WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmic neutrino flux

  1. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high-energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave blackbody photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic γ-rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made, and the reasons for significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Small predicted event rates for a DUMAND type detection system, combined with a possible significant flux of prompt neutrinos from the atmosphere above 50 TeV, may make the study of diffuse extraterrestrial neutrinos more difficult than previously thought

  2. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray fluxes and cosmogenic neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2013-04-15

    We discuss the possible origin of the two neutrino shower events reported by the IceCube Collaboration at the Neutrino 2012 conference in Kyoto, Japan. The suspicion early on was that these two events are due to cosmogenic neutrinos and possibly by electron antineutrinos generating the Glashow resonance. The difference of the energy of the W{sup −} in the resonance and the energy estimates of the detected cascade events makes this assumption unlikely. The conclusion then may be that these high energy neutrinos are produced at sources of high energy cosmic rays such as Active Galactic Nuclei.

  4. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  5. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  6. Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aharmim, B; Peeters, S J M; SNO Collaboration,

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between $-1 \\le \\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} \\le 0.4$ in a tota...

  7. Determination of the Antares sensitivity to the cosmic neutrinos diffuse flux using contained showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denans, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Antares collaboration has chosen to build an underwater telescope in the Mediterranean sea, at a depth of 2500 m, to detect high energy (> 100 GeV) cosmic neutrinos. This detector is composed of 12 vertical lines with 900 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected thanks to the Cherenkov light produced in water by charged particles created in neutrino interactions near the detector. The aim of this work is the study of Antares performance for the detection of the electronic neutrino interaction in the instrumented volume using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The method allows the determination of the incident energy with an excellent resolution (20 %) which is much smaller than what is obtained from muons induced by muonic neutrino interactions at several kilometers below the detector. This work has consisted in studying the reconstruction of contained showers of particles in the detector resulting from charged current interactions of electronic neutrinos. This mode of detection has been used for the study of the diffuse neutrino flux, resulting from the neutrino emission of unresolved sources and that can be isolated from the atmospheric neutrino background at high energy. The Antares sensitivity is found to be 5.10 -7 GeV.cm -2 .s -1 .sr -1 after 1 year of data recording for energies above 3 TeV and for a model with an E -2 energy spectrum. (author)

  8. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  9. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Foundation, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2008-04-01

    We discuss the relation between the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and UHE neutrinos. The neutrinos produced in the sources of optically thin astrophysical sources have been linked to the UHECR emissivity of the Universe. The fluxes of cosmogenic neutrinos, generated in propagation by UHECR, also reflect the acceleration of these particles, the maximum acceleration energy, and the cosmological evolution of their sources.

  10. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  11. How to detect the cosmic neutrino background?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2003-01-01

    A measurement of the big bang relic neutrinos would open a new window to the early universe. We review various possibilities to detect this cosmic neutrino background and substantiate the assertion that - apart from the rather indirect evidence to be gained from cosmology and large-scale structure formation - the annihilation of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos with relic anti-neutrinos (or vice versa) on the Z-resonance is a unique process having sensitivity to the relic neutrinos, if a sufficient flux at E ν i res =M Z 2 /(2m ν i )=4.10 22 eV (0.1 eV/m ν i ) exists. The associated absorption dips in the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino spectrum may be searched for at forthcoming neutrino and air shower detectors. The associated protons and photons may have been seen already in form of the cosmic ray events above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff. (orig.)

  12. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-06-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation. (author)

  13. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Concepcion; Maltoni, Michele; Rojo, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation

  14. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the π-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The μ + +μ - data show good agreement in the 1∼30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The μ + /μ - ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).

  15. Determination of the Antares sensitivity to the cosmic neutrinos diffuse flux using contained showers; Determination de la sensibilite d'Antares au flux diffus de neutrinos cosmiques en utilisant les gerbes contenues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denans, D

    2006-12-15

    The Antares collaboration has chosen to build an underwater telescope in the Mediterranean sea, at a depth of 2500 m, to detect high energy (> 100 GeV) cosmic neutrinos. This detector is composed of 12 vertical lines with 900 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected thanks to the Cherenkov light produced in water by charged particles created in neutrino interactions near the detector. The aim of this work is the study of Antares performance for the detection of the electronic neutrino interaction in the instrumented volume using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The method allows the determination of the incident energy with an excellent resolution (20 %) which is much smaller than what is obtained from muons induced by muonic neutrino interactions at several kilometers below the detector. This work has consisted in studying the reconstruction of contained showers of particles in the detector resulting from charged current interactions of electronic neutrinos. This mode of detection has been used for the study of the diffuse neutrino flux, resulting from the neutrino emission of unresolved sources and that can be isolated from the atmospheric neutrino background at high energy. The Antares sensitivity is found to be 5.10{sup -7} GeV.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.sr{sup -1} after 1 year of data recording for energies above 3 TeV and for a model with an E{sup -2} energy spectrum. (author)

  16. Dynamics of Cosmic Neutrinos in Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cosmic background of massive (about 1 eV rest-energy neutrinos can be cooled to extremely low temperatures, reaching almost completely degenerated state. The Fermi velocity of the neutrinos becomes less than 100 km/s. The equations of dynamics for the cosmic background neutrinos are derived for the spherical and axisymmetrical thin circular disk galaxies. The equations comprise the gravitational potential and gravity of the uniform baryonic disk galaxies. Then the equations are integrated analytically over the disk radius. The constant radial neutrino flux in spherical galaxies favors formation of the wide unipotential wells in them. The neutrino flux in the axisymmetrical galaxies suggests to favor the evolution in the direction of a spherically symmetrical potential. The generated unipotential wells are observed as plateaux in the velocity curves of circular stellar orbits. The constant neutrino density at galactic centers gives the linear part of the curves. The derived system of quasilinear differential equations for neutrinos in the axisymmetrical galaxies have been reduced to the system of the Lagrange-Charpit equations: the coupled differential equations, specifying the local neutrino velocities and dynamics of motion along trajectories, and an additional interconnected equation of the neutrino mass conservation, which can be applied for the determination of density of the neutrino component in galaxies.

  17. All-flavor search for a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos with nine years of ANTARES data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; El Moursli, R.C.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Garcia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Vallage, B.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Wilms, J.; Vizzoca, A.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; The ANTARES collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ANTARES detector is at present the most sensitive neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. The highly significant cosmic neutrino excess observed by the Antarctic IceCube detector can be studied with ANTARES, exploiting its complementing field of view, exposure, and lower energy threshold.

  18. Direct cosmic ray muons and atmospheric neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Volkova, L.V.; Zatsepin, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    A possible contribution of very short living particles (particles with life-time much shorter than that of charmed particles), for example, resonances, into cosmic ray muon and atmospheric neutrino fluxes (direct muons and neutrinos) is estimated. This contribution could become of the same order of magnitude as that from pions and kaons (conventional) already at energies of hundreds TeV and tens TeV for muons and muon neutrinos coming to the sea level in the vertical direction correspondingly. Of course, the estimation has quite a qualitative character and even it is quite arbitrary but it is necessary to keep this contribution in mind when studying EAS, cosmic ray muon component or trying to interpret data of experiments on cosmic neutrino searching at high energies

  19. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  20. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  1. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  2. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  3. May heavy neutrinos solve underground and cosmic-ray puzzles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Fargion, D.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Konoplich, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    Primordial heavy neutrinos of the fourth generation might explain different astrophysical puzzles. The simplest fourth-neutrino scenario is consistent with known fourth-neutrino physics, cosmic ray antimatter, cosmic gamma fluxes, and positive signals in underground detectors for a very narrow neutrino mass window (46–47 GeV). However, accounting for the constraint of underground experiment CDMS prohibits solution of cosmic-ray puzzles in this scenario. We have analyzed extended heavy-neutrino models related to the clumpiness of neutrino density, new interactions in heavy-neutrino annihilation, neutrino asymmetry, and neutrino decay. We found that, in these models, the cosmic-ray imprint may fit the positive underground signals in DAMA/Nal experiment in the entire mass range 46–70 GeV allowed from uncertainties of electroweak parameters, while satisfaction of the CDMS constraint reduces the mass range to around 50 GeV, where all data can come to consent in the framework of the considered hypothesis.

  4. May heavy neutrinos solve underground and cosmic-ray puzzles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Fargion, D.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Konoplich, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    Primordial heavy neutrinos of the fourth generation might explain different astrophysical puzzles. The simplest fourth-neutrino scenario is consistent with known fourth-neutrino physics, cosmic ray antimatter, cosmic gamma fluxes, and positive signals in underground detectors for a very narrow neutrino mass window (46-47 GeV). However, accounting for the constraint of underground experiment CDMS prohibits solution of cosmic-ray puzzles in this scenario. We have analyzed extended heavy-neutrino models related to the clumpiness of neutrino density, new interactions in heavy-neutrino annihilation, neutrino asymmetry, and neutrino decay. We found that, in these models, the cosmic-ray imprint may fit the positive underground signals in DAMA/Nal experiment in the entire mass range 46-70 GeV allowed from uncertainties of electroweak parameters, while satisfaction of the CDMS constraint reduces the mass range to around 50 GeV, where all data can come to consent in the framework of the considered hypothesis

  5. The FLUKA atmospheric neutrino flux calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G.; Montaruli, T.; Sala, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by means of the FLUKA Monte Carlo model is here described in all details, starting from the latest data on primary cosmic ray spectra. The importance of a 3-D calculation and of its consequences have been already debated in a previous paper. Here instead the focus is on the absolute flux. We stress the relevant aspects of the hadronic interaction model of FLUKA in the atmospheric neutrino flux calculation. This model is constructed and maintained so to provide a high degree of accuracy in the description of particle production. The accuracy achieved in the comparison with data from accelerators and cross checked with data on particle production in atmosphere certifies the reliability of shower calculation in atmosphere. The results presented here can be already used for analysis by current experiments on atmospheric neutrinos. However they represent an intermediate step towards a final release, since this calculation does not yet include the...

  6. Cosmic PeV neutrinos and the sources of ultrahigh energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Stanev, Todor; Yüksel, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The IceCube experiment recently detected the first flux of high-energy neutrinos in excess of atmospheric backgrounds. We examine whether these neutrinos originate from within the same extragalactic sources as ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Starting from rather general assumptions about spectra and flavors, we find that producing a neutrino flux at the requisite level through pion photoproduction leads to a flux of protons well below the cosmic-ray data at ˜1 018 eV , where the composition is light, unless pions/muons cool before decaying. This suggests a dominant class of accelerator that allows for cosmic rays to escape without significant neutrino yields.

  7. Cosmic Dark Radiation and Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Archidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB by the Planck mission have greatly increased our knowledge about the universe. Dark radiation, a weakly interacting component of radiation, is one of the important ingredients in our cosmological model which is testable by Planck and other observational probes. At the moment, the possible existence of dark radiation is an unsolved question. For instance, the discrepancy between the value of the Hubble constant, H0, inferred from the Planck data and local measurements of H0 can to some extent be alleviated by enlarging the minimal ΛCDM model to include additional relativistic degrees of freedom. From a fundamental physics point of view, dark radiation is no less interesting. Indeed, it could well be one of the most accessible windows to physics beyond the standard model, for example, sterile neutrinos. Here, we review the most recent cosmological results including a complete investigation of the dark radiation sector in order to provide an overview of models that are still compatible with new cosmological observations. Furthermore, we update the cosmological constraints on neutrino physics and dark radiation properties focusing on tensions between data sets and degeneracies among parameters that can degrade our information or mimic the existence of extra species.

  8. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halladjian, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  9. Cosmic rays at ultra high energies (Neutrinos.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2005-06-01

    Resonant photopion production with the cosmic microwave background predicts a suppression of extragalactic protons above the famous Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff at about E GZK ∼ 5 x 10 10 GeV. Current cosmic ray data measured by the AGASA and HiRes Collaborations do not unambiguously confirm the GZK cutoff and leave a window for speculations about the origin and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays. In this work we analyze the possibility of strongly interacting neutrino primaries and derive model-independent quantitative requirements on the neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section for a viable explanation of the cosmic ray data. Search results on weakly interacting cosmic particles from the AGASA and RICE experiments are taken into account simultaneously. Using a flexible parameterization of the inelastic neutrino-nucleon cross section we find that a combined fit of the data does not favor the Standard Model neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section, but requires, at 90% confidence level, a steep increase within one energy decade around E GZK by four orders of magnitude. We illustrate such an enhancement within some extensions of the Standard Model. The impact of new cosmic ray data or cosmic neutrino search results on this scenario, notably from the Pierre Auger Observatory soon, can be immediately evaluated within our approach. (orig.)

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Derek

    At least two of the three neutrino species are known to be massive, but their exact masses are currently unknown. Cosmic neutrinos decoupled from the rest of the primordial plasma early on when the Universe was over a billion times hotter than it is today. These relic particles, which have cooled and are now non-relativistic, constitute the Cosmic Neutrino Background and permeate the Universe. While they are not observable directly, their presence can be inferred by measuring the suppression of the matter power spectrum. This suppression is a linear effect caused by the large thermal velocities of neutrinos, which prevent them from collapsing gravitationally on small scales. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure because of degeneracies with other cosmological parameters and biases arising from the fact that we typically observe point-like galaxies rather than a continous matter field. It is therefore important to look for new effects beyond linear suppression that may be more sensitive to neutrinos. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of the cosmological neutrino background in the following ways: (i) the development of a new injection scheme for neutrinos in cosmological N-body simulations which circumvents many issues associated with simulating neutrinos at large redshifts, (ii) the numerical study of the relative velocity field between cold dark matter and neutrinos including its reconstruction from density fields, (iii) the theoretical description of neutrinos as a dispersive fluid and its use in modelling the nonlinear evolution of the neutrino density power spectrum, (iv) the derivation of the dipole correlation function using linear response which allows for the Fermi-Dirac velocity distribution to be properly included, and (v) the numerical study and detection of the dipole correlation function in the TianNu simulation. In totality, this thesis is a comprehensive study of neutrino density and velocity fields that may

  11. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: reetanjalim@uj.ac.za, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  12. Study of the ANTARES detector sensitivity to a diffuse high-energy cosmic neutrino flux; Etude de la sensibilite du detecteur ANTARES a un flux diffus de neutrinos cosmiques de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer, A

    2003-04-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to built an underwater neutrino telescope, 2 400 m deep, 40 km from Toulon (France). This detector is constituted by 12 strings, each one comprising 90 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected through their charged current interaction in the medium surrounding the detector (water or rock) leading to the production of a muon in the final state. Its Cherenkov light emitted all along its travel is detected by a three dimensional array of photomultipliers. The diffuse neutrino flux is constituted by the addition of the neutrino emission of sources. Only astrophysical ones have been discussed. The different theoretical models predicting such a flux have been listed and added to the simulation possibilities. As the muon energy reconstruction was a crucial parameter in this analysis, a new energy estimator has been developed. It gives a resolution of a factor three on the muon energy above 1 TeV. Discriminant variables have been also developed in order to reject the atmospheric muon background. Including all these developments, the ANTARES sensitivity is found to be around 8.10{sup -8} GeV-cm{sup -2}-s{sup -1}-sr{sup -1} after one year of data taking for an E{sup -2} spectrum and a 10 string detector. (author)

  13. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  14. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  15. The cosmic MeV neutrino background as a laboratory for black hole formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yüksel, Hasan, E-mail: hyuksel@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Bomonti 34380, İstanbul (Turkey); Kistler, Matthew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Calculations of the cosmic rate of core collapses, and the associated neutrino flux, commonly assume that a fixed fraction of massive stars collapse to black holes. We argue that recent results suggest that this fraction instead increases with redshift. With relatively more stars vanishing as “unnovae” in the distant universe, the detectability of the cosmic MeV neutrino background is improved due to their hotter neutrino spectrum, and expectations for supernova surveys are reduced. We conclude that neutrino detectors, after the flux from normal SNe is isolated via either improved modeling or the next Galactic SN, can probe the conditions and history of black hole formation.

  16. The cosmic MeV neutrino background as a laboratory for black hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yüksel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of the cosmic rate of core collapses, and the associated neutrino flux, commonly assume that a fixed fraction of massive stars collapse to black holes. We argue that recent results suggest that this fraction instead increases with redshift. With relatively more stars vanishing as “unnovae” in the distant universe, the detectability of the cosmic MeV neutrino background is improved due to their hotter neutrino spectrum, and expectations for supernova surveys are reduced. We conclude that neutrino detectors, after the flux from normal SNe is isolated via either improved modeling or the next Galactic SN, can probe the conditions and history of black hole formation.

  17. The cosmic MeV neutrino background as a laboratory for black hole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Hasan; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2015-12-01

    Calculations of the cosmic rate of core collapses, and the associated neutrino flux, commonly assume that a fixed fraction of massive stars collapse to black holes. We argue that recent results suggest that this fraction instead increases with redshift. With relatively more stars vanishing as ;unnovae; in the distant universe, the detectability of the cosmic MeV neutrino background is improved due to their hotter neutrino spectrum, and expectations for supernova surveys are reduced. We conclude that neutrino detectors, after the flux from normal SNe is isolated via either improved modeling or the next Galactic SN, can probe the conditions and history of black hole formation.

  18. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  19. Cosmic neutrinos as a probe of TeV-scale physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.

    2007-02-15

    Ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos are versatile probes of astrophysics, astronomy, and particle physics. They represent the messengers of hadronic processes in cosmic accelerators and survive the propagation through the interstellar medium practically unscathed. We investigate the neutrino fluxes associated with optically thin proton sources which provide a diagnostic of the transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The center of mass energies in collisions of these cosmic neutrinos with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere or the Earth's interior easily exceed those so far reached in man-made accelerators. We discuss the prospects of observing supersymmetric neutrino interactions with Cherenkov telescopes and speculate about a neutrino component in extremely high energy cosmic rays from exotic interactions in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  20. AMANDA Observations Constrain the Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A number of experimental techniques are currently being deployed in an effort to make the first detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. To accomplish this goal, techniques using radio and acoustic detectors are being developed, which are optimally designed for studying neutrinos with energies in the PeV-EeV range and above. Data from the AMANDA experiment, in contrast, has been used to place limits on the cosmic neutrino flux at less extreme energies (up to {approx}10 PeV). In this letter, we show that by adopting a different analysis strategy, optimized for much higher energy neutrinos, the same AMANDA data can be used to place a limit competitive with radio techniques at EeV energies. We also discuss the sensitivity of the IceCube experiment, in various stages of deployment, to ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  1. Probing exotic physics with cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, collider experiments have been the primary tool used in searching for particle physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I will discuss alternative approaches for exploring exotic physics scenarios using high energy and ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. Such neutrinos can be used to study interactions at energies higher, and over baselines longer, than those accessible to colliders. In this way, neutrino astronomy can provide a window into fundamental physics which is highly complementary to collider techniques. I will discuss the role of neutrino astronomy in fundamental physics, considering the use of such techniques in studying several specific scenarios including low scale gravity models, Standard Model electroweak instanton induced interactions, decaying neutrinos and quantum decoherence

  2. Probing Very High Energy Prompt Muon and Neutrino fluxes and the cosmic ray knee via Underground Muons

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Raj; Panda, Sukanta

    2005-01-01

    We calculate event rate and demonstrate the observational feasibility of very high energy muons (1-1000 TeV) in a large mass underground detector operating as a pair-meter. This energy range corresponds to surface muon energies of $\\sim$(5 TeV - 5000 TeV) and primary cosmic ray energies of $\\sim$ (50 TeV - 5 $\\times 10^4$ TeV). Such measurements would significantly assist in an improved understanding of the prompt contribution to $\

  3. Search for a diffuse flux of extragalactic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne

    2013-06-07

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays it has been one of the major research goals to identify the sources and acceleration mechanisms behind these high-energy particles observed from space, with energies up to several EeV. The study of high-energy charged particles and photons has advantages and disadvantages: the detection techniques for charged cosmic rays are very advanced though high-energy charged nuclei are not able to reveal their sources due to magnetic deflection. In the last years, there have been discoveries of many gamma-ray sources, where photon fluxes up to energies of 100 TeV have been observed. However, the universe is opaque to photons with energies larger than 100 TeV since gamma rays interact with the cosmic microwave background. Neutrinos suffer from neither of these limitations. They are ideal messenger particles in order to investigate the sources of cosmic rays since they propagate unaffected, but their detection is difficult and no extraterrestrial neutrino sources at high energies have yet been found. The IceCube experiment, located at the geographic South Pole, was built in order to detect high-energy neutrinos from the universe. It was completed in December 2010 and is the largest neutrino observatory on Earth. It detects neutrinos via their interaction with the Antarctic ice inside and around the detection volume. In these interactions, high-energy leptons are produced, which follow the direction of the initial neutrino and produce a cone of Cherenkov light along their path. This light is detected by optical sensors deployed in the instrumented volume. The search for a diffuse neutrino flux is a very promising approach to look for an extragalactic flux of astrophysical neutrinos. Its sensitivity is mainly based on neutrino energies since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to be more energetic than atmospheric neutrinos. It searches for an astrophysical flux from the sum of all sources in the universe. These sources can be individually

  4. Search for a diffuse flux of extragalactic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukraft, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays it has been one of the major research goals to identify the sources and acceleration mechanisms behind these high-energy particles observed from space, with energies up to several EeV. The study of high-energy charged particles and photons has advantages and disadvantages: the detection techniques for charged cosmic rays are very advanced though high-energy charged nuclei are not able to reveal their sources due to magnetic deflection. In the last years, there have been discoveries of many gamma-ray sources, where photon fluxes up to energies of 100 TeV have been observed. However, the universe is opaque to photons with energies larger than 100 TeV since gamma rays interact with the cosmic microwave background. Neutrinos suffer from neither of these limitations. They are ideal messenger particles in order to investigate the sources of cosmic rays since they propagate unaffected, but their detection is difficult and no extraterrestrial neutrino sources at high energies have yet been found. The IceCube experiment, located at the geographic South Pole, was built in order to detect high-energy neutrinos from the universe. It was completed in December 2010 and is the largest neutrino observatory on Earth. It detects neutrinos via their interaction with the Antarctic ice inside and around the detection volume. In these interactions, high-energy leptons are produced, which follow the direction of the initial neutrino and produce a cone of Cherenkov light along their path. This light is detected by optical sensors deployed in the instrumented volume. The search for a diffuse neutrino flux is a very promising approach to look for an extragalactic flux of astrophysical neutrinos. Its sensitivity is mainly based on neutrino energies since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to be more energetic than atmospheric neutrinos. It searches for an astrophysical flux from the sum of all sources in the universe. These sources can be individually

  5. Detection prospects of the cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the cosmic neutrino background (CνB) is a fundamental prediction of the standard Big Bang cosmology. Although current cosmological probes provide indirect observational evidence, the direct detection of the CνB in a laboratory experiment is a great challenge to the present experimental techniques. We discuss the future prospects for the direct detection of the CνB, with the emphasis on the method of captures on beta-decaying nuclei and the PTOLEMY project. Other possibilities using the electron-capture (EC) decaying nuclei, the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos (EHECνs) at the Z-resonance, and the atomic de-excitation method are also discussed in this review (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015).

  6. Imaging Galactic Dark Matter with High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Kheirandish, Ali; Vincent, Aaron C

    2017-11-17

    We show that the high-energy cosmic neutrinos seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can be used to probe interactions between neutrinos and the dark sector that cannot be reached by current cosmological methods. The origin of the observed neutrinos is still unknown, and their arrival directions are compatible with an isotropic distribution. This observation, together with dedicated studies of Galactic plane correlations, suggests a predominantly extragalactic origin. Interactions between this isotropic extragalactic flux and the dense dark matter (DM) bulge of the Milky Way would thus lead to an observable imprint on the distribution, which would be seen by IceCube as (i) slightly suppressed fluxes at energies below a PeV and (ii) a deficit of events in the direction of the Galactic center. We perform an extended unbinned likelihood analysis using the four-year high-energy starting event data set to constrain the strength of DM-neutrino interactions for two model classes. We find that, in spite of low statistics, IceCube can probe regions of the parameter space inaccessible to current cosmological methods.

  7. Big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic neutrino background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yun; Xing Zhizhong

    2013-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the neutrino decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis in the early universe. The big bang relic neutrinos formed one of the backgrounds of the universe. A few possible ways to directly detect the cosmic neutrino background are briefly introduced, and particular attention is paid to the relic neutrino capture on b-decaying nuclei. (authors)

  8. Neutrino fluxes from the Galactic plane and the ANTARES limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Luigi Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of cosmic neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Though this measurement is consistent with an isotropic neutrino flux, a sub-dominant galactic component coming from extended regions such as the Galactic Plane cannot be excluded. The ANTARES detector, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is currently the largest and longest operated under-water neutrino telescope; its effective area and good exposure to the Southern Sky allow to constrain an enhanced muon neutrino emission from extended sources such as the Galactic Plane. ANTARES data from 2007 to 2013 have been analysed and upper limits on the neutrino production from the central region of our galaxy have been set.

  9. A new calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux: the FLUKA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bloise, C.; Cavalli, D.; Ferrari, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rancati, T.; Resconi, S.; Ronga, F.; Sala, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary results from a full 3-D calculation of atmospheric neutrino fluxes using the FLUKA interaction model are presented and compared to previous existing calculations. This effort is motivated mainly by the 3-D capability and the satisfactory degree of accuracy of the hadron-nucleus models embedded in the FLUKA code. Here we show examples of benchmarking tests of the model with cosmic ray experiment results. A comparison of our calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux with that of the Bartol group, for E ν > 1 GeV, is presented

  10. Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a new non-Standard Model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big-bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called Neutrino Dark Energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time/redshift dependent quantities. Such a possible neutrino mass variation introduces a redshift dependence into the resonance energies associated with the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on relic anti-neutrinos and vice versa into Z-bosons. In general, this annihilation process is expected to lead to sizeable absorption dips in the spectra to be observed on earth by neutrino observatories operating in the relevant energy region above 10 13 GeV. In our analysis, we contrast the characteristic absorption features produced by constant and varying neutrino masses, including all thermal background effects caused by the relic neutrino motion. We firstly consider neutrinos from astrophysical sources and secondly neutrinos originating from the decomposition of topological defects using the appropriate fragmentation functions. On the one hand, independent of the nature of neutrino masses, our results illustrate the discovery potential for the cosmic neutrino background by means of relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, they allow to estimate the prospects for testing its possible interpretation as source of Neutrino Dark Energy within the next decade by the neutrino observatories ANITA and LOFAR. (Orig.)

  11. Neutrino-oscillation search with cosmic-ray neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.S.; Cortez, B.; Gaisser, T.K.; Mann, A.K.; Shrock, R.E.; Sulak, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive search for neutrino oscillations involving ν/sub e/, ν/sub μ/, and ν/sub tau/ may be provided by measurements of the ratio of the total interaction rates of upward- and downward-going cosmic-ray neutrinos within a massive (approx.10 kton) detector. Assuming mixing between all pairs of ν/sub e/, ν/sub μ/, and ν/sub tau/, the experiment is capable of observing time-averaged probabilities /sub t/ and /sub t/ of magnitude set by mixing strengths corresponding to, e.g., the d- to s-quark mixing strength, and of reaching the limit Δm/sub i/j 2 equivalentVertical Barm/sub i/ 2 -m/sub j/ 2 Vertical Barroughly-equal10 -4 eV 2 , where m/sub i/, and m/sub j/ are neutrino mass eigenstates, and P/sub e/tau and P/sub mutau/ are the probabilities for ν/sub e/ and ν/sub μ/, respectively, to oscillate into ν/sub tau/ after traversing a distance Lroughly-equal diameter of the Earth. Possible ambiguities may be resolved through comparison of the ratios N/sub e//N/sub μ/ for the upward- and downward-going neutrinos

  12. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  13. Pairing in the cosmic neutrino background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, V.; Paredes, R.

    1981-07-01

    We extend the discussion of the possible superfluidity of the cosmic background of neutrinos beyond the arguments based on the gap equation, originally given by Ginzburg and Zharkov. We show how to develop a simple Ginzburg-Landau liquid model, in analogy with superconductivity. We use it to show how an analysis of the energy spectrum of the universe can be formulated to include general relativistic effects on the superfluid neutrinos. Finally, in view of the Hawking and Collins careful discussion on the rotation and distortion of a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe, we discuss the vortex dynamics that might be generated on the superfluid by rotations (allowed by the almost isotropy of the microwave background of photons) of up to 2 x 10 -14 second of arc/century, but conclude that rotations of this order of magnitude would be sufficiently strong to deter the existence of the superfluid state. (author)

  14. The prompt atmospheric neutrino flux in the light of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Sarkar, Subir; Talbert, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of very high energy cosmic neutrinos by IceCube heralds the beginning of neutrino astronomy. At these energies, the dominant background to the astrophysical signal is the flux of ‘prompt’ neutrinos, arising from the decay of charmed mesons produced by cosmic ray collisions in the atmosphere. In this work we provide predictions for the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux in the framework of perturbative QCD, using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo event generators. Our calculation includes the constraints set by charm production measurements from the LHCb experiment at 7 TeV, recently validated with the corresponding 13 TeV data. Our result for the prompt flux is a factor of about 2 below the previous benchmark calculation, in general agreement with other recent estimates, but with an improved estimate of the uncertainty. This alleviates the existing tension between the theoretical prediction and IceCube limits, and suggests that a direct detection of the prompt flux is imminent.

  15. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Buitink, S.; Docters, W.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Ferguson, A P.; Lu, L.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the

  16. Prospects for the direct detection of the cosmic neutrino background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background - the analogue of the cosmic microwave background - is a fundamental prediction of standard big bang cosmology. Up to now, the observational evidence for its existence is rather indirect and rests entirely on cosmological observations of, e.g., the light elemental abundances, the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, and the large scale distribution of matter. Here, we review more direct, weak interaction based detection techniques for the cosmic neutrino background in the present epoch and in our local neighbourhood. We show that, with current technology, all proposals are still off by some orders of magnitude in sensitivity to lead to a guaranteed detection of the relic neutrinos. The most promising laboratory search, based on neutrino capture on beta decaying nuclei, may be done in future experiments designed to measure the neutrino mass through decay kinematics.

  17. Prospects for the direct detection of the cosmic neutrino background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background - the analogue of the cosmic microwave background - is a fundamental prediction of standard big bang cosmology. Up to now, the observational evidence for its existence is rather indirect and rests entirely on cosmological observations of, e.g., the light elemental abundances, the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, and the large scale distribution of matter. Here, we review more direct, weak interaction based detection techniques for the cosmic neutrino background in the present epoch and in our local neighbourhood. We show that, with current technology, all proposals are still off by some orders of magnitude in sensitivity to lead to a guaranteed detection of the relic neutrinos. The most promising laboratory search, based on neutrino capture on beta decaying nuclei, may be done in future experiments designed to measure the neutrino mass through decay kinematics. (orig.)

  18. Acceleration and propagation of cosmic radiation. Production, oscillation and detection of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.-O.

    1987-06-01

    In recent years, the old problem of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation has become alive again, with the discovery of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, and with the first measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux, which appears to be higher than expected. I have shown that the new acceleration mechanism was slow and I have calculated the maximum energy that can be reached by particles accelerated in various astrophysical sites. I have also studied in detail a cosmic-ray propagation model which takes into account the antiproton measurements. Neutrino astronomy is a field much more recent and in rapid expansion, thanks to a convergence of interests between astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists. Several large neutrino detectors already exist; really huge ones are in project. I have studied the possible impact of the high energy (> 1 TeV) neutrino astronomy on models of cosmic-ray sources such as Cygnus X3. Comparing the low energy (∼ 10 MeV) cosmic-ray antineutrinos with other sources of neutrinos and antineutrinos (sun, supernova, earth...), I have pointed out that the antineutrino background resulting from all the nuclear power-stations of the planet was sizeable. This background is a nuisance for some astrophysical applications but could be useful for studies on vacuum or matter neutrino oscillations (MSW effect). I have also examined the MSW effect in another context: the travel through the earth of neutrinos from the supernova explosion SN1987a [fr

  19. Explanation for the Low Flux of High Energy Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Joshipura, Anjan; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2014-01-01

    There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider: (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example

  20. NEUTRINOS AS COSMIC MESSENGERS IN THE ERA OF ICECUBE, ANTARES AND KM3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli F. Katz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using neutrinos as cosmic messengers for observation of non-thermal processes in the Universe is a highly attractive and promising vision, which has been pursued in various neutrino telescope projects for more than two decades. Recent results from ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatories and refinements of model calculations of the expected neutrino fluxes indicate that Gigaton target volumes will be necessary to establish neutrino astronomy. A first neutrino telescope of that size, IceCube, is operational at the South Pole. Based on experience with the smaller first-generation ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, the multi-Gigaton KM3NeT device is in preparation. These neutrino telescopes are presented, and some selected results and the expected KM3NeT performance are discussed.

  1. Acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. Production, oscillation and detection of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to studies on cosmic rays and neutrinos, particles astrophysically relevant. In recent years, the old problem of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation has become alive again, with the discovery of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, and with the first measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux, which appears to be higher than expected. I have shown that the new acceleration mechanism was slow and I have calculated the maximum energy that can be reached by particles accelerated in various astrophysical sites. I have also studied in detail a cosmic-ray propagation model which takes into account the antiproton measurements. Neutrino astronomy is a field much more recent and in rapid expansion, thanks to a convergence of interests between astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists. Several large neutrino detectors already exist; really huge ones are in project. I have studied the possible impact of the high energy (> 1 TeV) neutrino astronomy on models of cosmic-ray sources such as Cygnus X3. Comparing the low energy (∼ 10 MeV) cosmic-ray antineutrinos with other sources of neutrinos and antineutrinos (sun, supernova, earth ...), I have pointed out that the antineutrino background resulting from all the nuclear power-stations of the planet was sizeable. This background is a nuisance for some astrophysical applications but could be useful for studies on vacuum or matter neutrino oscillations (MSW effect). I have also examined the MSW effect in another context: the travel through the earth of neutrinos from the supernova explosion SN1987a [fr

  2. Impact of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Mangilli, A; Matarrese, S; Riotto, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-wave background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultra-relativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational waves is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.

  3. Prompt neutrino fluxes in the atmosphere with PROSA parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzelli, M.V.; Moch, S.; Placakyte, R.; Sigl, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.

    2016-11-01

    Effects on atmospheric prompt neutrino fluxes of present uncertainties affecting the nucleon composition are studied by using the PROSA fit to parton distribution functions (PDFs). The PROSA fit extends the precision of the PDFs to low x, which is the kinematic region of relevance for high-energy neutrino production, by taking into account LHCb data on charm and bottom hadroproduction. In the range of neutrino energies explored by present Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes, it is found that PDF uncertainties are far smaller with respect to those due to renormalization and factorization scale variation and to assumptions on the cosmic ray composition, which at present dominate and limit our knowledge of prompt neutrino fluxes. A discussion is presented on how these uncertainties affect the expected number of atmospheric prompt neutrino events in the analysis of high-energy events characterized by interaction vertices fully contained within the instrumented volume of the detector, performed by the IceCube collaboration.

  4. T2K neutrino flux prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2013-01-02

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment studies neutrino oscillations using an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of about 0.6 GeV that originates at the J-PARC accelerator facility. Interactions of the neutrinos are observed at near detectors placed at 280 m from the production target and at the far detector -- Super-Kamiokande (SK) -- located 295 km away. The flux prediction is an essential part of the successful prediction of neutrino interaction rates at the T2K detectors and is an important input to T2K neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements. A FLUKA and GEANT3 based simulation models the physical processes involved in the neutrino production, from the interaction of primary beam protons in the T2K target, to the decay of hadrons and muons that produce neutrinos. The simulation uses proton beam monitor measurements as inputs. The modeling of hadronic interactions is re-weighted using thin target hadron production data, including recent charged pion and kaon measurements from the NA...

  5. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  6. Origin of the High-energy Neutrino Flux at IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceller, J. M.; Illana, J. I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the spectrum of the different components in the astrophysical neutrino flux reaching the Earth, and the possible contribution of each component to the high-energy IceCube data. We show that the diffuse flux from cosmic ray (CR) interactions with gas in our galaxy implies just two events among the 54-event sample. We argue that the neutrino flux from CR interactions in the intergalactic (intracluster) space depends critically on the transport parameter δ describing the energy dependence in the diffusion coefficient of galactic CRs. Our analysis motivates a {E}-2.1 neutrino spectrum with a drop at PeV energies that fits the data well, including the non-observation of the Glashow resonance at 6.3 PeV. We also show that a CR flux described by an unbroken power law may produce a neutrino flux with interesting spectral features (bumps and breaks) related to changes in the CR composition.

  7. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.S.; Kajita, T.; Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have observed 277 fully contained events in the KAMIOKANDE detector. The number of electron-like single prong events is in good agreement with the predictions of a Monte Carlo calculation based on atmospheric neutrino interactions in the detector. On the other hand, the number of muon-like single prong events is 59 ± 7 %(statistical error) of the predicted number of the Monte Carlo calculation. We are unable to explain the data as the result of systematic detector effects or uncertainties in the atmospheric neutrino fluxes. (author)

  8. Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaewon [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\

  9. Modelling neutrino and gamma-ray fluxes in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J; Cassam-Chenai, G; Maurin, G; Naumann, C

    2008-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to accelerate charged particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and to produce the majority of galactic cosmic rays, at least up to the 'knee' at 3-10 15 electron volts. In the framework of a hydrodynamic self-similar simulation of the evolution of young supernova remnants, its interaction with the ambient matter as well as the microwave and infrared background is studied. The photon spectra resulting from synchrotron and inverse Compton emission as well as from hadronic processes are calculated, as are the accompanying neutrino fluxes. Applying this method to the particular case of the SNR RXJ-1713, 7-3946, we find that its TeV emission can in principle be explained by pion decay if the ambient density is assumed to grow with increasing distance from the centre. The neutrino flux associated with this hadronic model is of a magnitude that may be detectable by a cubic-kilometre sized deep-sea neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. In this poster, a description of the supernova remnant simulation is given together with the results concerning RXJ-1713.

  10. Relic right-handed Dirac neutrinos and implications for detection of cosmic neutrino background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It remains to be determined experimentally if massive neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. In this connection, it has been recently suggested that the detection of cosmic neutrino background of left-handed neutrinos νL and right-handed antineutrinos ν‾R in future experiments of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (e.g., νe+H3→He3+e− for the PTOLEMY experiment is likely to distinguish between Majorana and Dirac neutrinos, since the capture rate is twice larger in the former case. In this paper, we investigate the possible impact of right-handed neutrinos on the capture rate, assuming that massive neutrinos are Dirac particles and both right-handed neutrinos νR and left-handed antineutrinos ν‾L can be efficiently produced in the early Universe. It turns out that the capture rate can be enhanced at most by 28% due to the presence of relic νR and ν‾L with a total number density of 95 cm−3, which should be compared to the number density 336 cm−3 of cosmic neutrino background. The enhancement has actually been limited by the latest cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the effective number of neutrino generations Neff=3.14−0.43+0.44 at the 95% confidence level. For illustration, two possible scenarios have been proposed for thermal production of right-handed neutrinos in the early Universe.

  11. Cosmic-ray and neutrino emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with a nuclear cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, Daniel; Boncioli, Denise; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter

    2017-05-24

    We discuss neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with the injection of nuclei, where we take into account that a nuclear cascade from photo-disintegration can fully develop in the source. One of our main objectives is to test if recent results from the IceCube and the Pierre Auger Observatory can be accommodated with the paradigm that GRBs are the sources of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). While our key results are obtained using an internal shock model, we discuss how the secondary emission from a GRB shell can be interpreted in terms of other astrophysical models. It is demonstrated that the expected neutrino flux from GRBs weakly depends on the injection composition, which implies that prompt neutrinos from GRBs can efficiently test the GRB-UHECR paradigm even if the UHECRs are nuclei. We show that the UHECR spectrum and composition, as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, can be self-consistently reproduced in a combined source-propagation model. In an attempt to describe the energy range including the ankle, we find tension with the IceCube bounds from the GRB stacking analyses. In an alternative scenario, where only the UHECRs beyond the ankle originate from GRBs, the requirement for a joint description of cosmic-ray and neutrino observations favors lower luminosities, which does not correspond to the typical expectation from γ-ray observations.

  12. Cosmic-ray and neutrino emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with a nuclear cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, Daniel; Boncioli, Denise; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter

    2017-01-01

    We discuss neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with the injection of nuclei, where we take into account that a nuclear cascade from photo-disintegration can fully develop in the source. One of our main objectives is to test if recent results from the IceCube and the Pierre Auger Observatory can be accommodated with the paradigm that GRBs are the sources of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). While our key results are obtained using an internal shock model, we discuss how the secondary emission from a GRB shell can be interpreted in terms of other astrophysical models. It is demonstrated that the expected neutrino flux from GRBs weakly depends on the injection composition, which implies that prompt neutrinos from GRBs can efficiently test the GRB-UHECR paradigm even if the UHECRs are nuclei. We show that the UHECR spectrum and composition, as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, can be self-consistently reproduced in a combined source-propagation model. In an attempt to describe the energy range including the ankle, we find tension with the IceCube bounds from the GRB stacking analyses. In an alternative scenario, where only the UHECRs beyond the ankle originate from GRBs, the requirement for a joint description of cosmic-ray and neutrino observations favors lower luminosities, which does not correspond to the typical expectation from γ-ray observations.

  13. Cosmic ray and neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with a nuclear cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, D.; Boncioli, D.; Fedynitch, A.; Winter, W.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We discuss neutrino and cosmic ray emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the injection of nuclei, where we take into account that a nuclear cascade from photodisintegration can fully develop in the source. Our main objective is to test whether recent results from the IceCube and the Pierre Auger Observatory can be accommodated within the paradigm that GRBs are the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Methods: We simulate this scenario in a combined source-propagation model. While our key results are obtained using an internal shock model of the source, we discuss how the secondary emission from a GRB shell can be interpreted in terms of other astrophysical models. Results: We demonstrate that the expected neutrino flux from GRBs weakly depends on the injection composition for the same injection spectra and luminosities, which implies that prompt neutrinos from GRBs can efficiently test the GRB-UHECR paradigm even if the UHECRs are nuclei. We show that the UHECR spectrum and composition, as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, can be self-consistently reproduced. In an attempt to describe the energy range including the ankle, we find tension with the IceCube bounds from the GRB stacking analyses. In an alternative scenario, where only the UHECRs beyond the ankle originate from GRBs, the requirement for a joint description of cosmic ray and neutrino observations favors lower luminosities, which does not correspond to the typical expectation from γ-ray observations.

  14. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background

  15. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Cuesta, Antonio J; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Lesgourgues, Julien; Niro, Viviana; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Poulin, Vivian; Tram, Thomas; Tramonte, Denis; Verde, Licia

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effectiv...

  16. Unstable gravitino dark matter and neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, L.; Grefe, M.; Ibarra, A.; Tran, D.

    2008-09-01

    The gravitino is a promising supersymmetric dark matter candidate which does not require exact R-parity conservation. In fact, even with some small R-parity breaking, gravitinos are sufficiently long-lived to constitute the dark matter of the Universe, while yielding a cosmological scenario consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis and the high reheating temperature required for thermal leptogenesis. In this paper, we compute the neutrino flux from direct gravitino decay and gauge boson fragmentation in a simple scenario with bilinear R-parity breaking. Our choice of parameters is motivated by a proposed interpretation of anomalies in the extragalactic gamma-ray spectrum and the positron fraction in terms of gravitino dark matter decay. We find that the generated neutrino flux is compatible with present measurements. We also discuss the possibility of detecting these neutrinos in present and future experiments and conclude that it is a challenging task. However, if detected, this distinctive signal might bring significant support to the scenario of gravitinos as decaying dark matter. (orig.)

  17. High energy cosmic neutrinos and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.

    1996-01-01

    Observation of ultra-high energy neutrinos, in particular detection of ν τ , from cosmologically distant sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN) opens new possibilities to search for neutrino flavor conversion. We consider the effects of violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) on propagation of these cosmic neutrinos. In particular, we discuss two effects: (1) the oscillations of neutrinos due to VEP in the gravitational field of our Galaxy and in the intergalactic space; (2) resonance flavor conversion driven by the gravitational potential of AGN. We show that ultra-high energies of the neutrinos as well as cosmological distances to AGN, or strong AGN gravitational potential allow to improve the accuracy of testing of the equivalence principle by 25 orders of magnitude for massless neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -41 ) and by 11 orders of magnitude for massive neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -28 x (Δm 2 /1eV 2 )). The experimental signatures of the transitions induced by VEP are discussed. (author). 17 refs

  18. Status and New Data of the Geochemical Determination of the pp-Neutrino Flux by LOREX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pavićević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available LOREX (LORandite EXperiment addresses the determination of the solar (pp neutrino flux during the last four million years by exploiting the reaction  205Tl+νe→ 205Pb+e- with an incomparably low-energy threshold of 50 keV for the capture of solar neutrinos. The ratio of 205Pb/205Tl atoms in the Tl-bearing mineral lorandite provides, if corrected for the cosmic-ray induced background, the product of the flux of solar neutrinos and their capture probability by 205Tl, averaged over the age of lorandite. To get the mean solar neutrino flux itself, four problems have to be addressed: (1 the geological age of lorandite, (2 the amount of background cosmic-ray-induced 205Pb atoms which strongly depends on the erosion rate of the lorandite-bearing rocks, (3 the capture probability of solar neutrinos by 205Tl and (4 the extraction of lorandite and the appropriate technique to “count” the small number of 205Pb atoms in relation to the number of 205Tl atoms. This paper summarizes the status of items 1 (age and 3 (neutrino capture probability and presents in detail the progress achieved most recently concerning the items 2 (background/erosion and 4 (“counting” of 205Pb atoms in lorandite.

  19. The sensitivity of the Antares detector to the galactic neutrino flux; Sensibilite du telescope Antares au flux diffus de neutrinos galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvenot, F

    2005-06-15

    The Antares european collaboration builds an underwater neutrinos telescope which will be deployed in the Mediterranean by 2500 m depth. This detector consists of a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers which detects the Cherenkov light produced in water by muons created from the interaction of neutrinos in the Earth. Cosmic rays are confined in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar matter producing charged pions which decay into neutrinos. The observation of the sky with high energy neutrinos (> 100 GeV) could open a new window on the Galaxy, in particular, the detection of these neutrinos may make it possible to directly observe the dense parts of the Galaxy. In this work, corresponding fluxes have been calculated using a simulation program GALPROP, for several models, constrained by various gamma and cosmic rays observations. The expected sensitivity of the Antares detector to these models was reviewed, as well as a first estimation of the performances of what would give a future km{sup 3} scale detector. A shape recognition algorithm was also developed: it would permit to highlight the structures of the Galaxy in the optimistic case which the number of events detected would be sufficient. This work shows that Antares has an insufficient size for observing the galactic plane. It was also demonstrated that a new generation of neutrino telescope having an effective area at least 40 times larger will be needed to detect the hardest spectrum model and put limits on the other models. (author)

  20. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, Benjamin [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Verde, Licia [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi [Dept. d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Niro, Viviana [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Tramonte, Denis [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Poulin, Vivian [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, B.P.110, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941 (France); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effective parameters do not vary significantly when considering an arbitrary value of the particle mass, or extended cosmological models with a free effective neutrino number, dynamical dark energy or a running of the primordial spectrum tilt. We conclude that it is possible to make a robust statement about the detection of the cosmic neutrino background by CMB experiments.

  1. From cosmic OPERA to neutrino ballet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    View of the OPERA detector (on the CNGS facility) with its two identical Super Modules, each of which contains one target section and one spectrometer.As the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project prepares to send its high intensity neutrino beam, some 730 km away in Italy, the OPERA collaboration is beginning to commission its electronic detectors in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). OPERA is ready to come on stage. Based in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, 732 km from CERN, the experiment will commission its electronic detectors with the high intensity neutrino beam sent by CNGS (see Bulletin n°29-30/2006). The OPERA Collaboration, which comprises 170 physicists from 35 research institutes and universities worldwide, aims to clear up the mystery of neutrino oscillation. The installation of the OPERA detector began in 2003 in Hall C of the underground laboratory at the LNGS. The detector is made of two identical Super Modules, each one containing one target section and ...

  2. Determining neutrino mass from the cosmic microwave background alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Knox, Lloyd; Song, Yong-Seon

    2003-12-12

    Distortions of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization maps caused by gravitational lensing, observable with high angular resolution and high sensitivity, can be used to measure the neutrino mass. Assuming two massless species and one with mass m(nu), we forecast sigma(m(nu))=0.15 eV from the Planck satellite and sigma(m(nu))=0.04 eV from observations with twice the angular resolution and approximately 20 times the sensitivity. A detection is likely at this higher sensitivity since the observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations requires Deltam(2)(nu) greater, similar (0.04 eV)(2).

  3. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  4. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  5. Detection prospects for the Cosmic Neutrino Background using laser interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domcke, Valerie [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC)/Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics, Université Paris Diderot, Rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, Paris (France); Spinrath, Martin, E-mail: valerie.domcke@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: martin.spinrath@cts.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is a key prediction of Big Bang cosmology which has not been observed yet. The movement of the earth through this neutrino bath creates a force on a pendulum, as if it were exposed to a cosmic wind. We revise here estimates for the resulting pendulum acceleration and compare it to the theoretical sensitivity of an experimental setup where the pendulum position is measured using current laser interferometer technology as employed in gravitational wave detectors. We discuss how a significant improvement of this setup can be envisaged in a micro gravity environment. The proposed setup could also function as a dark matter detector in the sub-MeV range, which currently eludes direct detection constraints.

  6. Neutrino conversion in a neutrino flux: towards an effective theory of collective oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos above the neutrino sphere can be completely described by the propagation of individual neutrinos in external potentials and are in this sense a linear phenomenon. An effective theory of collective oscillations can be developed based on certain assumptions about time dependence of these potentials. General conditions for strong flavor transformations are formulated and these transformations can be interpreted as parametric resonance effects induced by periodic modulations of the potentials. We study a simplified and solvable example, where a probe neutrino is propagating in a flux of collinear neutrinos, such that ν ν‑ interactions in the flux are absent. Still, this example retains the main feature—the coherent flavor exchange. Properties of the parametric resonance are studied, and it is shown that integrations over energies and emission points of the flux neutrinos suppress modulations of the potentials and therefore strong transformations. The transformations are also suppressed by changes in densities of background neutrinos and electrons.

  7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FERMI -2LAC BLAZARS TO DIFFUSE TEV–PEV NEUTRINO FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Abraham, K. [Physik-department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Department of Physics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, 53201 (United States); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Arguelles, C.; Axani, S. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S. W., E-mail: thorsten.gluesenkamp@fau.de [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi -LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of −2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as −2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC γ -ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.

  8. A road map to solar neutrino fluxe, neutrino oscillation parameters, and tests for new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Bahcall, John N.; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    We analyze all available solar and related reactor neutrino experiments, as well as simulated future ^7Be, p-p, pep, and ^8B solar neutrino experiments. We treat all solar neutrino fluxes as free parameters subject to the condition that the total luminosity represented by the neutrinos equals the observed solar luminosity (the `luminosity constraint'). Existing experiments show that the p-p solar neutrino flux is 1.01 + - 0.02 (1 sigma) times the flux predicted by the BP00 standard solar model; the ^7Be neutrino flux is 0.97^{+0.28}_{-0.54} the predicted flux; and the ^8B flux is 1.01 + - 0.06 the predicted flux. The oscillation parameters are: Delta m^2 = 7.3^{+0.4}_{-0.6} 10^{-5} eV^2 and tan^2 theta_{12} = 0.42^{+0.08}_{-0.06}. We evaluate how accurate future experiments must be to determine more precisely neutrino oscillation parameters and solar neutrino fluxes, and to elucidate the transition from vacuum-dominated to matter-dominated oscillations. A future ^7Be nu-e scattering experiment accurate to + -...

  9. Cosmic ray neutrino tests for heavier weak bosons and cosmic antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A program for using high energy neutrino astronomy with large neutrino detectors to directly test for the existence of heavier weak intermediate vector bosons (ivb) and cosmic antimatter is described. Such observations can provide a direct test of baryon symmetric cosmologies. Changes in the total cross section for nu(N) yields mu(X) due to additional propagators are discussed and higher mass resonances in the annihilation channel bar-nu sub e e(-) yields X are analyzed. The annihilation channel is instrumental in the search for antimatter, partcularly if heavier IVB's exist.

  10. Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.

  11. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2008-02-01

    Ongoing experimental efforts to detect cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos are guided by the expectation that astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray protons would also generate neutrinos through interactions with ambient matter and/or photons. However, there will be a reduction in the predicted neutrino flux if cosmic ray sources accelerate not only protons but also significant numbers of heavier nuclei, as is indicated by recent air shower data. We consider plausible extragalactic sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts and starburst galaxies and demand consistency with the observed cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum at Earth after allowing for propagation through intergalactic radiation fields. This allows us to calculate the expected neutrino fluxes from the sources, normalized to the observed cosmic ray spectrum. We find that the likely signals are still within reach of next generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.PACS95.85.Ry98.70.Rz98.54.Cm98.54.EpReferencesFor a review, see:F.HalzenD.HooperRep. Prog. Phys.6520021025A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.972006221101A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationAstropart. Phys.262006282arXiv:astro-ph/0611063arXiv:astro-ph/0702265V.NiessANTARES CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8672006217I.KravchenkoPhys. Rev. D732006082002S.W.BarwickANITA CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.962006171101V.Van ElewyckPierre Auger CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8092006187For a survey of possible sources and event rates in km3 detectors see e.g.,W.BednarekG.F.BurgioT.MontaruliNew Astron. Rev.4920051M.D.KistlerJ.F.BeacomPhys. Rev. D742006063007A. Kappes, J. Hinton, C. Stegmann, F.A. Aharonian, arXiv:astro-ph/0607286.A.LevinsonE.WaxmanPhys. Rev. Lett.872001171101C.DistefanoD.GuettaE.WaxmanA.LevinsonAstrophys. J.5752002378F.A.AharonianL.A.AnchordoquiD.KhangulyanT.MontaruliJ. Phys. Conf. Ser.392006408J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenAstrophys. J.5762002L33F.VissaniAstropart. Phys.262006310F.W

  12. Effect of atmospheric flux uncertainties on the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandroos Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of large-volume neutrino telescopes will include low-energy subarrays which will be able to measure neutrinos with energies of a few GeV. In this energy range the primary signal below the horizon is neutrinos created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The measured event rate will depend on the neutrino mass hierarchy, allowing determination of this quantity to a significance level of about 3.5 sigma within a 5-year period, mostly limited by systematic uncertainties. We present here the impact of the uncertainties on the atmospheric neutrino flux normalization on the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. We suggest constraining the systematic uncertainties by including the downgoing neutrino sample, which will increase the significance. This work was performed using simulation data from the low-energy extension to the IceCube detector located at the geographic south pole, PINGU, and is relevant to a wide range of other experiments.

  13. Low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy with Borexino. Towards the detection of the solar pep and CNO neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneschg, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Borexino is a large-volume organic liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented high radiopurity which has been designed for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy in real time. Besides the main objective of the experiment, the measurement of the solar 7 Be neutrino flux, Borexino also aims at detecting solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle. The detectability of these neutrinos is strictly connected to a successful rejection of all relevant background components. The identification and reduction of these background signals is the central subject of this dissertation. In the first part, contaminants induced by cosmic-ray muons and muon showers were analyzed. The dominant background is the cosmogenic radioisotope 11 C. Its rate is ∝10 times higher than the expected combined pep and CNO neutrino rate in the preferred energy window of observation at [0.8,1.3] MeV. Since 11 C is mostly produced under the release of a free neutron, 11 C can be tagged with a threefold coincidence (TFC) consisting of the muon signal, the neutron capture and the subsequent 11 C decay. By optimizing the TFC method and other rejection techniques, a 11 C rejection efficiency of 80% was achieved. This led to a neutrino-to-background ratio of 1:1.7, whereby 61% of statistics is lost. The second part of the work concerns the study of the external background. Especially long-range 2.6 MeV gamma rays from 208 Tl decays in the outer detector parts can reach the scintillator in the innermost region of the detector. For the determination of the resultant spectral shape, a custom-made ∝5 MBq 228 Th source was produced and an external calibration was carried out for the first time. The obtained calibration data and the achieved 11 C rejection efficiency will allow for the direct detection of solar pep and possibly also CNO neutrinos with Borexino. (orig.)

  14. New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böser Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    in dense media provides another promising approachfor the identification of the sources of cosmic rays. The low event rates and large required target volumes limit the experimental methods to far-ranging signatures .from the cascade, such as acoustic emission from the quasi-instantaneous energy deposit or Cherenkov emission from the charged particles in the cascade. Searching for optical Cherenkov photons in a cubic-kilometer of Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment has recently found an excess of high-energy neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range.Yet its effective volume is too small to detect the GZK flux predicted from interaction of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background. Seeking to increase the observed target volume, radio observations of the rim of the moon have energy thresholds well beyond the EeV scale and thus are more likely to find interactions of charged cosmic rays than GZK neutrinos. The currently best sensitivity to this flux is provided from searches for GHz radio emission of neutrino-induced cascades in the antarctic ice from the ANITA ballon experiment. While no high-energy neutrinos have been found, a geomagnetic emission component from air-showers

  15. Probing the Extragalactic Cosmic-Ray Origin with Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, Noemie; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Allard, Denis; Parizot, Etienne [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2017-04-20

    GeV–TeV gamma-rays and PeV–EeV neutrino backgrounds provide a unique window on the nature of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We discuss the implications of the recent Fermi -LAT data regarding the extragalactic gamma-ray background and related estimates of the contribution of point sources as well as IceCube neutrino data on the origin of the UHECRs. We calculate the diffuse flux of cosmogenic γ -rays and neutrinos produced by the UHECRs and derive constraints on the possible cosmological evolution of UHECR sources. In particular, we show that the mixed-composition scenario considered in Globus et al., which is in agreement with both (i) Auger measurements of the energy spectrum and composition up to the highest energies and (ii) the ankle-like feature in the light component detected by KASCADE-Grande, is compatible with both the Fermi -LAT measurements and with current IceCube limits. We also discuss the possibility for future experiments to detect associated cosmogenic neutrinos and further constrain the UHECR models, including possible subdominant UHECR proton sources.

  16. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  17. Late time neutrino masses, the LSND experiment, and the cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Z; Hall, Lawrence J; Oliver, Steven J; Perelstein, Maxim

    2005-03-25

    Models with low-scale breaking of global symmetries in the neutrino sector provide an alternative to the seesaw mechanism for understanding why neutrinos are light. Such models can easily incorporate light sterile neutrinos required by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment. Furthermore, the constraints on the sterile neutrino properties from nucleosynthesis and large-scale structure can be removed due to the nonconventional cosmological evolution of neutrino masses and densities. We present explicit, fully realistic supersymmetric models, and discuss the characteristic signatures predicted in the angular distributions of the cosmic microwave background.

  18. GZK cutoff and associated neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2004-11-15

    We discuss the cosmogenic neutrinos that are produced in interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with radiation fields. The obvious and most important target is the microwave background. It is possible that the infrared/optical background contributes to the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos, especially in the case of steep cosmic ray injection spectra and fast cosmological evolution of the cosmic ray sources.

  19. Updated determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from solar neutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergström, Johannes [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (Spain); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Maltoni, Michele [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Peña-Garay, Carlos [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia,Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Serenelli, Aldo M. [Institut de Ciencies de l’Espai (ICE-CSIC/IEEC),Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valls (Spain); Song, Ningqiang [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2016-03-18

    We present an update of the determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from a global analysis of the solar and terrestrial neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. Using a Bayesian analysis we reconstruct the posterior probability distribution function for the eight normalization parameters of the solar neutrino fluxes plus the relevant masses and mixing, with and without imposing the luminosity constraint. We then use these results to compare the description provided by different Standard Solar Models. Our results show that, at present, both models with low and high metallicity can describe the data with equivalent statistical agreement. We also argue that even with the present experimental precision the solar neutrino data have the potential to improve the accuracy of the solar model predictions.

  20. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplin, Leonidas Aliaga [Coll. William and Mary

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the flux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  1. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas [William-Mary Coll.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  2. Can the Copernican principle be tested using the cosmic neutrino background?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Junji; Zhang, Hongbao

    2008-01-01

    The Copernican principle, stating that we do not occupy any special place in our universe, is usually taken for granted in modern cosmology. However recent observational supernova data indicate that we may live in the under-dense center of our universe, which challenges the Copernican principle. It thus becomes urgent and important to test the Copernican principle via cosmological observations. Taking into account that unlike cosmic photons, cosmic neutrinos of different energies come from different places to us, along different worldlines, we here propose using the cosmic neutrino background as a test of the Copernican principle. It is shown that from the theoretical perspective, the cosmic neutrino background can allow one to determine whether the Copernican principle is valid or not, but to implement such an observation, larger neutrino detectors are called for

  3. Salted neutrinos our favourite seasoning is helping to solve a great cosmic mystery

    CERN Multimedia

    Chown, M

    2001-01-01

    Underground salt domes could be the neutrino detectors of the future and help scientists to understand where high-energy cosmic rays originate. Neutrinos are extremely difficult to detect because they rarely interact with matter. Inside salt crystals though, neutrinos will occasionally strike an atomic nucleus and produce a shower of charged particles which in turn produces an intense burst of radio waves (1/2 page).

  4. A model explaining neutrino masses and the DAMPE cosmic ray electron excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Chih; Spinrath, Martin; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    We propose a flavored U(1)eμ neutrino mass and dark matter (DM) model to explain the recent DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) data, which feature an excess on the cosmic ray electron plus positron flux around 1.4 TeV. Only the first two lepton generations of the Standard Model are charged under the new U(1)eμ gauge symmetry. A vector-like fermion ψ, which is our DM candidate, annihilates into e± and μ± via the new gauge boson Z‧ exchange and accounts for the DAMPE excess. We have found that the data favors a ψ mass around 1.5 TeV and a Z‧ mass around 2.6 TeV, which can potentially be probed by the next generation lepton colliders and DM direct detection experiments.

  5. A model explaining neutrino masses and the DAMPE cosmic ray electron excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yi Zhong; Huang, Wei Chih; Spinrath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flavored U(1)eμ neutrino mass and dark matter (DM) model to explain the recent DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) data, which feature an excess on the cosmic ray electron plus positron flux around 1.4 TeV. Only the first two lepton generations of the Standard Model are charged under...... the new U(1)eμ gauge symmetry. A vector-like fermion ψ, which is our DM candidate, annihilates into e± and μ± via the new gauge boson Z′ exchange and accounts for the DAMPE excess. We have found that the data favors a ψ mass around 1.5 TeV and a Z′ mass around 2.6 TeV, which can potentially be probed...

  6. Low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy with Borexino. Towards the detection of the solar pep and CNO neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneschg, Werner

    2011-05-11

    Borexino is a large-volume organic liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented high radiopurity which has been designed for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy in real time. Besides the main objective of the experiment, the measurement of the solar {sup 7}Be neutrino flux, Borexino also aims at detecting solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle. The detectability of these neutrinos is strictly connected to a successful rejection of all relevant background components. The identification and reduction of these background signals is the central subject of this dissertation. In the first part, contaminants induced by cosmic-ray muons and muon showers were analyzed. The dominant background is the cosmogenic radioisotope {sup 11}C. Its rate is {proportional_to}10 times higher than the expected combined pep and CNO neutrino rate in the preferred energy window of observation at [0.8,1.3] MeV. Since {sup 11}C is mostly produced under the release of a free neutron, {sup 11}C can be tagged with a threefold coincidence (TFC) consisting of the muon signal, the neutron capture and the subsequent {sup 11}C decay. By optimizing the TFC method and other rejection techniques, a {sup 11}C rejection efficiency of 80% was achieved. This led to a neutrino-to-background ratio of 1:1.7, whereby 61% of statistics is lost. The second part of the work concerns the study of the external background. Especially long-range 2.6 MeV gamma rays from {sup 208}Tl decays in the outer detector parts can reach the scintillator in the innermost region of the detector. For the determination of the resultant spectral shape, a custom-made {proportional_to}5 MBq {sup 228}Th source was produced and an external calibration was carried out for the first time. The obtained calibration data and the achieved {sup 11}C rejection efficiency will allow for the direct detection of solar pep and possibly also CNO neutrinos with Borexino. (orig.)

  7. Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new phasics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. The measured neutrino flavor parameters pose a challenge to flavor models.

  8. Solar neutrino flux at keV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Edoardo; Redondo, Javier; Raffelt, Georg

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the solar neutrino and antineutrino flux in the keV energy range. The dominant thermal source processes are photo production (γ e→ e νbar nu), bremsstrahlung (e+Ze→ Ze+e+νbar nu), plasmon decay (γ→νbar nu), and νbar nu emission in free-bound and bound-bound transitions of partially ionized elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. These latter processes dominate in the energy range of a few keV and thus carry information about the solar metallicity. To calculate their rate we use libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities in analogy to a previous calculation of solar axion emission. Our overall flux spectrum and many details differ significantly from previous works. While this low-energy flux is not measurable with present-day technology, it could become a significant background for future direct searches for keV-mass sterile neutrino dark matter.

  9. Extraction of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from experimental event rate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations. In

  10. Neutrinos from the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Erwin Lourens

    2015-01-01

    A guaranteed source of neutrinos is the production in cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar matter in our Galaxy. The signal has never been detected however and only an upper limit on this flux of neutrinos has been published by the AMANDA-II detector. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located

  11. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  12. Prediction of Neutrino Fluxes in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T.M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.

    2003-01-01

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for nu(mu) and nu(e), 10% for antinu(mu), and 12% for antinu(e). The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the R(e, mu) prediction needed for a nu(mu)->nu(e) oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  13. Searches for high frequency variations in the 8-B neutrino flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seibert, Stanley R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stonehill, L C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wouters, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aharmim, B [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Ahmed, S N [QUEEN' S UNIV; Anthony, A E [UNIV OF TEXAS; Barros, N [PORTUGAL; Beier, E W [UNIV OF PA; Bellerive, A [CARLETON UNIV; Belttran, B [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Bergevin, M [LBNL; Biller, S D [UNIV OF OXFORD; Boudjemline, K [CARLETON UNIV; Burritt, T H [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Cai, B [QUEEN' S UNIV; Chan, Y D [LBNL; Chauhan, D [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Chen, M [QUEEN' S UNIV; Cleveland, B T [UNIV OF OXFORD; Cox - Mobrand, G A [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Dai, X [QUEEN' S UNIV; Deng, H [UNIV OF PA; Detwiler, J [LBNL; Dimarco, M [QUEEN' S UNIV; Doe, P J [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Drouin, P - L [CARLTON UNIV; Duba, C A [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Duncan, F A [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Dunford, M [UNIV OF PA; Earle, E D [QUEEN' S UNIV; Evans, H C [QUEEN' S UNIV; Ewan, G T [QUEEN' S UNIV; Farine, J [LAURENTTIAN UNIV; Fergani, H [UNIV OF OXFORD; Fleurot, F [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Ford, R J [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Formaggilo, J A [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH.; Gagnon, N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Goon, J Tm [LOUISIANA STATE UNIV; Guillian, E [QUEEN' S UNIV; Habib, S [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Hahn, R L [BNL; Hallin, A L [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Hallman, E D [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Harvey, P J [QUEEN' S UNIV; Hazama, R [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Heintzelman, W J [UNIV OF PA; Heise, J [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Helmer, R L [TRIUMF; Howard, C [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Howe, M A [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Huang, M [UNIV OF TEXAS; Jamieson, B [UNIV OF BRITISH COLUMBIA; Jelley, N A [UNIV OF OXFORD; Keeter, K J [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Klein, J R [UNIV OF TEXAS; Kos, M [QUEEN' S UNIV; Kraus, C [QUEEN' S UNIV; Krauss, C B [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Kutter, T [LOUISIANA STATE UNIV; Kyba, C C M [UNIV OF PA; Law, J [UNIV OF GUELPH; Lawson, I T [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Lesko, K T [LBNL; Leslie, J R [QUEEN' S UNIV; Loach, J C [UNIV OF OXFORD; Maclellan, R [QUEEN' S UNIV; Majerus, S [UNIV OF OXFORD; Mak, H B [QUEEN' S UNIV; Maneira, J [PORTUGAL; Martin, R [QUEEN' S UNIV; Mccauley, N [UNIV OF PA; Mc Donald, A B [QUEEN' S UNIV; Mcgee, S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Miffin, C [CARLETON UNIV; Miller, M L [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH.; Monreal, B [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH.; Monroe, J [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH; Morissette, B [SNOLAB, SUDBURY; Nickel, B G [UNIV OF GUELPH; Noble, A J [QUEEN' S UNIV; O' Keeffe, H M [UNIV OF OXFORD; Oblath, N S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Orebi Gann, G D [UNIV OF OXFORD; Oser, S M [UNIV OF BRITISH COLUMBIA; Ott, R A [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH.; Peeters, S J M [UNIV OF OXFORD; Poon, A W P [LBNL; Prior, G [LBNL; Reitzner, S D [UNIV OF GUELPH; Robertson, B C [QUEEN' S UNIV; Robertson, R G H [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Rollin, E [CARLETON UNIV; Schwendener, M H [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Secrest, J A [UNIV OF PA; Seibert, S R [UNIV OF TEXAS; Simard, O [CARLETON UNIV; Sinclair, D [CARLETON UNIV; Sinclair, L [CARLETON UNIV; Skensved, P [QUEEN' S UNIV; Sonley, T J [MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH.; Tesic, G [CARLETON UNIV; Tolich, N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Tsui, T [UNIV OF BRITISH COLUMBIA; Tunnell, C D [UNIV OF TEXAS; Van Berg, R [UNIV OF PA; Van Devender, B A [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Virtue, C J [LAURENTIAN UNIV; Wall, B L [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Waller, D [CARLETON UNIV; Wan Chan Tseung, H [UNIV OF OXFORD; West, N [UNIV OF OXFORD; Wilkerson, J F [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wilson, J R [UNIV OF OXFORD; Wright, A [QUEEN' S UNIV; Yeh, M [BNL; Zhang, F [CARLETON UNIV; Zuber, K [UNIV OF OXFORD

    2009-01-01

    We have peformed three searches for high-frequency signals in the solar neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), motivated by the possibility that solar g-mode oscillations could affect the production or propagation of solar {sup 8}B neutrinos. The first search looked for any significant peak in the frequency range l/day to 144/day, with a sensitivity to sinusoidal signals with amplitudes of 12% or greater. The second search focused on regions in which g-mode signals have been claimed by experiments aboard the SoHO satellite, and was sensitive to signals with amplitudes of 10% or greater. The third search looked for extra power across the entire frequency band. No statistically significant signal was detected in any of the three searches.

  14. Hadron Production for the Neutrino Factory and for the Atmospheric Neutrino Flux

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The HARP experiment carries out, at the CERN PS, a programme of measurements of secondary hadron production, over the full solid angle, produced on thin and thick nuclear targets by beams of protons and pions with momenta in the range 2 to 15~\\GeVc. The first aim of this experiment is to acquire adequate knowledge of pion yields for an optimal design of the proton driver of the Neutrino Factory. The second aim is to reduce substantially the existing $\\sim 30$\\% uncertainty in the calculation of absolute atmospheric neutrino fluxes and the $\\sim 7$\\% uncertainty in the ratio of neutrino flavours, required for a refined interpretation of the evidence for neutrino oscillation from the study of atmospheric neutrinos in present and forthcoming experiments. The HARP experiment comprises a large-acceptance charged-particle magnetic spectrometer of conventional design, located in the East Hall of the CERN PS and using the T9 tagged charged-particle beam. The main detector is a cylindrical TPC inside a solenoid magnet...

  15. High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino production in star-forming galaxies across cosmic time: Difficulties in explaining the IceCube data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Totani, Tomonori; Kawanaka, Norita

    2018-04-01

    We present new theoretical modeling to predict the luminosity and spectrum of gamma-ray and neutrino emission of a star-forming galaxy, from the star formation rate (ψ), gas mass (Mgas), stellar mass, and disk size, taking into account production, propagation, and interactions of cosmic rays. The model reproduces the observed gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies detected by Fermi better than the simple power-law models as a function of ψ or ψMgas. This model is then used to predict the cosmic background flux of gamma-rays and neutrinos from star-forming galaxies, by using a semi-analytical model of cosmological galaxy formation that reproduces many observed quantities of local and high-redshift galaxies. Calibration of the model using gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies allows us to make a more reliable prediction than previous studies. In our baseline model, star-forming galaxies produce about 20% of the isotropic gamma-ray background unresolved by Fermi, and only 0.5% of IceCube neutrinos. Even with an extreme model assuming a hard injection cosmic-ray spectral index of 2.0 for all galaxies, at most 22% of IceCube neutrinos can be accounted for. These results indicate that it is difficult to explain most of the IceCube neutrinos by star-forming galaxies, without violating the gamma-ray constraints from nearby galaxies.

  16. Radio-Wave Propagation in Salt Domes: Implications for a UHE Cosmic Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Alina-Mihaela; Saftoiu, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Salt deposits can be used as a natural dielectric medium for a UHE cosmic neutrino radio detector. Such a detector relies on the capability of reconstructing the initial characteristics of the cosmic neutrino from the measured radio electrical field produced at neutrino’s interaction in salt by the subsequent particle shower. A rigorous characterization of the propagation medium becomes compulsory. It is shown here that the amplitude of the electric field vector is attenuated by almost 90% after 100 m of propagation in a typical salt rock volume. The heterogeneities in salt also determine the minimal uncertainty (estimated at 19%) and the resolution of the detector

  17. The solar neutrinos epopee

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos nu sub e emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos (nu submu) and tau neutrinos (nu subtau), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the ...

  18. Cosmic neutrino pevatrons: A brand new pathway to astronomy, astrophysics, and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Barger, Vernon; Cholis, Ilias; Goldberg, Haim; Hooper, Dan; Kusenko, Alexander; Learned, John G.; Marfatia, Danny; Pakvasa, Sandip; Paul, Thomas C.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-05-01

    The announcement by the IceCube Collaboration of the observation of 28 cosmic neutrino candidates has been greeted with a great deal of justified excitement. The data reported so far depart by 4.3σ from the expected atmospheric neutrino background, which raises the obvious question: “Where in the Cosmos are these neutrinos coming from?” We review the many possibilities which have been explored in the literature to address this question, including origins at either Galactic or extragalactic celestial objects. For completeness, we also briefly discuss new physical processes which may either explain or be constrained by IceCube data.

  19. 1020 eV cosmic-ray and particle physics with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Halzen, F.

    2001-01-01

    We show that a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory, though optimized for TeV to PeV energy, is sensitive to the neutrinos associated with super-EeV sources. These include super-heavy relics, neutrinos associated with the Greisen cutoff, and topological defects which are remnant cosmic structures associated with phase transitions in grand unified gauge theories. It is a misconception that new instruments optimized to EeV energy are required to do this important science, although this is not their primary goal. Because kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes can reject atmospheric backgrounds by establishing the very high energy of the signal events, they have sensitivity over the full solid angle, including the horizon where most of the signal is concentrated. This is important because up-going neutrino-induced muons, routinely considered in previous calculations, are absorbed by the Earth

  20. Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 109 GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×105 GeV to above 1011 GeV. Two neutrin...... for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date....

  1. Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Andrew J.; Lunardini, Cecilia; Sabancilar, Eray, E-mail: andrewjlong@asu.edu, E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu, E-mail: Eray.Sabancilar@asu.edu [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of Δ ∼ 0.15 eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m{sub 1} ≅ m{sub 2} ≅ m{sub 3} = m{sub ν} ∼> 0.1 eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2 m{sub ν} above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is Δ ∼< 0.7 m{sub ν} . Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being Γ{sup D} ≅ 4 and Γ{sup M} ≅ 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the universe and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds.

  2. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  3. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  4. A prototype station for ARIANNA: A detector for cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, Lisa; Klein, Spencer; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Barwick, Steve; Dookayka, Kamlesh; Hanson, Jordan; Nichol, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a proposed detector for ultra-high energy astrophysical neutrinos. It will detect coherent radio Cherenkov emission from the particle showers produced by neutrinos with energies above about 10 17 eV. ARIANNA will be built on the Ross Ice Shelf just off the coast of Antarctica, where it will eventually cover about 900 km 2 in surface area. There, the ice-water interface below the shelf reflects radio waves, giving ARIANNA sensitivity to downward-going neutrinos and improving its sensitivity to horizontally incident neutrinos. ARIANNA detector stations each will contain 4-8 antennas, which search for pulses of 50 MHz to 1 GHz radio emission from neutrino interactions. We describe a prototype station for ARIANNA, which was deployed in Moore's Bay on the Ross Ice Shelf in December 2009, discuss the design and deployment, and present some initial figures on performance. The ice shelf thickness was measured to be 572±6 m at the deployment site.

  5. Determination of the atmospheric muon flux with the neutrino telescope ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, C.

    2009-06-01

    The neutrino telescope ANTARES is a deep-sea detector located in the Mediterranean Sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature of cosmic rays, their origins and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (>TeV) for observation of the universe. This thesis is dedicated to the study of the main background noise of the detector, due to the passage of atmospheric muons produced by high energy cosmic rays interacting with atmospheric nuclei. The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the detector. The different characteristics and the calibration of the detector as well as the techniques of monitoring the electronic are described. The second part of this thesis reports the various results obtained on the atmospheric muons with the five line detector. A detailed presentation of the simulations used is presented. The first difficulty of detecting atmospheric muons is due to the geometry of the detector. The second is due to the fact that the atmospheric muons often arrive in bundles and that the number of muons in these bundles is unknown at a depth of 2500 m. A first study based on simulations makes it possible to discriminate between the muons alone and the bundles of muons. A second study is dedicated to the measurement of the muon flux depending on the slant depth. The measurement is compatible with the results of other instruments when the systematic uncertainties are taken into account. (author)

  6. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  7. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  8. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  9. Extracting limits for the difuse non-electron neutrino flux from SNO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, B.S.R.; Kemp, E.; Peres, O.L.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2009-07-01

    Full text. There is a prediction of a diffuse neutrino flux yield from the time integration of all supernova already exploded in the past governed by stellar formation and supernovae occurrence rates. The spectral characteristics of these neutrinos differ from those from recent supernovae mainly in two features: the reduction in their fluxes and their energy 'redshift' due the expansion of the universe. Thus, despite the fact that one single supernova is a transient state, their cumulative effect produces a steady flux of diffuse neutrinos everywhere in universe. These neutrinos have never been observed before. Only upper limits on their fluxes have been reported by the collaborations operating neutrino telescopes. Recently the SNO experiment have made an analysis where the total flux of diffuse electron neutrinos has an upper limit of phi{sub e} <= 61-93 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, depending on a specific supernova model. At the present, the best limit for the diffuse flux of non-electron neutrinos is phi{sub x} <= 10{sub 4} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulted from an analysis of the Super-Kamiokande data. In this work we have extended the SNO analysis including the elastic scattering on electrons via neutral current interactions to extract information on diffuse flux of the non-electron neutrino flavours (i.e. muon and tauon neutrinos). We make a comparison among our results and others from different experiments (LVD, SK, LSD). (author)

  10. Detectors of Cosmic Rays, Gamma Rays, and Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamirano, A.; Navarra, G.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the main features, properties and performances of the typical detectors in use in Cosmic Ray Physics. A brief historical and general introduction will focus on the main classes and requirements of such detectors.

  11. Neutrino spectrum from SN 1987A and from cosmic supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, Hasan; Beacom, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of neutrinos from SN 1987A by the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven detectors provided the first glimpse of core collapse in a supernova, complementing the optical observations and confirming our basic understanding of the mechanism behind the explosion. One long-standing puzzle is that, when fitted with thermal spectra, the two independent detections do not seem to agree with either each other or typical theoretical expectations. We assess the compatibility of the two data sets in a model-independent way and show that they can be reconciled if one avoids any bias on the neutrino spectrum stemming from theoretical conjecture. We reconstruct the neutrino spectrum from SN 1987A directly from the data through nonparametric inferential statistical methods and present predictions for the diffuse supernova neutrino background based on SN 1987A data. We show that this prediction cannot be too small (especially in the 10-18 MeV range), since the majority of the detected events from SN 1987A were above 18 MeV (including 6 events above 35 MeV), suggesting an imminent detection in operational and planned detectors

  12. Constraining neutrino physics with big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.H.; Melchiorri, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pisanti, O.

    2002-01-01

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the recent results on the anisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation from the BOOMERanG and DASI experiments to show that they single out an effective number of neutrinos in good agreement with standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We also consider degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis to provide new bounds on effective relativistic degrees of freedom N ν and, in particular, on the neutrino chemical potential ξ α . When including supernova type Ia data we find, at 2σ, N ν ≤7 and -0.01≤ξ e ≤0.22, vertical bar ξ μ,τ vertical bar ≤2.6

  13. Helium cosmic ray flux measurements at Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kerry; Pinsky, Lawrence; Andersen, Vic; Zeitlin, Cary; Cleghorn, Tim; Cucinotta, Frank; Saganti, Premkumar; Atwell, William; Turner, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The helium energy spectrum in Martian orbit has been observed by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The orbital data were taken from March 13, 2002 to October 28, 2003, at which time a very intense Solar Particle Event caused a loss of communication between the instrument and the spacecraft. The silicon detector stack in MARIE is optimized for the detection of protons and helium in the energy range below 100MeV/n, which typically includes almost all of the flux during SPEs. This also makes MARIE an efficient detector for GCR helium in the energy range of 50-150MeV/n. We will present the first fully normalized flux results from MARIE, using helium ions in this energy range

  14. Helium cosmic ray flux measurements at Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kerry [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: ktlee@ems.jsc.nasa.gov; Pinsky, Lawrence [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Andersen, Vic [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd. Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Zeitlin, Cary [National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Cleghorn, Tim [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cucinotta, Frank [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Saganti, Premkumar [Prairie View A and M University, P.O. Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446-0519 (United States); Atwell, William [The Boeing Company, Houston, TX (United States); Turner, Ron [Advancing National Strategies and Enabling Results (ANSER), Arlington, Virginia (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The helium energy spectrum in Martian orbit has been observed by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The orbital data were taken from March 13, 2002 to October 28, 2003, at which time a very intense Solar Particle Event caused a loss of communication between the instrument and the spacecraft. The silicon detector stack in MARIE is optimized for the detection of protons and helium in the energy range below 100MeV/n, which typically includes almost all of the flux during SPEs. This also makes MARIE an efficient detector for GCR helium in the energy range of 50-150MeV/n. We will present the first fully normalized flux results from MARIE, using helium ions in this energy range.

  15. Mapping the dominant regions of the phase space associated with c c ¯ production relevant for the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Victor P.; Maciuła, Rafał; Pasechnik, Roman; Szczurek, Antoni

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed mapping of the dominant kinematical domains contributing to the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high neutrino energies by studying their sensitivity to the cuts on several kinematical variables crucial for charm production in cosmic ray scattering in the atmosphere. This includes the maximal center-of-mass energy for proton-proton scattering, the longitudinal momentum fractions of partons in the projectile (cosmic ray) and target (nucleus of the atmosphere), the Feynman xF variable, and the transverse momentum of charm quark/antiquark. We find that the production of neutrinos with energies larger than Eν>107 GeV is particularly sensitive to the c.m. energies larger than the ones at the LHC and to the longitudinal momentum fractions in the projectile 10-8ranges beyond the reach of the current collider measurements.

  16. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...

  17. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chiang, H. C.; Dawson, K. S.; Halverson, N. W.; Hubmayr, J.; Knox, L.; Kuo, C.-L.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Stompor, R.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wang, G.; Wu, W.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-01-01

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ(σmν) = 16 meV and σ(N eff ) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics - the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of N eff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that N eff = 3.046

  18. Variations of the core luminosity and solar neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Attila

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the geological and astrophysical data as well as presenting theoretical considerations indicating the presence of dynamic processes present in the solar core. The dynamic solar model (DSM) is suggested to take into account the presence of cyclic variations in the temperature of the solar core. Comparing the results of calculations of the CO2 content, albedo and solar evolutionary luminosity changes with the empirically determined global earthly temperatures, and taking into account climatic models, I determined the relation between the earthly temperature and solar luminosity. These results indicate to the observed maximum of 10o change on the global terrestrial surface temperature a related solar luminosity change around 4-5 % on a ten million years timescale, which is the timescale of heat diffusion from the solar core to the surface. The related solar core temperature changes are around 1 % only. At the same time, the cyclic luminosity changes of the solar core are shielded effectively by the outer zones since the radiation diffusion takes more than 105 years to reach the solar surface. The measurements of the solar neutrino fluxes with Kamiokande 1987-1995 showed variations higher than 40 % around the average, at the Super-Kamiokande the size of the apparent scatter decreased to 13 %. This latter scatter, if would be related completely to stochastic variations of the central temperature, would indicate a smaller than 1 % change. Fourier and wavelet analysis of the solar neutrino fluxes indicate only a marginally significant period around 200 days (Haubold, 1998). Helioseismic measurements are known to be very constraining. Actually, Castellani et al. (1999) remarked that the different solar models lead to slightly different sound speeds, and the different methods of regularization yield slightly different sound speeds, too. Therefore, they doubled the found parameter variations, and were really conservative assuming

  19. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, simulation of propagation of UHE-protons from nearby galaxies is presented. We found good parameter sets to explain the arrival distribution of UHECRs reported by AGASA and energy spectrum reported by HiRes. Using a good parameter set, we demonstrated how the distribution of arrival direction of UHECRs will be as a function of event numbers. We showed clearly that 1000-10000 events are necessary to see the clear source distribution. We also showed that effects of interactions and trapping of UHE-Nuclei in a galaxy cluster are very important. Especially, when a UHECR source is a bursting source such as GRB/AGN flare, heavy UHE-Nuclei are trapped for a long time in the galaxy cluster, which changes the spectrum and chemical composition of UHECRs coming from the galaxy cluster. We also showed that such effects can be also important when there have been sources of UHE-Nuclei in Milky Way. Since light nuclei escape from Milky Way in a short timescale, the chemical composition of UHECRs observed at the Earth can be heavy at high-energy range. Finally, we showed how much high-energy neutrinos are produced in GRBs. Since GRB neutrinos do not suffer from magnetic field bending, detection of high-energy neutrinos are very important to identify sources of UHECRs. Especially, for the case of GRBs, high-energy neutrinos arrive at the earth with gamma-rays simultaneously, which is very strong feature to identify the sources of UHECRs.

  20. The highest energy cosmic rays, photons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zas, Enrique

    1998-01-01

    In these lectures I introduce and discuss aspects of currently active fields of interest related to the production, transport and detection of high energy particles from extraterrestrial sources. I have payed most attention to the highest energies and I have divided the material according to the types of particles which will be searched for with different experimental facilities in planning: hadrons, gamma rays and neutrinos. Particular attention is given to shower development, stochastic acceleration and detection techniques

  1. A search for matter enhanced neutrino oscillations through measurements of day and night solar neutrino fluxes at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miknaitis, Kathryn Kelly Schaffer

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector designed to study 8B neutrinos from the sun. Through the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) reactions of neutrinos on deuterium, SNO separately determines the flux of electron neutrinos and the flux of all active flavors of solar 8B neutrinos. SNO is also sensitive to the elastic scattering (ES) of neutrinos on electrons in the heavy water. Measurements of the CC and NC rates in SNO have conclusively demonstrated solar neutrino flavor change. This flavor change is believed to be caused by matter-enhanced oscillations in the sun, through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Matter effects could also change the flavor composition of neutrinos that traverse the earth. A comparison of the day and night measured CC flux at SNO directly tests for the MSW effect and contributes to constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters in the MSW model. We perform measurements of the day and night neutrino fluxes using data from the second phase of SNO, in which salt (NaCl) was added to the heavy water to enhance sensitivity to the NC reaction. Better discrimination between CC and NC events in the salt phase allows the fluxes to be determined without constraining the neutrino energy spectrum. The day-night asymmetry in the CC flux measured in this model-independent analysis is ACC = [-5.6 +/- 7.4(stat.) +/- 5.3(syst.)]%, where the asymmetry is defined as the difference between the night and day values divided by their average. The asymmetries in the NC and ES fluxes are ANC = [4.2 +/- 8.6(stat.) +/- 7.2(syst.)]%, and AES = (14.6 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.3(syst.)]%. The neutral current asymmetry is expected to be zero assuming standard neutrino oscillations. When we constrain it to be zero, we obtain ACC = [-3.7 +/- 6.3(stat.) +/- 3.2(syst.)]% and AES = [15.3 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.0(syst.)]%. The day and night energy spectra from the CC reaction have been measured and show no evidence for

  2. Bursts of gravitational radiation from superconducting cosmic strings and the neutrino mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2001-02-01

    Berezinsky, Hnatyk and Vilenkin showed that superconducting cosmic strings could be central engines for cosmological gamma-ray bursts and for producing the neutrino component of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A consequence of this mechanism would be that a detectable cusp-triggered gravitational wave burst should be release simultaneously with the γ-ray surge. If contemporary measurements of both γ and ν radiation could be made for any particular source, then the cosmological time-delay between them might be useful for putting unprecedently tight bounds on the neutrino mass spectrum. Such measurements could consistently verify or rule out the model since strictly correlated behaviour is expected for the duration of the event and for the time variability of the spectra. (author)

  3. Selected results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    ANTARES uses sea water as as a detection medium to observe cosmic neutrinos. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is taking data with its complete configuration since 2008. Its main goal is the detection of cosmic neutrinos from the Southern hemisphere sky, coming from Galactic and extragalactic sources. Recently, the ANTARES collaboration has published many results from data collected from 2007 to 2010 using detector configurations containing between 5 to 12 detection strings. Among those, search of point sources and diffuse flux from high energy cosmic neutrinos, both resulted in stringent and competitive upper limits for the flux of cosmic neutrinos. In addition, ANTARES is involved in multi-messenger projects looking for correlations between neutrinos and gamma rays or gravitational wave emitted by sources like Gamma-Ray bursts. In this paper we report on some recent results published by the ANTARES collaboration

  4. Tethered balloons for radio detection of ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, KS (United States); Dagkesamanskii, R.; Kravchenko, E. [Radio Astronomy Observatory LPI RAS, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, I., E-mail: ikrav@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68588, NE (United States); Zheleznykh, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-11

    We present a brief overview of experimental efforts in Antarctica to search for radio pulses from electron-hadron cascades produced by cosmic ultrahigh-energy neutrinos in Antarctic ice. Thus far, the essential features (energy thresholds, effective recording volumes, etc.) of Antarctic neutrino radio experiments can be classified according to the deployment scheme employed: either (1) on the surface of the glacier - RAMAND-type, (2) in holes in the ice at depths of several hundred meters - RICE-type or (3) on board of a stratospheric balloon at an altitude of 40 km - ANITA-type. We herein propose an alternative possibility, namely to use tethered balloons for placing the radio antennas at modest (compared to ANITA) altitudes above the ice surface (1-2 km). This configuration of antennas will reduce (as compared to ANITA) the energy threshold for detection of neutrinos and increase the observation time.

  5. Tethered balloons for radio detection of ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, D.; Dagkesamanskii, R.; Kravchenko, E.; Kravchenko, I.; Zheleznykh, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief overview of experimental efforts in Antarctica to search for radio pulses from electron-hadron cascades produced by cosmic ultrahigh-energy neutrinos in Antarctic ice. Thus far, the essential features (energy thresholds, effective recording volumes, etc.) of Antarctic neutrino radio experiments can be classified according to the deployment scheme employed: either (1) on the surface of the glacier - RAMAND-type, (2) in holes in the ice at depths of several hundred meters - RICE-type or (3) on board of a stratospheric balloon at an altitude of 40 km - ANITA-type. We herein propose an alternative possibility, namely to use tethered balloons for placing the radio antennas at modest (compared to ANITA) altitudes above the ice surface (1-2 km). This configuration of antennas will reduce (as compared to ANITA) the energy threshold for detection of neutrinos and increase the observation time.

  6. High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetic field, it is believed that cosmic rays of energy <1019 eV are of galactic ... high energy near the central source is impossible due to the high density of pho- .... 1020 eV, the Fly's Eye, HiRes and Yakutsk experiments are in agreement .... detection rate of ~20 neutrino-induced muon events per year (over 4π sr) in a.

  7. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no

  8. Flux and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays: beyond homogeneous models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Guilhem

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I study the consequence of non homogeneously distributed cosmic ray sources in the Milky way. The document starts with theoretical and experimental synthesis. Firstly, I will describe the interstellar medium to understand the mechanism of propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. Then, the detailed study of cosmic rays diffusion on the galactic magnetic field allows to write a commonly used propagation equation. I will recall the Steady-state solutions of this equation, then I will focus on the time dependant solutions with point-like sources. A statistical study is performed in order to estimate the standard deviation of the flux around its mean value. The computation of this standard deviation leads to mathematical divergences. Thus, I will develop statistical tools to bypass this issue. So i will discuss the effect of the granularity of cosmic ray sources. Its impact on cosmic ray spectrum can explain some recent features observed by the experiments CREAM and PAMELA.Besides, this thesis is focused on the study of the anisotropy of cosmic rays. I will recap experimental methods of measurements, and I will show how to connect theoretical calculation from propagation theories to experimental measurements. Then, the influence of the local environment on the anisotropy measurements will be discussed, particularly the effect of a local diffusion coefficient. Then, I will compute anisotropy and its variance in a framework of point-like local sources with the tools developed in the first part. Finally, the possible influence of local sources on the anisotropy is discussed in the light of the last experimental results. (author) [fr

  9. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)

  10. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  11. Signatures of cosmic-ray interactions on the solar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    The fluxes of neutrinos, gamma rays, antiprotons, neutrons, and antineutrons that result from collisions of high-energy Galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere are estimated. The results are sensitive to assumptions about cosmic-ray transport in the magnetic fields of the inner solar system. The high-energy photon flux should be observable by the Gamma Ray Observatory. The neutrino flux should produce less than one event per year in the next generation of neutrino telescopes. The antiproton flux is unobservable against the Galactic background. The neutron and antineutron fluxes are detectable only if neutrons produced in terrestrial cosmic-ray events may be discriminated against.

  12. Solar /flare/ cosmic ray proton fluxes in the recent past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.R.; Nautiyal, C.M.; Padia, J.T.; Rao, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determining the average solar cosmic ray (SCR) proton fluxes which occurred in the last few million yr from He-3 samples from suitable lunar rocks is presented. Specimens removed from 0.3-1.5, 5-7, and 7-9 mm depths of the lunar surface were cleaned to reveal the feldspar grains of interest and heated for stepwise mass-spectrometric analyses. The 200 micron or greater grains were outgassed at 600, 1000, 1200, and 1600 C and noble gas data were recorded, along with isotopic ratio data. He-3 is assumed to have been degassed completely from rocks shocked by an impact event and diffusion losses are negligible due to the 90 C or less temperature exposures on the lunar surface. Thus the presence of He-3 is indicative of cosmic ray incidence, and known galactic cosmic ray production abundances for He-3 can be subtracted from the total He-3 observed, yielding the SCR flux results, which, when combined with exposure data, yield a history of SCR events

  13. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  14. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Argüelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Burgman, A; Carver, T; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Cross, R; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Del Pino Rosendo, E; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Eller, P; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C-C; Franckowiak, A; Friedman, E; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haack, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lauber, F; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke Pollmann, A; Olivas, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relethford, B; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Sanchez Herrera, S E; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Tenholt, F; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Weiss, M J; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-12-09

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10^{9}  GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×10^{5}  GeV to above 10^{11}  GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×10^{6}  GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×10^{5}  GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at >99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and γ-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.

  15. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-01-01

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state

  16. Describing the observed cosmic neutrinos by interactions of nuclei with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Walter

    2014-07-01

    IceCube have observed neutrinos which are presumably of extra-galactic origin. Since specific sources have not yet been identified, we discuss what could be learned from the conceptual point of view. We use a simple model for neutrino production from the interactions between nuclei and matter, and we focus on the description of the spectral shape and flavor composition observed by IceCube. Our main parameters are spectral index, maximal energy, magnetic field, and composition of the accelerated nuclei. We show that a cutoff at PeV energies can be achieved by soft enough spectra, a cutoff of the primary energy, or strong enough magnetic fields. These options, however, are difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that these neutrinos originate from the same sources as the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We demonstrate that heavier nuclei accelerated in the sources may be a possible way out if the maximal energy scales appropriately with the mass number of the nuclei. In this scenario, neutrino observations can actually be used to test the UHECR acceleration mechanism. We also emphasize the need for a volume upgrade of the IceCube detector for future precision physics, for which the flavor information becomes a statistical meaningful model discriminator as qualitatively new ingredient.

  17. Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA): Combined Imaging Observation of Astroparticles — For Clear Identification of Cosmic Accelerators and Fundamental Physics Using Cosmic Beams —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kifune, Tadashi

    In VHEPA (very high energy particle astronomy) 2014 workshop, focused on the next generation explorers for the origin of cosmic rays, held in Kashiwa, Japan, reviewing and discussions were presented on the status of the observation of GeV-TeV photons, TeV-PeV neutrinos, EeV-ZeV hadrons, test of interaction models with Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and theoretical aspects of astrophysics. The acceleration sites of hadrons, i.e., sources of PeV-EeV cosmic rays, should exist in the universe within the GZK-horizon even in the remotest case. We also affirmed that the hadron acceleration mechanism correlates with cosmic ray composition so that it is important to investigate the acceleration mechanism in relevance to the composition survey at PeV-EeV energy. We regard that LHC and astrophysics theories are ready to be used to probe into hadron acceleration mechanism in the universe. Recently, IceCube has reported detection of three events of neutrinos with energies around 1 PeV and additional events at lower energies, which significantly deviate from the expected level of background events. It is necessary to observe GeV-TeV photon, EeV-ZeV hadron and TeV-PeV neutrino all together, in order to understand hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the PeV-EeV energy region. It is required to make a step further toward exploring the PeV-EeV universe with high accuracy and high statistics observations for both neutrinos and gamma rays simultaneously, by using the instrument such as Ashra Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA). Wide and fine survey of gamma-rays and neutrinos with simultaneously detecting Cherenkov and fluorescence light with NTA will guide us to a new intriguing stage of recognizing astronomical objects and non-thermal phenomena in ultra-high energy region, in addition, new aspect about the fundamental concepts of physics beyond our presently limited understanding; the longstanding problem of cosmic ray origin, the radiation mechanism of gamma-rays, neutrino and

  18. Oscillation effects on high-energy neutrino fluxes from astrophysical hidden sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Razzaque, Soebur

    2007-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos are expected to be produced in a variety of astrophysical sources as well as in optically thick hidden sources. We explore the matter-induced oscillation effects on emitted neutrino fluxes of three different flavors from the latter class. We use the ratio of electron and tau induced showers to muon tracks, in upcoming neutrino telescopes, as the principal observable in our analysis. This ratio depends on the neutrino energy, density profile of the sources, and on the oscillation parameters. The largely unknown flux normalization drops out of our calculation and only affects the statistics. For the current knowledge of the oscillation parameters we find that the matter-induced effects are non-negligible and the enhancement of the ratio from its vacuum value takes place in an energy range where the neutrino telescopes are the most sensitive. Quantifying the effect would be useful to learn about the astrophysics of the sources as well as the oscillation parameters. If the neutrino telescopes mostly detect diffuse neutrinos without identifying their sources, then any deviation of the measured flux ratios from the vacuum expectation values would be most naturally explained by a large population of hidden sources for which matter-induced neutrino oscillation effects are important

  19. Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hughey, B.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kim, J.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, P.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schinarakis, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the AMANDA-B10 detector taken during the austral winter of 1997 have been searched for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial muon-neutrinos, as predicted from, e.g., the sum of all active galaxies in the universe. This search yielded no excess events above those expected from the background atmospheric neutrinos, leading to upper limits on the extraterrestrial neutrino flux. For an assumed E -2 spectrum, a 90 percent classical confidence level upper limit has been placed at a level E 2 Phi(E) = 8.4 x 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 1 sr -1 (for a predominant neutrino energy range 6-1000 TeV) which is the most restrictive bound placed by any neutrino detector. When specific predicted spectral forms are considered, it is found that some are excluded

  20. Use of the big liquid argon spectrometer BARS for neutrino and cosmic-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Belikov, S.N.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Denisov, A.G.; Denisov, S.P.; Fedjakin, N.N.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Korablev, V.M.; Koreshev, V.I.; Lipaev, V.V.; Los, S.V.; Mikhailin, V.N.; Rybin, A.M.; Sytin, A.N.; Bogdanov, A.G.; Kirina, T.M.; Kokoulin, R.P.; Reznikov, M.A.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Yanson, E.E.; Alexeyev, E.N.; Chernyaev, A.B.; Petkov, V.B.; Smirnov, D.V.; Tsyabuk, A.L.; Voevodsky, A.V.; Gennaro, G.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spandre, G.; Lanfranchi, M.; Marchionni, A.; Conforto, G.; Martelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the fine grained 300 t liquid argon calorimeter BARS is described. The BARS electronics include about 30 K channels of low noise amplifiers and ADCs. The DAQ system makes it possible to select channels with signals above the chosen threshold. 48 scintillation horoscopes placed inside the liquid argon are used to form the first level trigger. The total number of scintillation counters in liquid argon is 384. Sums of ionization signals are used to produce the second level trigger. Results of the first use of liquid argon calorimetry for the measurements of tagged neutrino interactions, cosmic-ray muon spectra and composition of extensive atmospheric showers are discussed. (author)

  1. Search for point-like sources using the diffuse astrophysical muon-neutrino flux in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Rene; Haack, Christian; Raedel, Leif; Schoenen, Sebastian; Schumacher, Lisa; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized neutrino detector at the geographic South Pole, has recently confirmed a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in the track-like muon channel. Although this muon-neutrino flux has now been observed with high significance, no point sources or source classes could be identified yet with these well pointing events. We present a search for point-like sources based on a six year sample of upgoing muon-neutrinos with very low background contamination. To improve the sensitivity, the standard likelihood approach has been modified to focus on the properties of the measured astrophysical muon-neutrino flux.

  2. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied

  3. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR {sup 8} B NEUTRINO FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr [CEA/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CE Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-09-10

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the {sup 8} B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10{sup –4}. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the {sup 8} B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the {sup 8} B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

  4. Gravitational instabilities of the cosmic neutrino background with non-zero lepton number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a cosmic neutrino background that carries non-zero lepton charge develops gravitational instabilities. Fundamentally, these instabilities are related to the mixed gravity-lepton number anomaly. We have explicitly computed the gravitational Chern–Simons term which is generated quantum-mechanically in the effective action in the presence of a lepton number asymmetric neutrino background. The induced Chern–Simons term has a twofold effect: (i gravitational waves propagating in such a neutrino background exhibit birefringent behaviour leading to an enhancement/suppression of the gravitational wave amplitudes depending on the polarisation, where the magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the lepton asymmetry; (ii Negative energy graviton modes are induced in the high frequency regime, which leads to very fast vacuum decay producing, e.g., positive energy photons and negative energy gravitons. From the constraint on the present radiation energy density, we obtain an interesting bound on the lepton asymmetry of the universe.

  5. Erzion interpretation of negative penetrating cosmic ray particles excess flux observed in bubble chamber "SKAT"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhutov, Yu. N.

    2001-08-01

    It is discussed the interpretation of negative penetrating cosmic ray particles excess flux observed in bubble chamber "SKAT" for the momentum range P > P0 = 30 GeV/c by Erzions, hypothetical heavy stable penetrating hadrons, proposed to explain the anomalous vertical muons energy spectrum at small depth underground. Here it is shown that negative charge of p articles observed in "SKAT" is the same as predicted by theoretical Erzion model. The excess particles flux ( J ˜ 10-5 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 ) corresponds to the Erzion intensity observed by scintillation telescope in our previous experiment. The threshold momentum ( P0 ) and the track length threshold ( L0 = 50 cm of liquid BrF3C) are in good accordance with Erzion stop path as for the single charged particle with mass M ≅ 200 GeV/c2 . But to don't contradict with all previous charge ratio results for cosmic ray muons in 30 - 100 GeV/c momentum range it is necessary to propose for such particles the Solar sporadic origin taking to account that both Erzion observations were in the active Sun years (April 23,1979 & July, 1999). INTRODUCTION. 20 years ago to explain anomalous energy spectrum of vertical cosmic ray muons, observed at sea level and small depth underground (particles were started [4,5,6]. Later the theoretical model U(1)xSUl(2)xSU r(2)xSU(3) of such particles (Erzions) has been created in framework of "mirror" models [7,8], which without contradictions to elementary particles Standard Model has explained large kind of another anomalous results in cosmic rays and nuclear physics [9-19]. At last after almost 20 years Erzions search they have been observed due to small vertical original scintillation telescope "Doch-4" [20,21,22]. The observed Erz ions mass was ME = (175+/-25) GeV/c2 and intensity at sea level - JE = (1.8+/-0.4)ṡ10-6 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 (at EE ≤ 6 GeV, PE ≤ 50 GeV/c2 ). To confirm such Erzion discovery it was undertook the attempt of Erzions search on one of the largest bubble chamber (BC

  6. Development of the radio astronomical method of cosmic particle detection for extremely high-energy cosmic ray physics and neutrino astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznykh Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to use ground based radio telescopes for detection of Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades arising when extremely high-energy (EHE > 1020 eV cosmic rays (including neutrinos interact with the lunar regolith of multi gigaton mass was made at the end of 1980s in the framework of the Russian (Soviet DUMAND Program. During more than a quarter of century a number of lunar experiments were carried out mainly in the 1–3 GHz frequency range using the large radio telescopes of Australia, USA, Russia and other countries but these experiments only put upper limits to the EHE cosmic rays fluxes. For this reason, it would be of great interest to search for nanosecond radio pulses from the Moon in a wider interval of frequencies (including lower ones of 100–350 MHz with larger radio detectors – for example the giant radio telescope SKA (Square Kilometer Array which is constructed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In this paper possibilities are discussed to use one of the most sensitive meter-wavelength (∼ 110 MHz Large Phased Array (LPA of 187 × 384 m2 and the wide field of view meter-wavelength array of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory as prototypes of low frequency radio detectors for lunar experiments. The new scheme for fast simulation of ultrahigh and extremely high-energy cascades in dense media is also suggested. This scheme will be used later for calculations of radio emission of cascades in the lunar regolith with energies up to 1020 eV and higher in the wide frequency band of 0.1− a few GHz.

  7. Direct Measurement of the 7Be Solar Neutrino Flux with 192 Days of Borexino Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpesella, C.; Di Pietro, G.; Monzani, M. E.; Back, H. O.; Hardy, S.; Joyce, M.; Manecki, S.; Raghavan, R. S.; Rountree, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Balata, M.; Di Credico, A.; Gazzana, S.; Korga, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Orsini, M.; Papp, L.; Razeto, A.; Tartaglia, R.; Bellini, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7 Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7 Be neutrinos is 49±3 stat ±4 syst counts/(day·100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for 7 Be solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 4σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar ν e in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measurement improves the experimental determination of the flux of 7 Be, pp, and CNO solar ν e , and the limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment using solar neutrinos

  8. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  9. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Ankowski, A.; Badertscher, A.; Battistoni, G.; Blondel, A.; Bouchez, J.; Bross, A.; Bueno, A.; Camilleri, L.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Cazes, A.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Capua, F.; Ellis, Malcolm; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Fukushima, C.; Gschwendtner, E.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Iwasaki, M.; Kaneyuki, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kashikhin, V.; Kawai, Y.; Komatsu, M.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Kudenko, Y.; Kusaka, A.; Kyushima, H.; Longhin, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marotta, A.; McGrew, C.; Menary, S.; Meregaglia, A.; Mezzeto, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mondal, N.K.; Montanari, C.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakumo, H.; Nakayama, H.; Nelson, J.; Nowak, J.; Ogawa, S.; Peltoniemi, J.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Sato, O.; Selvi, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shozawa, M.; Sobczyk, J.; Soler, F.J.P.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Suyama, M.; Tanak, M.; Terranova, F.; Tsenov, R.; Uchida, Y.; Weber, A.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the $\\delta$-$\\theta_{13}$...

  10. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-06-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.

  11. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Guo, Zong-Kuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)

  12. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)

  13. Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 40-string detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Eisch, J.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Grullon, S.; Halzen, F.; Hill, G. C.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Krasberg, M.; Kurahashi, N.

    2011-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1 km 3 detector currently taking data at the South Pole. One of the main strategies used to look for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube is the search for a diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos from unresolved sources. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could manifest itself as a detectable signal that may be differentiated from the atmospheric neutrino background by spectral measurement. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration which operated between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos. A total of 12 877 upward-going candidate neutrino events have been selected for this analysis. No evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos was found in the data set leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the normalization of an E -2 astrophysical ν μ flux of 8.9x10 -9 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . The analysis is sensitive in the energy range between 35 TeV and 7 PeV. The 12 877 candidate neutrino events are consistent with atmospheric muon neutrinos measured from 332 GeV to 84 TeV and no evidence for a prompt component to the atmospheric neutrino spectrum is found.

  14. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray, Neutrino, and Photon Propagation and the Multi-Messenger Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Andrew; De Castro, Alexandra; Castillo-Ruiz, Edith

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of UHECR nuclei for A = 1(protons) to A = 56(iron) from cosmological sources through extragalactic space is discussed in the first lecture. This is followed in the second and third lectures by a consideration of the generation and propagation of secondary particles produced via the UHECR loss interactions. In the second lecture we focus on the generation of the diffuse cosmogenic UHE-neutrino flux. In the third lecture we investigate the arriving flux of UHE-photon flux at Earth. In the final lecture the results of the previous lectures are put together in order to provide new insights into UHECR sources. The first of these providing a means with which to investigate the local population of UHECR sources through the measurement of the UHECR spectrum and their photon fraction at Earth. The second of these providing contraints on the UHECR source radiation fields through the possible observation at Earth of UHECR nuclei.

  15. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  16. Long-term and transient time variation of cosmic ray fluxes detected in Argentina by CARPET cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Raulin, J.-P.; Bertoni, F. C. P.; Echer, E.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Fernandez, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present results obtained at El Leoncito (CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina) with the CARPET charged particles detector installed in April 2006. The observed modulation of the cosmic ray flux is discussed as a function of its time variability and it is related to longer solar activity variations and to shorter variations during solar and geomagnetic transient activity. Short period (few minutes, few hours) cosmic ray modulation events are observed during rain time (precipitation) and significant variations of the atmospheric electric field. Complementary observations of the atmospheric electric field indicate that its time variations play an important role in the detected cosmic ray event.

  17. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  18. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: clustering, GUT scale and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 5 · 10 19 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. We present a statistical analysis on the source density based on the multiplicities. The propagation of UHECR protons is studied in detail. The UHECR spectrum is consistent with the decay of GUT scale particles and/or with the Z-burst. The predicted GUT mass is m x = 10 b GeV, where b 14.6 -1.7 +1.6 . Our neutrino mass prediction depends on the origin of the power part of the spectrum: m ν = 2.75 -0.97 +1.28 eV for halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin

  19. 7Be(p, γ)8B and the high-energy solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite thirty years of extensive experimental and theoretical work, the predicted solar neutrino flux is still in sharp disagreement with measurements. The solar neutrino measurements strongly suggest that the problem cannot be solved within the standard electroweak and astrophysical theories. Thus, the solar neutrino problem constitutes the strongest evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Whatever the solution of the solar neutrino problem turns out to be, it is of paramount importance that the input parameters of the underlying electroweak and solar theories rest upon solid ground. The most uncertain nuclear input parameter in standard solar models is the low-energy 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B radiative capture cross section. This reaction produces 8 B in the Sun, whose β + decay is the main source of the high-energy solar neutrinos. Here, the importance of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B reaction in predicting the high energy solar neutrino flux is discussed. The author presents a microscopic eight-body model and a potential model for the calculation of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B cross section

  20. Implications of the GALLEX determination of the solar neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmann, P.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Roenn, U.; Sann, M.; Schlosser, C.; Wink, R.; Wojcik, M. (Max-Pland-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)); Ammon, R. von; Ebert, K.H.; Henrich, E. (Inst. fuer Heisse Chemie, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Balata, M.; Bellotti, E.; Ferrari, N.; Lalla, H.; Stolarczyk, T. (INFN, L' Aquila (Italy) Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy)); Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Pezzoni, S.; Zanotti, L. (Dipt di Fisica, Univ. Milan (Italy) INFN, Milan (Italy)); Feilitzsch, F. von; Moessbauer, R.; Schanda, U. (Physik Dept. E15, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E. (Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Dept. Cassini, 06 - Nice (France) DASGAL, Batiment Copernic, Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)); Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I. (Dept. of Environmental and Energy Research, Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Bacci, C.; B; GALLEX Collaboration

    1992-07-16

    The GALLEX result 83{+-}19(stat.){+-}8(syst.) SNU is two standard deviations below the predictions of stellar model calculations (124-132 SUN). To fit this result together with those of the chlorine and Kamiokande experiments requires severe stretching of solar models but does not rule out such a procedure, leaving the possibility of massless neutrinos. It clearly implies that the pp neutrinos have been detected. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism provides a good fit, and the GALLEX result fixes the {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta} parameters in two very confined ranges (around {Delta}m{sup 2}=6x10{sup -6} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}=7x10{sup -3} and around {Delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -6} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}=0.6). Explanations of the solar neutrino problem based on the decay or magnetic interactions of neutrinos are disfavoured. (orig.).

  1. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  2. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China Jinping underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Hao Xiqing; Yue Qian

    2013-01-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10 -10 /(cm 2 ·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL. (authors)

  3. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is 2 -sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of 2 -sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs

  4. Constraining the time evolution of dark energy, curvature and neutrino properties with cosmic chronometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea [ALMA Mater Studiorum—Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani 1, Bologna, I-40127 Italy (Italy); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona, 08010 Spain (Spain); Pozzetti, Lucia [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, Bologna, 40127 Italy (Italy); Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel, E-mail: michele.moresco@unibo.it, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: a.cimatti@unibo.it, E-mail: lucia.pozzetti@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: claudia.maraston@port.ac.uk, E-mail: daniel.thomas@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX U.K. (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    We use the latest compilation of observational Hubble parameter measurements estimated with the differential evolution of cosmic chronometers , in the redshift range 0< z <2, to place constraints on cosmological parameters. We used a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo approach to sample the parameter space for the cosmic chronometers dataset alone and in combination with other state-of-the art cosmological measurements: CMB data from the latest Planck 2015 release, the most recent estimate of the Hubble constant H {sub 0}, a compilation of recent baryon acoustic oscillation data, and the latest type Ia cosmological supernovae sample. From late-Universe probes alone ( z <2) we find that w {sub 0} = −0.9 ± 0.18 and w {sub a} = −0.5 ± 1.7, and when combining also Planck 2015 data we obtain w {sub 0}=−0.98± 0.11 and w {sub a} =−0.30±0.4. These new constraints imply that nearly all quintessence models are disfavoured by the data; only phantom models or a pure cosmological constant are favoured. This is a remarkable finding as it imposes severe constraints on the nature of dark energy. For the curvature our constraints are Ω {sub k} = 0.003 ± 0.003, considering also CMB data. We also find that H ( z ) data from cosmic chronometers are important to constrain parameters that do no affect directly the expansion history, by breaking or reducing degeneracies with other parameters. We find that N {sub eff} = 3.17 ± 0.15, thus excluding the possibility of an extra (sterile) neutrino at more than 5 σ, and put competitive limits on the sum of neutrino masses, Σ m {sub ν}< 0.27 eV at 95% confidence level. Finally, we constrain the redshift evolution of dark energy by exploring separately the early and late-Universe, and find a dark energy equation of state evolution w ( z ) consistent with that in the ΛCDM model at the ± 0.4 level over the entire redshift range 0 < z < 2.

  5. A semi-analytical computation of the theoretical uncertainties of the solar neutrino flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Andreas C. S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a comparison between Monte Carlo simulations and a semi-analytical approach that reproduces the theoretical probability distribution functions of the solar neutrino fluxes, stemming from the pp, pep, hep, Be-7, B-8, N-13, O-15 and F-17 source reactions. We obtain good agreement between...

  6. The Local Time Dependence of the Anisotropic Solar Cosmic Ray Flux

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smart, D. F

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the solar cosmic radiation flux over the earth is not uniform, but the result of complex phenomena involving the interplanetary magnetic field, the geomagnetic field and latitude...

  7. SEARCH FOR GLOBAL f-MODES AND p-MODES IN THE {sup 8}B NEUTRINO FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilídio, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Colégio Luis António Verney, 7002-554 Évora (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    The impact of global acoustic modes on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux time series is computed for the first time. It is shown that the time fluctuations of the {sup 8}B neutrino flux depend on the amplitude of acoustic eigenfunctions in the region where the {sup 8}B neutrino flux is produced: modes with low n (or order) that have eigenfunctions with a relatively large amplitude in the Sun's core strongly affect the neutrino flux; conversely, modes with high n that have eigenfunctions with a minimal amplitude in the Sun's core have a very small impact on the neutrino flux. It was found that the global modes with a larger impact on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux have a frequency of oscillation in the interval 250 μHz to 500 μHz (or a period in the interval 30 minutes to 70 minutes), such as the f-modes (n = 0) for the low degrees, radial modes of order n ≤ 3, and the dipole mode of order n = 1. Their corresponding neutrino eigenfunctions are very sensitive to the solar inner core and are unaffected by the variability of the external layers of the solar surface. If time variability of neutrinos is observed for these modes, it will lead to new ways of improving the sound speed profile inversion in the central region of the Sun.

  8. Muon flux measurement with silicon detectors in the CERN neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present work mainly describes the 'Neutrino Flux Monitoring' system (NFM), which has been built for the 400-GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) neutrino beams. A treatment is given of some general subjects related to the utilization of silicon detectors and the properties of high-energy muons. Energy loss of minimal-ionizing particles, which has to be distinguished from energy deposition in the detector, is considered. Secondary radiation, also called 'spray', consisting of 'delta rays' and other cascade products, is shown to play an important role in the muon flux measurement inside a shield, especially for muons of high energy (> 100 GeV). Radiation induced damage in the detectors, which determines the long term performance, is discussed. The relation between the detector response and the real muon flux is determined. The use of NFM system for on-line beam monitoring is described. (Auth.)

  9. The galactic contribution to IceCube's astrophysical neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Peter B. [Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Marfatia, Danny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2505 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Weiler, Thomas J., E-mail: peterbd1@gmail.com, E-mail: dmarf8@hawaii.edu, E-mail: tom.weiler@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    High energy neutrinos have been detected by IceCube, but their origin remains a mystery. Determining the sources of this flux is a crucial first step towards multi-messenger studies. In this work we systematically compare two classes of sources with the data: galactic and extragalactic. We assume that the neutrino sources are distributed according to a class of Galactic models. We build a likelihood function on an event by event basis including energy, event topology, absorption, and direction information. We present the probability that each high energy event with deposited energy E {sub dep}>60 TeV in the HESE sample is Galactic, extragalactic, or background. For Galactic models considered the Galactic fraction of the astrophysical flux has a best fit value of 1.3% and is <9.5% at 90% CL. A zero Galactic flux is allowed at <1σ.

  10. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  11. Impact of Massive Neutrinos and Dark Radiation on the High-redshift Cosmic Web. I. Lyα Forest Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Graziano

    2017-11-01

    With upcoming high-quality data from surveys such as the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, improving the theoretical modeling and gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of neutrinos and dark radiation on structure formation at small scales are necessary, to obtain robust constraints free from systematic biases. Using a novel suite of hydrodynamical simulations that incorporate dark matter, baryons, massive neutrinos, and dark radiation, we present a detailed study of their impact on Lyα forest observables. In particular, we accurately measure the tomographic evolution of the shape and amplitude of the small-scale matter and flux power spectra and search for unique signatures along with preferred scales where a neutrino mass detection may be feasible. We then investigate the thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) through the temperature-density relation. Our findings suggest that at k˜ 5 h {{Mpc}}-1 the suppression on the matter power spectrum induced by \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV} neutrinos can reach ˜ 4 % at z˜ 3 when compared to a massless neutrino cosmology, and ˜ 10 % if a massless sterile neutrino is included; surprisingly, we also find good agreement (˜ 2 % ) with some analytic predictions. For the 1D flux power spectrum {P}{ F }1{{D}}, the highest response to free-streaming effects is achieved at k˜ 0.005 {[{km}/{{s}}]}-1 when \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV}; this k-limit falls in the Lyα forest regime, making the small-scale {P}{ F }1{{D}} an excellent probe for detecting neutrino and dark radiation imprints. Our results indicate that the IGM at z˜ 3 provides the best sensitivity to active and sterile neutrinos.

  12. On the presence of fictitious solar neutrino flux variations in radiochemical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskii, B.M.; Bruns, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The currently available data on solar neutrino flux variation in radiochemical experiments and Cherenkov measurements have so far defied a simple interpretation. Some of the results concerning these variations are indicative of their relationship to processes on the solar surface. It may well be that a poorly understood, uncontrollable factor correlating with solar activity indices affects the neutrino flux measurements. This factor is assumed to modulate the detection efficiency on different detectors in different ways. To test this assumption, we have analyzed all available radiochemical measurements obtained with the Brookhaven (1970-1994, 108 runs), GALLEX (1991-1997, 65 runs), and SAGE (1989-2000, 80 runs) detectors for possible instability of the detection efficiency. We consider the heliophysical situation at the final stage of the run, the last 7-27 days, when the products of the neutrino reaction with the target material had already been accumulated. All of the main results obtained previously by other authors were found to be reproduced for chlorine-argon measurements. The neutrino flux anticorrelates with the sunspot numbers only for an odd solar cycle. A similar behavior is observed for the critical frequencies of the E-ionosphere. The neutrino flux probably correlates with the A p magnetic activity index only for an even solar cycle. The predominance of a certain sign of the radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the last 14 (or 7) days of the run has the strongest effect on the recorded neutrino flux. The effect changes sign when the polarity of the general solar magnetic field is reversed and is most pronounced for the shortest runs (less than 50 days). The dependence of the flux on IMF polarity completely disappears if the corresponding index is taken for the first rather than the last days of the run. The IMF effect on the recorded neutrino flux was also found for short runs in the gallium-germanium experiment, but this effect for a given

  13. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed

  14. Atmospheric gamma-ray observation with the BETS detectorfor calibrating atmospheric neutrino flux calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Yoshida, K.; Yamagami, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishimura, J.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Komori, Y.; Honda, M.; Ohuchi, T.; Midorikawa, S.; Yuda, T.

    2002-01-01

    We observed atmospheric gamma-rays around 10 GeV at balloon altitudes (15~25 km) and at a mountain (2770 m a.s.l). The observed results were compared with Monte Carlo calculations to find that an interaction model (Lund Fritiof1.6) used in an old neutrino flux calculation was not good enough for describing the observed values. In stead, we found that two other nuclear interaction models, Lund Fritiof7.02 and dpmjet3.03, gave much better agreement with the observations. Our data will serve for examining nuclear interaction models and for deriving a reliable absolute atmospheric neutrino flux in the GeV region.

  15. The Coulomb dissociation of 8B and the 8B solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Coulomb Dissociation of 8 B was measured using 46.5 MeV/u 8 B radioactive beams from the RIKEN-RIPS Radioactive Beam Facility, in an attempt to measure the 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B reaction at low energy, of relevance to estimating the 8 B solar neutrino flux. The experimental setup is discussed and the results are consistent with the lower value of S 17 measured by Filippone et al and Vaughn et al

  16. Precise measurement of cosmic ray fluxes with the AMS-02 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchi, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.vecchi@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. In this document we present precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons, electrons and protons, collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  17. Lunar radionuclide records of average solar-cosmic-ray fluxes over the last ten million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Because changes in solar activity can modify the fluxes of cosmic-ray particles in the solar system, the nature of the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their interactions with matter are described and used to study the ancient sun. The use of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites and lunar samples as detectors of past cosmic-ray variations are discussed. Meteorite records of the history of the galactic cosmic rays are reviewed. The fluxes of solar protons over various time periods as determined from lunar radionuclide data are presented and examined. The intensities of solar protons emitted during 1954 to 1964 (11-year solar cycle number 19) were much larger than those for 1965 to 1975 (solar cycle 20). Average solar-proton fluxes determined for the last one to ten million years from lunar 26 Al and 53 Mn data show little variation and are similar to the fluxes for recent solar cycles. Lunar activities of 14 C (and preliminary results for 81 Kr) indicate that the average fluxes of solar protons over the last 10 4 (and 10 5 ) years are several times larger than those for the last 10 6 to 10 7 years; however, cross-section measurements and other work are needed to confirm these flux variations

  18. Unbinned likelihood maximisation framework for neutrino clustering in Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Albeit having detected an astrophysical neutrino flux with IceCube, sources of astrophysical neutrinos remain hidden up to now. A detection of a neutrino point source is a smoking gun for hadronic processes and acceleration of cosmic rays. The search for neutrino sources has many degrees of freedom, for example steady versus transient, point-like versus extended sources, et cetera. Here, we introduce a Python framework designed for unbinned likelihood maximisations as used in searches for neutrino point sources by IceCube. Implementing source scenarios in a modular way, likelihood searches on various kinds can be implemented in a user-friendly way, without sacrificing speed and memory management.

  19. New constraints on all flavor Galactic diffuse neutrino emission with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.; Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.

    2017-01-01

    The flux of very high-energy neutrinos produced in our Galaxy by the interaction of accelerated cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is not yet determined. The characterization of this flux will shed light on Galactic accelerator features, gas distribution morphology and Galactic cosmic ray

  20. Solar neutrino flux measurements by the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) for half the 22-year solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Gurkina, P.P.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Mirmov, I.N.; Khairnasov, N.G.; Shikhin, A.A.; Yants, V.E.; Bowles, T.J.; Teasdale, W.A.; Nico, J.S.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of the solar neutrino capture rate on metallic gallium in the Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE) over a period of slightly more than half the 22-year solar cycle. A combined analysis of 92 runs over the twelve-year period from January 1990 until December 2001 yields a capture rate of 70.8 +5.3 -5.2 (stat) +3.7 -3.2 (sys) SNU for solar neutrinos with energies above 0.233 MeV. This value is slightly more than half the rate predicted by the standard solar model, 130 SNU. We present the results of new runs since April 1998 and analyze all runs combined by years, months, and bimonthly periods beginning in 1990. A simple analysis of the SAGE results together with the results of other solar neutrino experiments gives an estimate of (4.6 ± 1.2) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 for the flux of the electron pp neutrinos that reach the Earth without changing their flavor. The flux of the pp neutrinos produced in thermonuclear reactions in the Sun is estimated to be (7.6 ± 2.0) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 , in agreement with the value of (5.95 ± 0.06) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 predicted by the standard solar model

  1. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Quasi-biennial periodicity in the solar neutrino flux and its relation to the solar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1981-01-01

    By analysing the observed results on the neutrino flux from the Sun for the years 1970-1978, it is shown that the production rate of the neutrinos at the central core of the Sun had been varying with a period almost equal to 26 months for these years. This so-called 'quasi-biennial' periodicity in this rate suggests that the physical state of the central core of the Sun must have been modulated with this period through the variation of physical parameters as temperature and the chemial composition at the central core of the Sun. An idea to interpret this observed periodicity is thus proposed by taking the variations of these parameters into consideration. Some supporting evidence on this periodicity can be found on the variations of the solar activity as the relative sunspot numbers and the equatorial rotation speed of the Sun. (orig.)

  3. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousis, L N; Guarnaccia, E; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ∼ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC

  4. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, C.M.; Rao, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed

  5. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  6. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of solar neutrinos flux in Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE for half 22-years cycle of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, D.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The results of measuring the solar neutrino capture on the metallic gallium in the Russian-American experiment SAGE for the period slightly exceeding the half of the 22-year cycle of solar activity, are presented. The results of new measurements since April 1998 are quoted and the analysis of all the measurements, performed by years, months and two-year periods, beginning since 1990 are also presented. Simple analysis of the SAGE results together with the results of other solar neutrino experiments leads to estimating the value of the flux of the pp-neutrinos, reaching the Earth without change in their around, equal to (4.6 ± 1.2) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s). The value of the flux of the pp-neutrinos, originating in the Sun thermonuclear reactions, is equal to (7.6 ± 2.0) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s), which agrees well with the standard solar model (5.95 ± 0.6) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s) [ru

  8. Latest results from the IceCube neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the world's largest neutrino detector with a broad physics program covering the neutrino spectrum from several tens of GeV up to EeV energies. With its completion in 2010 it has reached its full sensitivity and analyses with unprecedented statistics are performed. One of the major research efforts is the search for extraterrestrial neutrino sources, which have not yet been discovered but would be a smoking gun for hadronic acceleration and could allow to identify the sources of high-energy cosmic rays. Such include steady galactic and extragalactic source candidates, e.g. Supernova Remnants and Active Galactic Nuclei, as well as transient phenomena like flaring objects and Gamma Ray Bursts. With its searches for diffuse neutrino fluxes in different energy ranges, IceCube is sensitive to fluxes of prompt atmospheric neutrinos, extragalactic neutrinos and cosmogenic neutrinos. In the low-energy range below 100 GeV, IceCube supplements classical neutrino oscillation experiments with its sensitivity to the deficit of atmospheric muon neutrinos at 25 GeV and searches for neutrinos from the annihilation of dark matter. The IceCube physics program is complemented by the surface array IceTop, which together with the detector part inside the ice serves for cosmic ray anisotropy, spectrum and composition measurements around the knee. The presentation summarizes ongoing IceCube physics analyses and recent results.

  9. Muon flux measurement with silicon detectors in the CERN neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The neutrino beam installations at the CERN SPS accelerator are described, with emphasis on the beam monitoring systems. Especially the muon flux measurement system is considered in detail, and the calibration procedure and systematic aspects of the measurements are discussed. An introduction is given to the use of silicon semiconductor detectors and their related electronics. Other special chapters concern non-linear phenomena in the silicon detectors, radiation damage in silicon detectors, energy loss and energy deposition in silicon and a review of energy loss phenomena for high energy muons in matter. (orig.)

  10. Depletion of atmospheric muon-neutrino fluxes and structure of Majorana mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu; Matsuda, Masahisa

    1993-01-01

    We study the structures of the Dirac and Majorana mass matrices which give rise to the large lepton mixing expected from the depleted atmospheric muonneutrino flux. In the case that the Majorana mass matrix has a hierarchy for generations, a certain kind of the neutrino Dirac mass matrix with the hierarchical structure leads to the large lepton mixing between the second generation and the third one. Our model-independent analyses serve the model-building of the mass matrices based on the quark-lepton unified theory. (orig.)

  11. High precision flux measurements in conventional neutrino beams: the ENUBET project

    CERN Document Server

    Longhin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The challenges of precision neutrino physics require measurements of absolute neutrino cross sec- tions at the GeV scale with exquisite (1%) precision. This precision is presently limited to by the uncertainties on neutrino flux at the source. A reduction of this uncertainty by one order of mag- nitude can be achieved monitoring the positron production in the decay tunnel originating from the K e 3 decays of charged kaons in a sign and momentum selected narrow band beam. This novel technique enables the measurement of the most relevant cross-sections for CP violation ( ν e and ̄ ν e ) with a precision of 1% and requires a special instrumented beam-line. Such non-conventional beam-line will be developed in the framework of the ENUBET Horizon-2020 Consolidator Grant, recently approved by the European Research Council. We present the Project, the first experimen- tal results on ultra-compact calorimeters that can embedded in the instrumented decay tunnel and the advances on the simulation of the beamline. A r...

  12. Evidence for massive neutrinos from cosmic microwave background and lensing observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, Richard A; Moss, Adam

    2014-02-07

    We discuss whether massive neutrinos (either active or sterile) can reconcile some of the tensions within cosmological data that have been brought into focus by the recently released Planck data. We point out that a discrepancy is present when comparing the primary CMB and lensing measurements both from the CMB and galaxy lensing data using CFHTLenS, similar to that which arises when comparing CMB measurements and SZ cluster counts. A consistent picture emerges and including a prior for the cluster constraints and BAOs we find that for an active neutrino model with three degenerate neutrinos, ∑m(ν)=(0.320±0.081)  eV, whereas for a sterile neutrino, in addition to 3 neutrinos with a standard hierarchy and ∑m(ν)=0.06  eV, m(ν,sterile)(eff)=(0.450±0.124)  eV and ΔN(eff)=0.45±0.23. In both cases there is a significant detection of modification to the neutrino sector from the standard model and in the case of the sterile neutrino it is possible to reconcile the BAO and local H0 measurements. However, a caveat to our result is some internal tension between the CMB and lensing and cluster observations, and the masses are in excess of those estimated from the shape of the matter power spectrum from galaxy surveys.

  13. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrinos emitted during a supernova core collapse represent a unique feature to study both stellar and neutrino properties. After discussing the details of the neutrino emission in the star and the effect of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes at Earth, a review of the detection techniques is presented in this paper, with particular attention to the problem of electron neutrino detection

  14. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-01-01

    magnetized detector with flavor and antiflavor sensitivity. Additional priorities are nuclear physics measurements which will reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the Standard Solar Model, and similar supporting measurements for atmospheric neutrinos (cosmic ray fluxes, magnetic fields, etc.). We note as well that the detectors for both solar and atmospheric neutrino measurements can serve as multipurpose detectors, with capabilities of discovering dark matter, relic supernova neutrinos, proton decay, or as targets for long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments

  15. Searches for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    2014-01-01

    Powerful astrophysical objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGN), core collapse supernovae and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are potential sources of the highest energy cosmic rays. Many models of cosmic ray proton acceleration predict a corresponding flux of neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range. The detection of astrophysical neutrinos requires the largest neutrino detector ever built: IceCube, a cubic-kilometer array located near the geographic South Pole. IceCube has been collecting data throughout its construction, which was complete in December 2010. Data from the partial IceCube detector have already set interesting limits on astrophysical neutrino fluxes, including stringent limits on neutrino production in GRBs. (authors)

  16. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array : Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, IceCube; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; André, J. P. A. M. de; Clercq, C. De; Rosendo, E. del Pino; Dembinski, H.; Ridder, S. De; Desiati, P.; Vries, K. D. de; Wasseige, G. de; With, M. de; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Lorenzo, V. di; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C. -C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Heros, C. Pérez de los; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H. -G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Vanheule, S.; Santen, J. van; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; Collaboration, Pierre Auger; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; García-Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Hervé, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. W. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Coz, S. Le; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Carvalho, W. Rodrigues de; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Gomez, J. D. Sanabria; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tibolla, O.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Velzen, S. van; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Welling, C.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Collaboration, Telescope Array; Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube

  17. Particle Astrophysics of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    Energy spectra of neutrino sources. ASPERA. Page 4. Some unique features of neutrinos. The second most abundant particles in the universe. Cosmic microwave background photons: 400 / cm3. Cosmic background neutrinos: 330 / cm3. The lightest massive particles. A million times lighter than the electron. No direct mass ...

  18. Progress towards a measurement of the UHE cosmic ray electron flux using the CREST Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jim; Wakely, Scott; Coutu, Stephane; Geske, Matthew; Nutter, Scott; Tarle, Gregory; Park, Nahee; Schubnell, Michael; Gennaro, Joseph; Muller, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    Electrons of energy beyond about 3 TeV have never been detected in the flux of cosmic rays at Earth despite strong evidence of their presence in a number of supernova remnants (e.g., SN 1006). The detection of high energy electrons at Earth would be extremely significant, yielding information about the spatial distribution of nearby cosmic ray sources. With the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST), our collaboration has adopted a novel approach to the detection of electrons of energies between 2 and 50 TeV which results in a substantial increase in the acceptance and sensitivity of the apparatus relative to its physics size. The first LDB flight of the CREST detector took place in January 2012, with a float duration of approximately 10 days. In this paper we describe the flight performance of the instrument, and progress in the analysis of the data obtained in this flight.

  19. Modeling the radar scatter off of high-energy neutrino-induced particle cascades in ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van Eijndhoven, Nick; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Toscano, Simona; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radar detection method as a probe for high-energy neutrino induced particle cascades in ice. In a previous work we showed that the radar detection techniqe is a promising method to probe the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux above PeV energies. This was done by considering a simplified

  20. A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with ''naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship

  1. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  2. Measurements of the inclusive neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross sections in MINERvA using the low-ν flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, J.; Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The total cross sections are important ingredients for the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We present measurements of the total charged-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on scintillator (CH) in the NuMI low-energy beamline using an in situ prediction of the shape of the flux as a function of neutrino energy from 2-50 GeV. This flux prediction takes advantage of the fact that neutrino and antineutrino interactions with low nuclear recoil energy (ν ) have a nearly constant cross section as a function of incident neutrino energy. This measurement is the lowest energy application of the low-ν flux technique, the first time it has been used in the NuMI antineutrino beam configuration, and demonstrates that the technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies. The cross section measurements presented are the most precise measurements to date below 5 GeV.

  3. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  4. Neutrino Oscillations as a Probe of Light Scalar Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-12-02

    We consider a class of models involving interactions between ultralight scalar dark matter and standard model neutrinos. Such couplings modify the neutrino mass splittings and mixing angles to include additional components that vary in time periodically with a frequency and amplitude set by the mass and energy density of the dark matter. Null results from recent searches for anomalous periodicities in the solar neutrino flux strongly constrain the dark matter-neutrino coupling to be orders of magnitude below current and projected limits derived from observations of the cosmic microwave background.

  5. Constraints on the neutrino emission from the Galactic Ridge with the ANTARES telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adrián-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly significant excess of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of IceCube events hint at a North/South asymmetry of the neutrino flux. This could be due to the presence of the bulk of our Galaxy in the Southern hemisphere. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. It offers the best sensitivity to muon neutrinos produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions in this region of the sky. In this letter a search for an extended neutrino flux from the Galactic Ridge region is presented. Different models of neutrino production by cosmic ray propagation are tested. No excess of events is observed and upper limits for different neutrino flux spectral indices Γ are set. For Γ=2.4 the 90% confidence level flux upper limit at 100 TeV for one neutrino flavour corresponds to Φ01f(100 TeV=2.0⋅10−17 GeV−1cm−2s−1sr−1. Under this assumption, at most two events of the IceCube cosmic candidates can originate from the Galactic Ridge. A simple power-law extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT flux to account for IceCube High Energy Starting Events is excluded at 90% confidence level.

  6. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Halzen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.

  7. A Nine-Year Hunt for Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    How do we hunt for elusive neutrinos emitted by distant astrophysical sources? Submerge a huge observatory under ice or water and then wait patiently.Sneaky MessengersNeutrinos tiny, nearly massless particles that only weakly interact with other matter are thought to be produced as a constant background originating from throughout our universe. In contrast to known point sources of neutrinos (for instance, nearby supernovae), the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos could be emitted from unresolved astrophysical sources too faint to be individually detected, or from the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays propagating across the universe.Observations of this diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos would be a huge step toward understanding cosmic-ray production, acceleration, and interaction properties. Unfortunately, these observations arent easy to make!Diagram showing the path of a neutrino from a distant astrophysical source (accelerator) through the Earth. It is eventually converted into an upward-traveling muon that registers in the ANTARES detector under the sea. [ANTARES]Looking for What Doesnt Want to Be FoundBecause neutrinos so rarely interact with matter, most pass right through us, eluding detection. The most common means of spotting the rare interacting neutrino is to look for Cherenkov radiation in a medium like ice or water, produced when a neutrino has interacted with matterto produce a charged particle (for instance, a muon) moving faster than the speed of light in the medium.Muons produced in our atmosphere can also register in such detectors, however, so we need a way of filtering out these non-cosmic background events. The solution is a clever trick: search for particles traveling upward, not downward. Atmospheric muons will come only from above, whereas muons produced by neutrinos should travel through the detectors in all directions, since cosmic neutrinos arrive from all directions including from below, after passing through the Earth

  8. Cosmic Ray Electron and Positron Excesses from a Fourth Generation Heavy Majorana Neutrino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    and positrons originated in the heavy Majorana neutrino decay modes, also including polarization effects. We then compare the prediction of this model with the experimental data, exploiting both the standard direct method and our recently proposed Sum Rules method. We find that the decay modes involving the tau...

  9. Geomagnetic-cutoff distribution functions for use in estimating detector response to neutrinos of atmospheric origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for deriving functions which characterize the effect of geomagnetic cutoffs on the charged primary cosmic rays that give rise to neutrinos arriving in any given direction at specified points on or in the earth. These cutoff distribution functions, for use in atmospheric-neutrino flux calculations, have been determined for eight nucleon-decay--experiment sites, by use of a technique which employs the Stormer cutoff expression, and which assumes collinear motion of neutrino and parent primary

  10. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; 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Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  11. Prompt ντ fluxes in present and future τ neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We use a nonperturbative QCD approach, the quark-gluon string model, to compute the τ-neutrino fluxes produced by fixed target pA collisions (where A is a target material) for incident protons of energies ranging from 120 to 800 GeV. The purpose of this calculation is to estimate in a consistent way the prompt background for the ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ oscillation search in the on-going ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ oscillation search experiments CHORUS and NOMAD, as well as the expected prompt background in future experiments, such as COSMOS at Fermilab and a possible second-generation ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ search experiment at the CERN SPS. In addition, we compute the number of ν τ interactions expected by the experiment E872 at Fermilab. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Hadron Production measurements at the NA61/SHINE experiment for the T2K Neutrino Flux Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sgalaberna, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The largest source of uncertainty on the initial neutrino flux in modern accelerator neutrino ex- periments is the poor knowledge on the production of hadrons that decay into neutrinos. T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment that aims to precisely measure the parameters of the PMNS ma- trix via the n m ! n e appearance and n m disappearance as well as to look for the first indication of CP violation in the leptonic sector. The required total systematic uncertainty on the neutrino flux as low as 5% can hopefully be achieved with high precision hadron production measurements, performed by the dedicated auxiliary NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS. Production of hadrons in 31 GeV/c proton interactions on carbon is measured with a thin target (4% of the nuclear interaction length) to study the primary interactions and with a T2K replica target (1.9 interaction length) to investigate re-interactions in the long target. The low statistic pilot data-set taken in 2007 was used to measure hadron multiplicities ...

  13. The solar neutrinos epopee; L'epopee des neutrinos solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasserre, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, Service de Physique des Particules, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-06-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos {nu}{sub e} emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos ({nu}{sub {mu}}) and tau neutrinos ({nu}{sub {tau}}), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the surrounding Japanese nuclear reactors. This digest article describes step by step the epopee of solar neutrinos and shows how several generations of physicists have resolved one of the mystery of modern physics. (J.S.)

  14. Methods for the reconstruction of large scale anisotropies of the cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, Sven

    2010-01-15

    In cosmic ray experiments the arrival directions, among other properties, of cosmic ray particles from detected air shower events are reconstructed. The question of uniformity in the distribution of arrival directions is of large importance for models that try to explain cosmic radiation. In this thesis, methods for the reconstruction of parameters of a dipole-like flux distribution of cosmic rays from a set of recorded air shower events are studied. Different methods are presented and examined by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Particular focus is put on the implications of spurious experimental effects. Modifications of existing methods and new methods are proposed. The main goal of this thesis is the development of the horizontal Rayleigh analysis method. Unlike other methods, this method is based on the analysis of local viewing directions instead of global sidereal directions. As a result, the symmetries of the experimental setup can be better utilised. The calculation of the sky coverage (exposure function) is not necessary in this analysis. The performance of the method is tested by means of further Monte Carlo simulations. The new method performs similarly good or only marginally worse than established methods in case of ideal measurement conditions. However, the simulation of certain experimental effects can cause substantial misestimations of the dipole parameters by the established methods, whereas the new method produces no systematic deviations. The invulnerability to certain effects offers additional advantages, as certain data selection cuts become dispensable. (orig.)

  15. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, The IceCube; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. -H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; André, J. P. A. M. de; Clercq, C. De; Rosendo, E. del Pino; Dembinski, H.; Ridder, S. De; Desiati, P.; Vries, K. D. de; Wasseige, G. de; With, M. de; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Lorenzo, V. di; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C. -C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Heros, C. Pérez de los; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. 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N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Vanheule, S.; Santen, J. van; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Collaboration, M. Zoll The Pierre Auger; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. C. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Debatin, J.; Peral, L. del; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Carvalho, W. Rodrigues de; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Gomez, J. D. Sanabria; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strafella, F.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Collaboration, F. Zuccarello The Telescope Array; Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of

  16. Constraints on neutrino degeneracy from the cosmic microwave background and primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, M.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We reanalyze the cosmological constraints on the existence of a net universal lepton asymmetry and neutrino degeneracy based upon the latest high resolution CMB sky maps from BOOMERANG, DASI, and MAXIMA-1. We generate likelihood functions by marginalizing over (Ω b h 2 ,ξ ν μ,τ ,ξ ν e ,Ω Λ ,h,n) plus the calibration uncertainties. We consider flat Ω M +Ω Λ =1 cosmological models with two identical degenerate neutrino species, ξ ν μ,τ ≡ vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar = vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar and a small ξ ν e . We assign weak top-hat priors on the electron-neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ ν e and Ω b h 2 based upon allowed values consistent with the nucleosynthesis constraints as a function of ξ ν μ,τ . The change in the background neutrino temperature with degeneracy is also explicitly included, and Gaussian priors for h=0.72±0.08 and the experimental calibration uncertainties are adopted. The marginalized likelihood functions show a slight (0.5σ) preference for neutrino degeneracy. Optimum values with two equally degenerate μ and τ neutrinos imply ξ ν μ,τ =1.0 -1.0(0.5σ) +0.8(1σ) ,from which we deduce ξ ν e =0.09 -0.09 +0.15 , and Ω b h 2 =0.021 -0.002 +0.06 . The 2σ upper limit becomes ξ ν μ,τ ≤2.1, which implies ξ ν e ≤0.30, and Ω b h 2 ≤0.030. For only a single large-degeneracy species the optimal value is vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar or vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar =1.4 with a 2σ upper limit of vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar or vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar ≤2.5.

  17. Observation of the thunderstorm-related ground cosmic ray flux variations by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; D'Alessandro, F.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A correlation between the secondary cosmic ray flux and the near-earth electric field intensity, measured during thunderstorms, has been found by analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, a full coverage air shower array located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China). The counting rates of showers with different particle multiplicities (m =1 , 2, 3, and ≥4 ) have been found to be strongly dependent upon the intensity and polarity of the electric field measured during the course of 15 thunderstorms. In negative electric fields (i.e., accelerating negative charges downwards), the counting rates increase with increasing electric field strength. In positive fields, the rates decrease with field intensity until a certain value of the field EFmin (whose value depends on the event multiplicity), above which the rates begin increasing. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that this peculiar behavior can be well described by the presence of an electric field in a layer of thickness of a few hundred meters in the atmosphere above the detector, which accelerates/decelerates the secondary shower particles of opposite charge, modifying the number of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. These results, for the first time to our knowledge, give a consistent explanation for the origin of the variation of the electron/positron flux observed for decades by high altitude cosmic ray detectors during thunderstorms.

  18. Evolution of cosmic ray fluxes during the rising phase of solar cycle 23: ULYSSES EPAC and COSPIN/KET observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Keppler, E.; Blake, J.B.; Fraenz, M.; Kunow, H.

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are entering the heliosphere from the interstellar medium, while anomalous cosmic rays are believed to be pickup ions accelerated at the heliospheric termination shock. Both particle species are modulated by the solar wind and the heliospheric magnetic field. Since 1997 solar activity increased and as a consequence the flux of galactic and anomalous cosmic ray decreased. In this paper we will discuss the variation of low energy anomalous cosmic rays as measured by the Ulysses Energetic Particle Composition Experiment (EPAC) and the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) on board Ulysses. Specifically we are addressing the question: Are there differences in the modulation of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays and what are possible implication for the modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere?

  19. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F.E., E-mail: fgray@regis.ed [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Department of Physics, 1523 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J. [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Zhang, C. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); China Three Gorges University, College of Science, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2011-05-11

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149{+-}0.017 x10{sup -2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67{+-}0.06 x10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56{+-}0.25 x10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  20. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, F.E.; Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J.; Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149±0.017 x10 -2 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67±0.06 x10 -6 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56±0.25 x10 -7 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  1. Frontiers in neutrino physics - Transparencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.; Balantekin, B.; Conrad, J.; Engel, J.; Fogli, G.; Giunti, C.; Espinoza, C.; Lasserre, T.; Lazauskas, R.; Lhuiller, D.; Lindner, M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Martini, M.; McLaughlin, G.; Mirizzi, A.; Pehlivan, Y.; Petcov, S.; Qian, Y.; Serenelli, A.; Stancu, I.; Surman, R.; Vaananen, D.; Vissani, F.; Vogel, P.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the presentations. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the last advances in neutrino physics. The presentations dealt with: -) the measurement of the neutrino velocity, -) neutrino oscillations, -) anomaly in solar models and neutrinos, -) double beta decay, -) self refraction of neutrinos, -) cosmic neutrinos, -) antineutrino spectra from reactors, and -) some aspects of neutrino physics with radioactive ion beams. (A.C.)

  2. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  3. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  4. Neutrino particle astrophysics: status and outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of astrophysical neutrinos at high energy by IceCube raises a host of questions: What are the sources? Is there a Galactic as well as an extragalactic component? How does the astrophysical spectrum continue to lower energy where the dominant signal is from atmospheric neutrinos? Is there a measureable flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at higher energy? What is the connection to cosmic rays? At what level and in what energy region should we expect to see evidence of the π0 decay photons that must accompany the neutrinos at production? Such questions are stimulating much theoretical activity and many multi-wavelength follow-up observations as well as driving plans for new detectors. My goal in this presentation will be to connect the neutrino data and their possible interpretations to ongoing multi-messenger observations and to the design of future detectors.

  5. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  6. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ˜30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  7. Z-burst scenario for the highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-10-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV ≤ m ν ≤ 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in the near future by experiments such as AMANDA, RICE or the Pierre Auger Observatory. (orig.)

  8. Neutrinos and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2005-01-01

    A tiny neutrino mass is a clue to the physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. The primary cosmic rays, mostly protons, are created and accelerated to the relativistic energy in supernova remnants. They traverse the universe and reach the earth. The incoming primary cosmic rays interact with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary particles, which subsequently decay into neutrinos, called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos have shown the evidence of the finite neutrino masses through the phenomena called neutrino oscillations. Neutrinos are detected by large detectors underground like, for example, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND. Those detectors use large photomultiplier tubes, which make use of the photo-electric effect to convert photons created by the interaction of neutrinos to electrons to form electric pulses. Neutrinos are therefore created and detected by "Einstein" and have step forward beyond the current physics. Neutrinos may also carry a hit to the ori...

  9. [A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper

  10. Search for atmospheric muon-neutrinos and extraterrestric neutrino point sources in the 1997 AMANDA-B10 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biron von Curland, A.

    2002-07-01

    The young field of high energy neutrino astronomy can be motivated by the search for the origin of the charged cosmic rays. Large astrophysical objects like AGNs or supernova remnants are candidates to accelerate hadrons which then can interact to eventually produce high energy neutrinos. Neutrino-induced muons can be detected via their emission of Cherenkov light in large neutrino telescopes like AMANDA. More than 10 9 atmospheric muon events and approximately 5000 atmospheric neutrino events were registered by AMANDA-B10 in 1997. Out of these, 223 atmospheric neutrino candidate events have been extracted. This data set contains approximately 15 background events. It allows to confirm the expected sensitivity of the detector towards neutrino events. A second set containing 369 (approximately 270 atmospheric neutrino events and 100 atmospheric muon events) was used to search for extraterrestrial neutrino point sources. Neither a binned search, nor a cluster search, nor a search for preselected sources gave indications for the existence of a strong neutrino point source. Based on this result, flux limits were derived. Assuming E ν -2 spectra, typical flux limits for selected sources of the order of Φ μ limit ∝ 10 -14 cm -2 s -1 for muons and Φ ν limit ∝ 10 -7 cm -2 s -1 for neutrinos have been obtained. (orig.)

  11. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  12. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  13. Simultaneous measurements of helium and heavy nuclei fluxes in cosmic rays over Fort Churchill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, V.S.; Paruthi, S.; Kainth, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    We have made simultaneous measurements of fluxes of He an heavy nuclei (Z< or =10) in primary cosmic rays at three levels of solar activity. These nuclei have been studied in three nuclear emulsion stacks exposed over Fort Churchill, Canada, in 1963, 1964, and 1967. We had earlier reported our results on the heavy nuclei at the Hobart conference (Bhatia et al., 1971). Experimental results based on 1514 He nuclei tracks that were measured in these three stacks are presented in this paper. The experimentally obtained He and heavy nuclei differential energy spectra have been compared with the theoretically calculated near-earth spectra

  14. Variation of cosmic-ray flux and global cloud-coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, H

    1998-01-01

    There has long been a search for a physical link between solar activity and the earth's climate. The most direct way the Sun could affect the Earth's climate would be through temporal changes in its luminosity, but observations have shown that these small to explain the observed temperature changes. This does not, however exclude the possibility of an indirect physical mechanism. In the talk it will be shown that the excellent correlations observed between solar activity parameters and climate c link between cosmic ray flux and global cloud cover.

  15. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  16. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  17. The rest-mass of neutrino and the cosmic clustering phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, L.; Peichen, Z.

    1982-01-01

    During their contracting and clustering, massive neutrinos can carry ordinary matter through their gravitational coupling, contracting to form the object with mass just at the right order of cluster of galaxies. Hence, massive neutrinos may provide the clue to explain naturally the formation of clusters of galaxies. However, as is well known, the clustering of ordinary matter before the era of the recombination could make the microwave background radiation non-isotropic, so the observational fact that this radiation is highly isotropic has usually been regarded as the strong disproof for any clustering before the recombination. In this paper, the authors discuss the contracting process from the starting point of preferential clustering (T/sub 1/≅4x10/sup 4/ K) to the era of the recombination (T/sub 2/≅4x10/sup 3/ K), and prove the nonuniformity reached at T/sub 2/ to be too small to conflict with the observational fact in microwave background radiation

  18. Measurement of boron and carbon fluxes in cosmic rays with the PAMELA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples " Federico II," I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N. [INFN, Sezione di Rome " Tor Vergata," I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Danilchenko, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RU-115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-08-20

    The propagation of cosmic rays inside our galaxy plays a fundamental role in shaping their injection spectra into those observed at Earth. One of the best tools to investigate this issue is the ratio of fluxes for secondary and primary species. The boron-to-carbon (B/C) ratio, in particular, is a sensitive probe to investigate propagation mechanisms. This paper presents new measurements of the absolute fluxes of boron and carbon nuclei as well as the B/C ratio from the PAMELA space experiment. The results span the range 0.44-129 GeV/n in kinetic energy for data taken in the period 2006 July to 2008 March.

  19. A large fiber sensor network for an acoustic neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buis Ernst-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific prospects of detecting neutrinos with an energy close or even higher than the GKZ cut-off energy has been discussed extensively in literature. It is clear that due to their expected low flux, the detection of these ultra-high energy neutrinos (Ev > 1018 eV requires a telescope larger than 100 km3. Acoustic detection may provide a way to observe these ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos, as sound that they induce in the deep sea when neutrinos lose their energy travels undisturbed for many kilometers. To realize a large scale acoustic neutrino telescope, dedicated technology must be developed that allows for a deep sea sensor network. Fiber optic hydrophone technology provides a promising means to establish a large scale sensor network [1] with the proper sensitivity to detect the small signals from the neutrino interactions.

  20. Measurement of hydrogen and helium isotopes flux in galactic cosmic rays with the PAMELA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formato, V., E-mail: valerio.formato@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); University of Trieste, Department of Physics, I-34147 Trieste (Italy); Adriani, O. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G.C. [University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics (Sweden); Casolino, M. [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); RIKEN, Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); and others

    2014-04-01

    PAMELA is a satellite borne experiment designed to study with great accuracy cosmic rays of galactic, solar, and trapped nature, with particular focus on the antimatter component. The detector consists of a permanent magnet spectrometer core to provide rigidity and charge sign information, a Time-of-Flight system for velocity and charge information, a Silicon–Tungsten calorimeter and a Neutron detector for lepton/hadron identification. The velocity and rigidity information allow the identification of different isotopes for Z=1 and Z=2 particles in the energy range 100 MeV/n to 1 GeV/n. In this work we will present the PAMELA results on the H and He isotope fluxes based on the data collected during the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 to 2007. Such fluxes carry relevant information helpful in constraining parameters in galactic cosmic rays propagation models complementary to those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as the boron-to-carbon ratio.

  1. A modified likelihood-method to search for point-sources in the diffuse astrophysical neutrino-flux in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Rene; Haack, Christian; Leuermann, Martin; Raedel, Leif; Schoenen, Sebastian; Schimp, Michael; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized neutrino detector at the geographical South Pole, has recently measured a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Although this flux has now been observed in multiple analyses, no point sources or source classes could be identified yet. Standard point source searches test many points in the sky for a point source of astrophysical neutrinos individually and therefore produce many trials. Our approach is to additionally use the measured diffuse spectrum to constrain the number of possible point sources and their properties. Initial studies of the method performance are shown.

  2. High energy radiation from black holes gamma rays, cosmic rays, and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray flares observed from sources far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy are best explained if enormous amounts of energy are liberated by black holes. The highest- energy particles in nature--the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays--cannot be confined by the Milky Way's magnetic field, and must originate from sources outside our Galaxy. Understanding these energetic radiations requires an extensive theoretical framework involving the radiation physics and strong-field gravity of black holes. In High Energy Radiation from Black Holes, Charles Dermer and Govind Menon present a systemat

  3. Coherence and the day-night asymmetry in the solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Liu, Q.Y.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1999-12-01

    We consider the day-night asymmetries predicted by various MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. The integration over the neutrino energy, as well as over the production region or over the time intervals of more than a day leads to the averaging of oscillations on the way to the earth. This is equivalent to considering the neutrino state arriving at the surface of the earth as an incoherent mixture of the neutrino mass eigenstates (even if there is no divergence of wavepackets). As a consequence, the regeneration effect inside the earth is incoherent, in contrast with the results in hep-ph/9902435. (author)

  4. Photons coming from an opaque obstacle as a manifestation of heavy neutrino decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the framework of physics beyond the standard model, we study the possibility that mesons produced in the atmosphere by the cosmic-ray flux decay to heavy Majorana neutrinos and the latter, in turn, decay mostly to photons in the low-mass region. We study the photon flux produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos (N ) decaying after passing through a massive and opaque object such as a mountain. To model the production of N 's in the atmosphere and their decay to photons, we consider the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. We then calculate the heavy neutrino flux originated by the decay of mesons in the atmosphere. The surviving photon flux, originated by N decays, is calculated using transport equations that include the effects of Majorana neutrino production and decay.

  5. Prospects for identifying the sources of the Galactic cosmic rays with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kappes, Alexander; O Murchadha, Aongus

    2008-01-01

    We quantitatively address whether IceCube, a kilometer-scale neutrino detector under construction at the South Pole, can observe neutrinos pointing back at the accelerators of the Galactic cosmic rays. The photon flux from candidate sources identified by the Milagro detector in a survey of the TeV sky is consistent with the flux expected from a typical cosmic-ray generating supernova remnant interacting with the interstellar medium. We show here that IceCube can provide incontrovertible evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration in these sources by detecting neutrinos. We find that the signal is optimally identified by specializing to events with energies above 30 TeV where the atmospheric neutrino background is low. We conclude that evidence for a correlation between the Milagro and IceCube sky maps should be conclusive after several years.

  6. Towards neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.; Spiro, M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino sources are numerous and varied; the sun, a supernova explosion, the cosmic radiation interaction with interstellar medium are neutrino or antineutrino sources. The aim of this article is to overview the international projects of neutrino detection while giving the preference to the experimental side of the detection [fr

  7. T2K Replica Target Hadron Production Measurements in NA61/SHINE and T2K Neutrino Flux Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)710687

    Accelerator based neutrino experiments generate their neutrino beams by impinging high energy protons on thick targets. The neutrino beam predictions are thus based on modeling the interactions of the beam protons inside the targets. Different hadronic models can be used with different accuracies depending on the energy range of the incident protons and on the target material. Nevertheless, none of the models can be seen as perfectly describing all different interactions. In order to reach high precision neutrino flux predictions, it is thus mandatory to be able to test and constrain the models with hadron production measurements. The T2K experiment in Japan uses the ancillary NA61/SHINE facility at CERN to constrain the production of hadrons resulting from the interactions of proton beam particles impinging on a 90cm long graphite target. Data taken by NA61/SHINE with a 30 GeV proton beam on a thin (4% interaction length) graphite target have been recorded in 2007 and 2009. They have been analysed and extens...

  8. ROLE OF LINE-OF-SIGHT COSMIC-RAY INTERACTIONS IN FORMING THE SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS IN TeV GAMMA RAYS AND HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander; Kalashev, Oleg; Beacom, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

  9. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array: Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; et al.

    2015-11-06

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube `high-energy starting events' sample and the other with 16 high-energy `track events'. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned over. The same events are also used in a separate search using a maximum likelihood approach, after the neutrino arrival directions are stacked. To estimate the significance we assume UHECR magnetic deflections to be inversely proportional to their energy, with values $3^\\circ$, $6^\\circ$ and $9^\\circ$ at 100 EeV to allow for the uncertainties on the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube sample of through-going muon track events which were optimized for neutrino point-source searches.

  10. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  11. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  12. The Neutrinos Saga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Souchere, Marie-Christine de; Moran, John

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes a history of the discovery and study of neutrinos. This history starts shortly after the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 with the observation of an inhomogeneous deceleration of electrons in the radioactive source which raised an issue of shortage of energy. Pauli then introduced the idea of a ghost particle which could preserve the principle of energy conservation and also the issue of statistics related to the laws of quantum mechanics. Works by the Joliot-Curies and Chadwick resulted in the identification of a neutral particle, first called a neutron, and then neutrino. The author then reports experiments performed to highlight neutrinos, and to identify different forms of neutrinos: muon, tau, lepton. She also addresses questions raised by solar neutrinos, experiments proving the metamorphosis of electron neutrinos into muon neutrinos. She discusses the interest of neutrino as cosmic messengers as they are emitted by various cosmic events, and also as a way to study dark matter

  13. Energy-dependent solar neutrino flux depletion in the exact parity model and implications for SNO, SuperKamiokande and BOREXINO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    1998-03-01

    Energy-dependent solar neutrino flux reduction caused by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is applied to the Exact Parity Model. Several scenarios are possible, depending on the region of parameter space chosen. The interplay between intergenerational MSW transitions and vacuum 'intragenerational' ordinary-mirror neutrino oscillations is discussed. Expectations for the ratio of charged to neutral current event rates at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) are estimated. The implications of the various scenarios for the Boron neutrino energy spectrum and BOREXINO are briefly discussed. The consequences of MSW-induced solar neutrino depletion within the Exact Parity Model differ in interesting ways from the standard ν e ↔ ν μ,τ and ν e ↔ ν s cases. The physical causes of these differences are determined. (authors)

  14. The transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We discuss the region of transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The exact shapes and compositions of these two components contain information about important parameters of powerful astrophysical sources and the conditions in extragalactic space. Several types of experimental data, including the exact shape of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, their chemical composition and their anisotropy, and the fluxes of cosmogenic neutrinos have to be included in the solution of this problem.

  15. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losa Agustín Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES detector is an underwater neutrino telescope, the largest in the Northern Hemisphere and the first one ever built under the sea, located in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the Southern coast of France, at a depth of 2.5 km. It comprises 885 photomultiplier tubes distributed along twelve detection lines. The signal due to neutrinos is searched by reconstructing the tracks of secondary particles produced in the surroundings of the detector. The detector is in data taking with its final configuration since 2008. It is aimed at identifying the sources, either steady or flaring, of cosmic neutrinos, and is also suitable for detection of dark matter within the Sun and/or Galactic Centre. ANTARES can contribute in the confirmation of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube, being particularly competitive for the Galactic Centre, and in general for galactic sources, due its latitude and at lower energies and softer spectra due its configuration. Several multi-messenger analyses have been also attempted, including the search of coincidence signals of neutrinos with gravitational-waves. Additional topics include neutrino oscillations or the search of exotic particles, like nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. Results from the latest analyses are presented.

  16. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, Jan (2016), 1-34, č. článku 037. ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : neutrino experiments * ultra high energy cosmic rays * cosmic ray experiments * neutrino astronomy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2016

  17. The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T ∼ 10 6 - 10 8 K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z ∼ 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and α-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through α-α reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with a 4 GeV threshold in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Baret, B.; Donzaud, C.; Kouchner, A.; Moscoso, L.; Van Elewyck, V.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Mazure, A.; Tasca, L.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Charvis, Ph.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Pillet, R.; Cottini, N.; Loucatos, S.; Moscoso, L.; Naumann, C.; Picq, C.; Schuller, J.P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the measurement of the muon flux in the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope and its dependence on the depth is presented. The method is based oil the observation of coincidence signals in adjacent storeys of the detector. This yields an energy threshold of about 4 GeV. The main sources of optical background are the decay of 40 K and the bioluminescence in the sea water. The 40 K background is used to calibrate the efficiency of the photo-multiplier tubes. (authors)

  19. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with a 4 GeV threshold in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 Rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, 68008 Colmar (FR); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers - Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Baret, B.; Donzaud, C.; Kouchner, A.; Moscoso, L.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC - Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164, CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, Rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (FR); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Mazure, A.; Tasca, L. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (FR); Carloganu, C.; Gay, P. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (FR); Charvis, Ph.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Pillet, R. [Geoazur - Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 48, F-06235 Villefranche-sur-mer (FR); Cottini, N.; Loucatos, S.; Moscoso, L.; Naumann, C.; Picq, C.; Schuller, J.P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers - Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (FR)

    2010-07-01

    A new method for the measurement of the muon flux in the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope and its dependence on the depth is presented. The method is based oil the observation of coincidence signals in adjacent storeys of the detector. This yields an energy threshold of about 4 GeV. The main sources of optical background are the decay of {sup 40}K and the bioluminescence in the sea water. The {sup 40}K background is used to calibrate the efficiency of the photo-multiplier tubes. (authors)

  20. Neutrino production by UHECR proton interactions in the infrared background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2004-08-12

    We discuss the contribution of proton photoproduction interactions in the isotropic infrared/optical background to the cosmic neutrino fluxes. This contribution has a strong dependence on the proton injection energy spectrum, and is essential at high redshifts. It is thus closely correlated with the cosmological evolution of the ultra-high energy proton sources and of the infrared background itself. These interactions may also contribute to the source fluxes of neutrinos if the proton sources are located in regions of high infrared emission and magnetic fields.

  1. The physics of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon D; Whisnant, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The physics of neutrinos- uncharged elementary particles that are key to helping us better understand the nature of our universe - is one of the most exciting frontiers of modern science. This book provides a comprehensive overview of neutrino physics today and explores promising new avenues of inquiry that could lead to future breakthroughs. The Physics of Neutrinos begins with a concise history of the field and a tutorial on the fundamental properties of neutrinos, and goes on to discuss how the three neutrino types interchange identities as they propagate from their sources to detectors. The book shows how studies of neutrinos produced by such phenomena as cosmic rays in the atmosphere and nuclear reactions in the solar interior provide striking evidence that neutrinos have mass, and it traces our astounding progress in deciphering the baffling experimental findings involving neutrinos. The discovery of neutrino mass offers the first indication of a new kind of physics that goes beyond the Standard Model ...

  2. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth's crust. It covers a large field of view between -85° and 60° declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  3. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zas Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth’s crust. It covers a large field of view between −85◦ and 60◦ declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  4. Numerical computation of solar neutrino flux attenuated by the MSW mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jai Sam; Chae, Yoon Sang; Kim, Jung Dae

    1999-07-01

    We compute the survival probability of an electron neutrino in its flight through the solar core experiencing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect with all three neutrino species considered. We adopted a hybrid method that uses an accurate approximation formula in the non-resonance region and numerical integration in the non-adiabatic resonance region. The key of our algorithm is to use the importance sampling method for sampling the neutrino creation energy and position and to find the optimum radii to start and stop numerical integration. We further developed a parallel algorithm for a message passing parallel computer. By using an idea of job token, we have developed a dynamical load balancing mechanism which is effective under any irregular load distributions

  5. Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because (a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and (b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space - unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

  6. Oscillations in the open solar magnetic flux with a period of 1.68 years: imprint on galactic cosmic rays and implications for heliospheric shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rouillard

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of how the heliosphere modulates galactic cosmic ray (GCR fluxes and spectra is important, not only for studies of their origin, acceleration and propagation in our galaxy, but also for predicting their effects (on technology and on the Earth's environment and organisms and for interpreting abundances of cosmogenic isotopes in meteorites and terrestrial reservoirs. In contrast to the early interplanetary measurements, there is growing evidence for a dominant role in GCR shielding of the total open magnetic flux, which emerges from the solar atmosphere and enters the heliosphere. In this paper, we relate a strong 1.68-year oscillation in GCR fluxes to a corresponding oscillation in the open solar magnetic flux and infer cosmic-ray propagation paths confirming the predictions of theories in which drift is important in modulating the cosmic ray flux. Key words. Interplanetary physics (Cosmic rays, Interplanetary magnetic fields

  7. Neutrinos in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin J

    1980-01-01

    The amount of 4He synthesised in the "big bang" is sensitive to the early particle content and to the expansion rate. If there was indeed a "big bang", surprisingly strong conclusions can be drawn about the number of species of neutrinos, and about the possibility that such particles have non-zero rest mass. The dynamics of supernovae are sensitive to the det~ils of neutrino physics; such explosions would yield IO L-1053 ergs of -v IO Mev neutrinos, in a burst lasting a few milliseconds. Galactic nuclei, cosmic ray sources and other high energy cosmic phenomena could yield a low background of~ 10 Gev neutrinos.

  8. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; DeMitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Agueera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, Diep Pham; Ngoc, Dong Pham; Thi, T. N. Pham; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Frias, D. Rodriguez; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant

  9. Fast-time Variations of Supernova Neutrino Fluxes and Detection Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamborra, I.; Hanke, F.; Müller, B.; Janka, H.T.; Raffelt, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the delayed explosion scenario of a core-collapse supernova, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective over-turns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Neutrino signal variations from the first full-scale three-dimensional

  10. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-12-03

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  12. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni, muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS. Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  13. Spinor Green function in higher-dimensional cosmic string space-time in the presence of magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelly, J.; Mello, E.R. Bezerra de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum polarization effects associated with quantum fermionic charged fields in a generalized (d+1)-dimensional cosmic string space-times considering the presence of a magnetic flux along the string. In order to develop this analysis we calculate a general expression for the respective Green function, valid for several different values of d, which is expressed in terms of a bispinor associated with the square of the Dirac operator. Adopting this result, we explicitly calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensors, (T A B ) Ren. , associated with massless fields. Moreover, for specific values of the parameters which codify the cosmic string and the fractional part of the ratio of the magnetic flux by the quantum one, we were able to present in closed forms the bispinor and the respective Green function for massive fields.

  14. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10 13 keV cm –1 . At gradients above 1.6 keV cm –1 , muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  15. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10(19) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Backer, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Mer, H. Blu; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. de Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10(18) eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional to E(-gamma), at energies between 4 x 10(18) eV and 4 x 10(19) eV is 2.69 +/- 0.02(stat) +/-

  16. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  17. Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the 8 B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of 98 Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the 8 B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure 98 Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by 8 B neutrinos, and possibly 97 Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos

  18. Producing a background free data set for measurement of the charge current flux and day-night asymmetry at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, Neil K.

    2001-01-01

    The SNO detector is a 1 kilo-tonne heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to solve the solar neutrino problem. The detector is situated 2km underground in the INCO Ltd. Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario. The heavy water is observed by approximately 9500 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) to detect Cerenkov light generated by solar neutrino interactions. Using heavy water SNO can detect neutrinos in three different ways. In this thesis aspects of the charge current (a reaction sensitive to electron neutrinos only) and elastic scattering flux analysis are presented. Some models predict a difference in the detected neutrino rate between day and night. Measurement of this via the day-night asymmetry can help solve the solar neutrino problem. One of the principal problems for the solar neutrino analysis are the instrumental backgrounds; events caused by processes other than Cerenkov light. This thesis contains the descriptions of the backgrounds, the data selection cuts that have been designed to remove them and the effect of these cuts on SNO data. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the cuts, the fraction of good events removed and the residual background content of the data set after application of the cuts are measured. Once the cuts have been applied to the data the charge current flux and day-night asymmetry can be measured. In this thesis data taken between the 2nd of November 1999 and the 1st July 2000, providing a total of 64.6 days of data during the day and 93.1 days of night data, are used to measure the day-night asymmetry. The results of this analysis for the asymmetry in the detected solar neutrino rate from the charge current and elastic scattering reactions are presented. (author)

  19. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  20. Measurement of antiproton production in $p$–He collisions at LHCb to constrain the secondary cosmic antiproton flux

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    The flux of cosmic ray antiprotons is a powerful tool for indirect detection of dark matter. The sensitivity is limited by the uncertainty on the predicted antiproton flux from scattering of primary rays on the interstellar medium. This is, in turn, limited by the knowledge of production cross-sections, notably in p–He scattering. Thanks to its internal gas target, the LHCb experiment performed the first measurement of antiproton production from collisions of LHC proton beams on He nuclei at rest. The results and prospects are presented.

  1. Search for low energy quasi-vertical muons with an underwater cosmic neutrino detector, environmental study of the detector setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondeau, F.

    1999-06-01

    The European collaboration named ANTARES aims at operating a large submarine neutrino telescope. Mooring lines make up this detector. Each is about four hundred metres high and equipped with photomultiplier tubes. These tubes record the Cherenkov light emitted by muons resulting from the interaction of neutrinos with matter. It was chosen to install the telescope in the Mediterranean, off the shore of Toulon, by a depth of twenty-three hundred metres. One chapter of this dissertation is devoted to the environment parameters of this site: amount of natural light, fouling of glass elements and water transparency is reviewed. Such a disposal is originally designed to look for possible astronomic neutrino sources emitting neutrinos, thus being complementary with the study of our Universe relying on gamma rays. It is shown in this dissertation that two other current riddles in physics can be investigated by ANTARES, when a specific analysis is taken into account: what is the mass of the neutrinos on the one hand (via the phenomenon called neutrino oscillations), and in the other hand the evidence for a new particle which could participate to the nature of the dark matter in the Universe. This analysis is based upon the detection of nearly vertical muons (zenith angle less than fifteen degrees), with an energy lower than 100 GeV. (author)

  2. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  3. Accelerator studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ereditato, A

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the neutrino has a non-vanishing mass plays acrucial role in particle physics. A massive neutrino would unambiguously reveal the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, it could have profound implications on astrophysics and cosmology, with effects on the evolution of the Universe. Experiments aiming at direct neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics have not been able, so far, to measure the very small neutrino mass. Indirect measurements can be performed by exploiting reactions which may only occur for massive neutrinos. Neutrino oscillation is one of those processes. The mass difference between neutrino mass-eigenstates can be inferred from a phase measurement. This feature allows for high sensitivity experiments. Neutrinos from different sources can be used to search for oscillations: solar neutrinos, neutrinos produced in the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and artificially produced neutrinos from nuclear reactors and particle accelera...

  4. The end of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We discuss the region of transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The exact shapes and compositions of these two components contains information about important parameters of powerful astrophysical sources and the conditions in extragalactic space as well as for the cosmological evolution of the sources of high energy cosmic rays. Several types of experimental data, including the exact shape of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, their chemical composition and their anisotropy, and the fluxes of cosmogenic neutrinos have to be included in the solution of this problem.

  5. CrossRef Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M  J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E  F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X  D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M  J; Chang, Y  H; Chen, A  I; Chen, G  M; Chen, H  S; Cheng, L; Chou, H  Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C  H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y  M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M  B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R  J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D  M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K  H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K  C; He, Z  H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T  H; Huang, H; Huang, Z  C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W  Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S  C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G  N; Kim, K  S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M  S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H  T; Lee, S  C; Leluc, C; Li, H  S; Li, J  Q; Li, Q; Li, T  X; Li, W; Li, Z  H; Li, Z  Y; Lim, S; Lin, C  H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S  Q; Lu, Y  S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J  Z; Lv, S  S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D  C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J  Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X  M; Qin, X; Qu, Z  Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P  G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J  S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S  M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E  S; Shan, B  S; Shi, J  Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J  W; Sun, W  H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X  W; Tang, Z  C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C  C; Ting, S  M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J  P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L  Q; Wang, N  H; Wang, Q  L; Wang, X; Wang, X  Q; Wang, Z  X; Wei, C  C; Weng, Z  L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R  Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y  J; Yu, Z  Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J  H; Zhang, S  D; Zhang, S  W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z  M; Zhu, Z  Q; Zhuang, H  L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p¯, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e− flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  6. IceCube Gen2. The next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, Jakob van [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope buried in the ice sheet at the South Pole that detects neutrinos of all flavors with energies from tens of GeV to several PeV. The instrument provided the first measurement of the flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, opening a new window to the TeV universe. At the other end of its sensitivity range, IceCube has provided precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that are competitive with dedicated accelerator-based experiments. Here we present design studies for IceCube Gen2, the next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole. Instrumenting a volume of more that 5 km{sup 3} with over 100 new strings, IceCube Gen2 will have substantially greater sensitivity to high-energy neutrinos than current-generation instruments. PINGU, a dense infill array, will lower the energy threshold of the inner detector region to 4 GeV, allowing a determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. On the surface, a large air shower detector will veto high-energy atmospheric muons and neutrinos from the southern hemisphere, enhancing the reach of astrophysical neutrino searches. With its versatile instrumentation, the IceCube Gen2 facility will allow us to explore the neutrino sky with unprecedented sensitivity, providing new constraints on the sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and yield precision data on the mixing and mass ordering of neutrinos.

  7. Measurements of hadron yields from the T2K replica target in the NA61/SHINE experiment for neutrino flux prediction in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086777

    T2K is an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan. The main goal of the T2K experiment is a search for CP violation in the lepton sector by measuring electron (anti)neutrino appearance in a muon (anti)neutrino beam. Initial (anti)neutrino flux is produced in decays of hadrons which originate from the interactions and the re-interactions of a $30\\:$GeV proton beam with a $90\\:$cm long graphite target. Knowledge of the T2K neutrino flux is limited due to large hadron production uncertainties. A series of hadron production measurements were done to solve this problem, in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. Measurements were performed with a proton beam and two target types: a thin graphite target and a replica of the T2K target. Work presented in this thesis concentrates on the T2K replica target data taken in 2010 and the development of the analysis and calibration software. The aim of these measurements is to fully constrain production of $\\pi^+$, $\\pi^-$, $K^+$, $K^-$ and $p$ coming from t...

  8. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  9. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  10. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  11. Cosmic Ray Signatures of Decaying Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological observations do not require the dark matter particles to be absolutely stable. If they are indeed unstable, their decay into Standard Model particles might occur at a sufficiently large rate to allow the indirect detection of dark matter through an anomalous contribution to the high energy cosmic ray fluxes. We analyze the implications of the excess in the total electron plus positron flux and the positron fraction reported by the Fermi and PAMELA collaborations, respectively, for the scenario of decaying dark matter. We also discuss the constraints on this scenario from measurements of other cosmic ray species and the predictions for the diffuse gamma ray flux and the neutrino flux. In particular, we expect a sizable dipole-like anisotropy which may be observed in the near future by the Fermi-LAT.

  12. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  13. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Greenlee, H.; James, C.; Jostlein, H.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A.; Moore, C.D.; Palamara, O.; Pavlovic, Z.; Raaf, J.L.; Schukraft, A.; Snider, E.L.; Spentzouris, P.; Strauss, T.; Toups, M.; Wolbers, S.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Adams, C. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); An, R.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A. [Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, IL (United States); Anthony, J.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; De Vries, J.J.; Marshall, J.; Smith, A.; Thomson, M. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Asaadi, J. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J.; Weber, M. [Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Balasubramanian, S.; Fleming, B.T.; Gramellini, E.; Hackenburg, A.; Luo, X.; Russell, B.; Tufanli, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Barnes, C.; Mousseau, J.; Spitz, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Laube, A.; Soleti, S.R.; De Pontseele, W.V. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bay, F. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, Ankara (Turkey); Bishai, M.; Chen, H.; Joshi, J.; Kirby, B.; Li, Y.; Mooney, M.; Qian, X.; Viren, B.; Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blake, A.; Devitt, D.; Lister, A.; Nowak, J. [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Meddage, V.; Rafique, A. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Fadeeva, A.A.; Genty, V.; Kaleko, D.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M.H. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Church, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cianci, D.; Karagiorgi, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Cohen, E.; Piasetzky, E. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Hen, O.; Hourlier, A.; Moon, J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yates, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M.; Eberly, B.; Rochester, L.; Tsai, Y.T.; Usher, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dytman, S.; Graf, N.; Jiang, L.; Naples, D.; Paolone, V.; Wickremasinghe, D.A. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Esquivel, J.; Hamilton, P.; Pulliam, G.; Soderberg, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Foreman, W.; Ho, J.; Schmitz, D.W.; Zennamo, J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States); Furmanski, A.P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Murrells, R.; Porzio, D.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Szelc, A.M. [The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garvey, G.T.; Huang, E.C.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; De Water, R.G.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gollapinni, S. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); and others

    2018-01-15

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies. (orig.)

  14. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The development and operation of Liquid-Argon Time-Projection Chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the...

  15. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies.

  16. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2015), "092008-1"-"092008-14" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic rays * Pierre Auger * ultrahigh energy * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  17. Lenses in the forest: cross correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with cosmic microwave background lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinotto, Alberto; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N; Viel, Matteo

    2009-08-28

    We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross correlation between the Lyman-alpha flux fluctuations in quasar spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background as measured along the same line of sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line of sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-alpha forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross correlating quasar spectra of SDSS-III with Planck and 20 for cross correlating with a future polarization based cosmic microwave background experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed.

  18. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, C.D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); O' Connor, E.P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Drasco, S. [Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa (United States); TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova.

  19. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.D.; O'Connor, E.P.; Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T.; Drasco, S.

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova

  20. Hardron production and neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A.

    2006-11-01

    The precise measurements of the neutrino mixing parameters in the oscillation experiments at accelerators require new high-intensity and high-purity neutrino beams. Ancillary hadron-production measurements are then needed as inputs to precise calculation of neutrino beams and of atmospheric neutrino fluxes.

  1. Prompt Neutrinos from Atmospheric cc-bar and bb-bar Production and the Gluon at Very Small x

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Stasto, A M

    2003-01-01

    We improve the accuracy of the extrapolation of the gluon distribution of the proton to very small x, and show that the charm production cross section, needed to calculate the cosmic ray-induced 'atmospheric' flux of ultrahigh energy prompt nu submu and nu subtau neutrinos, may be predicted within perturbative QCD to within about a factor of three. We follow the sequence of interactions and decays in order to calculate the neutrino fluxes as a function of energy up to 10 sup 9 GeV. We also compute the prompt nu subtau flux from bb-bar production, hadronization and decay. New cosmic sources of neutrinos will be indicated if more prompt neutrinos are observed than predicted. If fewer neutrinos are observed than predicted, then constraints will be imposed on the nuclear composition of cosmic rays. The advantages of studying nu subtau neutrinos are emphasized. We provide a simple parametrization of the prediction for the inclusive cross section for c quark production in high energy proton-air collisions.

  2. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  3. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  4. CONFERENCE: Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The successes in capturing neutrinos from last year's supernova underlined the usefulness of large underground detectors for this sort of physics, and ambitious new projects are now in the pipeline. Meanwhile another approach to cosmic neutrino detection, carefully prepared during the past decade, has now taken its first experimental steps. DUMAND - Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector - aims to use the ocean as the active medium, tracking particles with arrays of photomultipliers picking up the tiny nanosecond flashes of blue Cherenkov light emitted by cosmic particles as they pass through seawater

  5. CONFERENCE: Neutrino mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-06-15

    The successes in capturing neutrinos from last year's supernova underlined the usefulness of large underground detectors for this sort of physics, and ambitious new projects are now in the pipeline. Meanwhile another approach to cosmic neutrino detection, carefully prepared during the past decade, has now taken its first experimental steps. DUMAND - Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector - aims to use the ocean as the active medium, tracking particles with arrays of photomultipliers picking up the tiny nanosecond flashes of blue Cherenkov light emitted by cosmic particles as they pass through seawater.

  6. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, Scott M.

    2012-02-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  7. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oser, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  8. Understanding the Effect of Atmospheric Density on the Cosmic Ray Flux Variations at the Earth Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Dayananda, Mathes; Zhang, Xiaohang; Butler, Carola; He, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    We report in this letter for the first time the numerical simulations of muon and neutron flux variations at the surface of the earth with varying air densities in the troposphere and stratosphere. The simulated neutron and muon flux variations are in very good agreement with the measured neutron flux variation in Oulu and the muon flux variation in Atlanta. We conclude from this study that the stratosphere air density variation dominates the effects on the muon flux changes while the density...

  9. IceCube constraints on fast-spinning pulsars as high-energy neutrino sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ke [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Kotera, Kumiko [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 – CNRS, Université Pierre $ and $ Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014, Paris (France); Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802 (United States); Olinto, Angela V., E-mail: kefang@umd.edu, E-mail: kotera@iap.fr, E-mail: murase@psu.edu, E-mail: olinto@kicp.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Relativistic winds of fast-spinning pulsars have been proposed as a potential site for cosmic-ray acceleration from very high energies (VHE) to ultrahigh energies (UHE). We re-examine conditions for high-energy neutrino production, considering the interaction of accelerated particles with baryons of the expanding supernova ejecta and the radiation fields in the wind nebula. We make use of the current IceCube sensitivity in diffusive high-energy neutrino background, in order to constrain the parameter space of the most extreme neutron stars as sources of VHE and UHE cosmic rays. We demonstrate that the current non-observation of 10{sup 18} eV neutrinos put stringent constraints on the pulsar scenario. For a given model, birthrates, ejecta mass and acceleration efficiency of the magnetar sources can be constrained. When we assume a proton cosmic ray composition and spherical supernovae ejecta, we find that the IceCube limits almost exclude their significant contribution to the observed UHE cosmic-ray flux. Furthermore, we consider scenarios where a fraction of cosmic rays can escape from jet-like structures piercing the ejecta, without significant interactions. Such scenarios would enable the production of UHE cosmic rays and help remove the tension between their EeV neutrino production and the observational data.

  10. Experiment for search for sterile neutrino at SM-3 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Samoylov, R. M.; Fomin, A. K.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Neustroev, P. V.; Golovtsov, V. L.; Gruzinsky, N. V.; Solovey, V. A.; Cherniy, A. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Martemyanov, V. P.; Zinoev, V. G.; Tarasenkov, V. G.; Aleshin, V. I.; Petelin, A. L.; Pavlov, S. V.; Izhutov, A. L.; Sazontov, S. A.; Ryazanov, D. K.; Gromov, M. O.; Afanasiev, V. V.; Matrosov, L. N.; Matrosova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    In connection with the question of possible existence of sterile neutrino the laboratory on the basis of SM-3 reactor was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. A prototype of a neutrino detector with scintillator volume of 400 l can be moved at the distance of 6-11 m from the reactor core. The measurements of background conditions have been made. It is shown that the main experimental problem is associated with cosmic radiation background. Test measurements of dependence of a reactor antineutrino flux on the distance from a reactor core have been made. The prospects of search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino at short distances are discussed.

  11. Effects of a Deep Mixed Shell on Solar g-Modes, p-Modes, and Neutrino Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    2009-08-01

    A mixed-shell model that reflects g-modes away from the Sun's center is developed further by calibrating its parameters and evaluating a mixing mechanism: buoyancy. The shell roughly doubles g-mode oscillation periods and would explain why there is no definitive detection of their periods. But the shell has only minor effects on most p-modes. The model provides a mechanism for causing short-term fluctuations in neutrino flux and makes plausible the correlations between this flux and solar activity levels. Relations are derived for a shell heated asymmetrically by transient increases in nuclear burning in small "hot spots." The size of these spots and the timing of a heating event are governed by sets(ell) of standing asymptotic g-modes, coupled by a maximal principle that greatly enhances their excitation and concentrates power toward the equator, assisting the detection of higher-ell sets. Signals from all sets, except one, in the range 2 energy to mix the corresponding shell in a standard solar model in Lt107 yr.

  12. HARP targets pion production cross section and yield measurements. Implications for MiniBooNE neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickremasinghe, Don Athula Abeyarathna [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of the muon neutrino flux from a 71.0 cm long beryllium target for the MiniBooNE experiment is based on a measured pion production cross section which was taken from a short beryllium target (2.0 cm thick - 5% nuclear interaction length) in the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment at CERN. To verify the extrapolation to our longer target, HARP also measured the pion production from 20.0 cm and 40.0 cm beryllium targets. The measured production yields, d2Nπ± (p; θ )=dpd Ω, on targets of 50% and 100% nuclear interaction lengths in the kinematic rage of momentum from 0.75 GeV/c to 6.5 GeV/c and the range of angle from 30 mrad to 210 mrad are presented along with an update of the short target cross sections. The best fitted extended Sanford-Wang (SW) model parameterization for updated short beryllium target π+ production cross section is presented. Yield measurements for all three targets are also compared with that from the Monte Carlo predictions in the MiniBooNE experiment for different SW parameterization. The comparisons of vμ flux predictions for updated SW model is presented.

  13. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-08

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  14. International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future neutrino factory and Super-Beam facility. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T; Aihara, H; Andreopoulos, C; Ankowski, A; Badertscher, A; Battistoni, G; Blondel, A; Bouchez, J; Bross, A; Ellis, M; Bueno, A; Camilleri, L; Campagne, J E; Cazes, A; Cervera-Villanueva, A; De Lellis, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Esposito, L S

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the δ-θ 13 parameter space.

  15. HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS FROM RECENT BLAZAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  16. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  17. Anti-neutrino flux in a research reactor for non-proliferation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakshournia, Samad; Foroughi, Shokoufeh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)

    2017-11-15

    Owing to growing interest in the study of emitted antineutrinos from nuclear reactors to test the Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, antineutrino flux was studied in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) using ORIGEN code. According to our prediction, antineutrino rate was obtained 2.6 x 10{sup 17} (v{sub e}/sec) in the core No. 57F of the TRR. Calculations indicated that evolution of antineutrino flux was very slow with time and the performed refueling had not an observable effect on antineutrino flux curve for a 5 MW reactor with the conventional refueling program. It is seen that for non-proliferation applications the measurement of the contribution of {sup 239}Pu to the fission using an antineutrino detector is not viable in the TRR.

  18. Search for a flux of cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles with an eight-channel superconducting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.E.; Cabrera, B.; Taber, M.A.; Gardner, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A superconducting detector for cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles originally designed with a cross section of 1.5 m 2 (averaged over 4π solid angle) for double-coincident events was active from 5 May 1987 to 5 August 1988. The detector consists of eight independent inductive gradiometers located on the surface of an octagonal prism. The conductor is niobium-titanium foil and the current sensors are rf SQUID's. The signal-to-noise ratio for a single Dirac charge is greater than 50 in a 0.05-Hz bandwidth, and low-noise data was obtained over 547 days of continuous cryogenic operation. Of this time, we obtained ∼50% live time. Open circuits in portions of two gradiometers and occasional coupling of disturbances in adjacent gradiometers reduce the active sensing area to 1.1 m 2 . A closed-cycle helium liquefier eliminates helium transfers and increases the stability of the data. Anticoincidence instrumentation includes strain gauges, a flux-gate magnetometer, an ultrasonic motion detector, and a wideband rms rf voltmeter. The exposure to date represents a limit on the flux of cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles of 7.2x10 -13 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 at a 90% confidence level, eliminating most of the phase space for monopole plasma oscillation theories

  19. Environmental 222Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.

    1996-01-01

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO

    1996-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  1. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO,

    1997-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  2. Phased arrays: A strategy to lower the energy threshold for neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissel Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-ice radio arrays are optimized for detecting the highest energy, cosmogenic neutrinos expected to be produced though cosmic ray interactions with background photons. However, there are two expected populations of high energy neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed by IceCube (~1 PeV and the cosmogenic flux (~ 1017 eV or 100 PeV. Typical radio arrays employ a noise-riding trigger, which limits their minimum energy threshold based on the background noise temperature of the ice. Phased radio arrays could lower the energy threshold by combining the signals from several channels before triggering, thereby improving the signal-to-noise at the trigger level. Reducing the energy threshold would allow radio experiments to more efficiently overlap with optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes as well as for more efficient searches for cosmogenic neutrinos. We discuss the proposed technique and prototypical phased arrays deployed in an anechoic chamber and at Greenland’s Summit Station.

  3. A self-consistent model of cosmic-ray fluxes and positron excess: roles of nearby pulsars and a sub-dominant source population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: jjagdish@uj.ac.za, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-09-01

    The cosmic-ray positron flux calculated using the cosmic-ray nuclei interactions in our Galaxy cannot explain observed data above 10 GeV. An excess in the measured positron flux is therefore open to interpretation. Nearby pulsars, located within sub-kiloparsec range of the Solar system, are often invoked as plausible sources contributing to the excess. We show that an additional, sub-dominant population of sources together with the contributions from a few nearby pulsars can explain the latest positron excess data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). We simultaneously model, using the DRAGON code, propagation of cosmic-ray proton, Helium, electron and positron and fit their respective flux data. Our fit to the Boron to Carbon ratio data gives a diffusion spectral index of 0.45, which is close to the Kraichnan turbulent spectrum.

  4. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Di Giacomo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Because neutral and charged pions (made by hadron scattering in the flare) are born on the same foot, their link is compelling: the observed gamma flux [Grechnev V.V. et al., (arXiv:0806.4424), Solar Physics, Vol. 1, October, (2008), 252] reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Moreover while gamma photons might be absorbed (in deep corona) or at least reduced inside the flaring plasma, the secondaries neutrino are not. So pion neutrinos should be even more abundant than gamma ones. Tens-hundred MeV neutrinos may cross undisturbed the whole Sun, doubling at least their rate respect a unique solar-side for gamma flare. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds opening a windows for neutrino astronomy, already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events [Matthew D. Kistler et al. (0810.1959v1)]. However rarest (once a decade), brief (a few minutes) powerful solar neutrino 'flare' may shine and they may overcome by two to three order of magnitude the corresponding steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, leading in largest Neutrino detector at least to one or to meaning-full few events clustered signals. The voice of such a solar anti-neutrino flare component at a few tens MeVs may induce an inverse beta decay over a vanishing anti-neutrino solar background. Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube

  5. How large is the cosmic dust flux into the Earth's atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, John; Janches, Diego; Gomez-Martin, Juan Carlos; Bones, David; Diego Carrillo-Sanchez, Juan; James, Sandy; Nesvorny, David; Pokorny, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic dust particles are produced in the solar system from the sublimation of comets as they orbit close to the sun, and also from collisions between asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter. Current estimates of the magnitude of the cosmic dust input rate into the Earth's atmosphere range from 2 to well over 100 tons per day, depending on whether the measurements are made in space, in the middle atmosphere, or at the surface in polar ice cores. This nearly 2 order-of-magnitude discrepancy indicates that there are serious flaws in the interpretation of observations that have been used to make the estimates. Dust particles enter the atmosphere at hyperthermal velocities (11 - 72 km s ^{-1}), and mostly ablate at heights between 80 and 120 km in a region of the atmosphere known as the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT). The resulting metal vapours (Fe, Mg, Si and Na etc.) then oxidize and recondense to form nm-size particles, termed "meteoric smoke". These particles are too small to sediment downwards. Instead, they are transported by the general circulation of the atmosphere, taking roughly 5 years to reach the surface. There is great interest in the role smoke particles play as condensation nuclei of noctilucent ice clouds in the mesosphere, and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere. Various new estimates of the dust input will be discussed. The first is from a zodiacal dust cloud model which predicts that more than 90% of the dust entering the atmosphere comes from Jupiter Family Comets; this model is constrained by observations of the zodiacal cloud using the IRAS, COBE and Planck satellites. The cometary dust is predicted to mostly be in a near-prograde orbit, entering the atmosphere with an average velocity around 14 km s ^{-1}. The total dust input should then be about 40 t d ^{-1}. However, relatively few of these particles are observed, even by the powerful Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Coupled models of meteoroid differential ablation

  6. Neutrino Physics at Drexel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolinski, Michelle [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, Russell [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Our primary goal is to improve the understanding of the properties and interactions of neutrinos. We are pursuing this by means of the DUNE long-baseline and PROSPECT short-baseline neutrino experiments. For DUNE, a neutrino beam from Fermilab will be detected at the SURF facility in South Dakota, with the aim of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (the mass ordering of neutrino flavors), and a measurement or limit on CP-violation via neutrinos. Our near-term experimental goal is to improve the characterization of the neutrino beam by measurements of muons produced as a byproduct of neutrino beam generation, to quantify the beam composition and flux. The short-range neutrino program has the aim of using the HFIR reactor at Oak Ridge as a neutrino source, with a detector placed nearby to find if there are short-distance oscillations to sterile neutrino flavors, and to resolve the 'reactor neutrino spectral anomaly' which has shown up as an unexplained 'bump' in the neutrino energy spectrum in recent experiments.

  7. Neutrino-4 experiment on search for sterile neutrino with multi-section model of detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Samoilov, R.; Fomin, A.; Polyushkin, A.; Zinoviev, V.; Neustroev, P.; Golovtsov, V.; Chernyj, A.; Zherebtsov, O.; Martemyanov, V.; Tarasenkov, V.; Aleshin, V.; Petelin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Tuzov, A.; Sazontov, S.; Ryazanov, D.; Gromov, M.; Afanasiev, V.; Zaytsev, M.; Chaikovskii, M.

    2017-09-01

    In order to carry out research in the field of possible existence of a sterile neutrino the laboratory based on SM-3 reactor (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. The prototype of a multi-section neutrino detector with liquid scintillator volume of 350 l was installed in the middle of 2015. It is a moveable inside the passive shielding detector, which can be set at distance range from 6 to 11 meters from the reactor core. Measurements of antineutrino flux at such small distances from the reactor core are carried out with moveable detector for the first time. The measurements carried out with detector prototype demonstrated a possibility of measuring a reactor antineutrino flux in difficult conditions of cosmic background at Earth surface.

  8. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (muon tomography.

  9. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A. [GRPHE—Université de Haute Alsace—Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Aubert, J.-J. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, 75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [IFIC—Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC—Universitat de València), c/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna, Valencia, E-46980 Spain (Spain); and others

    2017-04-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A time-dependent search has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008–2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter space for some astrophysical models.

  10. Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 59-string configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder...

  11. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  12. Mirror model for sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Narayan, Mohan; Vissani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos are studied as subdominant contribution to solar neutrino physics. The mirror-matter neutrinos are considered as sterile neutrinos. We use the symmetric mirror model with gravitational communication between mirror and visible sectors. This communication term provides mixing between visible and mirror neutrinos with the basic scale μ=v EW 2 /M Pl =2.5x10 -6 eV, where v EW =174 GeV is the vacuum expectation value of the standard electroweak group and M Pl is the Planckian mass. It is demonstrated that each mass eigenstate of active neutrinos splits into two states separated by small Δm 2 . Unsuppressed oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos (ν a ↔ν s ) occur only in transitions between each of these close pairs ('windows'). These oscillations are characterized by very small Δm 2 and can suppress the flux and distort spectrum of pp-neutrinos in detectable way. The other observable effect is anomalous seasonal variation of neutrino flux, which appears in LMA solution. The considered subdominant neutrino oscillations ν a ↔ν s can reveal itself as big effects in observations of supernova neutrinos and high-energy (HE) neutrinos. In the case of HE neutrinos they can provide a very large diffuse flux of active neutrinos unconstrained by the e-m cascade upper limit

  13. A simple method to extract information on anisotropy of particle fluxes from spin-modulated counting rates of cosmic ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, K.C.; Lin, Y.C.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method to extract information on anisotropy of particle fluxes from data collected by cosmic ray telescopes on spinning spacecraft but without sectored accumulators is presented. Application of this method to specific satellite data demonstrates that it requires no prior assumption on the form of angular distribution of the fluxes; furthermore, self-consistency ensures the validity of the results thus obtained. The examples show perfect agreement with the corresponding magnetic field directions

  14. The Effect of a Non-Isotropic Flux of Very High Energy Cosmic Rays on the values of Mean Shower Maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudifar, Pantea; Tabari, Keihanak Rowshan

    2015-01-01

    In our previous works we described a statistical method to interpret the results of extensive air shower simulations. For an isotropically distributed flux of cosmic rays, we used this method to deduce diagrams of mean values of shower maxima versus energy decades. To have a more realistic result, we considered the effect of a non-isotropic flux of cosmic rays at different energy ranges. This effect was considered as a weight factor deduced from a set of observed data. We discussed about the effect of this weight factor on our final resulted diagrams of mean shower maxima and for different interaction models compared the resulted distributions of very high energy cosmic ray's mass composition

  15. LISA Pathfinder test-mass charging during galactic cosmic-ray flux short-term variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Fabi, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Telloni, D.

    2015-02-01

    Metal free-floating test masses aboard the future interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space are charged by galactic and solar cosmic rays with energies \\gt 100 MeV/n. This process represents one of the main sources of noise in the lowest frequency band (\\lt 10-3 Hz) of these experiments. We study here the charging of the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) gold-platinum test masses due to galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and helium nuclei with the Fluka Monte Carlo toolkit. Projections of the energy spectra of GCRs during the LISA-PF operations in 2015 are considered. This work was carried out on the basis of the solar activity level and solar polarity epoch expected for LISA-PF. The effects of GCR short-term variations are evaluated here for the first time. Classical Forbush decreases, GCR variations induced by the Sun rotation, and fluctuations in the LISA-PF frequency bandwidth are discussed.

  16. Constraining neutrino flux predictions with hadron production data: the NA61/SHINE measurements for the T2K experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    From hypothetical particles in the 30s, neutrinos have turned into the first hint for new physics beyond the Standard Model in the late 90s. The observation of a new phenomenon, referred to as neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino of a given flavor transforms into a neutrino of another flavor after traveling over a sufficiently long distance, actually revealed properties of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model that were not described so far: neutrinos have mass, leptons mix, and consequently, there might be CP violation in the leptonic sector. The T2K experiment at Tokai, Japan, will allow us to probe neutrino oscillations with an unprecedented precision on the oscillation parameters in the three-neutrino model. The experiment is designed to perform a precise measurement of the numb to nue oscillation driven by the atmospheric mass squared splitting |∆ m^2_{23}| and the so far unknown mixing angle theta_{13}. To achieve a sensitivity down to sin^2(2 theta_{13})=0.006 at 90% CL and a precision of ...

  17. Neutrinos from gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs

  18. Results from the AMANDA high-energy neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biron, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector. The complete data set from 1997 was analyzed. For E μ > 10 TeV, the detector exceeds 10,000 m 2 in effective area between declinations of 25 and 90 degrees. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the overall sensitivity of the coincident events between the SPASE air shower array and the AMANDA detector. Preliminary flux limits from point source candidates are presented. For declinations larger than +45 degrees, our results compare favourably to existing limits for sources in the Southern sky. We also present the current status of the searches for high-energy neutrino emission from diffusely distributed sources, GRBs, and WIMPs from the center of the Earth

  19. Badhwar - O'Neill 2014 Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux Model Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model is based on GCR measurements from particle detectors. The model has mainly been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and the analysis of radiation health risks to astronauts in space missions. The BON14 model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model also incorporates an empirical time delay function to account for the lag of the solar activity to reach the boundary of the heliosphere. This technical paper describes the most recent improvements in parameter fits to the BON model (BON14). Using a comprehensive measurement database, it is shown that BON14 is significantly improved over the previous version, BON11.

  20. Seasonal variation of the underground cosmic muon flux observed at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Khan, A.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Qiu, R. M.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sebastiani, C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Yang, Y. Z.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Daya Bay Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors located in three underground experimental halls named as EH1, EH2, EH3, with 250, 265 and 860 meters of water equivalent vertical overburden, respectively. Cosmic muon events have been recorded over a two-year period. The underground muon rate is observed to be positively correlated with the effective atmospheric temperature and to follow a seasonal modulation pattern. The correlation coefficient α, describing how a variation in the muon rate relates to a variation in the effective atmospheric temperature, is found to be αEH1 = 0.362±0.031, αEH2 = 0.433±0.038 and αEH3 = 0.641±0.057 for each experimental hall.

  1. Background to Dark Matter Searches from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Just as searches for BSM physics at the LHC necessitate a careful audit of SM backgrounds, the search for signals of dark matter in cosmic rays must contend with production of secondaries like e+ and pbar through cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. The theoretical framework for calculating this has however not been directly calibrated at the high energies being explored by AMS-02 and there may be surprises in store. In particular a nearby source where cosmic rays are being accelerated stochastically can naturally generate a e+ fraction rising with energy as is observed. The test of this is the expected correlated rise in other secondary/primary ratios e.g. B/C and pbar/p. Such a nearby cosmic accelerator should also be detectable through the concomitant flux of neutrinos and its discovery would be (nearly!) as exciting as that of dark matter.

  2. Bruno Pontecorvo and solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo had a very substantial impact on measurements of solar neutrinos, proposing a technique in 1948 that led to measurements by Davis and proposing that neutrinos could oscillate, a process that has been found to influence observed fluxes substantially. The past history and future prospects of solar neutrino measurements are reviewed, including a discussion of the contributions by Pontecorvo.

  3. Neutrino Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri; Handler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ_1_3 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton 'FAR' neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton 'NEAR' detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  4. Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States); Handler, Thomas [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ13 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton "FAR" neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton "NEAR" detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  5. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The problems posed by the low flux of neutrinos from the sun detected by Davis and coworkers are reviewed. Several proposals have been advanced to resolve these problems and the more reasonable (in the author's opinion) are presented. Recent claims that the neutrino may have finite mass are also considered. (orig.)

  6. Neutrino mass from Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.

  7. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Levi, G.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  8. Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Tamborra, Irene; Zandanel, Fabio

    2015-11-27

    Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear (pp) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to 1 order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than E^{-2.1} as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than (1+z)^{3}. Starburst galaxies, if able to accelerate and confine cosmic rays efficiently, satisfy both spectral and tomographic constraints.

  9. Enhanced cosmological GRB rates and implications for cosmogenic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, Hasan; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, which are among the most violent events in the Universe, are one of the few viable candidates to produce ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Recently, observations have revealed that GRBs generally originate from metal-poor, low-luminosity galaxies and do not directly trace cosmic star formation, as might have been assumed from their association with core-collapse supernovae. Several implications follow from these findings. The redshift distribution of observed GRBs is expected to peak at higher redshift (compared to cosmic star formation), which is supported by the mean redshift of the Swift GRB sample, ∼3. If GRBs are, in fact, the source of the observed UHECR, then cosmic-ray production would evolve with redshift in a stronger fashion than has been previously suggested. This necessarily leads, through the GZK process, to an enhancement in the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos, providing a near-term approach for testing the gamma-ray burst-cosmic-ray connection with ongoing and proposed UHE neutrino experiments

  10. Search for neutrino-induced cascade events in the icecube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panknin, Sebastian

    2011-09-15

    This thesis presents results of a search for a diffuse flux of high energetic neutrinos from extra-terrestrial origin. Such a flux is predicted by several models of sources of cosmic ray particles. In a neutrino detector, such as IceCube, there are mainly two signatures available for detection of neutrinos: The track-like light signal of a neutrino induced muon and the spherical light pattern of a neutrino induced particle shower, called cascades in this context. The search is based on the measurement of neutrino induced cascades within the IceCube neutrino detector. The data were taken in 2008/2009 with a total uptime of 367 days. At that time the detector was still under construction and had just reached half of its final size. A search for a neutrino flux using cascades is sensitive to all neutrino flavors. A cascade develops within few meters, in contrast to the muon track of several kilometers length. Therefore a good energy reconstruction is possible. With such a reconstruction the astrophysical neutrino flux can be statistically distinguished from the background of atmospheric neutrinos. In the simulation of cascades so far it was not included, that in hadronic cascades muons are produced. This can influence the shape of the cascade, to a less spherical one. Therefore the effect was parameterized in this thesis and included in the simulation. Further cuts on the event topology and reconstructed energy were developed, in order to reduce the background of atmospheric muons and atmospheric neutrinos. Four events from the measured data pass these cuts. Taking the high systematic uncertainties into account, this result is in agreement with the expected background of 0.72{+-}0.28{+-}{sup 1.54}{sub 0.49} events. For an assumed flavor ratio of {nu}{sub e}:{nu}{sub {mu}}:{nu}{sub {tau}}=1:1:1 the upper limit for the all flavor neutrino flux is 9.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2}.

  11. Search for neutrino-induced cascade events in the icecube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panknin, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents results of a search for a diffuse flux of high energetic neutrinos from extra-terrestrial origin. Such a flux is predicted by several models of sources of cosmic ray particles. In a neutrino detector, such as IceCube, there are mainly two signatures available for detection of neutrinos: The track-like light signal of a neutrino induced muon and the spherical light pattern of a neutrino induced particle shower, called cascades in this context. The search is based on the measurement of neutrino induced cascades within the IceCube neutrino detector. The data were taken in 2008/2009 with a total uptime of 367 days. At that time the detector was still under construction and had just reached half of its final size. A search for a neutrino flux using cascades is sensitive to all neutrino flavors. A cascade develops within few meters, in contrast to the muon track of several kilometers length. Therefore a good energy reconstruction is possible. With such a reconstruction the astrophysical neutrino flux can be statistically distinguished from the background of atmospheric neutrinos. In the simulation of cascades so far it was not included, that in hadronic cascades muons are produced. This can influence the shape of the cascade, to a less spherical one. Therefore the effect was parameterized in this thesis and included in the simulation. Further cuts on the event topology and reconstructed energy were developed, in order to reduce the background of atmospheric muons and atmospheric neutrinos. Four events from the measured data pass these cuts. Taking the high systematic uncertainties into account, this result is in agreement with the expected background of 0.72±0.28± 1.54 0.49 events. For an assumed flavor ratio of ν e :ν μ :ν τ =1:1:1 the upper limit for the all flavor neutrino flux is 9.5.10 -8 E -2 GeVs -1 sr -1 cm -2 .

  12. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    . Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ˜400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the {θ }23 mixing angle. Detection of the 7Be and 8B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with {10}-5 {{{eV}}}2\\lt {{Δ }}{m}412\\lt {10}-2 {{{eV}}}2 and a sufficiently large mixing angle {θ }14 could be identified through a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Meanwhile, JUNO can also provide us excellent opportunities to test the eV-scale sterile neutrino hypothesis, using either the radioactive neutrino sources or a cyclotron-produced neutrino beam. The JUNO detector is also sensitive to several other beyondthe-standard-model physics. Examples include the search for proton decay via the p\\to {K}++\\bar{ν } decay channel, search for neutrinos resulting from dark-matter annihilation in the Sun, search for violation of Lorentz invariance via the sidereal modulation of the reactor neutrino event rate, and search for the effects of non-standard interactions. The proposed construction of the JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics in a timely and cost-effective fashion. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one

  13. Solar atmospheric neutrinos and the sensitivity floor for solar dark matter annihilation searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argüelles, C.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA (United States); De Wasseige, G. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Brussels (Belgium); Fedynitch, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jones, B.J.P., E-mail: caad@mit.edu, E-mail: gdewasse@vub.ac.be, E-mail: anatoli.fedynitch@desy.de, E-mail: ben.jones@uta.edu [University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, 502 Yates St, Arlington TX (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Cosmic rays interacting in the solar atmosphere produce showers that result in a flux of high-energy neutrinos from the Sun. These form an irreducible background to indirect solar WIMP self-annihilation searches, which look for heavy dark matter particles annihilating into final states containing neutrinos in the Solar core. This background will eventually create a sensitivity floor for indirect WIMP self-annihilation searches analogous to that imposed by low-energy solar neutrino interactions for direct dark matter detection experiments. We present a new calculation of the flux of solar atmospheric neutrinos with a detailed treatment of systematic uncertainties inherent in solar atmospheric shower evolution, and we use this to derive the sensitivity floor for indirect solar WIMP annihilation analyses. We find that the floor lies less than one order of magnitude beyond the present experimental limits on spin-dependent WIMP-proton cross sections for some mass points, and that the high-energy solar atmospheric neutrino flux may be observable with running and future neutrino telescopes.

  14. The Baikal Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aynutdinov, V. M.; Balkanov, V. A.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Borschev, D. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Burmistrov, K. V.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Davidov, Ya. I.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T. I.; Grishin, O. V.; Klabukov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We review the present status of the Baikal Neutrino Experiment and present results of a search for upward-going atmospheric neutrinos and magnetic monopoles obtained with the detector NT200. The results of a search for very high energy neutrinos are presented and an upper limit on the extraterrestrial diffuse neutrino flux is obtained. We describe the strategy of upgrading the NT200 to NT200+ and creating a detector on the Gigaton scale at Lake Baikal. The first results obtained with the new NT200+ detector as a basic cell of a future Gigaton detector are presented

  15. Synoptic sky surveys and the diffuse supernova neutrino background: Removing astrophysical uncertainties and revealing invisible supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Amy; Fields, Brian D.; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The cumulative (anti)neutrino production from all core-collapse supernovae within our cosmic horizon gives rise to the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), which is on the verge of detectability. The observed flux depends on supernova physics, but also on the cosmic history of supernova explosions; currently, the cosmic supernova rate introduces a substantial (±40%) uncertainty, largely through its absolute normalization. However, a new class of wide-field, repeated-scan (synoptic) optical sky surveys is coming online, and will map the sky in the time domain with unprecedented depth, completeness, and dynamic range. We show that these surveys will obtain the cosmic supernova rate by direct counting, in an unbiased way and with high statistics, and thus will allow for precise predictions of the DSNB. Upcoming sky surveys will substantially reduce the uncertainties in the DSNB source history to an anticipated ±5% that is dominated by systematics, so that the observed high-energy flux thus will test supernova neutrino physics. The portion of the universe (z < or approx. 1) accessible to upcoming sky surveys includes the progenitors of a large fraction (≅87%) of the expected 10-26 MeV DSNB event rate. We show that precision determination of the (optically detected) cosmic supernova history will also make the DSNB into a strong probe of an extra flux of neutrinos from optically invisible supernovae, which may be unseen either due to unexpected large dust obscuration in host galaxies, or because some core-collapse events proceed directly to black hole formation and fail to give an optical outburst.

  16. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  17. Prompt Neutrino Emission of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Dissipative Photospheric Scenario Revisited: Possible Contributions from Cocoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Di; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Mészáros, Peter, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    High-energy neutrinos are expected to originate from different stages in a gamma-ray burst (GRB) event. In this work, we revisit the dissipative photospheric scenario, in which the GRB prompt emission is produced around the photospheric radius. Meanwhile, possible dissipation mechanisms (e.g., internal shocks or magnetic reconnection) could accelerate cosmic-rays (CRs) to ultra-high energies and then produce neutrinos via hadronuclear and photohadronic processes, which are referred to as prompt neutrinos . In this paper, we obtain the prompt neutrino spectrum of a single GRB within a self-consistent analytical framework, in which the jet-cocoon structure and possible collimation effects are included. We investigate a possible neutrino signal from the cocoon, which has been ignored in the previous studies. We show that if a GRB event happens at a distance of the order of Mpc, there is a great chance to observe the neutrino emission from the cocoon by IceCube, which is even more promising than jet neutrinos, as the opening angle of the cocoon is much larger. We also determine the diffuse neutrino flux of GRB cocoons and find that it could be comparable with that of the jets. Our results are consistent with the latest result reported by the IceCube collaboration that no significant correlation between neutrino events and observed GRBs is seen in the new data.

  18. Double Beta Decay in Xenon-136. Measuring the Neutrino-Emitting Mode and Searching for Majoron-Emitting Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrin, Steven [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations of neutrino flavor oscillations have demonstrated that neutrinos have mass. Since the discovery of these oscillations, much progress has been made at mea- suring the neutrino mass-squared differences and lepton mixing angles that character- ize them. However, the origin and absolute scale of neutrino masses remain unknown. Unique among fermions, neutrinos can be Majorana particles, which could provide an explanation for neutrino masses. Discovery of a hypothetical process known as neutrinoless double beta decay would show that neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine the mass scale for neutrinos. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is a series of experiments searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The first experiment, EXO-200, began operation in 2011 and makes use of 200 kg of xenon enriched to 80.6% in 136Xe. The analysis presented here makes use of data from EXO-200 to obtain a more precise measurement of the half-life for the two-neutrino-emitting mode of double beta decay than previously reported. The analysis also sets limits on the half-lives for exotic, Majoron-emitting modes of neutrinoless double beta decay. Data from EXO-200 is also used to produce a measurement of the cosmic muon flux at the WIPP under- ground site where EXO-200 is located.

  19. Neutrino masses in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffelt, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological arguments and observations give us the most restrictive constraints on neutrino masses, electromagnetic couplings, and other properties. Conversely, massive neutrinos would contribute to the cosmic dark-matter density and would play an important role for the formation of structure in the universe. Neutrino oscillations may well solve the solar neutrino problem, and can have a significant impact on supernova physics. (author) 14 figs., tabs., 33 refs

  20. Neutrino masses in astrophysics and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffelt, G G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological arguments and observations give us the most restrictive constraints on neutrino masses, electromagnetic couplings, and other properties. Conversely, massive neutrinos would contribute to the cosmic dark-matter density and would play an important role for the formation of structure in the universe. Neutrino oscillations may well solve the solar neutrino problem, and can have a significant impact on supernova physics. (author) 14 figs., tabs., 33 refs.

  1. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  2. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dydak, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  3. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  4. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  5. Solar neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  6. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of missing solar neutrinos is reviewed and discussed. The experiments of the 70s show a solar neutrino flux to be 4 times lower than the flux predicted by the standard model of the Sun. The three possible origins of this contradiction are analysed: the cross sections of nuclear reactions going on in the internal region of the Sun must be remeasured; the unknown properties of neutrino, like neutrino oscillation or decay, must be investigated theoretically and experimentally; or the standard model of the Sun must be changed, e.g. by a periodically pulsating star model or by a model describing periodic admixtures of He-3 to the central region of the Sun. Some new models and newly proposed experiments are described. The importance of new electronic detection methods of neutrinos is underlined. (D.Gy.)

  7. First all-flavor neutrino pointlike source search with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope between early 2007 and the end of 2015 is performed. For the first time, all neutrino interactions --charged and neutral current interactions of all flavours-- are considered in a search for point-like

  8. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  9. The ideal neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-06-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented. The design study will explore the physics reach, the detectors, the feasibility, the safety issues and the cost for each of the options so that the the community can take a decision on what to build when the facilities presently under exploitation and construction have to be replaced.

  10. Constraining the 7Be(p,γ)8B S-factor with the new precise 7Be solar neutrino flux from Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, M. P.; Bemmerer, D.; Junghans, A. R.; Zuber, K.

    2018-02-01

    Among the solar fusion reactions, the rate of the 7Be(p , γ)8B reaction is one of the most difficult to determine rates. In a number of previous experiments, its astrophysical S-factor has been measured at E = 0.1- 2.5 MeV centre-of-mass energy. However, no experimental data is available below 0.1 MeV. Thus, an extrapolation to solar energies is necessary, resulting in significant uncertainty for the extrapolated S-factor. On the other hand, the measured solar neutrino fluxes are now very precise. Therefore, the problem of the S-factor determination is turned around here: Using the measured 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes and the Standard Solar Model, the 7Be(p , γ)8B astrophysical S-factor is determined at the solar Gamow peak. In addition, the 3He(α , γ)7Be S-factor is redetermined with a similar method.

  11. Long baseline neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric neutrino experiments (IMB, Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande (SK)) show that νµ created in cosmic ray interactions with atmospheric nuclei are being converted into ντ but νe created in such interactions are unaffected. SK measure- ment of νµ and νe event rates as functions of zenith angle is the key ...

  12. Baikal - neutrino trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domogatskij, G.

    1984-01-01

    For recording cosmic neutrinos the installation is considered of a detector in the depths of the Baikal lake with a capacity of up to 10 6 m 3 in the shape of a crystalline lattice with photoelectron multipliers placed in its nodes. (J.B.)

  13. Neutrinos do come from solar-fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Results from Kamiokande 11 have given the first convincing evidence that neutrinos are emitted by nuclear fusion in the sun. However, the measured neutrino flux is less than half that predicted by the standard solar model (4 paragraphs).

  14. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  15. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.; James, C.W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Veen, S. ter

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (∼150MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the cut-off in sensitivity at lower energies. A first upper limit on the UHE neutrino flux from data of the Westerbork Radio Telescope (WSRT) has been published, while a second experiment, using the new LOFAR telescope, is in preparation. The advantages of LOFAR over WSRT are the larger collecting area, the better pointing accuracy and the use of ring buffers, which allow the implementation of a sophisticated self-trigger algorithm. The expected sensitivity of LOFAR reaches flux limits within the range of some theoretical production models.

  16. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos

  17. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Daniel J. Eisenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS #20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos.

  18. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  19. The FLUKA Monte Carlo, Non-Perturbative QCD and Cosmic Ray Cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2005-01-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code, presently used in cosmic ray physics, contains packages to sample soft hadronic processes which are built according to the Dual Parton Model. This is a phenomenological model capable of reproducing many of the features of hadronic collisions in the non perturbative QCD regime. The basic principles of the model are summarized and, as an example, the associated Lambda-K production is discussed. This is a process which has some relevance for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino fluxes

  20. Enrichment services for chromium isotopes for the GALLEX (gallium experiment) international collaboration experiment on solar neutrino flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szady, Andrew J.

    1990-07-01

    Detailed discussions were held with members of the Gallium Experiment (GALLEX) international solar neutrino research collaboration concerning negotiations to provide $1.4 million in services to enrich (50)Cr for a (51)Cr neutrino source. The source will be used to calibrate the 20-ton gallium solar neutrino detector currently in place in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Funding approval for the enrichment services is expected from the European Common Market by October 19, 1990. The discussions focused on the technical aspects of the enrichment, the health and safety requirements for handling the process gas, cost projections, schedule, the Work-for-Others contract, and the method of payment. Discussions were also held with members of the Nuclear Physics Dept. at the University of Milan concerning the availability of isotopes enriched by the Calutron at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Very high purity material is needed to grow crystals for use in double beta decay detectors. Finally, working sessions were held to draft a coauthored paper on the results of using the gas centrifuge to remove trace quantities of (85)Kr from natural xenon.

  1. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  2. Ultrahigh energy neutrino afterglows of nearby long duration gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessymol K.; Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-11-01

    Detection of ultrahigh energy (UHE, ≳1 PeV ) neutrinos from astrophysical sources will be a major advancement in identifying and understanding the sources of UHE cosmic rays (CRs) in nature. Long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) blast waves have been considered as potential acceleration sites of UHECRs. These CRs are expected to interact with GRB afterglow photons, which are synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons coaccelerated with CRs in the blast wave, and naturally produce UHE neutrinos. Fluxes of these neutrinos are uncertain, however, and crucially depend on the observed afterglow modeling. We have selected a sample of 23 long duration GRBs within redshift 0.5 for which adequate electromagnetic afterglow data are available and which could produce high flux of UHE afterglow neutrinos, being nearby. We fit optical, x-ray, and γ -ray afterglow data with an adiabatic blast wave model in a constant density interstellar medium and in a wind environment where the density of the wind decreases as the inverse square of the radius from the center of the GRB. The blast wave model parameters extracted from these fits are then used for calculating UHECR acceleration and p γ interactions to produce UHE neutrino fluxes from these GRBs. We have also explored the detectability of these neutrinos by currently running and upcoming large area neutrino detectors, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, IceCube Gen-2, and KM3NeT observatories. We find that our realistic flux models from nearby GRBs will be unconstrained in the foreseeable future.

  3. Search for neutrinos from TANAMI observed AGN using Fermi lightcurves wit ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehn, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are promising candidates for hadronic acceleration. The combination of radio, gamma ray and neutrino data should give information on their properties, especially concerning the sources of the high-energetic cosmic rays. Assuming a temporal correlation of gamma and neutrino emission in AGN the background of neutrino telescopes can be reduced using gamma ray lightcurves. Thereby the sensitivity for discovering cosmic neutrino sources is enhanced. In the present work a stacked search for a group of AGN with the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean is presented. The selection of AGN is based on the source sample of TANAMI, a multiwavelength observation program (radio to gamma rays) of extragalactic jets southerly of -30 declination. In the analysis lightcurves of the gamma satellite Fermi are used. In an unbinned maximum likelihood approach the test statistic in the background only case and in the signal and background case is determined. For the investigated 10% of data of ANTARES within the measurement time between 01.09.2008 and 30.07.2012 no significant excess is observed. So on the total flux of the AGN of the stacked search an upper limit can be set.

  4. Reactor Neutrino Detection for Non Proliferation with the NUCIFER Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvet, L. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Bouvier, S.; Bui, V. M. [Laboratoire Subatech, Ecole des Mines, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); others, and

    2012-06-15

    Neutrinos are the most abundant matter particles in the Universe. Thoroughly investigated in basic science, the neutrino field is now delivering first applications to the monitoring of nuclear reactors. The neutrinos are emitted in the decay chain of the fission products; therefore measuring their flux provides real-time information, directly related to the fission process occurring in the reactor core. Because of the very weak interaction of neutrinos with matter a neutrino detector can stand outside the core containment vessel and provide a non-intrusive and inherently tamper resistant measurement. After a brief review of the existing data and worldwide projects, we present the NUCIFER experiment. The active part of the detector is a tank filled up with one ton of Gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator. Sixteen photomultiplier tubes, isolated from the liquid by an acrylic buffer, read out the light produced by the interaction of a neutrino with the protons of the liquid. The tank is surrounded by plastic scintillator plates to veto the cosmic rays. Then polyethylene and lead shielding suppress the background coming from external neutrons and gamma rays respectively. The NUCIFER detector has been designed for an optimal compromise between the detection performances and the specifications of operation in a safeguards regime. Its global footprint is 2.8 m x 2.8 m and it can monitor remotely the nuclear power plant thermal power and Plutonium content with very little maintenance on years scale. The experiment is currently installed near the OSIRIS research reactor (70 MWth) at CEA, in Saclay, France. First data are expected by May 2012. This work is done in contact with the IAEA/SGTN division that is currently investigating the potentiality of neutrinos as a novel safeguards tool. A dedicated working group has been created in 2010 to coordinate the simulation effort of various reactor types as well as the development of dedicated detectors and define and eventually

  5. Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Korkmaz, M. A.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, Hu; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Willenbrock, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed variation with rigidity of the helium flux spectral index is presented for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  6. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1994-08-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2{theta}{sub o} {approx_gt} 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar {bar {nu}}{sub e}`s.

  7. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Valencia Univ.

    1994-01-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2θ o approx-gt 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar bar ν e 's

  8. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.; Huang, Chu-Ching; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave an observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed

  9. Background estimation of cosmic-ray induced neutrons in Chooz site water veto tank for possible future Ricochet Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, James

    2017-09-01

    The Ricochet experiment seeks to measure Coherent (neutral-current) Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE νNS) using metallic superconducting and germanium semi-conducting detectors with sub-keV thresholds placed near a neutrino source such as the Chooz Nuclear Reactor Complex. In this poster, we present an estimate of the flux of cosmic-ray induced neutrons, which represent an important background in any (CE νNS) search, based on reconstructed cosmic ray data from the Chooz Site. We have simulated a possible Ricochet deployment at the Chooz site in GEANT4 focusing on the spallation neutrons generated when cosmic rays interact with the water tank veto that would surround our detector. We further simulate and discuss the effectiveness of various shielding configurations for optimizing the background levels for a future Ricochet deployment.

  10. High-energy Neutrino Flares from X-Ray Bright and Dark Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ {sub cr} ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs make a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.

  11. Neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Botella, I.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac), of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end. (author)

  12. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  13. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  14. Determination of absolute neutrino masses from Z-bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2001-05-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEν) scatter on cosmological relic neutrinos (Rν) producing Z bosons, which can decay hadronically producing protons (Z-burst). We compare the predicted proton spectrum with the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum and determine the mass of the heaviest Rν via a maximum likelihood analysis. Our mass prediction depends on the origin of the power-like part of the UHECR spectrum: m ν = 2.34 -0.84 +1.29 eV for Galactic halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin. The second mass, with a lower bound of 0.06 eV on the 95% confidence level (CL), is compatible with a hierarchical ν mass scenario with the largest mass suggested by the atmospheric ν oscillation. The necessary UHEν flux is compatible with present upper limits and should be detected in the near future. (orig.)

  15. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production.

  16. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production

  17. Neutrinos and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Steigman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology, there should be a background of cosmic neutrinos in the present Universe, similar to the cosmic microwave photon background. The weakness of the weak interactions renders this neutrino background undetectable with current technology. The cosmic neutrino background can, however, be probed indirectly through its cosmological effects on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN and the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation. In this BBN review, focused on neutrinos and more generally on dark radiation, the BBN constraints on the number of “equivalent neutrinos” (dark radiation, on the baryon asymmetry (baryon density, and on a possible lepton asymmetry (neutrino degeneracy are reviewed and updated. The BBN constraints on dark radiation and on the baryon density following from considerations of the primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-4 are in excellent agreement with the complementary results from the CMB, providing a suggestive, but currently inconclusive, hint of the presence of dark radiation, and they constrain any lepton asymmetry. For all the cases considered here there is a “lithium problem”: the BBN-predicted lithium abundance exceeds the observationally inferred primordial value by a factor of ~3.

  18. Caverns for neutrino physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, P.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, particle physicists are using underground facilities to catch cosmic neutrinos and to get rid of other parasitic cosmic radiations. The observation of significant numbers of neutrinos requires the use of large volume caverns at important depths. This article presents such existing facilities in the US, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Japan (Kamioka), Russia and India and the different projects in competition for the setting up of a mega-ton detector with a volume of 1 million m 3 of water (DUSEL project in the US, MEMPHYS project in France, Hyperkamiokande in Japan). Several suitable underground spaces are available in these countries (abandoned mines, tunnels) but each has its advantages and drawbacks in terms of rock mechanics, access and seismicity. (J.S.)

  19. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  20. Non-standard interactions with high-energy atmospheric neutrinos at IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, Jordi; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Rius, Nuria [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València,Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2017-01-31

    Non-standard interactions in the propagation of neutrinos in matter can lead to significant deviations from expectations within the standard neutrino oscillation framework and atmospheric neutrino detectors have been considered to set constraints. However, most previous works have focused on relatively low-energy atmospheric neutrino data. Here, we consider the one-year high-energy through-going muon data in IceCube, which has been already used to search for light sterile neutrinos, to constrain new interactions in the μτ-sector. In our analysis we include several systematic uncertainties on both, the atmospheric neutrino flux and on the detector properties, which are accounted for via nuisance parameters. After considering different primary cosmic-ray spectra and hadronic interaction models, we improve over previous analysis by using the latest data and showing that systematics currently affect very little the bound on the off-diagonal ε{sub μτ}, with the 90% credible interval given by −6.0×10{sup −3}<ε{sub μτ}<5.4×10{sup −3}, comparable to previous results. In addition, we also estimate the expected sensitivity after 10 years of collected data in IceCube and study the precision at which non-standard parameters could be determined for the case of ε{sub μτ} near its current bound.

  1. Gravi-Burst: Super-GZK Cosmic Rays from Localized Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2000-01-01

    The flux of cosmic rays beyond the GZK cutoff (∼ 10 20 eV) may be explained through their production by ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos, annihilating on the relic neutrino background, in the vicinity of our galaxy. This process is mediated through the production of a Z boson at resonance, and is generally known as the Z-Burst mechanism. We show that a similar mechanism can also contribute to the super-GZK spectrum at even higher, ultra-GZK energies, where the particles produced at resonance are the Kaluza-Klein gravitons of weak scale mass and coupling from the Randall-Sundrum (RS) hierarchy model of localized gravity model. We call this mechanism Gravi-Burst. We discuss the parameter space of relevance to Gravi-Bursts, and comment on the possibility of its contribution to the present and future super-GZK cosmic ray data and place bounds on the RS model parameters. Under certain assumptions about the energy spectrum of the primary neutrinos we find that cosmic ray data could be potentially as powerful as the LHC in probing the RS model

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howcroft, Caius Leo Frederick [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  3. Search for Ultra High-Energy Neutrinos with AMANDA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Ackermann, M.

    2007-01-01

    A search for diffuse neutrinos with energies in excess of 10 5 GeV is conducted with AMANDA-II data recorded between 2000 and 2002. Above 10 7 GeV, the Earth is essentially opaque to neutrinos. This fact, combined with the limited overburden of the AMANDA-II detector (roughly 1.5 km), concentrates these ultra high-energy neutrinos at the horizon. The primary background for this analysis is bundles of downgoing, high-energy muons from the interaction of cosmic rays in the atmosphere. No statistically significant excess above the expected background is seen in the data, and an upper limit is set on the diffuse all-flavor neutrino flux of E 2 Φ 90%CL -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 sr -1 valid over the energy range of 2 x 10 5 GeV to 10 9 GeV. A number of models which predict neutrino fluxes from active galactic nuclei are excluded at the 90% confidence level

  4. Research in Lattice Gauge Theory and in the Phenomenology of Neutrinos and Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurice, Yannick L [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Reno, Mary Hall [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Research in theoretical elementary particle physics was performed by the PI Yannick Meurice and co-PI Mary Hall Reno. New techniques designed for precision calculations of strong interaction physics were developed using the tensor renormalization group method. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations with dynamical quarks were performed for candidate models for Higgs compositeness. Ab-initio lattice gauge theory calculations of semileptonic decays of B-mesons observed in collider experiments and relevant to test the validity of the standard model were performed with the Fermilab/MILC collaboration. The phenomenology of strong interaction physics was applied to new predictions for physics processes in accelerator physics experiments and to cosmic ray production and interactions. A research focus has been on heavy quark production and their decays to neutrinos. The heavy quark contributions to atmospheric neutrino and muon fluxes have been evaluated, as have the neutrino fluxes from accelerator beams incident on heavy targets. Results are applicable to current and future particle physics experiments and to astrophysical neutrino detectors such as the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

  5. Research in Lattice Gauge Theory and in the Phenomenology of Neutrinos and Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurice, Yannick L; Reno, Mary Hall

    2016-01-01

    Research in theoretical elementary particle physics was performed by the PI Yannick Meurice and co-PI Mary Hall Reno. New techniques designed for precision calculations of strong interaction physics were developed using the tensor renormalization group method. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations with dynamical quarks were performed for candidate models for Higgs compositeness. Ab-initio lattice gauge theory calculations of semileptonic decays of B-mesons observed in collider experiments and relevant to test the validity of the standard model were performed with the Fermilab/MILC collaboration. The phenomenology of strong interaction physics was applied to new predictions for physics processes in accelerator physics experiments and to cosmic ray production and interactions. A research focus has been on heavy quark production and their decays to neutrinos. The heavy quark contributions to atmospheric neutrino and muon fluxes have been evaluated, as have the neutrino fluxes from accelerator beams incident on heavy targets. Results are applicable to current and future particle physics experiments and to astrophysical neutrino detectors such as the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

  6. Neutrino physics after boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen

    2001-01-01

    A new generation of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) experiments are currently providing the first precision measurements of fluctuations in the CMBR. These fluctuations hold information about all the fundamental cosmological parameters, and the experiments have already confirmed beyond reasonable doubt that the geometry of the universe is very close to being flat. The new CMBR experiments can also be used to probe particle physics beyond the standard model. For instance, data from the new Boomerang experiment yield an upper limit on the effective number of neutrinos present at recombination, N ν ≤ 13 (95% C.L.). This already puts significant constraints on many non-standard neutrino scenarios, such as the possible bulk neutrino modes expected in theories with large extra dimensions. The upcoming satellite experiments will improve the sensitivity of the CMBR by almost an order of magnitude and make the CMBR an excellent laboratory for precision particle physics

  7. Astrophysics and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Harigel, G G

    1997-01-01

    This seminar is primarily intended for CERN guides. The formation of sun-like stars, their life cycle, and their final destiny will be explained in simple terms, appropriate for the majority of our visitors. An overview of the nuclear reaction chains in our sun will presented (Standard Solar Model), with special emphasis on the production of neutrinos and their measurement in underground detectors. These detectors are also able to record high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Since many properties of neutrinos are still unknown, a brief description of table-top and nuclear reactor experiments is included, as well as those using beams from particle accelerators. Measurements with a variety of space telescopes complement the knowledge of our universe, previously limited to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  9. Search for AGN neutrinos with the Soudan 2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, D.M.

    1997-05-01

    Several authors have presented models for neutrino production from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that allow for the possibility of AGN neutrinos outnumbering the atmospheric neutrino flux for energies in excess of 30 TeV. Preliminary results from a search for high energy neutrinos from AGN using the underground Soudan 2 Detector are presented

  10. THE GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRINO SKY: A CONSISTENT PICTURE OF FERMI-LAT, MILAGRO, AND ICECUBE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro; Grasso, Dario; Marinelli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We compute the γ-ray and neutrino diffuse emission of the Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show how this model, designed to reproduce both Fermi-LAT γ-ray data and local CR observables, naturally reproduces the anomalous TeV diffuse emission observed by Milagro in the inner Galactic plane. Above 100 TeV our picture predicts a neutrino flux that is about five (two) times larger than the neutrino flux computed with conventional models in the Galactic Center region (full-sky). Explaining in that way up to ∼25% of the flux measured by IceCube, we reproduce the full-sky IceCube spectrum adding an extra-Galactic component derived from the muonic neutrinos flux in the northern hemisphere. We also present precise predictions for the Galactic plane region where the flux is dominated by the Galactic emission

  11. Neutrinos and nucleosynthesis in supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, U [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Fisica de Altas EnergIas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); D' Olivo, J C [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Fisica de Altas EnergIas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabral-Rosetti, L G [Departamento de Posgrado, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion y Docencia en Educacion Tecnica (CIIDET), Av. Universidad 282 Pte., Col. Centro, A. Postal 752, C.P. 76000, Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2006-05-15

    The type II supernova is considered as a candidate site for the production of heavy elements. The nucleosynthesis occurs in an intense neutrino flux, we calculate the electron fraction in this environment.

  12. Neutrinos and nucleosynthesis in supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, U; D'Olivo, J C; Cabral-Rosetti, L G

    2006-01-01

    The type II supernova is considered as a candidate site for the production of heavy elements. The nucleosynthesis occurs in an intense neutrino flux, we calculate the electron fraction in this environment

  13. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  14. Development of a computer code for the calculation of stellar evolution, with applications to solar models of low neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose computer code has been developed to allow the detailed calculation of evolutionary sequences of hydrostatic stellar models under many circumstances of astrophysical interest. Solution of the structure equations is by the relaxation technique throughout the star without explicit integration and fitting for the outer envelope. A new matrix method of algebraic solution of the finite difference equations is employed, together with a modification of that method for the treatment of the central boundary condition. The method is easily adapted to an integration technique for the construction of initial models. It is demonstrated how the matrix technique allows determination of the derivatives of the matching condition in a single integration. The modification of the code for the purpose of detailed evolutionary calculation of a portion of a star is presented through the modification of the boundary conditions to represent in simple fashion the remainder of the star. Stability and convergence problems encountered in earlier versions of the code are discussed, as well as the techniques used to overcome them. The structure of the code is highly modular, so as to easily accommodate changes in input physics. Following the ad hoc suggestion of Clayton (1974), the calculations were repeated with the high energy tail of the Maxwell distribution of relative ion velocities depleted by various amounts. As an example of the technique of evolving a portion of a star a second application to the solar neutrino problem is made

  15. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  16. Monte Carlo study of neutrino acceleration in supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Ellison, D.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1981-01-01

    The first order Fermi acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays in shocks may be at work for neutrinos in supernova shocks when the latter are at densities rho>10 13 g cm -3 at which the core material is opaque to neutrinos. A Monte Carlo approach to study this effect is employed and the emerging neutrino power law spectra are presented. The increased energy acquired by the neutrinos may facilitate their detection in supernova explosions and provide information about the physics of collapse

  17. Development of Advanced Monitoring System with Reactor Neutrino Detection Technique for Verification of Reactor Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, H.; Tadokoro, H.; Imura, A.; Furuta, Y.; Suekane, F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, technique of Gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) for reactor neutrino oscillation experiments has attracted attention as a monitor of reactor operation and ''nuclear Gain (GA)'' for IAEA safeguards. When the thermal operation power is known, it is, in principle, possible to non-destructively measure the ratio of Pu/U in reactor fuel under operation from the reactor neutrino flux. An experimental program led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories in USA has already demonstrated feasibility of the reactor monitoring by neutrinos at San Onofre Nuclear Power Station, and the Pu monitoring by neutrino detection is recognized as a candidate of novel technology to detect undeclared operation of reactor. However, further R and D studies of detector design and materials are still necessary to realize compact and mobile detector for practical use of neutrino detector. Considering the neutrino interaction cross-section and compact detector size, the detector must be set at a short distance (a few tens of meters) from reactor core to accumulate enough statistics for monitoring. In addition, although previous reactor neutrino experiments were performed at underground to reduce cosmic ray muon background, feasibility of the measurement at ground level is required for the monitor considering limited access to the reactor site. Therefore, the detector must be designed to be able to reduce external backgrounds extremely without huge shields at ground level, eg. cosmic ray muons and fast neutrons. We constructed a 0.76 ton Gd-LS detector, and carried out a reactor neutrino measurement at the experimental fast reactor JOYO in 2007. The neutrino detector was set up at 24.3m away from the reactor core at the ground level, and we understood the property of the main background; the cosmic-ray induced fast neutron, well. Based on the experience, we are constructing a new detector for the next experiment. The detector is a Gd

  18. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  19. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  20. Neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)

  1. NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM HIGH-ENERGY COMPONENT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Olivo, Martino; Halzen, Francis; O Murchadha, Aongus

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have the potential to produce the particle energies (up to 10 21 eV) and energy budget (10 44 erg yr -1 Mpc -3 ) to accommodate the spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays; on the other hand, there is no observational evidence that they accelerate hadrons. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently observed two bursts that exhibit a power-law high-energy extension of a typical (Band) photon spectrum that extends to ∼30 GeV. On the basis of fireball phenomenology we argue that these two bursts, along with GRB941017 observed by EGRET in 1994, show indirect evidence for considerable baryon loading. Since the detection of neutrinos is the only unambiguous way to establish that GRBs accelerate protons, we use two methods to estimate the neutrino flux produced when they interact with fireball photons to produce charged pions and neutrinos. While the number of events expected from the two Fermi bursts discussed is small, should GRBs be the sources of the observed cosmic rays, a GRB941017-like event that has a hadronic power-law tail extending to several tens of GeV will be detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope.

  2. The AMANDA Neutrino Detector - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Becker, K.; Bergstroem, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Costa, C.; Dalberg, E.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.; Deyoung, T.; Doksus, P.; Edsjoe, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Frichter, G.; Gaisser, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goobar, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hellwig, M.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Koepke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kravchenko, I.; Lamoureux, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Ludvig, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rawlins, K.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Sander, H.; Schaefer, U.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Silvestri, A.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.; Spiering, C.; Starinski, N.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2000-01-01

    The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B10, is taking data since 1997. We describe results on atmospheric neutrinos, limits on indirect WIMP detection, seasonal muon flux variation, relativistic monopole flux limits, a search for gravitational collapse neutrinos, and a depth scan of the optical ice properties. The next stage 19-string detector AMANDA-II with ∼650 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000

  3. Cosmic ray propagation in a diffusion model: a new estimation of the diffusion parameters and of the secondary antiprotons flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurin, D.

    2001-02-01

    Dark matter is present at numerous scale of the universe (galaxy, cluster of galaxies, universe in the whole). This matter plays an important role in cosmology and can not be totally explained by conventional physic. From a particle physic point of view, there exists an extension of the standard model - supersymmetry - which predicts under certain conditions the existence of new stable and massive particles, the latter interacting weakly with ordinary matter. Apart from direct detection in accelerators, various indirect astrophysical detection are possible. This thesis focuses on one particular signature: disintegration of these particles could give antiprotons which should be measurable in cosmic rays. The present study evaluates the background corresponding to this signal i. e. antiprotons produced in the interactions between these cosmic rays and interstellar matter. In particular, uncertainties of this background being correlated to the uncertainties of the diffusion parameter, major part of this thesis is devoted to nuclei propagation. The first third of the thesis introduces propagation of cosmic rays in our galaxy, emphasizing the nuclear reaction responsibles of the nuclei fragmentation. In the second third, different models are reviewed, and in particular links between the leaky box model and the diffusion model are recalled (re-acceleration and convection are also discussed). This leads to a qualitative discussion about information that one can infer from propagation of these nuclei. In the last third, we finally present detailed solutions of the bidimensional diffusion model, along with constrains obtained on the propagation parameters. The latter is applied on the antiprotons background signal and it concludes the work done in this thesis. The propagation code for nuclei and antiprotons used here has proven its ability in data analysis. It would probably be of interest for the analysis of the cosmic ray data which will be taken by the AMS experiment on

  4. Neutrino Bursts from Fanaroff-Riley I Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of existing observations (at the 4.5 \\sigma level) of TeV gamma-ray outbursts from the Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) radio galaxy Centaurus A, we estimate the accompanying neutrino flux in a scenario where both photons and neutrinos emerge from pion decay. We find a neutrino flux on Earth dF_{\

  5. An algorithm for the reconstruction of neutrino-induced showers in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; El Moursli, R.C.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; de Boris, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Garcia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Muons created by nm charged current (CC) interactions in the water surrounding the ANTARES neutrino telescopehave been almost exclusively used so far in searches for cosmic neutrino sources. Due to their long range, highlyenergetic muons inducing Cherenkov radiation in the water are reconstructed

  6. Neutrino 2012: Outlook – theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.Yu. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Ongoing developments in theory and phenomenology are related to the measured large value of 1–3 mixing and indications of significant deviation of the 2–3 mixing from maximal one. “Race” for the mass hierarchy has started and there is good chance that multi-megaton scale atmospheric neutrino detectors with low threshold (e.g. PINGU) will establish the type of hierarchy. Two IceCube candidates of the PeV cosmic neutrinos if confirmed, is the beginning of new era of high energy neutrino astronomy. Accumulation of data on solar neutrinos (energy spectrum, D-N asymmetry, value of Δm{sub 21}{sup 2}) may uncover some new physics. The Tri-bimaximal mixing is disfavored and the existing discrete symmetry paradigm may change. The confirmed QLC prediction, θ{sub 13}≈θ{sub C}/√(2), testifies for GUT, seesaw and some symmetry at very high scales. However, the same value of 1–3 mixing can be obtained in various ways which have different implications. The situation in lepton sector changes from special (with specific neutrino symmetries, etc.) to normal, closer to that in the quark sector. Sterile neutrinos are challenge for neutrino physics but also opportunity with many interesting phenomenological consequences. Further studies of possible connections between neutrinos and the dark sector of the Universe may lead to breakthrough both in particle physics and cosmology.

  7. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  8. Precision Measurement of the ($e^+ + e^−$) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray ($e^+ + e^−$) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million ($e^+ + e^−$) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=−3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  9. Precision Measurement of the (e++e-) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ =-3.170 ±0.008 (stat+syst)±0.008 (energy scale) .

  10. Precision Measurement of the (e^{+}+e^{-}) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-11-28

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e^{+}+e^{-}) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e^{+}+e^{-}) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=-3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  11. Monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, K.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Shibaev, K.I.

    2001-01-01

    Accumulation inside the Earth and Sun of heavy (with the mass of 50 GeV) primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos of the fourth generation and their successive annihilation is considered. The minimal estimations of annihilational fluxes of monochromatic e, μ, τ neutrinos (neutrinos and antineutrinos) with the energy of 50 GeV are 4.1·10 -6 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Earth core and 1.1·10 -7 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Sun core. That makes the analysis of underground neutrino observatory data the additional source of information on the existence of massive stable 4th generation neutrino. It is shown that due to the kinetic equilibrium between the influx of the neutrinos and their annihilation the existence of new U(1)-gauge interaction of the 4th generation neutrino does not virtually influence the estimations of annihilational e-, μ-, τ-neutrino fluxes

  12. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  13. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G.

    2014-12-10

    The Standard Model has been incredibly successful in predicting the outcome of almost all the experiments done up so far. In it, neutrinos are mass-less. However, in recent years we have accumulated evidence pointing to tiny masses for the neutrinos (as compared to the charged leptons). These masses allow neutrinos to change their flavour and oscillate. In these lectures I review the properties of neutrinos in and beyond the Standard Model.

  14. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cerutti, A. C. Cobos; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Presti, D. Lo; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K. -D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2018-02-01

    A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.

  15. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cobos Cerutti, A. C.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lo Presti, D.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K.-D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A new analysis of the data set from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 {EeV} with zenith angles up to 80° recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects, and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0σ, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 {EeV}. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7σ–3.2σ significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed. Any correspondence should be addressed to .

  16. Secondary cosmic-ray e+- from 1 to 100 GeV in the upper atmosphere and interstellar space, and interpretation of a recent e+ flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary fluxes of cosmic-ray e from the decay of mesons produced by nuclear interactions are calculated for depths under 10 g cm -2 of atmosphere or interstellar space for energies from 1 to 100 GeV. Secondary meson spectra applicable for energies > or =5 GeV are obtained from the recently measured spectra of Carey et al. using Monte Carlo techniques. An analytic model is presented which identifies all essential parameters and enables easy calculation of efluxes for various parameter values. This model is used to interpret the e + measurement of Buffington, Orth, and Smoot. We find the mean thickness of interstellar and source material to be 4.3 (+1.8,-1.2) g cm -2 for cosmic-ray e + above 4 GeV. This result is difficult to reconcile with the recently proposed two-containment-volume propagation models of Cowsik and Wilson; Rengarajan, Stephens, and Verma; and Meneguzzi: all of the models predict a result near 1.8 g cm -2 at these energies due to the energy dependence of the measured (Li+Be+B)/(C+O) ratio. Single-containment-volume (galactic) models invoking an energy-dependent leakage lifetime are compatible with the e + data, but lack a mechanism to explain the energy dependence

  17. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  18. Neutrino physics with DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) will be a multi-ton dark matter detector with the primary goal of exploring the entire experimentally accessible parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) over a wide mass-range. With its 40 tonne active liquid xenon target, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level, DARWIN can also search for other rare interactions. Here we present its sensitivity to low-energy solar neutrinos and to neutrinoless double beta decay. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV a rate of 105/year, from pp and 7Be neutrinos can be reached. Such a measurement, with 1% precision will allow testing neutrinos models. DARWIN could also reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 8.5 · 1027 y to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 136Xe after an exposure of 140 t×y of natural xenon. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below 5 GeV/c2, and the event rate from 8B neutrinos would range from a few to a few tens of events per tonne and year, depending on the energy threshold of the detector. Deviations from the predicted but yet unmeasured neutrino flux would be an indication for physics beyond the Standard Model

  19. Geomagnetic modulation of the late Pleistocene cosmic-ray flux as determined by 10Be from Blake Outer Ridge marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, L.R.; Donahue, D.; Damon, P.E.; Sonett, C.P.; Biddulph, D.; Burr, G.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic-ray flux incident upon the Earth during the late Pleistocene, 20-60 kyr B.P., was studied by measuring the cosmogenic radionuclide 10 Be from a marine sediment core at site CH88-10P on the Blake Outer Ridge. The paleointensity of the geomagnetic field for this core was determined by various methods. The variance in the concentration of 10 Be in the authigenic fraction of the sediments from Blake Ridge closely correlates with the inverse of the variance in the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field. The 10 Be signal lags, up to 1000 years of sedimentation, the measured paleointensity of the sediments. In contrast, the data from several other elements, some climatically sensitive, and from beryllium show relationship neither to 10 Be nor to the paleomagnetic data. The relationship between 10 Be concentration and the dipole field intensity (M/M o ) as measured in the sediments is consistent with theoretical models

  20. Investigation of the properties of the flux and interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays by the method of local-muon-density spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.

  1. Cumulative Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Backgrounds from Halo and Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengchao; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-04-01

    The merger of dark matter halos and the gaseous structures embedded in them, such as protogalaxies, galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies, results in strong shocks that are capable of accelerating cosmic rays (CRs) to ≳10 PeV. These shocks will produce high-energy neutrinos and γ-rays through inelastic pp collisions. In this work, we study the contributions of these halo mergers to the diffuse neutrino flux and to the nonblazar portion of the extragalactic γ-ray background. We formulate the redshift dependence of the shock velocity, galactic radius, halo gas content, and galactic/intergalactic magnetic fields over the dark matter halo distribution up to a redshift z = 10. We find that high-redshift mergers contribute a significant amount of the CR luminosity density, and the resulting neutrino spectra could explain a large part of the observed diffuse neutrino flux above 0.1 PeV up to several PeV. We also show that our model can somewhat alleviate tensions with the extragalactic γ-ray background. First, since a larger fraction of the CR luminosity density comes from high redshifts, the accompanying γ-rays are more strongly suppressed through γγ annihilations with the cosmic microwave background and the extragalactic background light. Second, mildly radiative-cooled shocks may lead to a harder CR spectrum with spectral indices of 1.5 ≲ s ≲ 2.0. Our study suggests that halo mergers, a fraction of which may also induce starbursts in the merged galaxies, can be promising neutrino emitters without violating the existing Fermi γ-ray constraints on the nonblazar component of the extragalactic γ-ray background.

  2. Probing the nature of the neutrino: The boron solar-neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, R.S.; Pakvasa, S.

    1988-01-01

    With a welter of neutrino scenarios and uncertain solar models to be unraveled, can solar-neutrino experiments really break new ground in neutrino physics? A new solar-neutrino detector BOREX, based on the nuclide /sup 11/B, promises the tools for a definitive exploration of the nature of the neutrino and the structure of the Sun. Using double-mode detection by neutrino excitation of /sup 11/B via the neutral-weak-current- and the charged-current-mediated inverse β decay in the same target, independent measurements of the total neutrino flux regardless of flavor and the survival of electron neutrinos in solar matter and a vacuum can be made. Standard models of the Sun, and almost every proposed nonstandard model of the neutrino, can be subjected to sharp and direct tests. The development of BOREX, based on B-loaded liquid-scintillation techniques, is currently in progress