erro...

  9. Review of cosmic background radiation spectrum measurements: limits on distortions, energy release, and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the three major cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measurement programs conducted and published since the last (XVII) IAU General Assembly. The results are consistent with a Planckian spectrum with temperature 2.72 +- 0.03 K spanning a wavelength range of 0.1 to 12 cm. Limits on possible distortions and implications are outlined. Ongoing and future measurements are discussed

  10. Distortions in the cosmic background radiation and big-bang 4He nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Alhassid, Y.; Fuller, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The observed distortion of the cosmic background radiation is analyzed in the framework of information theory to derive a simple form of the photon occupation probability. Taking this distribution function as indicative of the Lagrange parameters which might characterize the era of nucleosynthesis during the big bang, and assuming equilibrium among the constituents present, we find that the primordial 4 He abundance may be reduced by as much as 15% from the standard big-bang prediction

  11. CRaTER: The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Heine, T.; Larsen, B. A.; Blake, J. B.; Caranza, P.; Crain, W. R.; George, J.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Salvaggio, D.; Kasper, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) characterizes the radiation environment to be experienced by humans during future lunar missions. CRaTER measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), specifically in silicon solid-state detectors and after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaT...

  12. Cosmic Electromagnetic Radiation: The sky shine covers an enormous spectrum of frequencies, revealing a cosmic picture in some detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, E M

    1964-09-18

    Within a few decades astronomy has extended the compass of its observations from the visible spectrum downward to radio waves and upward to the highest energies known to science. The major new accomplishments are in the radio and x-ray bands, and in the associated study of cosmic ray electrons. Synchrotron radiation is known to be a mechanism for radio signals; discrete x-ray sources have been found; the intensity and the charge ratio of galactic electrons are under study. Experimental results at energies above the x-ray region are less firm. The sun surely emits gamma rays at energies of about 1 Mev during flare activity, and instruments in deep space have probably recorded the general galactic glow of similar photons. Upper limits for fluxes have been set at 100 Mev and beyond. To some extent the physical processes which give rise to the extraterrestrial radiation are familiar to workers in the terrestrial laboratory. Synchrotron radiation is an example; the bremsstrahlung of electrons, the production of neutral pions in p-p collisions, and the annihilation of electron and nucleon pairs are others. Some proposed mechanisms are, and perhaps always will be, purely speculative in the sense that they are not directly observable in the laboratory. The inverse Compton effect, possibly one of the sources of a metagalactic sky glow of hard photons, is in this class. There is little chance that spontaneous creation of matter, even if it occurs in nature, can be observed on a terrestrial scale. And the extreme physical conditions proposed for neutron stars are beyond our ability to reproduce. Only through interpretation of astronomical data can we test the validity of these ideas. The many pictures of the universe given by the vast electromagnetic spectrum are essential to the synthesis of our concepts.

  13. Cosmic Ray Modulation and Radiation Dose of Aircrews During Possible Grand Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S.; Kataoka, R.; Sato, T.; Imada, S.; Miyahara, H.; Shiota, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueno, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is exhibiting low solar activity levels since the descending phase of the last solar cycle, and it is likely to be continued as well as in the case of the past grand solar minima. The cosmic-ray modulation, which is the variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum caused by the heliospheric environmental change, is basically anti-correlated with the solar activity. In the recent weak solar cycle, we thus expect that the flux of GCRs is getting higher than that in the previous solar cycles, leading to the increase in the radiation exposure in the space and atmosphere. In order to quantitatively evaluate the possible solar modulation of GCRs and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude, we have developed the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic-ray modulation. Our model can give the flux of GCRs anywhere in the heliosphere by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), and its tilt angle. We solve the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs in the HMF, and therefore reproduce the 22-year variation of the cosmic-ray modulation. We also calculate the neutron monitor counting rate and the radiation dose of aircrews at flight altitude, by the air-shower simulation performed by PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System). In our previous study [1], we calculated the radiation dose at a flight altitude during the coming solar cycle by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed and the strength of the HMF expressed by sinusoidal curve, and obtained that an annual radiation dose of aircrews in 5 years around the next solar minimum will be up to 19% higher than that at the last cycle. In this study, we predict the new model of the heliospheric environmental change on the basis of a prediction model for the sunspot number. The quantitative predictions of the cosmic-ray modulation and the radiation dose at a flight altitude during possible Grand Minimum considering

  14. What is cosmic radiation?; Qu'est ce-que le rayonnement cosmique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The earth was indeed receiving ionizing radiations from the heavens. This cosmic radiation consists of particles travelling near the speed of light. It consists of two components, the first of which is permanent and of galactic origin, while the other is more sporadic, depending on the sun's activities. Natural land-based sources expose each of us to an average total dose of 2.4 mSv per year (source UNSCEAR). In addition, the human activities using ionizing radiation contribute to an average annual exposure of 1.4 mSv, originating primarily with medical activities ( radiodiagnostic and radiation therapy). Members of flights crew are subject to exposure. The total dose of cosmic radiation received is is directly proportional with the duration of exposure, and thus with the duration of the flight. Measurement taken on board aircraft during the 1990's showed that flight personnel (on long haul flights) receive an average dose of approximately the same magnitude as the one due to exposure to natural radioactivity in France. The damage caused by ionizing radiation depends on the quantity of energy released by radiation into the cells of each organ or tissue of the human body(exposure dose). For a given quantity of absorbed energy (dose expressed in Gray), the damage will vary according to the nature of the radiation and the affected organ. These effects are of two types: acute effects and deferred effects. Two measurements are essential for radiation protection: the measurements of the dose of radiation absorbed by the body and the assessment of the risk associated with the absorbed dose. Two units were thus created: the gray and the sievert. (N.C.)

  15. Radiative transfer calculations of the diffuse ionised gas in disc galaxies with cosmic ray feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert; Wood, Kenneth; Girichidis, Philipp; Hill, Alex; Peters, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The large vertical scale heights of the diffuse ionised gas (DIG) in disc galaxies are challenging to model, as hydrodynamical models including only thermal feedback seem to be unable to support gas at these heights. In this paper, we use a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code to post-process disc simulations of the Simulating the Life-Cycle of Molecular Clouds (SILCC) project that include feedback by cosmic rays. We show that the more extended discs in simulations including cosmic ray feedback naturally lead to larger scale heights for the DIG which are more in line with observed scale heights. We also show that including a fiducial cosmic ray heating term in our model can help to increase the temperature as a function of disc scale height, but fails to reproduce observed DIG nitrogen and sulphur forbidden line intensities. We show that, to reproduce these line emissions, we require a heating mechanism that affects gas over a larger density range than is achieved by cosmic ray heating, which can be achieved by fine tuning the total luminosity of ionising sources to get an apropriate ionising spectrum as a function of scale height. This result sheds a new light on the relation between forbidden line emissions and temperature profiles for realistic DIG gas distributions.

  16. Radiative transfer calculations of the diffuse ionized gas in disc galaxies with cosmic ray feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert; Wood, Kenneth; Girichidis, Philipp; Hill, Alex S.; Peters, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The large vertical scale heights of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in disc galaxies are challenging to model, as hydrodynamical models including only thermal feedback seem to be unable to support gas at these heights. In this paper, we use a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code to post-process disc simulations of the Simulating the Life-Cycle of Molecular Clouds project that include feedback by cosmic rays. We show that the more extended discs in simulations including cosmic ray feedback naturally lead to larger scale heights for the DIG which are more in line with observed scale heights. We also show that including a fiducial cosmic ray heating term in our model can help to increase the temperature as a function of disc scale height, but fails to reproduce observed DIG nitrogen and sulphur forbidden line intensities. We show that, to reproduce these line emissions, we require a heating mechanism that affects gas over a larger density range than is achieved by cosmic ray heating, which can be achieved by fine tuning the total luminosity of ionizing sources to get an appropriate ionizing spectrum as a function of scale height. This result sheds a new light on the relation between forbidden line emissions and temperature profiles for realistic DIG gas distributions.

  17. Measurements and simulations of the radiation exposure to aircraft crew workplaces due to cosmic radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Latocha, M.; Dorman, L.; Pelliccioni, M.; Rollet, S.

    2007-01-01

    As required by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom, radiation exposure due to natural ionizing radiation has to be taken into account at workplaces if the effective dose could become more than 1 mSv per year. An example of workers concerned by this directive is aircraft crew due to cosmic radiation exposure in the atmosphere. Extensive measurement campaigns on board aircraft have been carried out to assess ambient dose equivalent. A consortium of European dosimetry institutes within EURADOS WG5 summarized experimental data and results of calculations, together with detailed descriptions of the methods for measurements and calculations. The radiation protection quantity of interest is the effective dose, E (ISO). The comparison of results by measurements and calculations is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). This paper gives an overview of the EURADOS Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database and it presents a new empirical model describing fitting functions for this data. Furthermore, it describes numerical simulations performed with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA-2005 using an updated version of the cosmic radiation primary spectra. The ratio between ambient dose equivalent and effective dose at commercial flight altitudes, calculated with FLUKA-2005, is discussed. Finally, it presents the aviation dosimetry model AVIDOS based on FLUKA-2005 simulations for routine dose assessment. The code has been developed by Austrian Research Centers (ARC) for the public usage (http://avidos.healthphysics.at. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation of flight crews of Lithuanian Airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Pilkyte, L.; Ereminas, D.

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania the average annual effective dose due to cosmic radiation at the sea level is 0.38 mSv. The dose rate caused by cosmic radiation increases with altitude due to the decrease in attenuation of cosmic radiation by atmosphere. Dose rates altitudes of commercial flights are tens times higher than those at the sea level. For this reason people who frequently fly receive higher doses which might even be subject to legal regulations. The European Council Directive (96/29 EURATOM) on basic radiation safety standards requires that doses of air crews members be assessed and appropriate measures taken, depending on the assessment results. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential doses, which can be received by members of air crews of Lithuania Airlines. The assessment was done by performing measurements and calculations. Measurements were performed in flying aircraft by thermoluminescent detectors, Geiger Muller counters and neutron rem counter. Such an approach lead to evaluation of doses due to directly ionizing particles and neutrons. Calculations were done with the help of the code CARI-6M. Such parameters as flight route, solar activity, duration and altitudes of flight were taken into account. Doses received during different flights and in different air crafts were assessed. The results of measurements and calculations were compared and differences discussed. The results were also compared with the data obtained in other similar studies. It was found that the highest doses are received in flights to Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt by aircraft B737. A number of flights causing annual doses higher than 1 mSv was estimated. Despite the fact that only European flights are operated by Lithuanian Airlines the dose of 1 mSv may be exceeded under some circumstances. If it happens some radiation protection measures shall be taken. These measures are also discussed. (author)

  19. Measuring the Galactic Cosmic Ray flux with the LISA Pathfinder radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Castelli, E.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Finetti, N.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Freschi, M.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; Lopez-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Meshskar, N.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zweifel, P.

    2018-03-01

    Test mass charging caused by cosmic rays will be a significant source of acceleration noise for space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Operating between December 2015 and July 2017, the technology demonstration mission LISA Pathfinder included a bespoke monitor to help characterise the relationship between test mass charging and the local radiation environment. The radiation monitor made in situ measurements of the cosmic ray flux while also providing information about its energy spectrum. We describe the monitor and present measurements which show a gradual 40% increase in count rate coinciding with the declining phase of the solar cycle. Modulations of up to 10% were also observed with periods of 13 and 26 days that are associated with co-rotating interaction regions and heliospheric current sheet crossings. These variations in the flux above the monitor detection threshold ( ≈ 70 MeV) are shown to be coherent with measurements made by the IREM monitor on-board the Earth orbiting INTEGRAL spacecraft. Finally we use the measured deposited energy spectra, in combination with a GEANT4 model, to estimate the galactic cosmic ray differential energy spectrum over the course of the mission.

  20. Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Canadian-Based Commercial Airline Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R.; Cousins, T.; Hoffarth, B.E.; Jones, T.A.; Brisson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of ICRP 60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-part investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. As part of the study, a dedicated scientific measurement flight (using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry) was used to characterise the complex mixed radiation field and to intercompare the various instrumentation. In the other part of the study, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flight and computer code (CARI-LF) calculations. This investigation has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have also been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP 60 public limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , but will be below the occupational limit of 20 mSv.y -1 . (author)

  1. Cosmic radiation exposure on Canadian-based commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R

    1998-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP-60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-phase investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. In the first phase of the study, dedicated scientific flights on a Northern round-trip route between Ottawa and Resolute Bay provided the opportunity to characterize the complex mixed-radiation field, and to intercompare various instrumentation using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry. In the second phase, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flights and computer code (CART-LF) calculations. This study has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP-60 public limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} but will be well below the occupational limit of 20 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Cosmic Radiation Exposure on Canadian-Based Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Tume, P.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Green, A.R.; Cousins, T.; Hoffarth, B.E.; Jones, T.A.; Brisson, J.R

    1999-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of ICRP 60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-part investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. As part of the study, a dedicated scientific measurement flight (using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry) was used to characterise the complex mixed radiation field and to intercompare the various instrumentation. In the other part of the study, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flight and computer code (CARI-LF) calculations. This investigation has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have also been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP 60 public limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, but will be below the occupational limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  5. Autonomous low-noise system for broadband measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the digital side implementation of a new suborbital experiment for the measurement of broadband radiation emissions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy. The system has been used in campaign mode for initial mapping of the galactic radiation power received at a single frequency. The recorded galactic sky map images are subsequently being used to forecast the emitted radiation at neighboring frequencies. A planned second campaign will verify the prediction algorithms efficiency in an autonomous manner. The system has reached an advanced stage in terms of hardware and software combined operation and intelligence, where other Space Physics measurements are performed autonomously depending on the burst event under investigation. The system has been built in a modular manner to expedite hardware and software upgrades. Such an upgrade has recently occurred mainly to expand the frequency range of space observations.

  6. Study of the dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation at civil aviation altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Rancati, T

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the doses on solar activity for intermediate levels of the solar modulation parameter has been studied by means of simulations carried out by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The vertical cut-off rigidities investigated lie between 0.4 and 6.1 GV. The calculated results show that the linear dependence proposed in a previous work, for the effective dose rate as a function of the solar modulation parameter, can be considered as an acceptable approximation. In addition, some dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation and some properties of the dosemeters in use for monitoring in the cosmic ray environment have been analysed with a view to simplifying measurements. The depth-dose curves in the ICRU sphere and the response of a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber have been determined by the FLUKA code for a number of cosmic ray spectra. On the basis of the calculated results, it is concluded that a value of the depth, d, which would make the ambient dose equivalent a conservative predic...

  7. Snow measurement by cosmic radiation; Mesure de la neige par rayonnement cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The knowledge of the water content equivalence of the snow cover is an important element for the improvement of the water resource management. It allows in particular to evaluate and foresee the filling up supplies of big seasonal reservoirs. Electricite de France (EdF), in collaboration with the national center of scientific research (CNRS) and Meteo France, has developed a new generation of sensors, the cosmic radiation snow gauge, allowing the automatic monitoring of the status of snow stocks by the measurement of the water value of the snow cover. (J.S.)

  8. Southern Hemisphere Measurement of the Anisotropy in the CosmicMicrowave Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, George F.; Lubin, Phil M.

    1979-06-01

    A recent measurement of the anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation from the southern hemisphere (Lima, Peru) is essentially in agreement with previous measurements from the northern hemisphere. The net anisotropy can be described as a first order spherical harmonic (Doppler) anisotropy of amplitude 3.1 {+-} 0.4 m{sup o}K with a quadrupole anisotropy of less than 1 m{sup o}K. In addition, measurements of the linear polarization yield an upper limit of 1 m{sup o}K, or one part in 3000, at 95% C.L. for the amplitudes of any spherical harmonic through third order.

  9. Constraining neutrino physics with big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.H.; Melchiorri, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pisanti, O.

    2002-01-01

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the recent results on the anisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation from the BOOMERanG and DASI experiments to show that they single out an effective number of neutrinos in good agreement with standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We also consider degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis to provide new bounds on effective relativistic degrees of freedom N ν and, in particular, on the neutrino chemical potential ξ α . When including supernova type Ia data we find, at 2σ, N ν ≤7 and -0.01≤ξ e ≤0.22, vertical bar ξ μ,τ vertical bar ≤2.6

  10. Dynamics of voids and clusters and fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    The author summarizes briefly calculations on spherically symmetric models without dissipation for the dynamical development of large voids and galaxy (super)clusters from small underdensities and overdensities, respectively, at the recombination era. Implications are mentioned and conjectures for more complex geometries are discussed. He infers the density fluctuations which must have been present just after the recombination era to produce some present-day configuration. Fluctuations in the present-day cosmic background radiation are related to this and their inferred amplitude depends very strongly on the present-day value of the cosmological density parameter. The relation to observed upper limits on these fluctuations are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Production of positron annihilation radiation by cosmic-rays near sea level

    CERN Document Server

    Puzovic, J M

    2002-01-01

    Production of positron annihilation radiation by cosmic-rays in Al, Fe, Sn and Pb is measured by means of a triggered HPGe detector. The equipment is located in Belgrade, at an absolute height of 125 m a.s.l. The production rate per unit mass is found to be proportional to the square of the atomic number of the material divided by its mass number, with the proportionality constant equal to 8.1(3)x10 sup - sup 6 s sup - sup 1 g sup - sup 1.

  12. From primordial quantum fluctuations to the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-09

    These lecture notes cover mainly three connected topics. In the first part we give a detailed treatment of cosmological perturbation theory. The second part is devoted to cosmological inflation and the generation of primordial fluctuations. In part three it will be shown how these initial perturbation evolve and produce the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Comparing the theoretical prediction for the angular power spectrum with the increasingly accurate observations provides important cosmological information (cosmological parameters, initial conditions). (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. From primordial quantum fluctuations to the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, N.

    2006-01-01

    These lecture notes cover mainly three connected topics. In the first part we give a detailed treatment of cosmological perturbation theory. The second part is devoted to cosmological inflation and the generation of primordial fluctuations. In part three it will be shown how these initial perturbation evolve and produce the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Comparing the theoretical prediction for the angular power spectrum with the increasingly accurate observations provides important cosmological information (cosmological parameters, initial conditions). (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass–metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H ii bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He i photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H ii cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H ii bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic

  15. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Fragos, Tassos

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass-metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H II bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He I photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H II cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H II bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic hydrogen

  16. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina Pachnerová; Jakůbek, Jan; Kyselová, Dagmar; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, Július; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  18. Cosmic-ray-induced radiation environment and dose to man for low-orbit space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandmeier, H.A.; Hansen, G.E.; Battat, M.E.; O'Brien, K.

    1981-09-01

    Neutrons and photons resulting from the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the material of an orbiting satellite or an orbiting space station at an altitude of some few hundreds of kilometers, and below the level of the radiation belts, have been calculated as a function of geomagnetic latitude and solar activity level. The photon and neutron leakage currents from the top of the atmosphere have been computed. The radiation dose-equivalent rate to an unshielded astronaut has also been calculated. The maximum dose-equivalent rate, near the magnetic poles, was 2 mrem/h. In deep space this would amount to 18 rem/y, indicating that for a prolonged stay in space, shielding would be needed

  19. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

  20. Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation Doses at Board of Aircraft of Polish Airlines LOT. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Horwacik, T.; Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.

    2000-12-01

    Radiation doses received by a group of 30 pilots of the Polish Airlines LOT were investigated between July and October 2000. The measurement of the low-LET component of the cosmic radiation, lasting in average 2 months, was performed with 7 LiF:Mg,Ti and 7 L iF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent detectors. The neutron component was measured with the thermoluminescent albedo cassettes. Additionally for all flights, records of altitude profiles were kept and effective doses were then calculated with the CARI-6 computer code. In total, about 560 flights were included in the calculations. The highest obtained dose was about 0.8 mSv in 2 months. Results of calculations are mostly consistent with the results of measurements. (author)

  1. A measurement of the low frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    As part of a larger effort to measure the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) at low frequencies, the intensity of the CBR has been measured at a frequency of 1.410 GHz. The measurement was made by comparing the power received from the sky with the power received from a specially designed cooled calibration target with known properties. Sources of radiation other than the CBR were then identified and subtracted to calculate the antenna temperature of the CBR at 1.410 GHz. The instrument used to measure the CBR was a total-power microwave radiometer with a 25 MHz bandwidth centered at 1.410 GHz. The radiometer had a noise temperature of 80 K, and sufficient data were taken that radiometer noise did not contribute significantly to the total measurement error. The sources of error were predominantly systematic in nature, and the largest error was due to uncertainty in the reflection characteristics of the cold-load calibrator. Identification and subtraction of signals from the Galaxy (0.7 K) and the Earth's atmosphere (0.8 K) were also significant parts of the data reduction and error analysis. The brightness temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation at 1.410 GHz is 222. +- 0.55 Kelvin. The spectrum of the CBR, as determined by this measurement and other published results, is consistent with a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.741 +- 0.016. Constraints on the amount by which the CBR spectrum deviates from Planck spectrum are used to place limits on energy releases early in the history of the universe. 55 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations

  3. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration's computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs

  4. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  5. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations.

  6. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The Directive requires account to be taken of the exposure of aircraft crew liable to receive more than 1 mSv per year. It then identifies the following four protection measures: (i) to assess the exposure of the crew concerned; (ii) to take into account the assessed exposure, when organizing working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed crew; (iii) to inform the workers concerned of the health risks their work involves; and (iv) to apply the same special protection during pregnancy to female crew in respect of the 'child to be born' as to other female workers. The EU Council Directive has already been incorporated into laws and regulations of EU Member States and is being included in the aviation safety standards and procedures of the Joint Aviation Authorities and the European Air Safety Agency. For regulatory and legislative purposes, the radiation protection quantities of interest are equivalent dose (to the foetus) and effective dose. The cosmic radiation exposure of the body is essentially uniform and the maternal abdomen provides no effective shielding to the foetus. As a result, the magnitude of equivalent dose to the foetus can be put equal to that of the effective dose received by the mother. Doses on board aircraft are generally predictable, and events comparable to unplanned exposure in other radiological workplaces cannot normally occur (with the rare exceptions of extremely intense and energetic solar particle events). Personal dosemeters for

  7. Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenberg, Charles E. (Editor); Horneck, Gerda (Editor); Stassinopoulos, E. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions.

  8. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7 0 +- 1.8 0 declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables

  9. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

  10. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  11. The cosmic microwave background radiation and the dog in the night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, R. B.

    The spectrum and angular distribution of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are characterized, summarizing the results of recent observations. The emphasis is on null experiments which have established upper limits on anisotropies and spectral distortion. The benefits and pitfalls of null experiments are recalled; the generally observed isotropy of the CMBR and the possible ways anisotropy could be introduced are discussed; and data from searches for anisotropy on arcmin, degree, and arcsec scales are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed in detail. The observed CMBR spectrum is shown to be generally consistent with a black body at temperature 2.75 + or - 0.04 K at wavelengths from 0.1 to 12 cm, although some recent data (Kogut et al., 1988) seem to confirm the presence of distortion due to the Suniaev-Zel'dovich effect at wavelength 3.0 cm.

  12. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  13. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3.0 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30 0 and +- 40 0 . 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables

  14. Measurement of secondary cosmic radiation and calculation of associated dose conversion coefficients for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmer, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.

  15. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies, cosmic microwave background radiation and cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Presence of the hot (kTe ~ 3 - 10 KeV) rarefied gas in the clusters of galaxies (most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe) leads to the appearance of  "shadows"  in the angular distribution of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation and permits to measure the peculiar velocities of these clusters relative to the unique coordinate frame where CMB is isotropic. I plan to describe the physics leading to these observational effects. Planck spacecraft, ground based South Pole and Atacama Cosmology Telescopes discovered recently more than two thousand of unknown before Clusters of Galaxies at high redshifts detecting these "shadows" and traces of kinematic effect, demonstrating the correlation of the hot gas velocities with mass concentrations on large scales. Giant ALMA interferometer in Atacama desert resolved recently strong shocks between merging clusters of galaxies. Newly discovered clusters of galaxies permit to study the rate of growth of the large scale structur...

  16. Non-primordial origin of the cosmic background radiation and pregalactic density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, H.E.; Mueller, V.; Oleak, H.

    1984-01-01

    Assumptions of a tepid Universe and a smaller primordial contribution to the 3 K background are made to show that Pop III stars may be responsible for the 3 K background and cosmic ray entropy. The 3 K background would be caused by thermalized stellar radiation produced by metallized intergalactic dust formed in first generation stars. A range of mass scales and amplification factors of density perturbations in the early Universe is examined below the Jeans mass for gravitational instabilities. The density perturbations that could have been present at small enough mass scales could have survived and generated sonic modes that propagated through the plasma era and, when combined with additional gravitationally unstable entropy disturbances after recombination, triggered the formation of Pop III stars. 13 references

  17. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  18. Single particle effects, Biostack, and risk evaluation - Studies on the radiation risk from Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    The possible health risks posed by Galactic cosmic rays, especially the possible heightened cancer risk, are examined. The results of the Biostack studies of the biological effects of high-energy cosmic rays are discussed. The biological mechanisms involved in possible harm due to cosmic rays are considered.

  19. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  20. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  1. Evaluation of Differences in Response of DOD Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    lower momentum galactic cosmic rays, deflected by the solar wind, would not be available for penetration through the earth’s magnetic field . The...sources. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operation Tomodachi, Radiation Dose, Department of Defense, Japan, Fukushima, Earthquake , Tsunami, Cosmic Radiation 16...levels at four altitudes in the presence of three different terrestrial contributions

  2. The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T ∼ 10 6 - 10 8 K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z ∼ 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and α-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through α-α reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Cosmic radiation monitoring equipment for the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications; Yuseisho muke uchu denpa kanshi shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The equipment analyzes radio waves transmitted by a geostationary satellite toward the earth and collates the received waves to the registered satellite data for the exposure of illegality or unlawfulness, if any. A feature of the equipment is that it operates only one antenna to catch waves belonging in three different frequency bands, that is, L, Ku, and Ka. Another feature is that it follows a procedure which is automatically executed by computers, the procedure including the analysis of the spectrum of the continuously arriving waves for the isolation of the carrier wave for the determination of the position where the satellite rests and for the extraction of wave data. Cosmic radiation monitoring is manually performed in Germany, Britain, etc., and the equipment introduced here is the first computer-aided automatic cosmic radiation monitoring system in the world. (translated by NEDO)

  4. The cosmic microwave background radiation power spectrum as a random bit generator for symmetric- and asymmetric-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B

    2017-10-01

    In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.

  5. Cosmic radiation monitoring at low-Earth orbit by means of thermoluminescence and plastic nuclear track detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Iva; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Kubančák, Ján; Šlegl, Jakub; Tolochek, R. V.; Ivanova, O. A.; Shurshakov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 12 (2017), s. 262-266 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-16622Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : BION-M1 * cosmic radiation * low earth orbit * passive detector * thermoluminescent detector * plastic nuclear track detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  6. Studying the high energy cosmic radiation: contributions to its detection and to the exploration of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Astro-particle Physics is a discipline where scientists from both the astrophysics and the particle physics communities meets to investigate the Universe aiming to answer to fundamental questions in the field of physics, cosmology and astrophysics. The high energy astrophysics domain, which explores the extremes sources where the larger collective transfer of energy take place, studies the most energetic cosmic radiation as privileged messengers of the history of the Universe. My research path, summarized in this work, is made of personal contributions in the development of new detection technologies, in the data analysis, perspectives and phenomenological studies about the scientific purposes of large experiments: e.g. AMS, ANTARES, HESS, CTA, POLAR. My contributions are the results of research activities in coherence with two main scientific goals in the context of the astro-particle physics domain: - The implication of the high energy cosmic radiation measurement for the investigation on the nature and distribution of the dark matter; - The investigation of the origin of the galactic cosmic radiation for the understanding of the most energetic processes in the Universe. (author)

  7. Radiative Transfer Simulations of Cosmic Reionization With Pop II and III Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue

    2008-03-01

    We have simulated 3 large volume, high resolution realizations of cosmic reionization using a hybrid code that combines a N-body algorithm for dark matter, prescriptions for baryons and star formation, and a radiative transfer algorithm for ionizing photons. Our largest simulation, with 24 billion particles in a 100 Mpc/h box, simultaneously provides (1) the mass resolution needed to resolve dark matter halos down to a virial temperatures of 104 K and (2) the volume needed to fairly sample highly biased sources and large HII regions. We model the stellar initial mass function (IMF) by following the spatially dependent gas metallicity evolution, and distinguish between the first generation (Population III) stars and the second generation (Population II) stars. The Population III stars, with a top-heavy IMF, produce an order of magnitude more ionizing photons at high redshifts z>~10, resulting in a more extended reionization. In our simulations, complete overlap of HII regions occurs at z~6.5 and the computed mass and volume weighted residual HI fractions at 5measurements from SDSS. The values for the Thomson optical depth are consistent within 1-σ of the current best-fit value from the WMAP Year 3 data release.

  8. Simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We present two simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy in inflationary models; one method uses a time-dependent transfer function, the other methods uses an approximate gravity-mode function which is a simple combination of the lowest order spherical Bessel functions. We compare the CBR anisotropy tensor multipole spectrum computed using our methods with the previous result of the highly accurate numerical method, the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote method. Our time-dependent transfer function is more accurate than the time-independent transfer function found by Turner, White, and Lindsey; however, we find that the transfer function method is only good for l approx-lt 120. Using our approximate gravity-wave mode function, we obtain much better accuracy; the tensor multipole spectrum we find differs by less than 2% for l approx-lt 50, less than 10% for l approx-lt 120, and less than 20% for l≤300 from the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote result. Our approximate graviton mode function should be quite useful in studying tensor perturbations from inflationary models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Measurement of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation on a large angular scale at 33 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.V.

    1978-11-01

    Results of a measurement of anisotropy in the 3 0 K cosmic background radiation on a large-angular-scale are presented. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (0.89 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20-km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern celestial hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of +- 46m 0 K/√Hz. The measurements show clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the motion of the earth relative to the sources of the radiation; the anisotropy is well fit by a cosine distribution of amplitude 3.61 +- 0.54 millireverse arrowreverse arrow-degrees Kelvin (m 0 K), one part in 800 of 3 0 K, implying a velocity of 361 +- 54 km/sec toward the direction 11.23 +- 0.46 hours right ascension, and 19.0 +- 7.5 0 declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypothesis of dipole (cos theta) and quadrupole (cos 2 theta) angular distributions places a 1 m 0 K limit on the amplitude of most components of quadruple anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 m 0 K limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 0 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 0 . This thesis describes the equipment development through three engineering flights and the data acquisition in eleven additional flights. The astrophysical results are then presented from the statistical analysis of the reduced data

  10. Constraining the cosmic radiation density due to lepton number with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan; Pastor, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The cosmic energy density in the form of radiation before and during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is typically parameterized in terms of the effective number of neutrinos N eff . This quantity, in case of no extra degrees of freedom, depends upon the chemical potential and the temperature characterizing the three active neutrino distributions, as well as by their possible non-thermal features. In the present analysis we determine the upper bounds that BBN places on N eff from primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries, with a careful treatment of the dynamics of neutrino oscillations. We consider quite a wide range for the total lepton number in the neutrino sector, η ν = η ν e +η ν μ +η ν τ and the initial electron neutrino asymmetry η ν e in , solving the corresponding kinetic equations which rule the dynamics of neutrino (antineutrino) distributions in phase space due to collisions, pair processes and flavor oscillations. New bounds on both the total lepton number in the neutrino sector and the ν e −ν-bar e asymmetry at the onset of BBN are obtained fully exploiting the time evolution of neutrino distributions, as well as the most recent determinations of primordial 2 H/H density ratio and 4 He mass fraction. Note that taking the baryon fraction as measured by WMAP, the 2 H/H abundance plays a relevant role in constraining the allowed regions in the η ν −η ν e in plane. These bounds fix the maximum contribution of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries to N eff as a function of the mixing parameter θ 13 , and point out the upper bound N eff ∼ eff by the Planck satellite will likely provide insight on the nature of the radiation content of the universe

  11. Constraining the cosmic radiation density due to lepton number with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan

    2011-03-01

    The cosmic energy density in the form of radiation before and during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is typically parameterized in terms of the effective number of neutrinos Neff. This quantity, in case of no extra degrees of freedom, depends upon the chemical potential and the temperature characterizing the three active neutrino distributions, as well as by their possible non-thermal features. In the present analysis we determine the upper bounds that BBN places on Neff from primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries, with a careful treatment of the dynamics of neutrino oscillations. We consider quite a wide range for the total lepton number in the neutrino sector, ην = ηνe+ηνμ+ηντ and the initial electron neutrino asymmetry ηνein, solving the corresponding kinetic equations which rule the dynamics of neutrino (antineutrino) distributions in phase space due to collisions, pair processes and flavor oscillations. New bounds on both the total lepton number in the neutrino sector and the νe-bar nue asymmetry at the onset of BBN are obtained fully exploiting the time evolution of neutrino distributions, as well as the most recent determinations of primordial 2H/H density ratio and 4He mass fraction. Note that taking the baryon fraction as measured by WMAP, the 2H/H abundance plays a relevant role in constraining the allowed regions in the ην-ηνein plane. These bounds fix the maximum contribution of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries to Neff as a function of the mixing parameter θ13, and point out the upper bound Nefflesssim3.4. Comparing these results with the forthcoming measurement of Neff by the Planck satellite will likely provide insight on the nature of the radiation content of the universe.

  12. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L.

    2014-01-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground

  13. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  14. Probing the Cosmic X-Ray and MeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once the future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve the sensitivity better than 10-12 erg/cm2/s-1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV - although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors - angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  15. Probing the cosmic x-ray and MeV gamma ray background radiation through the anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve a sensitivity better than 10–12 erg cm–2 s–1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV—although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors—angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  16. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  17. Constraining the cosmic radiation density due to lepton number with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pastor, Sergio, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: miele@na.infn.it, E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es, E-mail: pisanti@na.infn.it, E-mail: sarikas@na.infn.it [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València), Ed. Institutos de Investigación, Apdo. correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    The cosmic energy density in the form of radiation before and during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is typically parameterized in terms of the effective number of neutrinos N{sub eff}. This quantity, in case of no extra degrees of freedom, depends upon the chemical potential and the temperature characterizing the three active neutrino distributions, as well as by their possible non-thermal features. In the present analysis we determine the upper bounds that BBN places on N{sub eff} from primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries, with a careful treatment of the dynamics of neutrino oscillations. We consider quite a wide range for the total lepton number in the neutrino sector, η{sub ν} = η{sub ν{sub e}}+η{sub ν{sub μ}}+η{sub ν{sub τ}} and the initial electron neutrino asymmetry η{sub ν{sub e}{sup in}}, solving the corresponding kinetic equations which rule the dynamics of neutrino (antineutrino) distributions in phase space due to collisions, pair processes and flavor oscillations. New bounds on both the total lepton number in the neutrino sector and the ν{sub e}−ν-bar {sub e} asymmetry at the onset of BBN are obtained fully exploiting the time evolution of neutrino distributions, as well as the most recent determinations of primordial {sup 2}H/H density ratio and {sup 4}He mass fraction. Note that taking the baryon fraction as measured by WMAP, the {sup 2}H/H abundance plays a relevant role in constraining the allowed regions in the η{sub ν}−η{sub ν{sub e}{sup in}} plane. These bounds fix the maximum contribution of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries to N{sub eff} as a function of the mixing parameter θ{sub 13}, and point out the upper bound N{sub eff}∼<3.4. Comparing these results with the forthcoming measurement of N{sub eff} by the Planck satellite will likely provide insight on the nature of the radiation content of the universe.

  18. Interactions of cosmic superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  19. Acceleration and propagation of cosmic radiation. Production, oscillation and detection of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.-O.

    1987-06-01

    In recent years, the old problem of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation has become alive again, with the discovery of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, and with the first measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux, which appears to be higher than expected. I have shown that the new acceleration mechanism was slow and I have calculated the maximum energy that can be reached by particles accelerated in various astrophysical sites. I have also studied in detail a cosmic-ray propagation model which takes into account the antiproton measurements. Neutrino astronomy is a field much more recent and in rapid expansion, thanks to a convergence of interests between astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists. Several large neutrino detectors already exist; really huge ones are in project. I have studied the possible impact of the high energy (> 1 TeV) neutrino astronomy on models of cosmic-ray sources such as Cygnus X3. Comparing the low energy (∼ 10 MeV) cosmic-ray antineutrinos with other sources of neutrinos and antineutrinos (sun, supernova, earth...), I have pointed out that the antineutrino background resulting from all the nuclear power-stations of the planet was sizeable. This background is a nuisance for some astrophysical applications but could be useful for studies on vacuum or matter neutrino oscillations (MSW effect). I have also examined the MSW effect in another context: the travel through the earth of neutrinos from the supernova explosion SN1987a [fr

  20. The abundance of the actinides in the cosmic radiation as measured on HEAO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.; Fickle, R. K.; Waddington, C. J.; Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    The HEAO 3 detector of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei has observed one possible actinide nucleus and some 100 nuclei of the platinum-lead group of elements. The resulting upper limit of 3% for the abundance ratio of actinides to platinum-lead nuclides is significantly lower than previous results from other observations. This new limit is inconsistent with freshly synthesized, pure r-process sources for cosmic-ray nuclei in this charge interval but is consistent with a source having a composition similar to the solar system, or to aged r-process material. We observe no events with a charge greater than 96.

  1. Study of production by cosmic radiation of krypton and xenon in the Saint-Severin meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavielle, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of Kr and Xe isotropes have been measured by a high sensitivity mass spectrometry technique in 11 samples from a core of the Saint-Severin meteorite. On the basis of our results, we were able to show the role of the shielding depth on the production of Kr and Xe by cosmic ray bombardment. More-over, the experimental results for krypton were compared with calculated values obtained by the Reedy and Arnold model (1972) adapted to cosmic ray irradiation of small spherical objects. Our elaboration of a new systematics of nuclear reactions has lead to a good agreement between experiments and calculations within this model [fr

  2. A Macroscopic Description of Coherent Geo-Magnetic Radiation from Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Werner, K.; Caballero, Rogelio; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Nellen, Lukas; Sánchez, Federico A.; Valdés-Galicia, José F.

    2008-01-01

    In an air shower induced by a cosmic ray, due to the high velocities, most of the particles are concentrated in the relatively thin shower front, which, for obvious reasons, is called the 'pancake'. This pancake, which for the present discussion is assumed to be charge neutral, contains large

  3. Measurement of 0.25-3.2 GeV antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) was flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada on 16-17 July 1992. Using velocity and magnetic rigidity to determine mass, we have directly measured the abundances of cosmic ray antiprotons and protons in the energy range from 0.25 to 3.2 ...

  4. And there was light : Voronoi-Delaunay radiative transfer and cosmic reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of the first luminous sources in the Universe marks the beginning of the epoch of reionisation. The cosmic reionisation of hydrogen has been the last major phase transition in the evolution of the Universe, turning cool neutral gas into the hot, ionised plasma we observe today. Up to

  5. Measurements of cosmic radiation doses in civil aircraft by pocket dosimeter. Results for domestic aviation routes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide

    2000-01-01

    The author reported results of cosmic radiation dose measurement done at his tours in civil aircraft by the pocket dosimeter for the purpose to obtain preliminary data. The pocket dosimeter used was of the semiconductor detector (Aloka PDM-101). Measurement was performed in 21 flights of 9 domestic routes ranging from Wakkanai to Miyako-jima and was started during the time from taking off to landing in order to avoid the influence of ground γ-ray. In addition, in 2 flights between Haneda and Wakkanai, neutron dose was measured with Fuji-Denki neutron rem counter NSN10014 and in the 2 flights above and 1 flight between Haneda and Naha, ionization components were measured with NaI(Tl) scintillation spectro-surveymeter (Aloka JSM-102). From results obtained, the equation D=Rc (Tc+10)/60 was gotten: here, D (μSv) was the whole cosmic radiation dose, Tc (min), the time of flight, Rc (μSv/h), the whole component dose rate and that during flying up and down=10 min D. (K.H.)

  6. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  7. Influence of cosmic radiation on aerosol and cloud formation over short time periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Torsten

    This thesis describes a study of Forbush decrease events. These are rapid decreases in the cosmic ray intensity in the Earth’s atmosphere, which are caused by a temporary increased magnetic shielding at Earth due to solar eruptions. The aim is to investigate how these transient ionization phenomena...... in the atmosphere affect aerosol and cloud creation and whether it is realistic to observe Forbush decrease events in climate data. The thesis involves a theoretical examination of the ionization caused by Forbush decreases based on studies of hourly neutron monitor data and muon telescope data as proxies...... for cosmic rays. A list of the ionization change in the troposphere of the strongest Forbush decreases as compared to the ionization change over the solar cycle is calculated and indicates that only a few events induce ionization changes comparable to the solar cycle. Studies of recently available high...

  8. Track-etched detectors for the dosimetry of the radiation of cosmic origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2004), s. 375-381 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : track-etched detectors * cosmic rays * aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  9. Identification of positrons and electrons in the cosmic radiation with the electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL for the AMS-02 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080883

    2011-07-19

    In May 2011 AMS-02 detector has been successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS), where it will take data on cosmic radiation from 1 to 1000 GeV for at least 10 years. Among all scientific objectives of the experiment, one of the most important is the search for Dark Matter (DM), which constitutes 80% of the Universe matter, but its nature is still unknown. A DM signal can be identified by studying the combined fluxes of positrons, photons, antiprotons and antideuterium. Thanks to its high acceptance and its performances, AMS-02 detector can extend primary cosmic ray physics search to a new energy range with high accuracy. A key role for these measurements, in particular for the electromagnetic channels, is played by ECAL calorimeter. This subdetector has been developed to measure e− and e+ energy with an accuracy of few %. Thanks to its 3D shower reconstruction imaging capabilities, it also has a high separation power between electromagnetic and hadronic showers (e/p rejection), essent...

  10. Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. W. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Nunez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Duran, M.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 +/- 0.7 (stat) +/- 6.7 (syst) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy

  11. Cosmic Accelerators: An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbach, Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    High energy, relativistic, particles are an essential component of the Universe and play a major role in astrophysics. In a few years we will reach the centennial of the discovery of cosmic rays; all through this century the properties, origin, and effects of this radiation have intrigued researchers in astrophysics and elementary particles alike. We briefly review the history, current status, and future perspectives of cosmic ray research. Emphasis will be placed on the multitude of cosmic accelerators, direct observations of these objects, and the effects of cosmic rays in the Galaxy and beyond

  12. Quasi-Optical Design and Analysis of a Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From humble beginnings in 2008, a group met to propose the idea of observing the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in order to determine its polarisation properties, i.e. E- and B-modes. B-modes, a smoking gun for inflation theory, are a long sought after observation for cosmologists. From this the QUBIC collaboration was born. Here we explore the scientific justification for such a mission and the aims of the QUBIC telescope in furthering this knowledge with emphasis on the author’s contribu...

  13. Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and first high energy collision at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 298,304 thin- wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 0.13 mm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. The front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold (6 keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation X-rays. In this talk, a review of the commissioning and first operational experience of the TRT detector will be presented. Emphasis will be given to initial performance studies based on the reconstruction and analysis of several million cosmic ray tracks collected in the ATLAS cavern....

  14. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994. Revised Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1999-02-01

    The present report is a revised version of an earlier report (IFE/KR/E-96/008). The revision has been carried out since a completely new version of the computational tool has recently been released. All calculations have been redone. The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). The result presented in this report (radiation dose rates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) were calculated with the most recent computer program for this purpose, the CARI-5E from the United States Civil Aviation Authority. The other major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found the the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Association in Norway

  15. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994. Revised Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U

    1999-02-01

    The present report is a revised version of an earlier report (IFE/KR/E-96/008). The revision has been carried out since a completely new version of the computational tool has recently been released. All calculations have been redone. The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). The result presented in this report (radiation dose rates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) were calculated with the most recent computer program for this purpose, the CARI-5E from the United States Civil Aviation Authority. The other major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found the the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Association in Norway.

  16. Cosmic and terrestrial single-event radiation effects in dynamic random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massengill, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the literature on single-event radiation effects (SEE) on MOS integrated-circuit dynamic random access memories (DRAM's) is presented. The sources of single-event (SE) radiation particles, causes of circuit information loss, experimental observations of SE information upset, technological developments for error mitigation, and relationships of developmental trends to SE vulnerability are discussed

  17. A NIRS's product. Japanese internet system for the calculation of aviation route doses 'JISCARD'. The program which informs us of cosmic radiation doses in an aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The radiation dose during one round aviation from Japan to Western countries is about 0.1 mSv. A web tool called JISCARD (Japanese Internet System for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) has been developed by National Institute of Radiological Sciences for giving the information on the irradiation of cosmic ray during the aviation. 'Route dose' (the effective dose by cosmic ray irradiation) of going and coming each can be shown for major international airlines from/to Japan. 'JISCARD Mobile' for mobile phones is also available. Global distribution of daily cosmic ray intensity at cruising altitude (11 km) of aircrafts is shown on the page 'Related Information'. Explanation of the terminology is also compiled. (K.Y.)

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mashinistov, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT is immersed in a 2 T magnetic field generated by the central solenoid, significantly contributing together with the other two Inner Detector sub-systems to the particle momentum reconstruction. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons. This talk will describe the operational experience gained with the ATLAS TRT detector during the commissioning with cosmic rays and operation with the first proton-proton collision data at 900 GeV and 7 TeV center-of-mass energy.

  19. Study on the biological effect of cosmic radiation and the development of radiation protection technology (L-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shunji

    1993-01-01

    NASDA is now participating in a series of flight experiments on Spacelab missions. The first experiment was carried out on the first International Microgravity Laboratory Mission (IML-1) January 1992, and the second experiment will be conducted on the Spacelab-J Mission, First Materials Processing Test (FMPT). The equipment or Radiation Monitoring Container Devices (RMCD) includes passive dosimeter systems and biological specimens. The experiments using this hardware are designed by NASDA to measure and investigate the radiation levels inside spacecraft like space shuttle and to look at the basic effects of the space environment from the aspect of radiation biology. The data gathered will be analyzed to understand the details of biological effects as well as the physical nature of space radiation registered in the sensitive Solid-State Track Detectors (SSTD).

  20. Effects of cosmic radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern avionics systems use new electronic technologies devices that, due to their high degree of sophistication and miniaturization, are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly the effect called 'Single Event Effect' (SEE) produced by neutron. Studies regarding the effects of radiation on electronic systems for space applications, such as satellites and orbital stations, have already been in progress for several years. However, tolerance requirements and specific studies, focusing on testing dedicated to avionics, have caused concern and gained importance in the last decade as a result of the accidents attributed to SEE in aircraft. Due to the development of a higher ceiling, an increase in airflow and a greater autonomy of certain aircrafts, the problem regarding the control of ionizing radiation dose received by the pilots, the crew and sensitive equipment became important in the areas of occupational health, radiation protection and flight safety. This paper presents an overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts, identifying and classifying these effects in relation to their potential risks in each device class. The assessment of these effects in avionics is a very important and emerging issue nowadays, which is being discussed by groups of the international scientific community; however, in South America, groups working in this area are still unknown. Consequently, this work is a great contribution and significantly valuable to the area of aeronautical engineering and flight safety associated to the effects of radiation on electronic components embedded in aircraft. (author)

  1. Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniceto, Pedro [CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Pani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, “Sapienza” Università di Roma & Sezione INFN Roma 1,Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, Jorge V. [Departament de Física Fonamental, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-05-19

    We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a=1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a=1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a=1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a≠1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.

  2. Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniceto, Pedro; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a = 1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a = 1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a = 1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a ≠ 1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.

  3. Constraints on AGN feedback from its Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imprint on the cosmic background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Bjoern; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Efstathiou, George; Puchwein, Ewald; Sijacki, Debora

    2017-06-01

    We derive constraints on feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN) by setting limits on their thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) imprint on the cosmic microwave background. The amplitude of any SZ signature is small and degenerate with the poorly known sub-mm spectral energy distribution of the AGN host galaxy and other unresolved dusty sources along the line of sight. Here we break this degeneracy by combining microwave and sub-mm data from Planck with all-sky far-infrared maps from the AKARI satellite. We first test our measurement pipeline using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) redMaPPer catalogue of galaxy clusters, finding a highly significant detection (>20σ) of the SZ effect together with correlated dust emission. We then constrain the SZ signal associated with spectroscopically confirmed quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from SDSS data release 7 (DR7) and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) DR12. We obtain a low-significance (1.6σ) hint of an SZ signal, pointing towards a mean thermal energy of ≃5 × 1060 erg, lower than reported in some previous studies. A comparison of our results with high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations including AGN feedback suggests QSO host masses of M200c ˜ 4 × 1012 h-1 M⊙, but with a large uncertainty. Our analysis provides no conclusive evidence for an SZ signal specifically associated with AGN feedback.

  4. Effect of the Great Attractor on the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Dekel, Avishai

    1990-01-01

    A map is presented of the anisotropy Delta T/T in cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of our region of the universe as viewed by a distant observer, predicted on the basis of the gravitational potential field. This field is calculated in the vicinity of the Local Group of galaxies from the observed peculiar velocities of galaxies under the assumption that the peculiar motions are induced by gravity. If the cosmological density parameter Omega is one, the gravitational potential field of the Great Attractor and surrounding regions produces a maximum Sachs-Wolfe anisotropy of Delta T/T = (1.7 + or - 0.3) x 10 to the -5th on an angular scale of 1 deg. Doppler and adiabatic contributions to this anisotropy are expected to be somewhat larger. If similar fluctuations in the gravitational potential are present elsewhere in the universe, the anisotropy present when the CMB was last scattered should be visible from the earth and should be detectable in current experiments.

  5. Contamination cannot explain the lack of large-scale power in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Bourdon, Austin

    2008-01-01

    Several anomalies appear to be present in the large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. One of these is a lack of large-scale power. Because the data otherwise match standard models extremely well, it is natural to consider perturbations of the standard model as possible explanations. We show that, as long as the source of the perturbation is statistically independent of the source of the primary CMB anisotropy, no such model can explain this large-scale power deficit. On the contrary, any such perturbation always reduces the probability of obtaining any given low value of large-scale power. We rigorously prove this result when the lack of large-scale power is quantified with a quadratic statistic, such as the quadrupole moment. When a statistic based on the integrated square of the correlation function is used instead, we present strong numerical evidence in support of the result. The result applies to models in which the geometry of spacetime is perturbed (e.g., an ellipsoidal universe) as well as explanations involving local contaminants, undiagnosed foregrounds, or systematic errors. Because the large-scale power deficit is arguably the most significant of the observed anomalies, explanations that worsen this discrepancy should be regarded with great skepticism, even if they help in explaining other anomalies such as multipole alignments.

  6. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Marczewska, B; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    Measurements were performed with various LiF based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the /sup 7/LiF detectors used (various types of /sup 7 /LiF:Mg, Ti and /sup 7/LiF:Mg, Cu, P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. (5 refs).

  7. Isotope composition of the high energy cosmic radiation in HEA03-C2, and propagation in view of interstellar helium. Grimtel, a telescope for high energy gamma radiation study, test-experiment in accelerator and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, P.

    1987-11-01

    Isotope composition determination of cosmic radiation at 3 GeV/nucleon from HEAO3-C2 data is presented. Isotope separation results from cosmic radiation filtering by geomagnetic field, which allows preferential penetration in magnetosphere for isotopes with the highest ratio A/Z. Then momentum resolution variation with incident nucleus charge is well taken in account. Simultaneous analysis of the two ratios B/C and Sc-Mn/Fe allows the study of cosmic radiation range distribution in the galaxy. A first set of data on reaction cross section of C, O, Fe + alpha has been got. From these data, a simple analytical formula which relates cross sections in helium and in hydrogen is proposed. Interstellar helium influence on cosmic radiation propagation has been studied realistically. And a gamma instrument is presented which covers the 1-100 GeV energy range with a very good angular resolution. Characteristics are estimated. The test-experiment presented is set into a 500 MeV gamma beam. Cherenkov image characteristics are identified and angular resolution is estimated. A numerical simulation is developed [fr

  8. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE): Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Chicago U., KICP; Bohacova, M. [Prague, Inst. Phys.; Bonifazi, C. [Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Cataldi, G. [INFN, Lecce; Chemerisov, S. [Argonne (main); De Mello Neto, J. R.T. [INFN, Lecce; Facal San Luis, P. [Chicago U., KICP; Fox, B. [Hawaii U.; Gorham, P. W. [Hawaii U.; Hojvat, C. [Fermilab; Hollon, N. [Chicago U., KICP; Meyhandan, R. [Hawaii U.; Monasor, M. [Chicago U., KICP; D' Orfeuil, B. Rouille [Chicago U., KICP; Santos, E. M. [Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Pochez, J. [Chicago U., KICP; Privitera, P. [Chicago U., KICP; Spinka, H. [Argonne (main); Verzi, V. [Rome U., Tor Vergata; Zhou, J. [Chicago U., KICP

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  9. Study of radiation background at various high altitude locations in preparation for rare event search in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Dey, S.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, D., E-mail: rupamoy@gmail.com, E-mail: dey_s2001@yahoo.com, E-mail: sanjay@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: atanu.maulik@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: sibaji.raha@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: syam.debapriyo@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block-EN, Sector-V, Kolkata-700091 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Various phenomenological models presented over the years have hinted at the possible presence of strangelets, which are nuggets of Strange Quark Matter (SQM), in cosmic rays. One way to search for such rare events is through the deployment of large area Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) arrays at high mountain altitudes. Before the deployment of any such array can begin, a detailed study of the radiation background is essential. Also, a proper understanding of the response of detectors exposed to extreme weather conditions is necessary. With that aim, pilot studies were carried out at various high altitude locations in India such as Darjeeling (2200 m a.m.s.l), Ooty (2200 m a.m.s.l) and Hanle (4500 m a.m.s.l). Small arrays of CR-39 as well as high threshold Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detectors were given open air exposures for periods ranging from three months to two years. The findings of such studies are reported in this paper.

  10. The past 5000 years history of solar modulation of cosmic radiation from 10Be and 14C studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeschger, H.

    1990-01-01

    10 Be is produced in a similar way as 14 C by the interaction of cosmic radiation with the nuclei in the atmosphere. Assuming that the 10 Be and 14 C variation are proportional and considering the different behaviour in the Earth system, the 10 Be concentrations in ice cores can be compared with the 14 C variations in tree rings. A high correlation is found for the short-term variations ( 14 C-Suess-wiggles). They reflect with a high probability production rate variations. More problematic is the interpretation of the long-term trends of 14 C and 10 Be. Several explanations are discussed. The reconstructed CO 2 concentrations in ice cores indicate a rather constant value (280±10 p.p.m. by volume) during the past few millenia. Measurements on the ice core from Byrd Station, Antarctica, during the period 9000 to 6000 year BP indicate a decrease that might be explained by the extraction of CO 2 from the atmosphere-ocean system to build the terrestrial biomass pool during the climatic optimum. (author)

  11. Commissioning of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and single LHC beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cwetanski, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 35 two-dimensional space points with 0.17 mm resolution for charged particle tracks with pT > 0.5 GeV within |η| < 2. Transition radiation X-rays, generated by particles with γ > 1000 in the special material between the straws, are absorbed in the Xenon based gas mixture and give rise to large signal amplitudes. The front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold (< 300 eV) for registering the passage of minimum ionizing particles, and a high threshold (> 6 keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation X-rays. The talk will report on the commissioning and first operational experience of the TRT detector and its sophisticated off-detector systems for cooling, active gas, lo...

  12. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  13. Results of Simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Spectra Restraint Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Hussain, Sarosh; Waller, Jess

    2017-01-01

    Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to characterize the mechanical changes to structural materials after they have been irradiated. White Sands Test Facility (WSFTF) collaborated with the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to irradiate and test various space suit materials by examining their tensile properties through blunt probe puncture testing and single fiber tensile testing after the materials had been dosed at various levels of simulated GCR and SPE Iron and Proton beams at Brookhaven National Laboratories. The dosages were chosen based on a simulation developed by the Structural Engineering Division at JSC for the expected radiation dosages seen by space suit softgoods seen on a Mars reference mission. Spectra fabric tested in the effort saw equivalent dosages at 2x, 10x, and 20x the predicted dose as well as a simulated 50 year exposure to examine the range of effects on the material and examine whether any degradation due to GCR would be present if the suit softgoods were stored in deep space for a long period of time. This paper presents the results of this work and outlines the impact on space suit pressure garment design for long duration deep space missions.

  14. The impact of cosmic-origin background radiation on human survival in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podolská, Kateřina; Rychtaříková, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2017), s. 132-149 ISSN 0011-8265 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mortality * incidence * solid cancer * lifetime attributable risk * age at exposure * solar activity * natural background radiation dose Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences https://www.czso.cz/documents/10180/46203818/clanek+3_Podolska-Rychtarikova.pdf/1454147e-8a44-40ca-b76c-d1fe6e7b822c?version=1.0

  15. Measurement of cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew at commercial aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement results of ambient dose equivalent rate in an aircraft, performed by a standard portable dosimeter, at a non-commercial flight Belgrade - Podgorica at altitudes up to 9000 meters, are shown. By numerical interpolation of the measurement results, a functional dependency of the ambient dose equivalent rate on the altitude of the airplane flight is determined, obtaining a good agreement with the reference values. For commercial airlines in the Balkan region, total ambient dose equivalent, regarding the aircraft crew occupationally exposed to radiation in the course of a flight, was calculated and the maximum permitted number of flight hours per year, was estimated. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON171007

  16. An empirical approach to the measurement of the cosmic radiation field at jet aircraft altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A R; Lewis, B J; Kitching, F; McCall, M J; Desormeaux, M; Butler, A A

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the Royal Military College of Canada have accumulated extensive dose measurements performed at jet altitudes on over 160 flights and with a wide variety of detectors including a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), a smart wide energy neutron detection instrument (SWENDI), bubble detectors, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and an ion chamber. The summation of the individual low and high LET results from the latter equipment compared successfully to those from the TEPC on each flight. The data from these numerous worldwide flights have been encapsulated into a program that calculates the radiation dose for any flight in the world at any period in the solar cycle. This experimentally based program, Predictive Code for AIRcrew Exposure (PCAIRE) has been designed to be used by the airline industry to meet national dosimetry requirements. In Canada, for example, such a code can be used, supported by periodic measurements. With this latter requirement in mind and a desire to decrease equip...

  17. Canadian-based aircrew exposure from cosmic radiation on commercial airline routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Lewis, B.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Schrewe, U. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); O' Brien, K. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, Arizona (United States); Feldsberger, E. [University of Graz (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    As part of a continuing study on the occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) was used to monitor this exposure on 64 flight routes spanning a range of geomagnetic latitudes between 40{sup o}S and 85{sup o}N. The microdosimetric data obtained from these flights were compared to that obtained from several terrestrial sources and were used to characterize the radiation field at jet altitudes. From 20 000 ambient dose equivalent rates obtained at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes, a correlation was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date. By integration of this dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a predictive code was developed to provide a total ambient dose equivalent prediction for a given flight. (author)

  18. CREAM - a Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor for space experiments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Stimpson, B.P.; Bolus, D.J.; Ellaway, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed account is given of the design and construction of the experimental CREAM packages, intended for flight in the mid-deck area of the Space Transport System (Shuttle) Mission in 1986. The complete experiment involved; 1) a self-contained and battery powered activation monitor for measuring energy losses of charged particles; 2) CR-39 and Kapton polymer solid state nuclear track detectors for the detection of ionising particles; 3) metal foils of nickel, titanium and gold for neutron monitoring; and 4) thermoluminescent detectors for dosimetry measurements of the radiation background. The circuit design and detailed functioning of the active monitor is fully described, together with a complete discussion of the principles and operation of the passive monitors. (author)

  19. RESPONSE OF THE GREEK EARLY WARNING SYSTEM REUTER-STOKES IONIZATION CHAMBERS TO TERRESTRIAL AND COSMIC RADIATION EVALUATED IN COMPARISON WITH SPECTROSCOPIC DATA AND TIME SERIES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontaris, F; Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Maltezos, A; Potiriadis, C; Kiriakopoulos, E; Guilhot, J

    2018-02-01

    The Telemetric Early Warning System Network of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission consists mainly of a network of 24 Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ionization chambers (HPIC) for gamma dose rate measurements and covers all Greece. In the present work, the response of the Reuter-Stokes HPIC to terrestrial and cosmic radiation was evaluated in comparison with spectroscopic data obtained by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable hyper pure Germanium detectors (HPGe), near the Reuter-Stokes detectors and time series analysis. For the HPIC detectors, a conversion factor for the measured absorbed dose rate in air (in nGy h-1) to the total ambient dose equivalent rate Ḣ*(10), due to terrestrial and cosmic component, was deduced by the field measurements. Time series analysis of the mean monthly dose rate (measured by the Reuter-Stokes detector in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, from 2001 to 2016) was performed with advanced statistical methods (Fast Fourier Analysis and Zhao Atlas Marks Transform). Fourier analysis reveals several periodicities (periodogram). The periodogram of the absorbed dose rate in air values was compared with the periodogram of the values measured for the same period (2001-16) and in the same location with a NaI (Tl) detector which in principle is not sensitive to cosmic radiation. The obtained results are presented and discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Resistance of lichens to simulated galactic cosmic radiation: limits of survival capacity and biosignature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Miller, Ana Z.; Cubero, Beatriz; Raguse, Marina; Meessen, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Space constitutes an extremely harmful environment for survival of terrestrial organisms. Amongst extremophiles on Earth, lichens are one of the most resistant organisms to harsh terrestrial environments, as well as some species of microorganisms, such as bacteria (Moeller et al., 2010), criptoendolithic cyanobacteria and lithic fungi (de los Ríos et al. 2004). To study the survival capacity of lichens to the harmful radiation environment of space, we have selected the lichen Circinaria gyrosa, an astrobiological model defined by its high capacity of resistance to space conditions (De la Torre et al. 2010) and to a simulated Mars environment (Sanchez et al., 2012). Samples were irradiated with four types of space-relevant ionizing radiation in the STARLIFE campaign: helium and iron ion doses (up to 2,000 Gy), X-ray doses (up to 5,000 Gy) and ultra-high γ-ray doses (from 6 to 113 kGy). Results on resistance of C. gyrosa to space-relevant ionizing radiation and its post-irradiation viability were obtained by: (i) chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PS II); (ii) epifluorescence microscopy; (iii) confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), and (iv) field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results of photosynthetic activity and epifluorescence showed no significant changes on the viability of C. gyrosa with increasing doses of helium and iron ions as well as X-rays. In contrast, γ-irradiation elicited significant dose-correlated effects as revealed by all applied techniques. Relevant is the presence of whewellite-like crystals, detected by FESEM on C. gyrosa thalli after high irradiation doses, which has been also identified in previous Mars simulation studies (Böttcher et al., 2014). These studies contribute to the better understanding of the adaptability of extremophile organisms to harsh environments, as well as to estimate the habitability of a planet's surface, like Mars; they will be important for planning experiments on the search of life

  1. Investigation of Contributions of Cosmic Radiation to Background Dose with Altitude at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaechia, F.C.; Zakari, Y.I.; Ibeanu, I.G.E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of cosmic radiation to background dose at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria using two portable survey meters (Rados -120 and FH 40F2 ). The work was conducted in two phases (dry and rainy seasons).The recorded gamma dose rates were observed to proportionally increase with increase in altitude, that is from ground floor (altitude 3.52 m above sea level) to the eight floor (altitude 30.08 m above sea level). In a similar manner, there were observed variations in the seasonal results-the dry season data were consistently higher than the rainy season data. The mean measured indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates for the two seasons (rainy and dry seasons) were 210.0nSv/h and 279.4nSv/h, and 231.3nSv/h and 368.8nSv/h at the ground floor and the eight floor, respectively. The rainy season result repeated itself on a particular very heavy rainy day with a mean measured gamma dose rate of 204.4nSv/h and 267.4nSv/h at the ground floor and eight floor, respectively. The annual indoor and outdoor mean effective dose for a 1000hour working period was calculated as 0.32 μSv and 0.35 μSv at the ground floor and 0.68 μSv and 0.76 μSv the 8 th floor, respectively (for inside and outside the building).

  2. Cosmic strings and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  4. Measurement of the diffuse atmospheric and cosmic γ-radiation in the energy range 1-10 MeV by a balloon carried Compton-telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and design of a low-energy γ-compton telescope, developed and constructed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, are reported on. For energies of about 1 MeV, the telescope has an energy resolution of 30% (FWHM) and an angular resolution of +- 20 0 . In spite of the low efficiency of only about 0.5%, the vertical γ-flux could be measured for the first time in two balloon flights, and the extragalactic origin of the diffuse component of the cosmic γ-radiation could be demonstrated. The energy spectrum of this radiation was measured. The result is compared with measurements of other experiments, and theoretical models to describe the origin of this radiation are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc

    1998-06-01

    standard reddening law and use the colors of elliptical galaxies to measure the reddening per unit flux density of 100 μm emission. We find consistent calibration using the B-R color distribution of a sample of the 106 brightest cluster ellipticals, as well as a sample of 384 ellipticals with B-V and Mg line strength measurements. For the latter sample, we use the correlation of intrinsic B-V versus Mg2 index to tighten the power of the test greatly. We demonstrate that the new maps are twice as accurate as the older Burstein-Heiles reddening estimates in regions of low and moderate reddening. The maps are expected to be significantly more accurate in regions of high reddening. These dust maps will also be useful for estimating millimeter emission that contaminates cosmic microwave background radiation experiments and for estimating soft X-ray absorption. We describe how to access our maps readily for general use.

  6. A map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing the large-scale fluctuations (the quadrupole and octopole) isolated by an analysis done partly by theorists at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A recent analysis, in part by theorists working at CERN, suggests a new view of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It seems the solar system, rather than the universe, causes the radiation's large-scale fluctuations, similar to the bass in a song.

  7. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  8. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu

    1989-11-01

    The measurement of ionization distribution caused by the cosmic ray ionizing components in the air, the survey of population distribution in geography and the investigation of total passengers taking air liners at the mainland of China have been completed. By taking the data from the census of the year 1986 and the population distribution of the mainland, considering the cosmic ray distribution with the height and referring the distribution of neutron flux density in cosmic ray, the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent, which is obtained from 2017 counties and 353 cities, for inhabitants living in every provinces and municipalities directly under Central Government has been calculated. The collective dose equivalent produced by the external exposure of cosmic ray is also estimated when people are taking air liners. The results which are effected by the population distribution show that the annual effective dose equivalant received by the population of China from the cosmic ray is 28% lower than the population of the world. The most of Chinese people are living at the north hemisphere area having lower elevation and geomagnetic latitude, and 53.6% among them is in the area of elevation below 100 m and 91% is in the area of geomagnetic latitude below 30 deg N

  9. Radiation production and absorption in human spacecraft shielding systems under high charge and energy Galactic Cosmic Rays: Material medium, shielding depth, and byproduct aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Joseph; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2018-03-01

    Deep space missions such as the planned 2025 mission to asteroids require spacecraft shields to protect electronics and humans from adverse effects caused by the space radiation environment, primarily Galactic Cosmic Rays. This paper first reviews the theory on how these rays of charged particles interact with matter, and then presents a simulation for a 500 day Mars flyby mission using a deterministic based computer code. High density polyethylene and aluminum shielding materials at a solar minimum are considered. Plots of effective dose with varying shield depth, charged particle flux, and dose in silicon and human tissue behind shielding are presented.

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure: work-place study about air-crew in the French Air-force flying on board the E-3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagnet, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P.

    2007-01-01

    This workplace study is allowed to cosmic radiation of aircraft-crews. In a first time, the work is based on measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rates on board the E-3F aircraft. These results are supplemented by measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosemeters. Above 10 000 meters and 200 hours per year, the aircraft-crews flying on board the E-3F aircraft are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey of the aircraft-crews corresponding to these flight criteria. (authors)

  11. Preliminary results of the experiment on the identification of cosmic hadrons usinq the X-ray transition radiation XTR-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.A.; Avakyan, K.M.; Alikhanyan, A.I.

    1974-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic hadrons with an energy of 300 GeV or more at the height of 3250 m above the sea level has been studied. The objective has been to determine the Nsub(π)/Nsub(p) ratio at the given energies. The device consists of a 830 g/cm 2 scintillation calorimeter and an X-ray transition radiation detector, comprising three sections of laminated medium each having 200 layers, and multi-filament proportional counters. The lower limit of the Nsub(π)/Nsub(p) ratio has been obtained, it is equal to 0.37+-0.16

  12. Cosmic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritszh, Harald; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'Cosmic particles' was presented at the conference on 'The early universe and its evolution', Erice, Italy 1986. The link between ideas in cosmology and in elementary particle physics is examined. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings: cosmic kinetics, cosmic dynamics and general relativity, dynamics of the dust universe, particle physics, unity of quarks and leptons, the hot universe and standard particle physics, creation of matter, and the inflation of the universe. (U.K.)

  13. Simulating Cosmic Reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlik, Andreas Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The first stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only a small fraction of its present age. Their radiation transformed the previously cold and neutral hydrogen that filled intergalactic space into the hot and ionised cosmic plasma that is observed today.

  14. Novel cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rujula, A.

    1984-01-01

    Known forms of nuclear matter are atomic nuclei (A 57 ). Witten suggests that nuclear matter consisting of up, down, and strange quarks in roughly equal proportion may be stable for virtually any value of A. Particles of this strange quark matter may exist in the galaxy either as remnant of the big bang or as debris of astrophysical catastrophe. The term ''nuclearite'' is used to describe such a particle in collision with Earth, and possible experiments to detect its passage are considered. (author)

  15. Hydrology and Cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mie

    Processes like evapotranspiration and infiltration are closely linked to the wetness of the soil, and soil moisture is therefore a key variable for water balance studies. Catchment scale hydrological modeling is used for weather and climate prediction and for estimating fluxes and variables...... of the hydrological system important for managing the water resources. Soil moisture is highly variable in time and space, and the variability changes with scale. Soil moisture measurements at a scale comparable to the discretization of catchment scale models are therefore of great importance for validation...

  16. Spherical Orbifolds for Cosmic Topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic analysis is a tool to infer cosmic topology from the measured astrophysical cosmic microwave background CMB radiation. For overall positive curvature, Platonic spherical manifolds are candidates for this analysis. We combine the specific point symmetry of the Platonic manifolds with their deck transformations. This analysis in topology leads from manifolds to orbifolds. We discuss the deck transformations of the orbifolds and give eigenmodes for the harmonic analysis as linear combinations of Wigner polynomials on the 3-sphere. These provide new tools for detecting cosmic topology from the CMB radiation.

  17. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  18. In vitro and in vivo assessment of direct effects of simulated solar and galactic cosmic radiation on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, C; Almeida-Porada, G; George, S K; Moon, J; Soker, S; Pardee, T; Beaty, M; Guida, P; Sajuthi, S P; Langefeld, C D; Walker, S J; Wilson, P F; Porada, C D

    2017-06-01

    Future deep space missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids will expose astronauts to chronic solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, and likely one or more solar particle events (SPEs). Given the inherent radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells and short latency period of leukemias, space radiation-induced hematopoietic damage poses a particular threat to astronauts on extended missions. We show that exposing human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC) to extended mission-relevant doses of accelerated high-energy protons and iron ions leads to the following: (1) introduces mutations that are frequently located within genes involved in hematopoiesis and are distinct from those induced by γ-radiation; (2) markedly reduces in vitro colony formation; (3) markedly alters engraftment and lineage commitment in vivo; and (4) leads to the development, in vivo, of what appears to be T-ALL. Sequential exposure to protons and iron ions (as typically occurs in deep space) proved far more deleterious to HSC genome integrity and function than either particle species alone. Our results represent a critical step for more accurately estimating risks to the human hematopoietic system from space radiation, identifying and better defining molecular mechanisms by which space radiation impairs hematopoiesis and induces leukemogenesis, as well as for developing appropriately targeted countermeasures.

  19. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  20. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic impacts and their effects on the earth's surface are discussed. The manner in which the object impacts with the earth is described. The formation of crytovolcanic structures by craters is examined. Examples of cosmic debris collisions with earth, in particular the Tunguska explosion of 1908 and the Meteor Crater in Arizona, are provided.

  1. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  2. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development and validation of a particle identification method with the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 to allow for the determination of the positron fraction in the cosmic lepton flux. Independent measurements indicate that a significant amount of about 23% of the energy density in the universe consists of an unknown mass contribution, the so-called Dark Matter. The Neutralino, as the most popular Dark Matter particle candidate, may produce an additional signal in the spectrum of cosmic rays. The fraction of positrons in the cosmic lepton flux possibly contains such a Dark Matter signal at high particle momenta. The currently most precise measurements in the region of this excess are provided by the satellite-borne PAMELA and Fermi detectors. Momentumdependent systematic uncertainties, especially the mis-identification of protons as positrons, could imitate the signal. However, if this positron excess is produced by Dark Matter the fraction should decrease above a theoretical energy threshold to the expectations, based on particle propagation. The energy region measured up to now does not show such a progress. Due to its significantly increased event statistics and its capability to measure up to higher particle energies, this signature could be observed with AMS-02. The number of events, which can be recorded by a detector, is limited by the combination of aperture and observable solid angle, quantified by the geometrical acceptance, and the observation time. As the cosmic particle flux follows a power-law in particle momentum with exponent γ ∼ -3, the observable momentum interval is thus constrained by statistics. Due to its large geometrical acceptance of about 0.5 m 2 sr, its long observation time of at least 9 years and its high proton suppression factor of >or similar 10 6 AMS-02 will record large and clean lepton samples and thus provide a precise measurement of the cosmic

  3. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-10-08

    The aim of this thesis is the development and validation of a particle identification method with the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 to allow for the determination of the positron fraction in the cosmic lepton flux. Independent measurements indicate that a significant amount of about 23% of the energy density in the universe consists of an unknown mass contribution, the so-called Dark Matter. The Neutralino, as the most popular Dark Matter particle candidate, may produce an additional signal in the spectrum of cosmic rays. The fraction of positrons in the cosmic lepton flux possibly contains such a Dark Matter signal at high particle momenta. The currently most precise measurements in the region of this excess are provided by the satellite-borne PAMELA and Fermi detectors. Momentumdependent systematic uncertainties, especially the mis-identification of protons as positrons, could imitate the signal. However, if this positron excess is produced by Dark Matter the fraction should decrease above a theoretical energy threshold to the expectations, based on particle propagation. The energy region measured up to now does not show such a progress. Due to its significantly increased event statistics and its capability to measure up to higher particle energies, this signature could be observed with AMS-02. The number of events, which can be recorded by a detector, is limited by the combination of aperture and observable solid angle, quantified by the geometrical acceptance, and the observation time. As the cosmic particle flux follows a power-law in particle momentum with exponent {gamma} {approx} -3, the observable momentum interval is thus constrained by statistics. Due to its large geometrical acceptance of about 0.5 m{sup 2}sr, its long observation time of at least 9 years and its high proton suppression factor of >or similar 10{sup 6} AMS-02 will record large and clean lepton samples and thus provide a precise measurement

  4. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu

    1989-01-01

    According to the distribution of cosmic ray ionization with altitude and latitude as well as the census information in all of our country (the end of the year 1986), the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent received by the population living at mainland areas of China is estimated to be about 278 μSv, in which the ionizing component and the neutron component are 252 μSv and 26 μSv, respectively

  5. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-01-01

    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  6. LiteBIRD: a small satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic background radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.

  7. Coalescence of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induced by Galactic Cosmic Radiation is Modulated by Genetics in 15 Inbred Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Sebastien; Ray, Shayoni; Staatz, Kevin; Degorre, Charlotte; Guiet, Elodie; Viger, Louise; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Karpen, Gary; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript we address the challenges associated with the ability to predict radiation sensitivity associated with exposure to either cosmic radiation or X-rays in a population study, by monitoring DNA damage sensing protein 53BP1 forming small nuclear radiation-induced foci (RIF) as a surrogate biomarker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). 76 primary skin fibroblasts were isolated from 10 collaborative cross strains and five reference inbred mice (C57Bl/6, BALB/CByJ, B6C3, C3H and CBA/CaJ) and exposed to three different charged nuclei of increasing LET (350 MeV/n Si, 350 MeV/n Ar and 600 MeV/n Fe) and X-ray. Our data brings strong evidence against the classic "contact-first" model where DSBs are assumed to be immobile and repaired at the lesion site. In contrast, our model suggests nearby DSBs move into single repair unit characterized by large RIF before the repair machinery kicks in. Such model has the advantage of being much more efficient molecularly but is poorly suited to deal with cosmic radiation, where energy is concentrated along the particle trajectory, inducing a large density of DSBs along each particle track. In accordance with this model, RIF quantification after X-ray exposition showed a saturated dose response for early time points post-irradiation for all strains. Similarly, the high-LET response showed that RIF number matched the number of track per cell, not the number of expected DSB per cell (1). At the temporal level, we noted that the percentage of unrepaired high-LET tracks over a 48 hour time-course increased with LET, confirming that the DNA repair process becomes more difficult as more DSB coalesce into single RIF. There was also good agreement between persistent RIF levels measured in-vitro in the primary skin cultures and survival levels of T-cells and B-cells collected in blood samples from 10 CC strains 24 hours after 0.1 Gy whole-body dose of X-ray. This suggests that persistent RIF 24 hour post-IR is a good surrogate in

  8. 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation: the role of Günther and Tegetmeyer in the development of the necessary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. A. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation by the Austrian physicist Victor Franz Hess (1883–1964, obtained onboard manned balloons, one of them launched up to an altitude of 5.3 km. His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The discovery follows in the context of the investigation of atmospheric electricity and of the newly discovered radioactivity, in particular with respect to γ rays. Starting from simple ionization chambers, the instruments were developed during an interplay between functional requirements, scientific progress and available manufacturing technologies.

    The authors of this contribution take this anniversary as an opportunity to describe the instrumentation used by Hess, as well as further developments in the instrumentation which took place in the decades following Hess' discovery. This manuscript also discusses details of the company who manufactured Hess' instrument, ''Günther & Tegetmeyer'' based in Braunschweig, Germany. This company did not only build instruments for Hess and the research on cosmic rays, but also for other scientific disciplines and for well-known researchers and discoverers.

  9. Recording of heavy ion tracks in silicates. Application to the determination of the abundance of ultra-heavy elements in old solar cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraud, J.-P.

    1978-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the abundance A(Z) and energy spectrum of the elements of atomic number Z present in cosmic radiation, by means of fossil traces recorded in moon and meteorite minerals. The difficulties due amongst other things to natural annealing are examined in detail in part one, of this paper, the outcome being a thorough study of the processes responsible for the formation, chemical attack and annealing of heavy ion tracks. Part two describes an original approach used here and consisting of a combined analysis as a function of annealing for a given track, of the microscopic structure of the latent track and its attack rate. Part three uses the new rules established beforehand to propose a new method of studying the UH ion (Z>30) to VH ion (20 [fr

  10. Measurement of secondary cosmic radiation and calculation of associated dose conversion coefficients for humans; Messung sekundaerer kosmischer Strahlung und Berechnung der zugehoerigen Dosiskonversionskoeffizienten fuer den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmer, Gregor

    2012-04-11

    Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.

  11. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  12. 36Cl production by spallation reactions at high energy. Calculus of the age of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklouti, Mohamed.

    1975-01-01

    Production cross sections for 36 Cl in targets of Fe, Ti and Ca bombarded by 0.15, 1.0 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation. Results in mb are for iron 0.15+-0.05, 10.1+-1.8 and 12.0+-2.0 at 0.15, 1.0 and 24GeV; for titanium 5.1+-1.4 and 1.9+-3.5 at 0.15 and 24GeV; for calcium >17 and 16.0+-3.2 at 0.15 and 24GeV. These values are used in order to calculate the time of propagation of cosmic rays after acceleration, i.e.>10 6 ans [fr

  13. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    between cosmic ray flux and low cloud top temperature. The temperature of a cloud depends on the radiation properties determined by its droplet distribution. Low clouds are warm (> 273 K) and therefore consist of liquid water droplets. At typical atmospheric supersaturations (similar to1%) a liquid cloud...... that a mechanism to explain the cosmic ray-cloud link might be found through the role of atmospheric ionisation in aerosol production and/or growth. Observations of local aerosol increases in low cloud due to ship exhaust indicate that a small perturbation in atmospheric aerosol can have a major impact on low...... cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability...

  14. Case study on the effect of cosmic radiation in embedded systems in aircraft; Estudo de caso sobre o efeito da radiacao cosmica em sistemas embarcados em aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Pereira, Marlon A., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy neutrons generated from the interaction of cosmic radiation with atoms of the atmosphere, can cause adverse effects on avionics devices. These effects are referred to as 'Single Event Effects' (SEE) and may occur especially in aircraft onboard computers, from change the logic state of memory cells or functional interruptions, which could compromise flight safety. The effects of the SEE must first be evaluated and entered into the safety analysis process in order to determine the susceptibility to failures by SEE devices. SEE rate can be evaluated separately for thermal neutrons and fast neutrons with energy above 10 MeV. This paper presents an exploratory study of susceptibility to radiation to a specific type of SRAM memory, during periods of maximum and minimum solar, in situations of equatorial and polar flight in the typical flight altitude of existing aircraft and, at higher altitudes, near the maximum of Pfotzer. This study was conducted using estimates of particle flows employing the EXPACS QARM codes and evaluating the expected rate of SEE due to thermal neutrons and fast neutrons separately. The distribution in energy and the flow of neutrons inside the airplane are influenced by the total mass of the aircraft and this influence are also discussed.

  15. High-energy Gamma Rays from the Milky Way: Three-dimensional Spatial Models for the Cosmic-Ray and Radiation Field Densities in the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, T. A.; Moskalenko, I. V. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Jóhannesson, G., E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu [Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2017-09-01

    High-energy γ -rays of interstellar origin are produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles with the diffuse gas and radiation fields in the Galaxy. The main features of this emission are well understood and are reproduced by existing CR propagation models employing 2D galactocentric cylindrically symmetrical geometry. However, the high-quality data from instruments like the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal significant deviations from the model predictions on few to tens of degrees scales, indicating the need to include the details of the Galactic spiral structure and thus requiring 3D spatial modeling. In this paper, the high-energy interstellar emissions from the Galaxy are calculated using the new release of the GALPROP code employing 3D spatial models for the CR source and interstellar radiation field (ISRF) densities. Three models for the spatial distribution of CR sources are used that are differentiated by their relative proportion of input luminosity attributed to the smooth disk or spiral arms. Two ISRF models are developed based on stellar and dust spatial density distributions taken from the literature that reproduce local near- to far-infrared observations. The interstellar emission models that include arms and bulges for the CR source and ISRF densities provide plausible physical interpretations for features found in the residual maps from high-energy γ -ray data analysis. The 3D models for CR and ISRF densities provide a more realistic basis that can be used for the interpretation of the nonthermal interstellar emissions from the Galaxy.

  16. Ion composition of cosmic radiation in HEA03-C2, and propagation in the presence of interstellar helium. GRIMTEL, a telescope for studying high energy gamma rays, experimental test in an accelerator and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, P.

    1987-11-01

    The origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays were investigated by studying charged cosmic rays and high energy gamma radiation. The isotopic composition of cosmic rays at 3 GeV/nucleus is established from HEA03-C2 data. An abnormal component which could be ejected from Wolf-Rayet stars is identified. Simultaneous analysis of the ratios B/C and Sc-Mn/Fe is used to study the trajectory of cosmic rays in the galaxy. Results reveal the difficulties of the Leaky Box model in predicting the Sc-Mn/Fe ratio, and support other models where the distribution of the trajectory is deficient in short values, as is the case if two confinement volumes for cosmic rays exist, the first possibly being dense regions around the sources. A gamma instrument (GRIMTEL) for the energy range 1 to 100 GeV, with excellent angular resolution allowing the localization of gamma sources to within a few arcmin is presented. It uses the Cerenkov imaging technique [fr

  17. Galactic cosmic radiation leads to cognitive impairment and increased aβ plaque accumulation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Cherry

    Full Text Available Galactic Cosmic Radiation consisting of high-energy, high-charged (HZE particles poses a significant threat to future astronauts in deep space. Aside from cancer, concerns have been raised about late degenerative risks, including effects on the brain. In this study we examined the effects of (56Fe particle irradiation in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We demonstrated 6 months after exposure to 10 and 100 cGy (56Fe radiation at 1 GeV/µ, that APP/PS1 mice show decreased cognitive abilities measured by contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests. Furthermore, in male mice we saw acceleration of Aβ plaque pathology using Congo red and 6E10 staining, which was further confirmed by ELISA measures of Aβ isoforms. Increases were not due to higher levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP or increased cleavage as measured by levels of the β C-terminal fragment of APP. Additionally, we saw no change in microglial activation levels judging by CD68 and Iba-1 immunoreactivities in and around Aβ plaques or insulin degrading enzyme, which has been shown to degrade Aβ. However, immunohistochemical analysis of ICAM-1 showed evidence of endothelial activation after 100 cGy irradiation in male mice, suggesting possible alterations in Aβ trafficking through the blood brain barrier as a possible cause of plaque increase. Overall, our results show for the first time that HZE particle radiation can increase Aβ plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD.

  18. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Degenhardt, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to $300,000$ thin-walled drift tubes (straws) providing on average $30$ two-dimensional space points with $130$~$mu$m resolution for charged particle tracks with $|eta| < 2$ and $p_T > 0.5$~GeV. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation x-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. The custom-made radiation-hard front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold ($< 300$~eV) for registering the passage of minimum ionizing particles, and a high threshold ($> 6$~keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation x-rays. The TRT was successfully commissioned with data collected from several million cosmi...

  20. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  1. Topics on Cosmic Rays. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi Filho, J.; Pemmaraju, A.

    1984-01-01

    Some theoretical and experimental results concerning with cosmic radiation works or with related ones, mainly of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration, are presented in honor of the 60th aniversary of C.M.G. Lattes. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mashinistov, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| &lt; 2 and pT &gt; 0.5 GeV. The TRT is immersed in a 2 T magnetic field generated by the central solenoid, significantly contributing together with the other two Inner Detector sub-systems to the particle momentum reconstruction. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the first collision results show the increase in the number of detected TR-photons for particles with a gamma-factor abo...

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Cosmic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, S Yu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV. The TRT is immersed in a 2 T magnetic field generated by the central solenoid, significantly contributing together with the other two Inner Detector sub-systems to the particle momentum reconstruction. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. As expected from the production of transition radiation (TR), the first collision results show the increase in the number of detected TR-photons for particles with a gamma-factor above 1000, thus e...

  4. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1990-01-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  5. Cosmic transparency and acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  6. Impact of Massive Neutrinos and Dark Radiation on the High-redshift Cosmic Web. I. Lyα Forest Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Graziano

    2017-11-01

    With upcoming high-quality data from surveys such as the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, improving the theoretical modeling and gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of neutrinos and dark radiation on structure formation at small scales are necessary, to obtain robust constraints free from systematic biases. Using a novel suite of hydrodynamical simulations that incorporate dark matter, baryons, massive neutrinos, and dark radiation, we present a detailed study of their impact on Lyα forest observables. In particular, we accurately measure the tomographic evolution of the shape and amplitude of the small-scale matter and flux power spectra and search for unique signatures along with preferred scales where a neutrino mass detection may be feasible. We then investigate the thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) through the temperature-density relation. Our findings suggest that at k˜ 5 h {{Mpc}}-1 the suppression on the matter power spectrum induced by \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV} neutrinos can reach ˜ 4 % at z˜ 3 when compared to a massless neutrino cosmology, and ˜ 10 % if a massless sterile neutrino is included; surprisingly, we also find good agreement (˜ 2 % ) with some analytic predictions. For the 1D flux power spectrum {P}{ F }1{{D}}, the highest response to free-streaming effects is achieved at k˜ 0.005 {[{km}/{{s}}]}-1 when \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV}; this k-limit falls in the Lyα forest regime, making the small-scale {P}{ F }1{{D}} an excellent probe for detecting neutrino and dark radiation imprints. Our results indicate that the IGM at z˜ 3 provides the best sensitivity to active and sterile neutrinos.

  7. Testing the cosmic censorship conjecture with point particles: The effect of radiation reaction and the self-force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Khanna, Gaurav

    2011-11-01

    A classical thought-experiment to destroy black holes was envisaged by Wald in 1974: it consists of throwing particles with large angular momentum into an extremal black hole, checking whether their capture can overspin the black hole past the extremal limit and create a naked singularity. Wald showed that in the test-particle limit, particles that would be otherwise capable of producing naked singularities are simply scattered. Recently, Jacobson and Sotiriou showed that if one considers instead a black hole that is almost, but not exactly extremal, then in the absence of backreaction effects particle capture could indeed overspin the spacetime above the Kerr limit. Here we analyze backreaction effects and show that for some of the trajectories giving rise to naked singularities, radiative effects can be neglected. However, for these orbits the conservative self-force is important, and seems to have the right sign to prevent the formation of naked singularities.

  8. Testing the cosmic censorship conjecture with point particles: The effect of radiation reaction and the self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Khanna, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    A classical thought-experiment to destroy black holes was envisaged by Wald in 1974: it consists of throwing particles with large angular momentum into an extremal black hole, checking whether their capture can overspin the black hole past the extremal limit and create a naked singularity. Wald showed that in the test-particle limit, particles that would be otherwise capable of producing naked singularities are simply scattered. Recently, Jacobson and Sotiriou showed that if one considers instead a black hole that is almost, but not exactly extremal, then in the absence of backreaction effects particle capture could indeed overspin the spacetime above the Kerr limit. Here we analyze backreaction effects and show that for some of the trajectories giving rise to naked singularities, radiative effects can be neglected. However, for these orbits the conservative self-force is important, and seems to have the right sign to prevent the formation of naked singularities.

  9. Dust in cosmic plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Cosmic dust is invariably immersed in a plasma and a radiative environment. Consequently, it is charged to some electrostatic potential which depends on the properties of the environment as well as the nature of the dust. This charging affects the physical and dynamical properties of the dust. In this paper the basic aspects of this dust-plasma interaction in several cosmic environments - including planetary magnetospheres, the heliosphere and the interstellar medium - are discussed. The physical and dynamical consequences of the interaction, as well as the pertinent observational evidence, are reviewed. Finally, the importance of the surface charge during the condensation process in plasma environments is stressed. (Auth.)

  10. Study of the contribution of the different components of atmospheric cosmic radiation in dose received by the aircraft crew; Avaliacao da contribuicao dos diferentes componentes da radiacao cosmica atmosferica na dose em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A.; Prado, Adriane C.M., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The crews and aircraft passengers are exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation. The flow of this radiation is modulated by the solar cycle and space weather, varying with the geomagnetic latitude and altitude. This paper presents a study of the contributions of radiation in total ambient dose equivalent of the crews depending on flight altitude up to 20 km, during maximum and minimum solar and in equatorial and polar regions. The results of calculations of the particle flows generated by the EXPACS and QARM codes are used. The particles evaluated that contributing significantly in the ambient dose equivalent are neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, alphas, photons, muons and charged pions. This review allows us to characterize the origin of the dose received by crews and also support a project of a dosimetric system suitable for this ionizing radiation field in aircraft and on the ground.

  11. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  12. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  13. Cosmic rays and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K; Resconi, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated for the second edition, this book introduces the growing and dynamic field of particle astrophysics. It provides an overview of high-energy nuclei, photons and neutrinos, including their origins, their propagation in the cosmos, their detection on Earth and their relation to each other. Coverage is expanded to include new content on high energy physics, the propagation of protons and nuclei in cosmic background radiation, neutrino astronomy, high-energy and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sources and acceleration mechanisms, and atmospheric muons and neutrinos. Readers are able to master the fundamentals of particle astrophysics within the context of the most recent developments in the field. This book will benefit graduate students and established researchers alike, equipping them with the knowledge and tools needed to design and interpret their own experiments and, ultimately, to address a number of questions concerning the nature and origins of cosmic particles that have arisen in recent resea...

  14. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  15. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T; Un nouvel outil internet: le systeme d'information et d'evaluation par vol, de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aeriens SIEVERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  16. Existence of dark matter with observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation substantiates three conservation laws of classical physics and all principles of quantum mechanics as creates the value of Planck’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical data indicate a presence of dark matter (DM) in the space, what is necessary for explanation of observed dynamics of the galaxies within Newtonian mechanics. DM, at its very low density (∼10-26kg/m3), constitutes main part of the matter in the Universe, 10 times the mass of all visible cosmic bodies. No doubt, namely properties of DM, which fills space, must determine its physical properties and fundamental physical laws. Taking into account observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), whose energy is ∼90% of all cosmic radiation, and understanding that this radiation is produced by DM motion, conservation laws of classical physics and principles of quantum mechanics receive their materialistic substantiation. Thus, CMBR high homogeneity and isotropy (∼10-4), and hence the same properties of DM (and space) justify momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, respectively, according to E. Noether's theorems. CMBR has black body spectrum at ∼2.7K with maximum wavelength ∼1.9·10-3m, what allows calculate the value of mechanical action produced by DM thermal motion (∼7·10-34 J·s). This value corresponds well to the Planck’s constant, which is the mechanical action too, what gives materialistic basis for all principles of quantum mechanics. Obtained results directly confirm the reality of DM existence, and show that CMBR is an observed display of DM thermal motion. Understanding that namely from DM occur known creation of electron-positron pairs as contrarily rotating material vortexes (according to their spins) let substantiate positron nature of ball lightning what first explains all its observed specific properties.

  17. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray telescope. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers. 34 references

  18. Cosmic odyssey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, J.

    1989-01-01

    The immensity of the cosmos, the richness of the universe, the limits of space and time: these are the themes of Cosmic Odyssey, which takes the reader on imaginary journeys through the past, present and future of our universe. After a first look at the starry night sky, the enigmas posed since ancient times by the universe are reviewed. There then follows a broadbrush view of the universe as we understand it today. Following this, a trio of chapters take us to ultimate questions about its nature. The author explores in turn the relativistic universe, the quantum universe and the inflationary universe. Finally the journey returns to questions that touch on our own presence in the universe. Cosmology, the science of understanding the nature of the universe as a whole, has gone through an extraordinary revolution in its approach. This book explains in detail the link between particle physics and cosmology, the very early universe, the significance of Grand Unified Theory and superstrings, the magical qualities of the inflationary universe, and the seemingly bleak scenarios for the farthest future. (author)

  19. Cosmic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin

    1984-04-01

    In the remarkable opening section of this book, a well-known Cornell astronomer gives precise thumbnail histories of the 43 basic cosmic discoveries - stars, planets, novae, pulsars, comets, gamma-ray bursts, and the like - that form the core of our knowledge of the universe. Many of them, he points out, were made accidentally and outside the mainstream of astronomical research and funding. This observation leads him to speculate on how many more major phenomena there might be and how they might be most effectively sought out in afield now dominated by large instruments and complex investigative modes and observational conditions. The book also examines discovery in terms of its political, financial, and sociological context - the role of new technologies and of industry and the military in revealing new knowledge; and methods of funding, of peer review, and of allotting time on our largest telescopes. It concludes with specific recommendations for organizing astronomy in ways that will best lead to the discovery of the many - at least sixty - phenomena that Harwit estimates are still waiting to be found.

  20. MCNP6 Cosmic-Source Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Gregg W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Hirotatsu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clem, John [University of Delaware, BRI; Goldhagen, Paul [DHS, National Urban Security Technology Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    MCNP is a Monte Carlo radiation transport code that has been under development for over half a century. Over the last decade, the development team of a high-energy offshoot of MCNP, called MCNPX, has implemented several physics and algorithm improvements important for modeling galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) interactions with matter. In this presentation, we discuss the latest of these improvements, a new Cosmic-Source option, that has been implemented in MCNP6.

  1. Geometry and groups for cosmic topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background is measured by satellite observation with great precision. It offers insight into its origin in early states of the universe. Unexpected low multipole amplitudes of the incoming CMB radiation may be due to a multiply connected topology of cosmic 3-space. We present and analyze the geometry and homotopy for the family of Platonic spherical 3-manifolds, provide their harmonic analysis, and formulate topological selection rules.

  2. 14. European cosmic ray symposium. Symposium program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The abstracts of the 14. European Cosmic Ray Symposium are presented. The papers cover a large variety of topics in cosmic ray physics, both from the theoretical and the experimental point of view. Sun physics, and the effects on the inner heliosphere, the composition, and the properties of the primary and secondary cosmic radiation, galactic acceleration and the results of accelerator physics relevant to cosmic radiation physics, and the description and the results of large detector systems are presented. 63 items are indexed for INIS database. (K.A.)

  3. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  4. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 10 20 eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  5. Cosmic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  6. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  7. Seasonal variations of intensity of muons and electrons of decay in points of probe measurements of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurguzova, A.I.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    Altitude-dependent intensities of muon and electron decay are calculated for the summer and winter seasons in the regions of Murmansk, Moscow, Alma-Ata and Mirnyj (the Antarctica). Values of the calculated temperature coefficients of muonf and electron decay for three levels (50, 500 and 1000 g/cm 2 ) are given. Seasonal variations of the muone and electron intensities are practically the same for all the points at depths X > 300 g/cm 2 (approximately 5% for muons and approximately 1% for electrons); at depths X 2 in Mirnyj the variations are considerably higher than in other points. Seasonal variations of the cosmic ray intensity on the surface of the Earth make up approximately 4%, in the low atmosphere (X=500 g/cm 2 ) they make up approximately 2%. In Mirnyj the seasonal variations of cosmic rays in the stratosphere (X=50 g/cm 2 ) also make up approximately 2%

  8. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 24 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 241101. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  9. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  10. Irradiated ISM : Discriminating between cosmic rays and X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Israel, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    The interstellar medium ( ISM) at the centers of active galaxies is exposed to a combination of cosmic-ray, far-ultraviolet (FUV), and X-ray radiation. We apply photodissociation region (PDR) models to this ISM with both "normal" and highly elevated (5 x 10(-15) s(-1)) cosmic- ray (CR) rates and

  11. Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Anders Kirstejn

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the faint afterglow of the extreme conditions that existed shortly after Big Bang. The temperature of the CMB radiation across the sky is extremely uniform, yet tiny anisotropies are present, and have with recent satellite missions been mapped to very high...

  12. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  13. The origin of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    1986-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the origin of cosmic rays within the past decade. The success of equation in accounting for the observed properties of cosmic rays at both the general and the detailed level is a striking illustration that nature can do marvelous things with simple equations. This paper illustrates the important role of detailed, systematic spacecraft observations in the heliosphere in testing theories of relevance to the distant mysterious phenomena that pique the curiosity of astronomers. Tracing the origin of cosmic rays back to collisionless shocks has reminded plasma astrophysicists of how much remains to be understood about the physics of such shocks, which account for much of the radiation that high energy astrophysics is based upon. The X-ray emission from shock-heated electrons, for example, cannot be fully interpreted until the physics of the shocks is understood. It is hoped that plasma simulations of shocks combined with intensive studies of the relevant microphysics will eventually lead us to such an understanding

  14. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  15. Empirical model for the Earth's cosmic ray shadow at 400 KM: prohibited cosmic ray access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, J.E.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of constructing a unit sphere of access that describes the cosmic radiation allowed to an Earth-orbiting spacecraft is discussed. It is found that it is possible to model the occluded portion of the cosmic ray sphere of access as a circular projection with a diameter bounded by the satellite-Earth horizon. Maintaining tangency at the eastern edge of the spacecraft-Earth horizon, this optically occluded area is projected downward by an angle beta which is a function of the magnetic field inclination and cosmic ray arrival direction. This projected plane, corresponding to the forbidden area of cosmic ray access, is bounded by the spacecraft-Earth horizon in easterly directions, and is rotated around the vertical axis by an angle alpha from the eastern direction, where the angle alpha is a function of the offset dipole latitude of the spacecraft

  16. Deepening Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    This article is a special blend of research, theory, and practice, with clear insight into the origins of Cosmic Education and cosmic task, while recalling memories of student explorations in botany, in particular, episodes from Mr. Leonard's teaching. Mr. Leonard speaks of a storytelling curriculum that eloquently puts perspective into dimensions…

  17. On horizons and the Cosmic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2006-07-01

    Susskind claims in his recent book The Cosmic Landscape that evidence for the existence and nature of ‘pocket universes’ in a multiverse would be available in the detailed nature of the Cosmic Blackbody Background Radiation that constantly bathes all parts of our observable universe. I point out that acceptance of the complex chain of argument involved does not imply possible experimental verification of multiverses at the present time. Rather this claim relates only to theoretically possible observations in the very far future of the universe.

  18. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interaction with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodraski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli

    1998-01-01

    This final report outlines the progress of the contractor's support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP-08; Proposal No. 167-96 adp). The primary task object was to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV-30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor was to utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, HI and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky maps from I to 240 um, and ground-based B,V, J, H and K photometry. The respective contributions to the high-latitude gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray-matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extra-galactic emission were to be determined.

  19. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  20. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli

    2000-01-01

    The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 microns, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  1. Our Cosmic Insignificance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The universe that surrounds us is vast, and we are so very small. When we reflect on the vastness of the universe, our humdrum cosmic location, and the inevitable future demise of humanity, our lives can seem utterly insignificant. Many philosophers assume that such worries about our significance reflect a banal metaethical confusion. They dismiss the very idea of cosmic significance. This, I argue, is a mistake. Worries about cosmic insignificance do not express metaethical worries about objectivity or nihilism, and we can make good sense of the idea of cosmic significance and its absence. It is also possible to explain why the vastness of the universe can make us feel insignificant. This impression does turn out to be mistaken, but not for the reasons typically assumed. In fact, we might be of immense cosmic significance—though we cannot, at this point, tell whether this is the case. PMID:25729095

  2. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  4. Cosmic evolution in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Based on concepts drawn from the ekpyrotic scenario and M theory, we elaborate our recent proposal of a cyclic model of the universe. In this model, the universe undergoes an endless sequence of cosmic epochs which begin with the universe expanding from a 'big bang' and end with the universe contracting to a 'big crunch'. Matching from 'big crunch' to 'big bang' is performed according to the prescription recently proposed with Khoury, Ovrut and Seiberg. The expansion part of the cycle includes a period of radiation and matter domination followed by an extended period of cosmic acceleration at low energies. The cosmic acceleration is crucial in establishing the flat and vacuous initial conditions required for ekpyrosis and for removing the entropy, black holes, and other debris produced in the preceding cycle. By restoring the universe to the same vacuum state before each big crunch, the acceleration ensures that the cycle can repeat and that the cyclic solution is an attractor

  5. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  6. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  7. The absence of distortion in the cosmic microwave background spectrum and superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.

    1990-01-01

    From the results of recent measurements we place new constraints on superconducting cosmic strings (SCS) and on their cosmological evolution, independently of numerical simulation results. The absence of distortion in the cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR) spectrum recently reported from the preliminary data of the COBE (Cosmic background explorer) satellite, together with the available MBR angular temperature ΔT/T measurements and the latest fast pulsar timings, allow us to obtain (i) the electromagnetic-to-gravitational radiation ratio released by SCS loops, f -2 , (ii) the chemical potential due to SCS, μ 0SCS -3 , (iii) constraints on the loop evolution parameters which we confront to those given by numerical simulations, and (iv) limits on the string parameter Gμ: those obtained from COBE's data (Gμ -6 ) converge to those given by the latest PSR 1937+21 timing. Both limits on Gμ are reduced by an order of magnitude when taking into account numerical simulation results. (orig.)

  8. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  9. 11. European cosmic ray symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  10. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  11. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  12. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  13. Cosmic x ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  14. Cosmic Dust Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially...

  15. A COSMIC VARIANCE COOKBOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Somerville, Rachel S.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Deep pencil beam surveys ( 2 ) are of fundamental importance for studying the high-redshift universe. However, inferences about galaxy population properties (e.g., the abundance of objects) are in practice limited by 'cosmic variance'. This is the uncertainty in observational estimates of the number density of galaxies arising from the underlying large-scale density fluctuations. This source of uncertainty can be significant, especially for surveys which cover only small areas and for massive high-redshift galaxies. Cosmic variance for a given galaxy population can be determined using predictions from cold dark matter theory and the galaxy bias. In this paper, we provide tools for experiment design and interpretation. For a given survey geometry, we present the cosmic variance of dark matter as a function of mean redshift z-bar and redshift bin size Δz. Using a halo occupation model to predict galaxy clustering, we derive the galaxy bias as a function of mean redshift for galaxy samples of a given stellar mass range. In the linear regime, the cosmic variance of these galaxy samples is the product of the galaxy bias and the dark matter cosmic variance. We present a simple recipe using a fitting function to compute cosmic variance as a function of the angular dimensions of the field, z-bar , Δz, and stellar mass m * . We also provide tabulated values and a software tool. The accuracy of the resulting cosmic variance estimates (δσ v /σ v ) is shown to be better than 20%. We find that for GOODS at z-bar =2 and with Δz = 0.5, the relative cosmic variance of galaxies with m * >10 11 M sun is ∼38%, while it is ∼27% for GEMS and ∼12% for COSMOS. For galaxies of m * ∼ 10 10 M sun , the relative cosmic variance is ∼19% for GOODS, ∼13% for GEMS, and ∼6% for COSMOS. This implies that cosmic variance is a significant source of uncertainty at z-bar =2 for small fields and massive galaxies, while for larger fields and intermediate mass galaxies, cosmic

  16. Sky emission at 0.4 meV and beyond the EeV: cosmology and cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author gives an overview of his research activities in cosmology, and more particularly in the fields of cosmic rays (problematic of cosmic rays and the Pierre Auger Observatory, search for anisotropies in cosmic radiation, search for photons), and of the cosmologic diffuse background (cosmologic context, the Archeops experiment, bolometric interferometry) [fr

  17. Transformation of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation into reciprocal spaces and consequences of this approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 11 (2011), s. 1331-1347 ISSN 2153-120X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : CMB radiation * analysis of CMB spectrum * radial distribution function of objects * early universe cluster structure * density of ordinary matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Anders Kirstejn

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the faint afterglow of the extreme conditions that existed shortly after Big Bang. The temperature of the CMB radiation across the sky is extremely uniform, yet tiny anisotropies are present, and have with recent satellite missions been mapped to very high...... accuracy. The information which the CMB provides has helped in creating the current standard cosmological model - the CDM model - and the theory of cosmic inflation as well as constrain a vast amount of cosmological parameters. The accuracy of observations of the CMB radiation is thus of extreme importance...... the observed CMB signal. We assume that emission from the Kuiper belt around the solar system in combination with a dipole modulation of the signal due to an unknown systematic effect may explain both the observed parity asymmetry, as well as the peculiar alignment of the quadrupole and octupole. We find...

  20. Cosmic archeology with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Wuensche de Souza

    2010-03-01

    how the Universe "started" and evolved to what we see today. We will discuss in this article some challenges faced by modern cosmology to be able to describe our Universe and how CMBR observations can help in this task.

  1. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  2. Cosmic Ray Production in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Marcowith, A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above 10^{18} eV over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.

  3. Statistical Physics for Cosmic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The physics of scale-invariant and complex systems is a novel interdisciplinary field. Its ideas allow us to look at natural phenomena in a radically new and original way, eventually leading to unifying concepts independent of the detailed structure of the systems. The objective is the study of complex, scale-invariant, and more general stochastic structures that appear both in space and time in a vast variety of natural phenomena, which exhibit new types of collective behaviors, and the fostering of their understanding. This book has been conceived as a methodological monograph in which the main methods of modern statistical physics for cosmological structures and density fields (galaxies, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, etc.) are presented in detail. The main purpose is to present clearly, to a workable level, these methods, with a certain mathematical accuracy, providing also some paradigmatic examples of applications. This should result in a new and more general framework for the statistical analys...

  4. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Cuesta, Antonio J; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Lesgourgues, Julien; Niro, Viviana; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Poulin, Vivian; Tram, Thomas; Tramonte, Denis; Verde, Licia

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effectiv...

  5. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  6. Heterotic cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion

  7. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  8. ACCESS - Another Step in NASA's Cosmic Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas; Wefel, John

    2000-10-01

    ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is a new mission payload concept planned for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of NASA's Cosmic Journeys initiative [1,2]. Currently manifested for launch in 2007, ACCESS will address several basic questions regarding cosmic rays - their origin, composition, and acceleration mechanisms. These science goals take advantage of the ISS as an observational platform capable of handling large massive payloads for long-duration measurements in orbit above the Earth's atmosphere at the threshold of space. ACCESS combines well-established techniques of charged-particle identification in a 5.5-metric-ton instrument with approximately 6-m^2 aperature and a three- or four-year stay on-orbit. This will allow ACCESS to go far beyond the results of balloon-borne detectors. The ACCESS instrument, consisting primarily of a transition radiation detector and a calorimeter, should make valuable measurements of nuclei throughout the periodic table at spectral energies up to the "knee" in the neighborhood of 10^15 eV. [1] ACCESS, A Cosmic Journey, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (2000). [2] Wilson, T., & Wefel, J., eds., ACCESS Accommodation Study Report, NASA TP-1999-209202 (1999).

  9. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  10. COSMIC: A Regimen of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plus Dose-Escalated, Raster-Scanned Carbon Ion Boost for Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Results of the Prospective Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Alexandra D., E-mail: alexdjensen@gmx.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Nikoghosyan, Anna V.; Lossner, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre, Heidelberg (Germany); Münter, Marc W.; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dose-escalated carbon ion (C12) therapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and other malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGTs) of the head and neck. Patients and Methods: COSMIC (combined treatment of malignant salivary gland tumors with intensity modulated radiation therapy and carbon ions) is a prospective phase 2 trial of 24 Gy(RBE) C12 followed by 50 Gy IMRT in patients with pathologically confirmed MSGT. The primary endpoint is mucositis Common Terminology Criteria grade 3; the secondary endpoints are locoregional control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3; treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. Results: Between July 2010 and August 2011, 54 patients were accrued, and 53 were available for evaluation. The median follow-up time was 42 months; patients with microscopically incomplete resections (R1, n=20), gross residual disease (R2, n=17), and inoperable disease (n=16) were included. Eighty-nine percent of patients had ACC, and 57% had T4 tumors. The most common primary sites were paranasal sinus (34%), submandibular gland, and palate. At the completion of radiation therapy, 26% of patients experienced grade 3 mucositis, and 20 patients reported adverse events of the ear (38%). The most common observed late effects were grade 1 xerostomia (49%), hearing impairment (25%, 2% ipsilateral hearing loss), and adverse events of the eye (20%), but no visual impairment or loss of vision. Grade 1 central nervous system necrosis occurred in 6%, and 1 grade 4 ICA hemorrhage without neurologic sequelae. The best response was 54% (complete response/partial remission). At 3 years, the LC, PFS, and OS were 81.9%, 57.9%, and 78.4%, respectively. No difference was found regarding resection status. The

  11. Measurements of cosmic-ray doses in commercial airline cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M.; Fujitaka, K.; Izumo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses which aircrew and air passengers receive in airplanes have been calling attention in many countries especially in the last decade. In this relation, various types of information had been reported on cosmic radiation intensity. In Japan, the cosmic radiation intensity had been measured in commercial airline cabins as well as chartered flights. While the intensity depends on altitude, geomagnetic latitude (or cutoff rigidity), and temporal variation of the solar activity, their doses are often speculated based on paper records on airflights combined with the intensity-altitude relationship. In this study, however, efforts were made to estimate more realistic integrated doses in airline cabins based on actual on-board measurements which had been conducted several dozens of times in each year (e.g., 45 times in 1994 and 27 times in 1995). (author)

  12. Modeling Space Radiation with Bleomycin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is a mixed field of solar particle events (proton) and particles of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with different energy levels. These radiation events...

  13. Galactic propagation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    After introducing various phenomenological models of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy, we examine how some of them fare when compared to the data. We show that a model based on resonant diffusion of cosmic rays off an interstellar spectrum of hydromagnetic waves can account for the presently available evidence on cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  14. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Bravo, S.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Plewa, M.; Schultz, D.; Tosi, D.; BenZvi, S.; Jensen, K.; Peacock, J.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Simons, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available

  15. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  16. Tracing the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Falck, Bridget; Tempel, Elmo; Abel, Tom; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Kitaura, Francisco; Knebe, Alexander; Manti, Serena; Neyrinck, Mark; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Padilla, Nelson; Platen, Erwin; Ramachandra, Nesar; Robotham, Aaron; Saar, Enn; Shandarin, Sergei; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stoica, Radu S.; Sousbie, Thierry; Yepes, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic web is one of the most striking features of the distribution of galaxies and dark matter on the largest scales in the Universe. It is composed of dense regions packed full of galaxies, long filamentary bridges, flattened sheets and vast low-density voids. The study of the cosmic web has focused primarily on the identification of such features, and on understanding the environmental effects on galaxy formation and halo assembly. As such, a variety of different methods have been devised to classify the cosmic web - depending on the data at hand, be it numerical simulations, large sky surveys or other. In this paper, we bring 12 of these methods together and apply them to the same data set in order to understand how they compare. In general, these cosmic-web classifiers have been designed with different cosmological goals in mind, and to study different questions. Therefore, one would not a priori expect agreement between different techniques; however, many of these methods do converge on the identification of specific features. In this paper, we study the agreements and disparities of the different methods. For example, each method finds that knots inhabit higher density regions than filaments, etc. and that voids have the lowest densities. For a given web environment, we find a substantial overlap in the density range assigned by each web classification scheme. We also compare classifications on a halo-by-halo basis; for example, we find that 9 of 12 methods classify around a third of group-mass haloes (i.e. Mhalo ∼ 1013.5 h-1 M⊙) as being in filaments. Lastly, so that any future cosmic-web classification scheme can be compared to the 12 methods used here, we have made all the data used in this paper public.

  17. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlers Markus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios.

  18. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments

  19. Cosmic ray electrons and protons, and their antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezio, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.boezio@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Cosmic rays are a sample of solar, galactic, and extragalactic matter. Their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and subsequent propagation toward Earth have intrigued scientists since their discovery. These issues can be studied via analysis of the energy spectra and composition of cosmic rays. Protons are the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, and many experiments have been dedicated to the accurate measurement of their spectra. Complementary information is provided by electrons, which comprise about 1% of the cosmic radiation. Because of their low mass, electrons experience severe energy losses through synchrotron emission in the galactic magnetic field and inverse Compton scattering of radiation fields. Electrons therefore provide information on the local galactic environment that is not accessible from the study of the cosmic ray nuclei. Antiparticles, namely antiprotons and positrons, are produced in the interaction between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar matter. They are therefore intimately linked to the propagation mechanisms of the parent nuclei. Novel sources of primary cosmic ray antiparticles of either astrophysical (e.g., positrons from pulsars) or exotic origin (e.g., annihilation of dark matter particles) may exist. The nature of dark matter is one of the most prominent open questions in science today. An observation of positrons from pulsars would open a new observation window on these sources. Several experiments equipped with state-of-the art detector systems have recently presented results on the energy spectra of electrons, protons, and their antiparticles with a significant improvement in statistics and better control of systematics The status of the field will be reviewed, with a focus on these recent scientific results. (author)

  20. Dark cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping-Kai, E-mail: pingkai.hu@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kusenko, Alexander, E-mail: kusenko@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takhistov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vtakhist@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  1. Dark cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Kai Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Most of our results are fairly general and apply to a broad class of dark matter models.

  2. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  3. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, Benjamin [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Verde, Licia [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi [Dept. d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Niro, Viviana [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Tramonte, Denis [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Poulin, Vivian [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, B.P.110, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941 (France); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effective parameters do not vary significantly when considering an arbitrary value of the particle mass, or extended cosmological models with a free effective neutrino number, dynamical dark energy or a running of the primordial spectrum tilt. We conclude that it is possible to make a robust statement about the detection of the cosmic neutrino background by CMB experiments.

  4. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  5. PAMELA mission: heralding a new era in cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciarini S. B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After seven years of data taking in space, the experiment PAMELA is showing very interesting features in cosmic rays, namely in the fluxes of protons, helium, electrons, that might change our basic vision of the mechanisms of production, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy. In addition, PAMELA measurements of cosmic antiproton and positron fluxes are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter. The continuous particle detection is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms. PAMELA is also measuring the radiation environment around the Earth, and has recently discovered an antiproton radiation belt.

  6. Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, M

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB

  7. Photon-graviton conversion in a primordial magnetic field and the cosmic microwave background

    OpenAIRE

    Cillis, Analia N.; Harari, Diego D.

    1996-01-01

    We reconsider the effects of photon-graviton conversion in a primordial magnetic field upon the cosmic microwave background radiation. We argue that plasma effects make the photon-graviton conversion process negligible.

  8. Cosmic radiation exposure: work-place study about air-crew in the French Air-force flying on board the E-3F; Exposition au rayonnement cosmique: surveillance du personnel de l'Armee de l'air navigant sur E-3F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagnet, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P. [Service de Protection Tadiologique des Armees (SPRA), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2007-04-15

    This workplace study is allowed to cosmic radiation of aircraft-crews. In a first time, the work is based on measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rates on board the E-3F aircraft. These results are supplemented by measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosemeters. Above 10 000 meters and 200 hours per year, the aircraft-crews flying on board the E-3F aircraft are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey of the aircraft-crews corresponding to these flight criteria. (authors)

  9. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Michael, E-mail: michael.walter@desy.de

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  10. Modern status of the Tien-Shan cosmic ray station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the first measurements made there in 2015–2016. We also present new results on high-energy radiation observed during a thunderstorm.

  11. Fingerprints of Galactic Loop I on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the "radio loops" in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where...

  12. Missing dust signature in the cosmic microwave background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 470, č. 1 (2017), L44-L48 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : dust, extinction * galaxies: high redshift * galaxies: ISM * intergalactic medium * cosmic background radiation * early Universe Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  13. Imprints of microcausality violation on the cosmic microwave background

    OpenAIRE

    Kobakhidze, Archil

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Heisenberg algebra with the non-vanishing commutator of scalar field operators. We then identify the scalar field with the second quantized inflaton fluctuation and calculate effects of microcausality violation on the temperature anisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation.

  14. Effect of high altitude cosmic irradiation upon cell generation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Croute, F.; Tixador, R.; Blanquet, Y.; Planel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Paramecia cultures placed at 3800 meter altitude show a proliferating activity acceleration compared to control cultures placed at low altitude under the same environment conditions. These results confirm the cosmic irradiation influence upon the activating effect produced by the natural ionizing radiations on living organisms [fr

  15. Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants have long been considered to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays. For a long time the prime evidence consisted of radio synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants, indicating the presence of electrons with energies of several GeV. However, in order to explain the

  16. Nuclear Physics Meets the Sources of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncioli, Denise; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter

    2017-07-07

    The determination of the injection composition of cosmic ray nuclei within astrophysical sources requires sufficiently accurate descriptions of the source physics and the propagation - apart from controlling astrophysical uncertainties. We therefore study the implications of nuclear data and models for cosmic ray astrophysics, which involves the photo-disintegration of nuclei up to iron in astrophysical environments. We demonstrate that the impact of nuclear model uncertainties is potentially larger in environments with non-thermal radiation fields than in the cosmic microwave background. We also study the impact of nuclear models on the nuclear cascade in a gamma-ray burst radiation field, simulated at a level of complexity comparable to the most precise cosmic ray propagation code. We conclude with an isotope chart describing which information is in principle necessary to describe nuclear interactions in cosmic ray sources and propagation.

  17. Cosmic Education: Formation of a Planetary and Cosmic Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaluk Oleg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The major stages of development of cosmic pedagogy have been researched. Based on the achievements of the modern neurosciences as well as of psychology, cosmology, and philosophy, the authors provide their reasoning for the cosmic education and its outlooks for the educational systems of the world. Through the studies of how important human mind is for the Earth and the cosmos and by researching the evolution of human mind within the structure of the Universe, the authors create a more advanced scientific and philosophic basis for the cosmic education where the subject is a comprehensive process of formation and directed progress of both an individual mind and a conglomerate of minds called the "psychospace". The cosmic education researches the permanent progress of the intelligent matter of the Earth. The purpose of the cosmic education has been determined as formation of a planetary and cosmic personality. According to the authors, a planetary and cosmic personality is a harmony of mind, soul, and body, and such harmony is directed to use the internal creative potential of mind to the benefit of the intelligent matter of the entire Earth and the cosmos. The properties of such a planetary and cosmic personality are being improved continuously; they are a sample (the ideal of the cosmic pedagogy and the image of a human being of the future. Through the usage of the entire potential and art of upbringing and educating, the cosmic pedagogy is called to embody the major properties of the image of a human being of the future in the new generations of minds and to form a planetary and cosmic personality capable of self-actualization to the benefit of the permanent progress of the intelligent matter.

  18. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  19. Cu Hybrid 4 Channel Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Torres, F. J.; Hernández Morquecho, M. A.; Arceo, L.; Félix, J.

    2017-10-01

    There are, in the universe, several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth´s atmosphere and create new low energy particles. To detect them there are different methods, according to the interaction with a medium such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 4 channels was designed, built and tested at the Laboratorio de Partículas Elementales of the Universidad de Guanajuato. A Copper bar was used as detection material, both smaller area faces have an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The ionization channels were tested simultaneously, observing the analogic signal on an oscilloscope. The RC circuit and discriminator were designed to be on the same board; with the discriminator we can digitize the analogic signal. Details of the design, construction and testing of the ionization channel are presented.

  20. Simulation of cosmic ray interaction at Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator experiments provide the basis for the development of physical models describing the production of cosmogenic nuclides by cosmic ray particles. Here, experiments are presented by which the irradiation of stony and iron meteoroids in space by galactic cosmic ray protons was successfully simulated; two thick spherical targets made of gabbro and of steel with radii of 25 and 10 cm, respectively, were isotropically irradiated with 1.6 GeV protons at LNS. The artificial meteoroids contained large numbers of individual small targets of up to 27 elements in which the depth-dependent production of radioactive and stable nuclides was analyzed by model calculations based on depth-dependent spectra of primary and secondary particles calculated by the HERMES code system and on experimental and theoretical thin-target cross sections. Due to the results of the two simulation experiments at LNS a consistent modelling of cosmogenic nuclide production rates in stony and iron meteorites was achieved for the first time which allows to interpret the observed abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in stony and iron meteorites with respect to their exposure histories and to describe the history of the cosmic radiation itself. (author)

  1. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  2. Cosmic radiation and the Earth rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pil'nik, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of classical astronomical observations of time, waves of nonuniformity in the Earth rotation were found. The wave with the period of 159sup(m).566 is very close to the period of global oscillations of the Sun surface 160sup(m).r-1 and to the period of the Germinga gamma-ray radiatnon 159sup(m).96. The necessity is pointed out of a detailed study of the Earth rotation in the days of great developments of astrophysical and geophysical research

  3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  4. Studies in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1974-03-01

    The investigation of the diurnal variation in the cosmic ray intensity on individual days has revealed a new class of diurnal variation showing a maximum around 09 hour direction in the interplanetary space. It is shown to occur during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases as well as during quiet periods. The rigidity spectrum of the anomalous diurnal variation has an exponent around zero, the same as that for the average diurnal variation exhibiting maximum around 18 hours in the interplanetary space. It is shown that the Forbush decreases associated with the diurnal variation exhibiting morning maximum, are 27 day recurrent in nature and are preceded by east limb solar flares on most of the occasions. A qualitative model of the transient modulation by solar corotating corpuscular streams of enhanced solar wind velocity, emanating from the active regions on the solar disc, is proposed to explain the anomalous diurnal anisotropy in the recovery phase of 27 day recurrent Forbush decreases. From this model, the cosmic ray diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field inside the corotating stream, are derived and compared with the average values. To investigate the possibility of determining the energy spectra of cosmic ray intensity variations from a single station, a continuous record of neutron multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for the period October, 1967 - October, 1971, using the Gulmarg neutron monitor. The average multiplicity spectrum in the Gulmarg neutron monitor shows a mean multiplicity approximately equal to 1.4 for 12 Boron-tri-fluoride counters and is an increasing function of the number of counters used. The mean multiplicity measured in various other neutron monitors, when normalized to the cutoff rigidity of Gulmurg (11.91 GV), shows a systematic increase with the altitude of the station. (author)

  5. Anatomy of a cosmic jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic jets are thought to arise from a supermassive, compact object at the center of a galaxy or quasar - probably a rotating black hole with a mass of several billion suns. According to current theory, gas spiraling in toward the black hole becomes compressed and superheated. Much of the gas falls into the black hole, but the rest is discharged along the poles of the hole, either squirted out by radiation pressure in the disk or caught up in magnetic field lines issuing from the black hole. These whirling magnetic field lines act like eggbeaters, churning out gas at very high velocities. Among well-observed ratio galaxies and quasars, jets are not uncommon features: hundreds have been cataloged in a variety of configurations. What distinguishes the M87 jet from all other jets, however, is its proximity to our Galaxy. Lying only 55 million light-years away, the M87 jet is the nearest known jet observable from the Northern Hemisphere. This makes it the most accessible for detailed study. One of the most important results learned from the VLA observations is that the interior of the jet may be hollow. Instead of being filled with hot, rapidly flowing material, the jet may be a nonradiating conduit for high-energy electrons rushing out of the galaxy's nucleus. Optical and radio emission would be produced when the electrons encountered the boundary between the jet and the denser interstellar medium

  6. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  7. Discovery of cosmic fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This is the first book to present the fascinating new results on the largest fractal structures in the universe. It guides the reader, in a simple way, to the frontiers of astronomy, explaining how fractals appear in cosmic physics, from our solar system to the megafractals in deep space. It also offers a personal view of the history of the idea of self-similarity and of cosmological principles, from Plato's ideal architecture of the heavens to Mandelbrot's fractals in the modern physical cosmos. In addition, this invaluable book presents the great fractal debate in astronomy (after Luciano Pi

  8. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  9. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  10. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  11. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  12. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  13. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  14. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  15. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  16. Supernova origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, C. L.; Houston, B. P.

    Evidence has recently been presented from gamma-ray observations for the acceleration of cosmic rays in the Loop I supernova remnant. The cosmic ray intensity thus inferred is in agreement with the predictions of the shock acceleration model of Blandford and Cowie (1980). Here, this model is examined further, specifically by comparing its predictions with the presently available information on the cosmic-ray pre-history as well as with the cosmic ray anisotropy measurements in the energy range 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 15th eV. A cosmic ray conversion efficiency of 10-20 percent is found sufficient to exlain the observations. The present study leads also to the interesting suggestion that the bump observed in the primary energy spectrum at 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 15th eV may be due to an excess contribution from local supernovae.

  17. Cosmic ray energetics and mass (CREAM) calibrating a cosmic ray calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, S H; Alford, R; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Malinin, A; Schindhelm, E; Wang, J Z; Wu, J; Beatty, J J; Coutu, S; Minnick, S A; Nutter, S; Duvernois, M A; Choi, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Park, I H; Swordy, S P

    2002-01-01

    CREAM is slated to fly as the first NASA ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) payload in late 2003. On this 60-plus-day flight CREAM is expected to collect more direct high-energy cosmic ray events than the current world total. With three such flights CREAM is expected to have a proton energy reach above 5*10/sup 14/ eV, probing near 100 Te V for the predicted kink in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. With a transition radiation detector (TRD) above a sampling tungsten /scintillator calorimeter, an in-flight cross-calibration of the absolute energy scale becomes possible with heavy ions. We report on results from a 2001 beam test of the calorimeter in an SPS beam at the European High Energy Physics lab (CERN) and on the planned in- flight calibration. (7 refs).

  18. 1912 – 2012: a century of studying cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    One year ago, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was docked to the International Space Station. This state-of-the-art tool for studying cosmic rays has revolutionised methods of detecting cosmic radiation, which was discovered barely a century ago.   Victor Francis Hess (in the basket), back from his balloon flight in August 1912. Source: American Physical Society. Exactly one hundred years ago, the Austrian-American physicist Victor Francis Hess discovered cosmic rays. The researcher observed the phenomenon while on board a balloon; he found that at an altitude of 1,000 to 5,000 metres, the wires of his Wulf electrometer (a tool used to measure radiation) showed an increase in electrical charge. Hess had just proven the existence of ionising radiation coming from outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Twenty years or so later, the invention of the Geiger-Müller counter enabled physicists to study the properties of the rays more precisely. One century later, cosmic rays and the ques...

  19. Cosmic mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Barger, Vernon; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2018-03-01

    We argue that if ultrahigh-energy (E ≳1010GeV) cosmic rays are heavy nuclei (as indicated by existing data), then the pointing of cosmic rays to their nearest extragalactic sources is expected for 1010.6 ≲ E /GeV ≲1011. This is because for a nucleus of charge Ze and baryon number A, the bending of the cosmic ray decreases as Z / E with rising energy, so that pointing to nearby sources becomes possible in this particular energy range. In addition, the maximum energy of acceleration capability of the sources grows linearly in Z, while the energy loss per distance traveled decreases with increasing A. Each of these two points tend to favor heavy nuclei at the highest energies. The traditional bi-dimensional analyses, which simultaneously reproduce Auger data on the spectrum and nuclear composition, may not be capable of incorporating the relative importance of all these phenomena. In this paper we propose a multi-dimensional reconstruction of the individual emission spectra (in E, direction, and cross-correlation with nearby putative sources) to study the hypothesis that primaries are heavy nuclei subject to GZK photo-disintegration, and to determine the nature of the extragalactic sources. More specifically, we propose to combine information on nuclear composition and arrival direction to associate a potential clustering of events with a 3-dimensional position in the sky. Actually, both the source distance and maximum emission energy can be obtained through a multi-parameter likelihood analysis to accommodate the observed nuclear composition of each individual event in the cluster. We show that one can track the level of GZK interactions on an statistical basis by comparing the maximum energy at the source of each cluster. We also show that nucleus-emitting-sources exhibit a cepa stratis structure on Earth which could be pealed off by future space-missions, such as POEMMA. Finally, we demonstrate that metal-rich starburst galaxies are highly-plausible candidate

  20. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  1. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  2. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  4. Overproduction of cosmic superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, Neil; Berndsen, Aaron; Cline, James M.; Stoica, Horace

    2005-01-01

    We show that the naive application of the Kibble mechanism seriously underestimates the initial density of cosmic superstrings that can be formed during the annihilation of D-branes in the early universe, as in models of brane-antibrane inflation. We study the formation of defects in effective field theories of the string theory tachyon both analytically, by solving the equation of motion of the tachyon field near the core of the defect, and numerically, by evolving the tachyon field on a lattice. We find that defects generically form with correlation lengths of order M s -1 rather than H -1 . Hence, defects localized in extra dimensions may be formed at the end of inflation. This implies that brane-antibrane inflation models where inflation is driven by branes which wrap the compact manifold may have problems with overclosure by cosmological relics, such as domain walls and monopoles

  5. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  6. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  7. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors γ ∝ O(10 11 ). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous γ-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic γ-rays. For multi TeV γ-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects next to them - as probable UHECR sources. (orig.)

  8. THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, James C.; Michael Shull, J.; Snow, Theodore P.; Stocke, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 391-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Beland, Stephane; Burgh, Eric B.; Danforth, Charles; France, Kevin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ebbets, Dennis [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Heap, Sara H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Leitherer, Claus; Sembach, Kenneth [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Savage, Blair D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Siegmund, Oswald H. W. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Spencer, John; Alan Stern, S. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Welsh, Barry [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009 May, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F{sub {lambda}} Almost-Equal-To 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} A{sup -1}, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle modes) in 1%-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (2009 September-2011 June) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is nine times than sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of 2011 June. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Ly{alpha} absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the He II reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  9. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steve; Ebbets, Dennis; Heap, Sara H.; Leitherer, Claus; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth; Shull, J. Michael; a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120013029'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120013029_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120013029_hide'); "> hide

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a moderate-resolution spectrograph with unprecedented sensitivity that was installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009, during HST Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125). We present the design philosophy and summarize the key characteristics of the instrument that will be of interest to potential observers. For faint targets, with flux F(sub lambda) approximates 1.0 X 10(exp -14) ergs/s/cm2/Angstrom, COS can achieve comparable signal to noise (when compared to STIS echelle modes) in 1-2% of the observing time. This has led to a significant increase in the total data volume and data quality available to the community. For example, in the first 20 months of science operation (September 2009 - June 2011) the cumulative redshift pathlength of extragalactic sight lines sampled by COS is 9 times that sampled at moderate resolution in 19 previous years of Hubble observations. COS programs have observed 214 distinct lines of sight suitable for study of the intergalactic medium as of June 2011. COS has measured, for the first time with high reliability, broad Lya absorbers and Ne VIII in the intergalactic medium, and observed the HeII reionization epoch along multiple sightlines. COS has detected the first CO emission and absorption in the UV spectra of low-mass circumstellar disks at the epoch of giant planet formation, and detected multiple ionization states of metals in extra-solar planetary atmospheres. In the coming years, COS will continue its census of intergalactic gas, probe galactic and cosmic structure, and explore physics in our solar system and Galaxy.

  10. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  11. Interaction of cosmic strings with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Garfinkle, D.

    1990-01-01

    We find solutions of Einstein's equation representing a gravitational wave interacting with a cosmic-string traveling wave. The motion of test cosmic strings in the gravitational field of a cosmic-string traveling wave is also examined. A solution representing traveling waves on several parallel cosmic strings is also found

  12. The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: d.regan@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.

  13. Is the Cosmic Microwave Background a Shell Around Us? or are the Microwaves Everywhere in the Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John

    2015-01-01

    A: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation fills the universe and travels in all directions. As we see it from here in satellite maps, it is about equally bright in all directions, and thats one of the main reasons we know its cosmic.

  14. Active Radiation Shield, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DEC-Shield technology offers the means to generate electric power from cosmic radiation sources and fuse dissimilar systems and functionality into a structural...

  15. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  16. Experimental aspects of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Sommers, P

    2006-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays are detected as extensive air showers, and properties of the primary cosmic rays are deduced from measurements of those air showers. The physics of air showers is reviewed here in order to explain how the measurement techniques work. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory (near this school in Malargue) is used to illustrate the experimental methods. The Auger Observatory combines a surface array of water Cherenkov detectors with atmospheric uorescence detectors. This `hybrid' measurement technique provides high resolution and measurement cross-checks. In conjunction with a complementary site in the northern hemisphere, the Auger Observatory expects to map the arrival directions over the full sky as well as measuring the cosmic-ray energy spectrum and statistical properties of the mass distribution.

  17. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, K S; Harrison, R G; Kirkby, J

    2002-11-29

    It has been proposed that Earth's climate could be affected by changes in cloudiness caused by variations in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere. This proposal stems from an observed correlation between cosmic ray intensity and Earth's average cloud cover over the course of one solar cycle. Some scientists question the reliability of the observations, whereas others, who accept them as reliable, suggest that the correlation may be caused by other physical phenomena with decadal periods or by a response to volcanic activity or El Niño. Nevertheless, the observation has raised the intriguing possibility that a cosmic ray-cloud interaction may help explain how a relatively small change in solar output can produce much larger changes in Earth's climate. Physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain how cosmic rays could affect clouds, but they need to be investigated further if the observation is to become more than just another correlation among geophysical variables.

  18. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  19. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, F.; Bucher, M.; Achúcarro, A.; Ballardini, M.; Bartolo, N.; Baumann, D.; Clesse, S.; Errard, J.; Handley, W.; Hindmarsh, M.; Kiiveri, K.; Kunz, M.; Lasenby, A.; Liguori, M.; Paoletti, D.; Ringeval, C.; Väliviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; de Bernardis, P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Borril, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, G.; Challinor, A.; Chluba, J.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; D'Amico, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desjacques, V.; De Zotti, G.; Diego, J. M.; Di Valentino, E.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J. R.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; García-Bellido, J.; de Gasperis, G.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Hazra, D. K.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Hu, B.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kovetz, E. D.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lattanzi, M.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Lindholm, V.; Lizarraga, J.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Martínez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; McCarthy, D.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Oppizzi, F.; Paiella, A.; Pajer, E.; Patanchon, G.; Patil, S. P.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Ravenni, A.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Roest, D.; Roman, M.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Salvati, L.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Tartari, A.; Tasinato, G.; Tomasi, M.; Torrado, J.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tucker, C.; Urrestilla, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    We forecast the scientific capabilities to improve our understanding of cosmic inflation of CORE, a proposed CMB space satellite submitted in response to the ESA fifth call for a medium-size mission opportunity. The CORE satellite will map the CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization in 19 frequency channels spanning the range 60–600 GHz. CORE will have an aggregate noise sensitivity of 1.7 μKṡ arcmin and an angular resolution of 5' at 200 GHz. We explore the impact of telescope size and noise sensitivity on the inflation science return by making forecasts for several instrumental configurations. This study assumes that the lower and higher frequency channels suffice to remove foreground contaminations and complements other related studies of component separation and systematic effects, which will be reported in other papers of the series "Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE." We forecast the capability to determine key inflationary parameters, to lower the detection limit for the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to the 10‑3 level, to chart the landscape of single field slow-roll inflationary models, to constrain the epoch of reheating, thus connecting inflation to the standard radiation-matter dominated Big Bang era, to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, to constrain the contribution from isocurvature perturbations to the 10‑3 level, to improve constraints on the cosmic string tension to a level below the presumptive GUT scale, and to improve the current measurements of primordial non-Gaussianities down to the fNLlocal level. For all the models explored, CORE alone will improve significantly on the present constraints on the physics of inflation. Its capabilities will be further enhanced by combining with complementary future cosmological observations.

  20. The Cosmic Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  1. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  2. Illustrated cosmic monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Seagrave, Wyken

    2015-01-01

    Truly bizarre, utterly unique I've never read a novel quite like this before. The author takes you on an exciting adventure full of unforgettable and vivid imagery. Solidly written with each character's personality shining through. If you find physics fascinating you will not be disappointed by the author's keen intellect and clear understanding of this most challenging (for me anyway) scientific subject. This is not a novel I will forget anytime soon, I would highly recommend it. Andrewly Very imaginative tale Anybody interested in a very imaginative and engrossing sci fi story needs to check this one out. I have been reading sci fi for decades and this story has elements that surprise me which is very unusual considering the number of novels and stories I have over the years. ric freeman Summary of the story The cosmic monopole has been wandering the Universe since it was created in the Big Bang. Its existence is fundamental to the way the Universe works. It is finally trapped by the powerful magnetic f...

  3. A Study of the Link between Cosmic Rays and Clouds with a Cloud Chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laakso, L K; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P K; Duarte branco da silva santos, F; Stojkov, Y; Jud, W; Wurm, F; Pinterich, T; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Kreissl, F C; Minginette, P; Azeredo lima, J M; Kulmala, M T; Petaja, T T; Volkamer, R M; Schafer, M; Rodrigues tome, A; Viisanen, Y A; Onnela, A T O; Kristic, R; Ehrhart, S K; Amorim, A J; Maksumov, O; Kupc, A; Sitals, R P; Dunne, E M; Riipinen, I A; Downard, A J; Virtanen, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Schuchmann, S; Kvashnin, A; Hansel, A; Vrtala, A; Schallhart, S; Yan, C; Stratmann, F; Pinto mogo, S I; Makhmutov, V; Riccobono, F; Weingartner, E P; Kurten, C A; Rondo, L; Ruuskanen, T M; Finkenzeller, H F; Laaksonen, A J; De menezes, L; Hauser, D; Kajos, M K; Schmitt, T M; Mathot, S; Wasem, A; Guida, R; Metzger, A E; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Flagan, R C; Wex, H D

    2002-01-01

    Three recent independent observations suggest that galactic cosmic rays may exert a significant influence on the climate. Firstly, satellite data suggest a positive correlation between variations of cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of Earth covered by low clouds. Secondly, palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for an association between cosmic ray intensity and climate over the last 10 kyr and at earlier times. Finally, the presence of ion-induced nucleation of new aerosol in the atmosphere is supported by recent observations. If cosmic rays do indeed enhance aerosol production and low cloud formation, this could exert a strong cooling influence on the radiative energy balance of Earth. Physical mechanisms by which cosmic rays may affect aerosol and clouds have been proposed and modelled, but definitive experiments are lacking. The aim of CLOUD is to investigate the nature and significance of cosmic ray-aerosol-cloud mechanisms under controlled laboratory conditions using the T11 beam at the CER...

  4. Measurements of Background Gamma Radiation on Some Localities of North-East Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    , G. Hodolli; , Y. Halimi; , R. Gashi; , Se. Kadiri; , B. Xhafa; , A. Jonuzaj

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of natural environmental radiations is one of the most important subjects in health physics. The main sources of background radiation are cosmic, terrestrial and cosmogenic radiation produced by reactions with cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei. Terrestrial radiation varies in different regions in the world. Generally the background dose rate from cosmic rays depends on the latitude and altitude. The dose rate range obtained in some northeast Kosovo, the dose rate varies from ...

  5. Can we observationally test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingyao; Malafarina, Daniele; Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    In general relativity, gravitational collapse of matter fields ends with the formation of a spacetime singularity, where the matter density becomes infinite and standard physics breaks down. According to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, singularities produced in the gravitational collapse cannot be seen by distant observers and must be hidden within black holes. The validity of this conjecture is still controversial and at present we cannot exclude that naked singularities can be created in our Universe from regular initial data. In this paper, we study the radiation emitted by a collapsing cloud of dust and check whether it is possible to distinguish the birth of a black hole from the one of a naked singularity. In our simple dust model, we find that the properties of the radiation emitted in the two scenarios is qualitatively similar. That suggests that observational tests of the cosmic censorship conjecture may be very difficult, even in principle. (orig.)

  6. Superconducting cosmic string loops as sources for fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2018-01-01

    The cusp burst radiation of superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops is thought to be a possible origin of observed fast radio bursts with the model-predicted radiation spectrum and the redshift- and energy-dependent event rate, we fit the observational redshift and energy distributions of 21 Parkes fast radio bursts and constrain the model parameters. It is found that the model can basically be consistent with the observations, if the current on the SCS loops has a present value of ˜1016μ179 /10 esu s-1 and evolves with redshift as an empirical power law ˜(1 +z )-1.3 , where μ17=μ /1017 g cm-1 is the string tension. This current evolution may provide a clue to probe the evolution of the cosmic magnetic fields and the gathering of the SCS loops to galaxy clusters.

  7. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  8. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  9. Structures formation through self-organized accretion on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdzek, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that the formation of structures through accretion by a cosmic string is driven by a natural feed-back mechanism: a part of the energy radiated by accretions creates a pressure on the accretion disk itself. This phenomenon leads to a nonlinear evolution of the accretion process. Thus, the formation of structures results as a consequence of a self-organized growth of the accreting central object.

  10. Pulsars and cosmic rays in the dense supernova shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V.S.; Prilutsky, O.F.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic rays (c.r.) injected by a young pulsar in the dense supernova shell are considered. The maintenance of the Galactic c.r. pool by pulsar production is shown to have a difficulty: adiabatic energy losses of c.r. in the expanding shell demand a high initial c.r. luminosity of pulsar, which results in too high flux of γ-radiation produced through π 0 -decays (in excess over diffuse γ-ray background). (author)

  11. WINDS, CLUMPS, AND INTERACTING COSMIC RAYS IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Gallagher, J. S. III, E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We construct a family of models for the evolution of energetic particles in the starburst galaxy M82 and compare them to observations to test the calorimeter assumption that all cosmic ray energy is radiated in the starburst region. Assuming constant cosmic ray acceleration efficiency with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations as a function of energy. Cosmic rays are injected with Galactic energy distributions and electron-to-proton ratio via Type II supernovae at the observed rate of 0.07 yr{sup -1}. From the cosmic ray spectra, we predict the radio synchrotron and {gamma}-ray spectra. To more accurately model the radio spectrum, we incorporate a multiphase interstellar medium in the starburst region of M82. Our model interstellar medium is highly fragmented with compact dense molecular clouds and dense photoionized gas, both embedded in a hot, low density medium in overall pressure equilibrium. The spectra predicted by this one-zone model are compared to the observed radio and {gamma}-ray spectra of M82. {chi}{sup 2} tests are used with radio and {gamma}-ray observations and a range of model predictions to find the best-fit parameters. The best-fit model yields constraints on key parameters in the starburst zone of M82, including a magnetic field strength of {approx}250 {mu}G and a wind advection speed in the range of 300-700 km s{sup -1}. We find that M82 is a good electron calorimeter but not an ideal cosmic-ray proton calorimeter and discuss the implications of our results for the astrophysics of the far-infrared-radio correlation in starburst galaxies.

  12. Nearest Cosmic Mirage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Discovery of quadruply lensed quasar with Einstein ring Summary Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a complex cosmic mirage in the southern constellation Crater (The Cup). This "gravitational lens" system consists of (at least) four images of the same quasar as well as a ring-shaped image of the galaxy in which the quasar resides - known as an "Einstein ring". The more nearby lensing galaxy that causes this intriguing optical illusion is also well visible. The team obtained spectra of these objects with the new EMMI camera mounted on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT), also at the La Silla observatory. They find that the lensed quasar [2] is located at a distance of 6,300 million light-years (its "redshift" is z = 0.66 [3]) while the lensing elliptical galaxy is rougly halfway between the quasar and us, at a distance of 3,500 million light-years (z = 0.3). The system has been designated RXS J1131-1231 - it is the closest gravitationally lensed quasar discovered so far . PR Photo 20a/03 : Image of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (ESO 3.6m Telescope). PR Photo 20b/03 : Spectra of two lensed images of the source quasar and the lensing galaxy. Cosmic mirages The physical principle behind a "gravitational lens" (also known as a "cosmic mirage") has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity . The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are bent (like a "straight line" on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by Einstein

  13. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper (CDIM) is a 1.0m-class infrared telescope capable of three-dimensional spectro-imaging observations over the wavelength range of 0.75 to 7.5 microns, at a spectral resolving power at or better than 300. This will be achieved with linear variablefilters (LVFs) and a large field-of-view (FoV). The survey strategy using spacecraft operations following a shift and stare mode will result in more than 1300 independent narrow-band spectral images of the sky at a given location. Currently prioritized science programs, taking over three-years of a five-year mission, will be accomplished with a two-tiered wedding-cake survey with the shallowest spanning close to 300 sq. degrees and the deepest tier of about 25 sq. degrees.The remaining two-years could be used for additional survey programs (the wide tier can be expanded to 1000 sq. degrees) or for use by the astronomical community through a General Observing (GO) campaign. CDIM survey data will allow us to (i) establish the initial mass function of stars in galaxies present during reionization, (ii) definitively address AGN/quasar contribution to the reionization photon budget; (iii) establish the environmental dependence of star-formation during reionization through clustering and other environmental measurements; (iv) establish the metal abundance of first-light galaxies during reionization over two decades of stellar mass; (v) measure 3D intensity fluctuations during reionization in both Ly-alpha and H-alpha; and (vi) combine intensity fluctuations with 21-cm data to establish the topology of reionization bubbles.

  14. Radiation Hazard of Relativistic Interstellar Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2006-01-01

    From the point of view of radiation safety, interstellar space is not an empty void. Interstellar gas and cosmic rays, which consist of hydrogen and helium nucleons, present a severe radiation hazard to crew and electronics aboard a relativistic interstellar ship. Of the two, the oncoming relativistic flow of interstellar gas produces the most intence radiation. A protection shield will be needed to block relativistic interstellar gas that can also absorb most of the cosmic rays which, as a r...

  15. Nuclear radiation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, R. J.; Byrn, N. R.; Smith, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study program of radiation shielding against the deleterious effects of nuclear radiation on man and equipment is reported. The methods used to analyze the radiation environment from bremsstrahlung photons are discussed along with the methods employed by transport code users. The theory and numerical methods used to solve transport of neutrons and gammas are described, and the neutron and cosmic fluxes that would be present on the gamma-ray telescope were analyzed.

  16. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  17. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps

  18. Lunar monitoring outpost of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail; Kalmykov, Nikolai; Turundaevskiy, Andrey; Chubenko, Alexander; Podorozhny, Dmitry; Mukhamedshin, Rauf; Sveshnikova, Lubov; Tkachev, Leonid; Konstantinov, Andrey

    The basic purpose of the planned NEUTRONIUM-100 experiment considers expansion of the direct measurements of cosmic rays spectra and anisotropy to the energy range of ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. These measurements will make it possible to solve the problem of the “knee” of the spectrum and to make choice between the existing models of the cosmic rays origin and propagation. The proposed innovative method of energy measurements is based on the simultaneous detection of different components of back scattered radiation generated by showers produced by the primary particle in the regolyth (neutrons, gamma rays and radio waves). A multi-module system disposed on the Moon's surface is proposed for particles registration. Each module consists of a radio antenna, contiguous to the regolyth, scintillation detectors with gadolinium admixture and silicon charge detectors. Scintillation detectors record electrons and gamma-rays of back scattered radiation and delayed neutrons. The area of the experimental facility will be at least ~100 m2, suitable for upgrading. Average density of the detecting equipment is evaluated as 10-20 g/m2. Taking into account the weight of the equipment delivered from the Earth will be about 10 tons it is possible to compose an eqperimental facility with geometric factor of 150-300 m2sr. The Moon provides unique conditions for this experiment due to presence of the absorbing material and absence of atmosphere. The experiment will allow expansion of the measurements up to ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. Currently direct measurements reach energy range of up to ~1015 eV, and Auger shower method does not provide information about the primary particle's charge. It is expected that ~15 particles with energy >1017 eV will be detected by the proposed experimental equipment per year. It will provide an opportunity to solve the problems of the current high-energy astrophysics.

  19. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...... an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...

  20. Commissioning of the TRT with cosmics rays

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 35 two-dimensional space points with 0.17 mm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| &lt; 2 and pT &gt; 0.5 GeV. Transition radiation X-rays, generated by particles with γ&gt;1000 in the special material between the straws, are absorbed in the Xenon based gas mixture and give rise to large signal amplitudes. The front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold (&lt;300 eV) for registering the passage of minimum ionizing particles, and a high threshold (&gt;6 keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation X-rays. In advance of proton collisions, the TRT has been successfully commissioned with data collected from several million cosmic ray muons, and from beam-ha...

  1. The Cosmic Shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    in 2004 when there were just two transiting exoplanets to consider. The trend was well-defined by late 2007. Figure 1 shows how matters stood in Dec 2012 with approx.240 exoplanets. The figure shows that the boundary between planets with and without active volatiles - the cosmic shoreline, as it were - is both well-defined and follows a power law.

  2. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity is (essence and 4 stages of evolution: 1. Humanity living on Earth, sensing, knowing, understanding its cosmic origin, relationship with the cosmos and cosmic destiny. 2. Humanity living on Earth, leading aerospace activity for the purposes of exploration and use of aerospace space (Heaven, Space for survival and development. 3. Humanity living on Earth and outside the Earth — in the solar system, preserving the Earth and mastering the Cosmos for survival and development. 4. Humanity, settled and living in the Cosmos. Now humanity is in the process of transition from the second to the third stage. In the process of this evolution, a complex transformation of man and society takes place. The problem-semantic field of cosmic humanity is described and its general model is presented. The meta-goal-setting is the justification of cosmic humanity with the application of the anthropic principle and its “active” super (post anthropic supplement: “Cosmic humanity has an evolutionary purpose to actively manage evolution: change man, humanity and the universe.” The evolution of the “cosmic dream”, goals and technologies of space activities is formalized in the form of a conceptual model. Challenges and negative trends are considered in connection with the crisis of space activity, criticism and attempts to limit the flights of people into space. The prototype of cosmic humanity, its basis and acting model is the cosmonauts’ community. The main

  3. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular sca...

  4. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A W

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variatio...

  5. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Turok, N.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-06-01

    We summarize our new results on cosmic strings. These results include: the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution, a simple ''one scale'' model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power, results from large scale numerical simulations, and a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bond on Gμ of approximately 10 -7 emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. We discuss how numerical uncertainties affect this. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences. 22 refs

  6. Cosmic string in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Davood; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Myrzakulov, Yerlan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the various cylindrical solutions (cosmic strings) in gravity's rainbow scenario. In particular, we calculate the gravitational field equations corresponding to energy-dependent background. Further, we discuss the possible Kasner, quasi-Kasner and non-Kasner exact solutions of the field equations. In this framework, we find that quasi-Kasner solutions cannot be realized in gravity's rainbow. Assuming only time-dependent metric functions, we also analyse the time-dependent vacuum cosmic strings in gravity's rainbow, which are completely different than the other GR solutions.

  7. X-ray Observations of Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays, detection of their sources has remained elusive. A major breakthrough has come through the identification of synchrotron X-rays from the shocks of supernova remnants through imaging and spectroscopic observations by the most recent generation of X-ray observatories. This radiation is most likely produced by electrons accelerated to relativistic energy, and thus has offered the first, albeit indirect, observational evidence that diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants produces cosmic rays to TeV energies, possibly as high as the "knee" in the cosmic ray spectrum. X-ray observations have provided information about the maximum energy to which these shOCks accelerate electrons, as well as indirect evidence of proton acceleration. Shock morphologies measured in X-rays have indicated that a substantial fraction of the shock energy can be diverted into particle acceleration. This presentation will summarize what we have learned about cosmic ray acceleration from X-ray observations of supernova remnants over the past two decades.

  8. Priming the search for cosmic superstrings using GADGET2 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Bryce; Jia, Hewei; Braverman, William; Chernoff, David

    2018-01-01

    String theory is an extensive mathematical theory which, despite its broad explanatory power, is still lacking empirical support. However, this may change when considering the scope of cosmology, where “cosmic superstrings” may serve as observational evidence. According to string theory, these superstrings were stretched to cosmic scales in the early Universe and may now be detectable, via microlensing or gravitational radiation. Negative results from prior surveys have put some limits on superstring properties, so to investigate the parameter space more effectively, we ask: “where should we expect to find cosmic superstrings, and how many should we predict?” This research investigates these questions by simulating cosmic string behavior during structure formation in the universe using GADGET2. The sizes and locations of superstring clusters are assessed using kernel density estimation and radial correlation functions. Currently, only preliminary small-scale simulations have been performed, producing superstring clustering with low sensitivity. However, future simulations of greater magnitude will offer far higher resolution, allowing us to more precisely track superstring behavior within structures. Such results will guide future searches, most imminently those made possible by LSST and WFIRST.

  9. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  10. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  11. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe

  12. The music of the Big Bang the cosmic microwave background and the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, Amedeo

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the afterglow of the big bang: a tenuous signal, more than 13 billion years old, which carries the answers to many of the questions about the nature of our Universe. It was serendipitously discovered in 1964, and thoroughly investigated in the last four decades by a large number of experiments. Two Nobel Prizes in Physics have already been awarded for research on the cosmic background radiation: one in 1978 to Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who first discovered it, the other in 2006, to George Smoot and John Mather, for the results of the COBE satellite. Most cosmological information is encoded in the cosmic background radiation by acoustic oscillations in the dense plasma that filled the primordial Universe: a "music" of the big bang, which cosmologists have long been trying to reconstruct and analyze, in order to distinguish different cosmological models, much like one can distinguish different musical instruments by their timbre and overtones. Only lately, this...

  13. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; Weygaert, Rien van de; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new concept, the Spine of the Cosmic Web, for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its filaments and walls. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the method invokes the local properties of the regions adjacent to the critical

  14. A Demonstration Device for Cosmic Rays Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon…

  15. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  16. Constraining sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and shear acceleration mechanism of particles in relativistic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruoyu

    2015-06-10

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are extreme energetic particles from outer space. They have aroused great interest among scientists for more than fifty years. However, due to the rarity of the events and complexity of the process of their propagation to Earth, they are still one of the biggest puzzles in modern high energy astrophysics. This dissertation is dedicated to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from various aspects. Firstly, we discuss a possible link between recently discovered sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. If these two kinds of particles share the same origin, the observation of neutrinos may provide additional and non-trivial constraints on the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Secondly, we jointly employ the chemical composition measurement and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, and find a robust upper limit for distances of sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above ∝55 EeV, as well as a lower limit for their metallicities. Finally, we study the shear acceleration mechanism in relativistic jets, which is a more efficient mechanism for the acceleration of higher energy particle. We compute the acceleration efficiency and the time-dependent particle energy spectrum, and explore the feature of synchrotron radiation of the accelerated particles. The possible realizations of this mechanism for acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in different astrophysical environments is also discussed.

  17. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Einstein's equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  18. Cosmology with the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    This talk summarizes different algorithms that can be used to trace the cosmic web both in simulations and observations. We present different applications in galaxy formation and cosmology. To finalize, we show how the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) could be a good place to apply these techniques.

  19. Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloper, N; Knox, L; Cosmic Inflation

    2003-01-01

    The Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation marked an exciting milestone on the road to precision cosmology. This is the index page for the proceedings of the conference. Individual proceedings contributions, when they appear on this archive, are linked from this page.

  20. Meteors, meteorites and cosmic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedinets, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of meteorite origin and meteorite composition is discussed. Nowadays, most scientists suppose that the giant Oort cloud consisting of ice comet nuclei is the sourse of the meteor matter. A principle unity of the matter of meteorites falling to the Earth and cosmic dust is noted as well as that of meteorite bodies evaporating in the atmosphere and bearing meteors and bodies

  1. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  2. Evolution of the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    The cosmic web is the largest scale manifestation of the anisotropic gravitational collapse of matter. It represents the transitional stage between linear and non-linear structures and contains easily accessible information about the early phases of structure formation processes. Here we investigate

  3. Forming Stars From the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Scientists have recently identified a connection between metal-poor regions in a set of dwarf galaxies and bursts of star-formation activity within them. These observations provide long-awaited evidence supporting predictions of how stars formed in the early universe and in dwarf galaxies today. Metal-Poor Clues: The primary driver of star formation over cosmic history is thought to be the accretion onto galaxies of cold gas streaming from the cosmic web. The best way to confirm this model would be to observe a cloud of cosmic gas flowing into an otherwise-quiescent galaxy and launching a wave of star formation. But because cold gas doesnt emit much radiation, its difficult to detect directly.Now, a team of scientists have found a clever way around this problem: they searched galaxies for a correlation between areas of active star formation and metal-poor regions. Why? Because metal-poor regions could be a smoking gun indicating a recently accreted cloud of cold gas from the cosmic web. Impacting Clouds: Distribution of metallicity along the major axis of one of the target galaxies. The red bar in the top image shows the position of the spectrograph slit along the galaxy, with the arrow showing the direction of growing distance in the plot below. The plot shows the metallicity variation (red symbols) and star-formation rate (blue line) along the galaxys major axis. The metallicity drop coincides with the brightest knot of the galaxy. [Snchez Almeida et al. 2015]The authors of this study, led by Jorge Snchez Almeida (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and University of La Laguna, Spain), used the Great Canary Telescope to obtain high-quality spectra of ten dwarf galaxies with especially low average metallicities. They aligned the spectrograph slit along the major axes of the galaxies in order to measure abundances as a function of position within each galaxy.The team found that, in nine out of the ten cases, the galaxies displayed sharp drops (by factors of 310

  4. Measuring the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency of a supernova remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, E A; Vink, J; Bassa, C G; Bamba, A; Bleeker, J A M; Funk, S; Ghavamian, P; van der Heyden, K J; Verbunt, F; Yamazaki, R

    2009-08-07

    Cosmic rays are the most energetic particles arriving at Earth. Although most of them are thought to be accelerated by supernova remnants, the details of the acceleration process and its efficiency are not well determined. Here we show that the pressure induced by cosmic rays exceeds the thermal pressure behind the northeast shock of the supernova remnant RCW 86, where the x-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from ultrarelativistic electrons. We determined the cosmic-ray content from the thermal Doppler broadening measured with optical spectroscopy, combined with a proper-motion study in x-rays. The measured postshock proton temperature, in combination with the shock velocity, does not agree with standard shock heating, implying that >50% of the postshock pressure is produced by cosmic rays.

  5. Cosmic rays exposure during aircraft flight (3). Guideline and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Council of MEXT drew up the Guideline of Cosmic Ray Exposure Control for Air Crew in 2006. The content of the Guideline and evaluation methods of dose are explained. The Guideline stated five items for Airline Company. It consists of 1) exposure dose control for air crew, 2) evaluation methods of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, 3) explanation and education of cosmic rays exposure for air crew, 4) reading, record and store of cosmic rays exposure dose of air crew, and 5) health control of air crew. The doses of four airlines were calculated by the Civil Aeromedical Research Institute (CARI) code and the European Program package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (EPCARD) code. The difference of two codes was about 15 to 25%. Japanese Internet System for Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (JISCAED) has been developed by Japan. (S.Y.)

  6. The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) II: Approximation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Tram, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10'000 to 100'000 Boltzmann code executions. The newly released code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic LambdaCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.

  7. Cosmic Reionization on Computers. III. The Clumping Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-01

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective “clumping factor.” The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field (“proximity zones”). That ambiguity precludes computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. We also discuss a “local clumping factor,” defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.

  8. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2008-11-15

    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects

  9. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  10. Natural radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The speaker discusses natural radiation in the environment. He outlines the external sources of exposure (cosmic and terrestrial), as well as the internal sources (ingestion and inhalation). He states that a clear understanding of these sources and their impacts is necessary in order to properly evaluate both the environment and human radiation exposure

  11. Computing Cosmic Cataclysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past few years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed.

  12. Cosmical gas dynamics; Proceedings of the Conference, Victoria University of Manchester, England, April 15-19, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, F. D.

    Various papers on cosmic gas dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: gas in galaxies, gas within 500 pc of the Galactic Center, gamma ray estimates of galactic gas contents, gas in early-type galaxies, ring formation in gaseous disks, gas in galactic centers, wind-driven shells in E/SO galaxies, effect of expanding radio components in Seyfert II nuclei, supernova remnants, supernova origin of cosmic rays, outburst of RS Ophiuchi, shocks and cosmic ray acceleration, structure of cosmic ray modified shocks, and time-dependent cosmic ray/gas interactions. Also covered are: nonsteady radiative shocks, numerical gasdynamics, energetics of nebulae associated with WR stars, echelle observations of high-speed flows in the ISM, gas flow in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 5383, the Cone Nebula and the infrared source GL989, masers and circumstellar flows, jets and disks associated with R and T CR A, reconfinement of Jets, and Herbig-Haro objects.

  13. Novel Concepts for Radiation Shielding Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The likelihood of safely sending astronauts to Mars is becoming bleaker because of the health risks that would result from exposure to galactic cosmic radiation...

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The report includes the following chapters: Development of earth and cosmic radiation - natural radioactivity. Atomic weapon tests and medicine - artificial radioactivity. A disaster and its consequences. From the air to humans; lessons learned from Chernobyl - division of work during measurements. From potatoes to baby food - the routine measuring program. Preparedness for the case of emergency - the intensive program. Three question for Martin Riepenhausen.

  15. Evidence for extra radiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, J.

    2012-01-01

    during the marginalisation process, and we demonstrate that the effect is related to the fact that cosmic microwave background (CMB) data constrain N_eff only indirectly via the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Once present CMB data are combined with external information about, e.g., the Hubble...

  16. Evolution of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, J.

    2017-07-01

    In the evolution of the cosmic web dark energy plays an important role. To understand the role of dark energy we investigate the evolution of superclusters in four cosmological models: standard model SCDM, conventional model LCDM, open model OCDM, and a hyper-dark-energy model HCDM. Numerical simulations of the evolution are performed in a box of size 1024 Mpc/h. Model superclusters are compared with superclusters found for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Superclusters are searched using density fields. LCDM superclusters have properties, very close to properties of observed SDSS superclusters. Standard model SCDM has about 2 times more superclusters than other models, but SCDM superclusters are smaller and have lower luminosities. Superclusters as principal structural elements of the cosmic web are present at all cosmological epochs.

  17. Cosmic Revelation: Making Astroparticles Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. O.; Haungs, A.; Schieler, H.; Weindl, A.

    2010-06-01

    Cosmic Revelation is a prime example of a successful art and science project connecting art and astroparticle physics. One of the main reasons for its success might be that the collaboration between the KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector (KASCADE) experiment and Tim Otto Roth is both a minimalist light art project and a scientific experiment. In a field of 16 flashing mirror sculptures connected to the KASCADE detector field at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany) the impact of high energy cosmic rays on Earth can be experienced directly. In just one year the project has developed from the initial concept to its first presentation in a public space in autumn 2008. We explain how the project developed, and also highlight the practical and conceptual conditions for its realisation.

  18. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  19. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-15

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test “vanilla” models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at “Neutrino 2012”.

  20. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, Chris [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, Uros [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-02

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire DOE HEP program.

  1. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  2. CREME96: A revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    CREME96 is an update of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code, a widely-used suite of programs for creating numerical models of the ionizing-radiation environment in near-Earth orbits and for evaluating radiation effects in spacecraft. CREME96, which is now available over the World-Wide Web (WWW) at http://crsp3.nrl.navy.mil/creme96/, has many significant features, including (1) improved models of the galactic cosmic ray, anomalous cosmic ray, and solar energetic particle (flare) components of the near-Earth environment; (2) improved geomagnetic transmission calculations; (3) improved nuclear transport routines; (4) improved single-event upset (SEU) calculation techniques, for both proton-induced and direct-ionization-induced SEUs; and (5) an easy-to-use graphical interface, with extensive on-line tutorial information. In this paper the authors document some of these improvements

  3. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  4. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Studying Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier; Tilvi, Vithal; Finkelstein, Steven; Wold, Isak; Papovich, Casey; Fan, Xiaohui; Mellema, Garrelt; Zackrisson, Erik; Jensen, Hannes; T

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of Cosmic Dawn can be revolutionized using WFIRST's combination of wide-field, sensitive, high resolution near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. Guest investigator studies of WFIRST's high latitude imaging survey and supernova search fields will yield orders of magnitude increases in our samples of Lyman break galaxies from z=7 to z>12. The high latitude spectrsocopic survey will enable an unprecedented search for z>7 quasars. Guest observer deep fields can extend these studies to flux levels of Hubble's deepest fields, over regions measured in square degrees. The resulting census of luminous objects in the Cosmic Dawn will provide key insights into the sources of the ultraviolet photons that powered reionization. Moreover, because WFIRST has a wide field (slitless) spectroscopic capability, it can be used to search for Lyman alpha emitting galaxies over the full history of reionization. By comparing the Lyman alpha galaxy statistics to those of continuum sources, we can directly probe the transparency of the intergalactic gas and chart reionization history.Our team is planning for both Guest Investigator and Guest Observer applications of WFIRST to studying Cosmic Dawn, and welcomes dialog with other interested members of the community.

  6. Assessment of galactic cosmic ray models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2012-08-01

    Among several factors involved in the development of a manned space mission concept, the astronauts' health is a major concern that needs to be considered carefully. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which mainly consist of high-energetic nuclei ranging from hydrogen to iron and beyond, pose a major radiation health risk in long-term space missions. It is therefore required to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts in order to estimate their radiation risks. This can be done either by performing direct measurements or by making computer based simulations from which the dose can be derived. A necessary prerequisite for an accurate estimation of the exposure using simulations is a reliable description of the GCR spectra. The aim of this work is to compare GCR models and to test their applicability for the exposure assessment of astronauts. To achieve this, commonly used models capable of describing both light and heavy GCR particle spectra were evaluated by investigating the model spectra for various particles over several decades. The updated Badhwar-O'Neill model published in the year 2010, CREME2009 which uses the International Standard model for GCR, CREME96 and the Burger-Usoskin model were examined. Hydrogen, helium, oxygen and iron nuclei spectra calculated by the different models are compared with measurements from various high-altitude balloon and space-borne experiments. During certain epochs in the last decade, there are large discrepancies between the GCR energy spectra described by the models and the measurements. All the models exhibit weaknesses in describing the increased GCR flux that was observed in 2009-2010.

  7. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT

  8. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  9. Cosmic Connections:. from Cosmic Rays to Gamma Rays, Cosmic Backgrounds and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Combined data from gamma-ray telescopes and cosmic-ray detectors have produced some new surprising insights regarding intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, as well as extragalactic background light. We review some recent advances, including a theory explaining the hard spectra of distant blazars and the measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields based on the spectra of distant sources. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions in the Milky Way, to the observed ux of ultrahigh-energy cosmicrays nuclei. The need for a holistic treatment of gamma rays, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields serves as a unifying theme for these seemingly unrelated phenomena.

  10. Study of cosmic ray semidiurnal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymsky, G F; Krivoshapkin, P A; Gerasimova, S K; Gololobov, P Yu

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of long-term registration of cosmic rays with the muon spectrograph at Yakutsk (62°01'N, 129°43'E) and multidirectional muon telescope at Nagoya (35°10'N, 136°58'E) the cosmic ray semidiurnal variation seasonal change and the change of cosmic ray semiduirnal variation with the solar activity level has been found. The modeling of the seasonal change has been made.

  11. ACORDE - A Cosmic Ray Detector for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00247175; Pagliarone, C.

    2006-01-01

    ACORDE, the ALICE COsmic Ray DEtector is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. This array will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around $10^{15-17}$ eV. In this paper we will describe the ACORDE detector, trigger design and electronics.

  12. Implementation of trigger for detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, K.; Bähren, L.; Falcke, H.; Horneffer, A.; Kooistra, E.; Scholten, O.

    2008-01-01

    Using all stations of LOFAR we are planning to explore the possibility of using Moon as a detector of ultra high energy (>10 21 eV) cosmic rays. The idea is to cover the whole visible lunar surface and to look for short pulses of Cherenkov radiation emitted by showers induced just below the surface

  13. Limit on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux with the Westerbork synthesis radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Veen, S.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; James, C. W.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; de Vries, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    A particle cascade (shower) in a dielectric, for example, as initiated by an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, will have an excess of electrons which will emit coherent Cerenkov radiation, known as the Askaryan effect. In this work we study the case in which such a particle shower occurs in a medium

  14. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  15. The Gateway to Cosmic Dawn: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, K.; Burns, J. O.; Monsalve, R.; Rapetti, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest that, with a suitable antenna and receiver, the Deep Space Gateway can be used to measure the highly redshifted, global 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen, a spectral imprint of the history of the universe onto cosmic background radiation.

  16. Probing physics at extreme energies with cosmic ultra-high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 60; Issue 2. Probing physics at extreme energies with cosmic ultra-high energy radiation ... Their existence triggered a flurry of theoretical explanations ranging from conventional shock acceleration to particle physics beyond the standard model (SM) and processes ...

  17. Extension to lower energies of the cosmic-ray energy window at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays are charged subatomic particles of extraterrestrial origin, which incessantly arrive on Earth, and are the main cause of atmospheric radiation. In the past years, physicists have discovered that such particles may have quite a diverse range of energies, and the largest the energy of such

  18. Probing physics at extreme energies with cosmic ultra-high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ultra-high energy radiation. G ¨UNTER SIGL. GReCO, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France. Abstract. The highest energy cosmic rays observed possess macroscopic energies and their origin is likely to be associated with the most energetic processes in the universe.

  19. Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.

  20. Simulation and optimisation of the Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS detector, calibration and alignment of the detector with cosmic data. Estimation of the production cross-sections of the following decays: W → eν and Z → ee at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulette, M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was completed within the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) group of the ATLAS experiment at CERN, between January 2006 and May 2009. This work has been done during the last years of the construction of the LHC experiments, before data taking, expected for the winter 2009/2010. After a short introduction in particle physics, the thesis describes the ATLAS experiment and in particular its inner detector and TRT. This report can be divided into four main parts. First, work on the TRT simulation has been done. Results include some geometry definition, as well as some estimates and measurements of the TRT barrel and end-caps weight. The detector performances are studied in a second part, to measure the electrons energy (E) and scalar momentum (p) . Using some E/p distributions, a work on the determination of the amount of material and the residual misalignments is presented. In the third part, an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the acceptance corrections on the W → eν and Z → ee cross-section measurements is given. The last part contains an analysis of cosmic ray data in the TRT. The first results on the wire-by-wire alignment are presented. (author)

  1. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated.

  2. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated

  3. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  4. Ionizing radiation sources. Ionizing radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popits, R.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics are reviewed under the headings: obtaining of X-rays and their properties; modes of radioactive decay of natural or man-made radionuclides; radioactive neutron sources; nuclear fission as basis for devising nuclear reactors and weapons; thermonuclear reactions; cosmic radiation. Basic aspects of ionizing radiation interactions with matter are considered with regard to charged particles, photon radiation, and neutrons. (A.B.)

  5. First Combined SCT/TRT Cosmics Seen in SR1

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Jose Costa; H. Pernegger

    A major milestone for the Inner Detector project has been accomplished in early May as cosmic rays going through both the barrel Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) and Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) have been successfully recorded in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site at CERN. A cosmic-ray track in the combined SCT-TRT barrel As reported also in this issue of the eNews, in February of this year the SCT barrel was inserted into the TRT in the SR1 building. One eighth of the TRT barrel and a quarter of the SCT barrel were then cabled to power supplies and to the data acquisition system in order to verify the good operation of the detector before installation in the ATLAS cavern. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study its response to cosmic rays using a set of scintillators to give the external trigger, thus undertaking the enormous challenge of integrating the full chain of the detectors, the DAQ, and the reconstruction and monitoring software. A ...

  6. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  7. Thermodynamics inducing massive particles' tunneling and cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Cai, Qing-yu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Zhan, Ming-sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Cold Atom Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2010-08-15

    By calculating the change of entropy, we prove that the first law of black hole thermodynamics leads to the tunneling probability of massive particles through the horizon, including the tunneling probability of massive charged particles from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and the Kerr-Newman black hole. Novelly, we find the trajectories of massive particles are close to that of massless particles near the horizon, although the trajectories of massive charged particles may be affected by electromagnetic forces. We show that Hawking radiation as massive particles tunneling does not lead to violation of the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture. (orig.)

  8. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (equations for atmospheric parameters. Furthermore principal components analysis gives a total significance......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds....

  9. Cosmic magnetism in centimeter- and meter-wavelength radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahori, Takuya; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Fujita, Yutaka; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Kameya, Osamu; Kudoh, Takahiro; Kudoh, Yuki; Machida, Mami; Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takizawa, Motokazu; Yamazaki, Dai G.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic field is ubiquitous in the universe. Though it plays an essential role in various astrophysical phenomena, its real origin and evolution are poorly known. This article reviews the understanding of the latest research concerning magnetic fields in the interstellar medium, the Milky Way Galaxy, external galaxies, active galactic nuclei, clusters of galaxies, and the cosmic web. Particularly, the review is concentrated in the achievements that have been provided by centimeter- and meter-wavelength radio observations. The article also introduces various methods for analyzing linear polarization data, including synchrotron radiation, Faraday rotation, depolarization, and Faraday tomography.

  10. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  11. Experimental Light Scattering Matrices Relevant to Cosmic Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    A brief overview is given of experimental scattering matrices of natural particles that seem to be most relevant to ensembles of cosmic dust particles. The matrices have been obtained by letting laser radiation at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm be scattered by collections of small, randomly oriented particles over angles from about 5circ - 173circ. The samples considered include feldspar, red clay, quartz, loess, Pinatubo and Lokon volcanic ashes, Sahara sand, olivine, Allende meteorite and fly ash. The elements of the scattering matrices as functions of the scattering angle show a number of interesting similarities and differences. These are briefly discussed, especially in relation to particle shape.

  12. SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF COSMIC ENVIRONMENT IN SOIL GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present day concept of soil is strongly connected to the terrestrial environment. Among the cosmic factors of soil genesis the energy (as light and heat provided by the Sun is by far the most important. The other outer space possible agents e.g. meteorites, comets, cosmic radiation and cosmic dust, are usually neglected or scarcely mentioned. The advancing of cosmic exploration spurred soil scientists to extend their interest upon the extraterrestrial regoliths of Earth-like planets (Mars, Venus and Moon. The concept of “Universal soil” in whose genesis the biotic factor and water are not mandatory, has been recently advanced. The first papers about “lunar soils” are already quoted in soil science literature; some also speak about “Martian soil” or “Venusian soil”. Although these seem to be mere regoliths quite different from the “terrestrial soil” (by absence of life and water one believes that they may give information about impact upon lithological material of severe environment of these planets. This paper tries to outline the cosmic destiny of the soil, to enlarge its meaning and to reveal the hidden connections that the soil has with some planetary and cosmic parameters. In cosmic vision the “soil” – either “lunar”, “martian”, or “terrestrial” – can be viewed as the interface of energy and matter exchange between the land masses of these celestial body and their cosmic environment. The role of the solar activity, extragalactic events, distance from the Sun, obliquity (tilt of Earth’s rotation axis and Earth’s orbit circularity are analyzed in connection with Quaternary glaciations and their influences upon the development of terrestrial soils. The influence of Moon is emphasized as being very important in shaping the zonal geography of the terrestrial soils.

  13. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Cosmic Star-Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, an avalanche of new data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic “dark ages” to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z≈1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ˜1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for coevolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.

  15. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  16. From cosmic ray physics to cosmic ray astronomy: Bruno Rossi and the opening of new windows on the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Rossi is considered one of the fathers of modern physics, being also a pioneer in virtually every aspect of what is today called high-energy astrophysics. At the beginning of 1930s he was the pioneer of cosmic ray research in Italy, and, as one of the leading actors in the study of the nature and behavior of the cosmic radiation, he witnessed the birth of particle physics and was one of the main investigators in this fields for many years. While cosmic ray physics moved more and more towards astrophysics, Rossi continued to be one of the inspirers of this line of research. When outer space became a reality, he did not hesitate to leap into this new scientific dimension. Rossi's intuition on the importance of exploiting new technological windows to look at the universe with new eyes, is a fundamental key to understand the profound unity which guided his scientific research path up to its culminating moments at the beginning of 1960s, when his group at MIT performed the first in situ measurements of the density, speed and direction of the solar wind at the boundary of Earth's magnetosphere, and when he promoted the search for extra-solar sources of X rays. A visionary idea which eventually led to the breakthrough experiment which discovered Scorpius X-1 in 1962, and inaugurated X-ray astronomy.

  17. End of the cosmic neutrino energy spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Anchordoqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There may be a high-energy cutoff of neutrino events in IceCube data. In particular, IceCube does not observe either continuum events above 2 PeV, or the Standard Model Glashow-resonance events expected at 6.3 PeV. There are also no higher energy neutrino signatures in the ANITA and Auger experiments. This absence of high-energy neutrino events motivates a fundamental restriction on neutrino energies above a few PeV. We postulate a simple scenario to terminate the neutrino spectrum that is Lorentz-invariance violating, but with a limiting neutrino velocity that is always smaller than the speed of light. If the limiting velocity of the neutrino applies also to its associated charged lepton, then a significant consequence is that the two-body decay modes of the charged pion are forbidden above two times the maximum neutrino energy, while the radiative decay modes are suppressed at higher energies. Such stabilized pions may serve as cosmic ray primaries.

  18. A simplified model for the acceleration of cosmic ray particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groen, Oeyvind [Oslo University College, Faculty of Engineering, PO Box 4, St. Olavs Plass, N-0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not meant as a detailed model, which is expected to be rather complicated, but rather as a 'pedagogic model' pointing out some important elements of a more complete model. Furthermore, the present model is sufficiently simple that it may be suitable as an 'astrophysical example' in the teaching of the special theory of relativity. In this model a particle is accelerated by ultrarelativistic shocks in a source of gamma ray bursts. No assumption as to the details of the accelerating mechanism is made except that the force acting on a charged particle depends only upon the charge of the particle and not upon its mass, and the product of the force and the thickness of the shock waves must be sufficiently great. It is important for the success of the model that the energy radiated by the particles is taken mainly from the Schott energy and not from the kinetic energy of the particles. It is shown how this model of the accelerating process can explain why electrons are accelerated to less energy than protons and heavier nuclei. The mechanism also explains how particles may be accelerated to energies greater than 10{sup 20} eV.

  19. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  20. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  1. Cosmic polarimetry in magnetoactive plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Polarimetry of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) represents one of the possible diagnostics aimed at testing large-scale magnetism at the epoch of the photon decoupling. The propagation of electromagnetic disturbances in a magnetized plasma leads naturally to a B-mode polarization whose angular power spectrum is hereby computed both analytically and numerically. Combined analyses of all the publicly available data on the B-mode polarization are presented, for the first time, in the light of the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. Novel constraints on pre-equality magnetism are also derived in view of the current and expected sensitivities to the B-mode polarization.

  2. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogut, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs

  4. Technology Development for Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Charles D.

    2017-05-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) offers a unique window into the early universe by probing thermal radiation remaining from the big bang. Due to its low temperature and bright foregrounds, its thorough characterization requires technological advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. In this thesis, I present the development and fabrication of novel metamaterial silicon optics to improve the sensitivity of current and future CMB telescopes. By machining subwavelength features into the silicon surfaces, traditional antireflection coatings can be replaced by all-silicon metamaterials that significantly reduce reflections over previous approaches. I discuss the design of these structured surfaces and the design and construction of a sophisticated fabrication facility necessary to implement this technology on large diameter (30+ cm) lenses for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarization project (ACTPol). I then apply this metamaterial technology to the development of improved free-space filters for millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength imaging (focusing specifically on blocking infrared radiation, necessary for current cryogenic detector systems). This produces a highly effective infrared-blocking filter, blocking over 99% of the incident power from a 300 K blackbody while maintaining transmission of better than 99% in a target CMB observing band (between 70 and 170 GHz). I conclude with a discussion of the development of a real-space simulation framework to assist in better understanding current CMB results and forecasting for future experiments. By taking a CMB realization and adding to it accurate real-space modeling of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and weak lensing distortions (introduced by galaxy clusters), a better understanding of the impacts of large scale structure on the CMB can be obtained.

  5. Out-door radiation level measurement in Abeokuta, Nigeria, by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... measurements of terrestrial radiation dose in a previous survey, the mean dose rate from extraterrestrial (cosmic) radiation has been estimated to be about 0.18 mSv/y in Abeokut Keywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor Radiation exposure. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  6. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, J. N.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A.; Barenthien, N.; Barkhausen, M.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertaina, M. E.; Biermann, P. L.; Bilhaut, R.; Billoir, P.; Blaes, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bolz, H.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifaz, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Camin, D.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Castera, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chiosso, M.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Colombo, E.; Colonges, S.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Courty, B.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, C.; Dolron, P.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Epele, L. N.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Genolini, B.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Giudice, N.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gotink, W.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Grygar, J.; Guardone, N.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guglielmi, L.; Habraken, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Kopmann, A.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martina, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, N.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nicotra, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Ohnuki, T.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; PakkSelmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Porter, T.; Pouryamout, J.; Pouthas, J.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Pryke, C. L.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Randriatoamanana, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenua, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schreuder, F.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schuessler, F.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Sequeiros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Speelman, R.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Sutter, M.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Trung, T. N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varnav, D. M.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verkooijen, H.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vlcek, B.; Vorenholt, H.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Widom, A.; Wiebusch, C.; Wiencke, L.; Wijnen, T.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wild, N.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Woerner, G.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10(17) eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic

  7. From cosmic string to superconducting string

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H C; Lee, B K

    1999-01-01

    We consider the dynamical symmetry breaking of a chirally-invariant Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the background gravity of a local cosmic string. By analyzing the one-loop effective action, we show how a cosmic string at a very high energy scale forms a global superconducting string to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at a low energy.

  8. NEXUS: tracing the cosmic web connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the NEXUS algorithm for the identification of cosmic web environments: clusters, filaments, walls and voids. This is a multiscale and automatic morphological analysis tool that identifies all the cosmic structures in a scale free way, without preference for a certain size or shape. We

  9. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, D.; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, Mar (2016), s. 9-18 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * extensive air showers * cosmic ray composition Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  10. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  11. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, R., E-mail: rrios@lanl.go [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Tatar, E. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Saltus, M. [Sloan Enterprises, NC (United States); Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  12. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin's ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only)

  13. Cosmic Feast of the Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades most of our understanding of the history and chemical evolution of galaxies has been guided by the study of their stars and gaseous nebulae. Nebulae, thanks to their bright emission lines, are especially useful tracers of chemical elements from the very center to the outskirts of galaxies. In order to pin down the chemical abundances in nebulae, we must rely on careful analysis of emission lines combined with detailed models of the microscopic physical processes inside nebulae and state-of-the-art atomic data. Another important piece of the puzzle is the interplay between galaxy evolution and the activity of their central engines either as optical AGNs or radio jets. Last but not least, let us not forget the huge population of lineless, retired galaxies ionized by hot low-mass evolved stars: after nuclear and star formation activity quiets down, retired galaxies are the natural consequence of galaxy evolution. Grażyna Stasińska has made important contributions to each and every one of those aspects. This conference is to honor her work. We invite you to take part and share the latest news on this cosmic feast that transmutes chemical species, the onward journey of elements inside and outside galaxies either as lonely atoms or gregarious molecules and crystals, and their recycling in stars, which starts the cosmic feast all over again.

  14. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  15. Cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    It is inevitable that there is a close connection between cosmic rays and the ISM insofar as the propagation of cosmic rays is conditioned by the magnetic field in the ISM and the cosmic rays interact with the gas (and photon fluxes) in this medium. This paper deals with both topics. Propagation effects manifest themselves as an anisotropy in arrival directions and a review is given of anisotropy measurements and their interpretation. The status of studies of cosmic ray interactions is examined whit particular reference to the information about the ISM itself which comes from observations of the flux of secondary γ-rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with gas, the situation regarding molecular as in the Inner Galaxy being of particular concern

  16. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  17. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  18. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  19. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarone, C; Fernandez-Tellez, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2·10 10 to 2· 10 12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 to 10 17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program

  20. Epistemology of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, C.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific committee had assess Status of levels, effects and risks of ionizing radiation for General assembly, scientific community and public. The review of levels, sources and exposures. The natural sources of radiation include cosmic rays, terrestrial and artificial sources include medical issues, military activities, civil nuclear power occupational exposure and accidents. The global average exposure is 80% natural source, 20% medical examination 0.2% weapon fallout < 0.1% cherbonyl accidents and < 0.1 nuclear power. The effects of radiation incudes health effects, hereditable effects, bystander effects, and abscopal effects. The randon risks include lancer risk, plant and animal