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Sample records for cosmic muon reconstruction

  1. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  2. Performance of CMS Muon Reconstruction in Cosmic-Ray Events

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; 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    2010-01-01

    The performance of muon reconstruction in CMS is evaluated using a large data sample of cosmic-ray muons recorded in 2008. Efficiencies of various high-level trigger, identification, and reconstruction algorithms have been measured for a broad range of muon momenta, and were found to be in good agreement with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. The relative momentum resolution for muons crossing the barrel part of the detector is better than 1% at 10 GeV/c and is about 8% at 500 GeV/c, the latter being only a factor of two worse than expected with ideal alignment conditions. Muon charge misassignment ranges from less than 0.01% at 10 GeV/c to about 1% at 500 GeV/c.

  3. Reconstruction of cosmic and beam-halo muons with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chang; Amapane, Nicola; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Bellan, Riccardo; Biallass, Philipp; Bolognesi, Sara; Cerminara, Gianluca; Fouz Iglesias, Mary-Cruz; Giunta, Marina; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneguzzo, Anna; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Travaglini, Riccardo; Zanetti, Marco; Villanueva, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The powerful muon and tracker systems of the CMS detector together with dedicated reconstruction software allow precise and efficient measurement of muon tracks originating from proton-proton collisions. The standard muon reconstruction algorithms, however, are inadequate to deal with muons that do not originate from collisions. This note discusses the design, implementation, and performance results of a dedicated cosmic muon track reconstruction algorithm, which features pattern recognition optimized for muons that are not coming from the interaction point, i.e., cosmic muons and beam-halo muons. To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, data taken during Cosmic Challenge phases I and II were studied and compared with simulated cosmic data. In addition, a variety of more general topologies of cosmic muons and beam-halo muons were studied using simulated data to demonstrate some key features of the new algorithm.

  4. Muon reconstruction performance using cosmic rays in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Calderon, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    After the incident with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in September 2008, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration invested a considerable effort in further refining the understanding of the detector using cosmic muon data. About 300 million cosmic events were recorded with the CMS detector fully operational and the central solenoid switched on at the nominal value of 3.8 Tesla. The resulting data set provides ample statistics to study in great detail the detector performance and allows to analyze properties of cosmic rays. We present recent results on detector performance from the cosmic muon analysis activities and compare cosmic data to dedicated cosmic Monte Carlo samples. These results demonstrate the readiness of the CMS detector to do physics analysis with muons, and the study of cosmic muon properties provides interesting links to astrophysics.

  5. Muon Reconstruction and Physics Commissioning of the CMS Experiment with Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chang

    In this thesis, the first physics measurements using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented. These physics measurements were performed using cosmic ray muons traversing the CMS detector. The CMS detector is optimized for the detection of muons and the results presented here also have a purpose of helping in the commissioning of the detector for the LHC collisions. Two analyses were conducted; the first is a measurement of the charge ratio of positive to negative muons, and the second is a measurement of the differential and absolute flux of incident cosmic rays. The charge ratio measurement was made using both the muon and tracking detectors and is highlighted by its data-driven method. The charge ratio over the momentum range starting from 10 GeV were measured at the detector center and then transferred to the earth's surface. The flux measurement was performed using the muon system only. The flux was measured over the momentum range from 15 GeV to over 1 TeV at the...

  6. Stand-alone Cosmic Muon Reconstruction Before Installation of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Hansel, S.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Oberegger, M.; Pernicka, M.; Schmid, S.; Stark, R.; Steininger, H.; Uhl, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Widl, E.; Van Mechelen, P.; Cardaci, M.; Beaumont, W.; de Langhe, E.; de Wolf, E.A.; Delmeire, E.; Hashemi, M.; Bouhali, O.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Elgammal, S.; Hammad, G.; de Lentdecker, G.; Marage, P.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Adler, V.; Devroede, O.; De Weirdt, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Goorens, R.; Heyninck, J.; Maes, J.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, S.; Van Lancker, L.; Van Mulders, P.; Villella, I.; Wastiels, C.; Bonnet, J.-L.; Bruno, G.; De Callatay, B.; Florins, B.; Giammanco, A.; Gregoire, G.; Keutgen, Th.; Kcira, D.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertermont, L.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Teyssier, D.; Daubie, E.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engstrom, P.; Harkonen, J.; Karimaki, V.; Kostesmaa, J.; Kuronen, A.; Lampen, T.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.-R.; Maenpaa, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ageron, M.; Baulieu, G.; Bonnevaux, A.; Boudoul, G.; Chabanat, E.; Chabert, E.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Della Negra, R.; Dupasquier, T.; Gelin, G.; Giraud, N.; Guillot, G.; Estre, N.; Haroutunian, R.; Lumb, N.; Perries, S.; Schirra, F.; Trocme, B.; Vanzetto, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Blaes, R.; Drouhin, F.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Berst, J.-D.; Brom, J.-M.; Didierjean, F.; Goerlach, U.; Graehling, P.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Juillot, P.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Olivetto, C.; Strub, R.; Van Hove, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Brauer, R.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kukulies, C.; Olzem, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Sprenger, D.; Thomas, M.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Beissel, F.; Bock, E.; Flugge, G.; Gillissen, C.; Hermanns, T.; Heydhausen, D.; Jahn, D.; Kaussen, G.; Linn, A.; Perchalla, L.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Zoeller, M.H.; Buhmann, P.; Butz, E.; Flucke, G.; Hamdorf, R.; Hauk, J.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schleper, P.; Steinbruck, G.; Blum, P.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heier, S.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Kaminski, J.; Ledermann, B.; Liamsuwan, T.; Muller, S.; Muller, Th.; Schilling, F.-P.; Simonis, H.-J.; Steck, P.; Zhukov, V.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Ferorelli, R.; Fiore, L.; Preda, M.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Giordano, D.; Maggi, G.; Manna, N.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Galanti, M.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Noto, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Sparti, V.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Maletta, F.; Manolescu, F.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Broccolo, B.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Genta, C.; Landi, G.; Lenzi, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Magini, N.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Cerati, G.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Dorigo, T.; Kaminsky, A.; Karaevski, S.; Khomenkov, V.; Reznikov, S.; Tessaro, M.; Bisello, D.; De Mattia, M.; Giubilato, P.; Loreti, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Fano, L.; Servoli, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Caponeri, B.; Covarelli, R.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Marcantonini, M.; Postolache, V.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Balestri, G.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Bracci, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Cerri, C.; Cucoanes, A .S.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dobur, D.; Dutta, S.; Giassi, A.; Giusti, S.; Kartashov, D.; Kraan, A.; Lomtadze, T.; Lungu, G.A.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Martinelli, G.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, D.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sarkar, S.; Sentenac, D.; Serban, A.T.; Slav, A.; Soldani, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tolaini, S.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Vos, M.; Zaccarelli, L.; Avanzini, C.; Basti, A.; Benucci, L.; Bocci, A.; Cazzola, U.; Fiori, F.; Linari, S.; Massa, M.; Messineo, A.; Segneri, G.; Tonelli, G.; Azzurri, P.; Bernardini, J.; Borrello, L.; Calzolari, F.; Foa, L.; Gennai, S.; Ligabue, F.; Petrucciani, G.; Rizzi, A.; Yang, Z.; Benotto, F.; Demaria, N.; Dumitrache, F.; Farano, R.; Borgia, M.A.; Castello, R.; Costa, M.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Ahmed, I.; Akhtar, I.; Albert, E.; Bloch, C.; Breuker, H.; Butt, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattai, A.; Delaere, C.; Delattre, M.; Edera, L.M.; Engstrom, P.; Eppard, M.; Gateau, M.; Gill, K.; Giolo-Nicollerat, A.-S.; Grabit, R.; Honma, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Kortesmaa, J.; Kottelat, L.J.; Kuronen, A.; Leonardo, N.; Ljuslin, C.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mersi, S.; Michal, S.; Mirabito, L.; Muffat-Joly, J.; Onnela, A.; Paillard, C.; Pal, I.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petit, P.; Piccut, C.; Pioppi, M.; Postema, H.; Ranieri, R.; Ricci, D.; Rolandi, G.; Ronga, F.; Sigaud, C.; Syed, A.; Siegrist, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vasey, F.; Alagoz, E.; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, V.; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P.; Rochet, J.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Schmidt, A.; Steiner, S.; Wilke, L.; Church, I.; Cole, J.; Coughlan, J.; Gay, A.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.; Bainbridge, R.; Cripps, N.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Radicci, V.; Raymond, D.M.; Sharp, P.; Stoye, M.; Wingham, M.; Zorba, O.; Goitom, I.; Hobson, P.R.; Reid, I.; Teodorescu, L.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Liu, H.; Pasztor, G.; Satpathy, A.; Stringer, R.; Mangano, B.; Affolder, K.; Affolder, T.; Allen, A.; Barge, D.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Crook, A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dietch, J.; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D.; Incandela, H.; Incandela, J.; Jaditz, S.; Kalavase, P.; Kreyer, S.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Mc Guinness, C.; Mills, C.; Nguyen, H.; Nikolic, M.; Lowette, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rubinstein, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Shah, Y.; Simms, L.; Staszak, D.; Stoner, J.; Stuart, D.; Swain, S.; Vlimant, J.-R.; White, D.; Ulmer, K.A.; Wagner, S.R.; Bagby, L.; Bhat, P.C.; Burkett, K.; Cihangir, S.; Gutsche, O.; Jensen, H.; Johnson, M.; Luzhetskiy, N.; Mason, D.; Miao, T.; Moccia, S.; Noeding, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Skup, E.; Spalding, W.J.; Spiegel, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Yumiceva, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zerev, E.; Anghel, I.; Bazterra, V.E.; Gerber, C.E.; Khalatian, S.; Shabalina, E.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, A.; Chen, J.; Hinchey, C.; Martin, C.; Moulik, T.; Robinson, R.; Gritsan, A.V.; Lae, C.K.; Tran, N.V.; Everaerts, P.; Hahn, K.A.; Harris, P.; Nahn, S.; Rudolph, M.; Sung, K.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Gotra, Y.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D.; Orbaker, D.; Christofek, L.; Hooper, R.; Landsberg, G.; Nguyen, D.; Narain, M.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7 million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  7. Reconstruction of cosmic muons in collisions and search after gluinos decaying into stop-top quarks in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschudi, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The CMS experiment (Compact Muon Solenoid), built on the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), has been recording data from proton-proton collisions for 2 years now. The alignment between all layers of the tracker, a sub-detector of CMS allowing the reconstruction and the measurement of the momentum of charged particles, is made by using tracks of particles created during collisions and tracks created by the passage of cosmic muons through this sub-detector. A first part of the presentation will be dedicated to the reconstruction of the tracks of these cosmic muons during collisions. A new method, called regional cosmic reconstruction, was developed and implemented. The 69 % efficiency and the fake rate around 1 % allow to use these tracks for the alignment. The second part, dedicated to the analysis of collision data, will concern the search of particles predicted by a model of extension of the Standard Model, the Supersymmetry, in a particular scenario, the light stop scenario. In the case of a strong mixing in the third generation of squarks, the stop, supersymmetric partner of the top quark, could be light. In the analysis developed during this thesis, we were interested in the case where the m(stop) -1 of data recorded by CMS in 2010. The limits obtained at 95 % confidence level allow us to exclude masses of stop until 175 GeV for masses of gluinos going up to 350 GeV and low differences of masses between stop and neutralino. (author)

  8. A cosmic ray muon going through CMS with the magnet at full field. The line shows the path of the muon reconstructed from information recorded in the various detectors.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ianna, Osborne

    2007-01-01

    The event display of the event 3981 from the MTCC run 2605. The data has been taken with a magnetic field of 3.8 T. A detailed model of the magnetic field corresponding to 4T is shown as a color gradient from 4T in the center (red) to 0 T outside of the detector (blue). The cosmic muon has been detected by all four detectors participating in the run: the drift tubes, the HCAL, the tracker and the ECAL subdetectors and it has been reconstructed online. The event display shows the reconstructed 4D segments in the drift tubes (magenta), the reconstructed hits in HCAL (blue), the locally reconstructed track in the tracker (green), the uncalibrated rec hits in ECAL (light green). A muon track was reconstructed in the drift tubes and extrapolated back into the detector taking the magnetic field into account (green).

  9. Direct cosmic ray muons and atmospheric neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Volkova, L.V.; Zatsepin, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    A possible contribution of very short living particles (particles with life-time much shorter than that of charmed particles), for example, resonances, into cosmic ray muon and atmospheric neutrino fluxes (direct muons and neutrinos) is estimated. This contribution could become of the same order of magnitude as that from pions and kaons (conventional) already at energies of hundreds TeV and tens TeV for muons and muon neutrinos coming to the sea level in the vertical direction correspondingly. Of course, the estimation has quite a qualitative character and even it is quite arbitrary but it is necessary to keep this contribution in mind when studying EAS, cosmic ray muon component or trying to interpret data of experiments on cosmic neutrino searching at high energies

  10. A method of detector correction for cosmic ray muon radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Zhao Ziran; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Wang Zhentian

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. The problem of data correction is one of the key points of muon radiography technique. Because of the influence of environmental background, environmental yawp and error of detectors, the raw data can not be used directly. If we used the raw data as the usable data to reconstruct without any corrections, it would turn up terrible artifacts. Based on the characteristics of the muon radiography system, aimed at the error of detectors, this paper proposes a method of detector correction. The simulation experiments demonstrate that this method can effectively correct the error produced by detectors. Therefore, we can say that it does a further step to let the technique of cosmic muon radiography into out real life. (authors)

  11. Cosmic Muon Detection for Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Oláh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for environmental, geophysical, or industrial applications. The device is a tracking detector based on the Close Cathode Chamber, an MWPC-like technology, allowing operation in natural underground caves or artificial tunnels, far from laboratory conditions. The compact, low power consumption system with sensitive surface of 0.1 m2 measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with a resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a detailed mapping of the rock thickness above the muon detector. Demonstration of applicability of the muon telescope (REGARD Muontomograph for civil engineering and measurements in artificial underground tunnels or caverns are presented.

  12. Portable cosmic muon telescope for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hamar, Gergo [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Melegh, Hunor Gergely [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Olah, Laszlo [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Suranyi, Gergely [Geological, Geophysical and Space Science Research Group of the HAS, Eoetvoes University, 1/C Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, Dezso, E-mail: dezso.varga@cern.ch [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-10-11

    A portable, low power consumption cosmic muon tracking system based on Close Cathode MWPC technology is presented, which is designed for operation in highly humid environmental conditions such as underground caves, tunnels, or cellars. The system measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a tomographic mapping of the soil density above the detector unit. The size of the detector, 0.1 m{sup 2} of total sensitive surface, was designed to fulfill the requirement of transport through humanly passable natural cave tunnels. First results from the Ariadne Cave System in Pilis Mountains, Hungary are shown, which constrains the necessary data taking time for meaningful tomographic mapping. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cosmic muon tracking system for underground applications presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operation in highly humid environment of natural caves demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic mapping at 60 m depth was performed during 50 days in Pilis Mountains, Hungary.

  13. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; 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Martin, F.F.; Martin, J.P.; Martin, T.A.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A.C.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Massa, I.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S.P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R.L.; McCubbin, N.A.; McFarlane, K.W.; McGlone, H.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.M.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B.R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F.S.; Messina, A.M.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A.S.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T.C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.P.; Migas, S.; 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Myagkov, A.G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N.R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S.K.; Neal, H.A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T.K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.M.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Ottersbach, J.P; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parker, S.I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; 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Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, JEM; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.S.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider has collected several hundred million cosmic ray events during 2008 and 2009. These data were used to commission the Muon Spectrometer and to study the performance of the trigger and tracking chambers, their alignment, the detector control system, the data acquisition and the analysis programs. We present the performance in the relevant parameters that determine the quality of the muon measurement. We discuss the single element efficiency, resolution and noise rates, the calibration method of the detector response and of the alignment system, the track reconstruction efficiency and the momentum measurement. The results show that the detector is close to the design performance and that the Muon Spectrometer is ready to detect muons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  14. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  15. Results from the calibration of Z chambers with cosmic muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Cerrada, M.; Gonzalez, E.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a cosmic ray calibration procedure applied to L3 Z muon chambers. The experimental set up, and the method of data analysis used, are presented. We show the results obtained with different gas mixtures. The effect of variations in the values of some parameters, like the discriminator thresholds or the sense wire high voltages, on the chamber resolution and on the track reconstruction efficiency, is also reported. (author) 18 fig. 8 ref

  16. Cosmic ray muons in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babson, J.; Becker-Szenzy, R.; Cady, R.; Dye, S.; Gorham, P.; Learned, J.; Matsuno, S.; O' Conner, D.; Peterson, V.; Roberts, A.; Stenger, V. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA)); Barish, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Bradner, H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)); Clem, J.; Roos, C.; Webster, M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Gaidos, J.; Wilson, C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Grieder, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research); Kropp, W.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); March, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA)); DUMAND Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    A measurement of cosmic ray muon flux was obtained at ocean depths ranging from 2 km to 4 km at 500 m intervals off the West Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. A brief description of the experiment and the results will be presented in this paper. (orig.).

  17. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

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Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

  18. Meteorological effects in cosmic ray muon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, D.J.; Groom, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed study of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray muon intensity has been made in connection with the operation of the Utah 1500 GV Anisotropy Detector. Using standard linear regression methods, we find an anomalously small high altitude temperature coefficient and a high surface pressure coefficient. However, we understand the former as due to extraneous variance in the temperature data and the latter as due to correlations in the data. We also find that much or all of the 1/f behavior of the muon Fourier power spectrum at low frequencies appears to be due to high altitude temperature fluctuations

  19. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  20. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-08-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  1. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G. [National Security Technologies, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Milner, Edward C. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75205 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  2. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Morris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  3. Atmospheric muons reconstruction with Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melissas, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector contains 900 photomultiplier tubes, dispatched on 12 lines, in order to detect Cerenkov light from muon induced by neutrino interactions in the the vicinity of the detector. Currently the first 5 lines have been deployed. A first task consists in studying the stability of the detector calibration, which is a necessary step to understand the detector response. Then we studied optical properties of water, for this we developed a reconstruction method dedicated to LED Beacon. The extracted parameters are compatible with earlier measurements. A quality criteria to reject badly reconstructed track has been developed based on the likelihood of the tracks fit versus point fit. This has been applied to real data and a preliminary analysis of atmospheric muons with a 5-lines detector is performed. (author)

  4. Novel precision enhancement algorithm with reduced image noise in cosmic muon tomography applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sangkyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm that improves muon-based generated tomography images with increased precision and reduced image noise applicable to the detection of nuclear materials. Cosmic muon tomography is an interrogation-based imaging technique that, over the last decade, has been frequently employed for the detection of high-Z materials. This technique exploits a magnitude of cosmic muon scattering angles in order to construct an image. The scattering angles of the muons striking the geometry of interest are non-uniform, as cosmic muons vary in energy. The randomness of the scattering angles leads to significant noise in the muon tomography image. GEANT4 is used to numerically create data on the momenta and positions of scattered muons in a predefined geometry that includes high-Z materials. The numerically generated information is then processed with the point of closest approach reconstruction method to construct a muon tomography image; statistical filters are then developed to refine the point of closest approach reconstructed images. The filtered images exhibit reduced noise and enhanced precision when attempting to identify the presence of high-Z materials. The average precision from the point of closest approach reconstruction method is 13 %; for the integrated method, 88 %. The filtered image, therefore, results in a seven-fold improvement in precision compared to the point of closest approach reconstructed image.

  5. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10 13 keV cm –1 . At gradients above 1.6 keV cm –1 , muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  6. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Yang, G.; Johnstone, J.R.; Shearer, C.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios

  7. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-03-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  8. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  9. Muon reconstruction in the Daya Bay water pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackenburg, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    Muon reconstruction in the Daya Bay water pools would serve to verify the simulated muon fluxes and offer the possibility of studying cosmic muons in general. This reconstruction is, however, complicated by many optical obstacles and the small coverage of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as compared to other large water Cherenkov detectors. The PMTs’ timing information is useful only in the case of direct, unreflected Cherenkov light. This requires PMTs to be added and removed as an hypothesized muon trajectory is iteratively improved, to account for the changing effects of obstacles and direction of light. Therefore, muon reconstruction in the Daya Bay water pools does not lend itself to a general fitting procedure employing smoothly varying functions with continuous derivatives. Here, we describe an algorithm which overcomes these complications. It employs the method of Least Mean Squares to determine an hypothesized trajectory from the PMTs’ charge-weighted positions. This initially hypothesized trajectory is then iteratively refined using the PMTs’ timing information. Reconstructions with simulated data reproduce the simulated trajectory to within about 5° in direction and about 45 cm in position at the pool surface, with a bias that tends to pull tracks away from the vertical by about 3°.

  10. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Bravo, S.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Plewa, M.; Schultz, D.; Tosi, D.; BenZvi, S.; Jensen, K.; Peacock, J.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Simons, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available

  11. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to $3\\times10^{20}$ eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is $\\sqrt{s_{nn}} = 700$ TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy ($>$ 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon de...

  12. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  13. Large vessel imaging using cosmic-ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenneson, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are assessed for their practical use in the tomographic imaging of the internal composition of large vessels over 2 m in diameter. The technique is based on the attenuation and scattering of cosmic-ray muons passing through a vessel and has advantages over photon-based methods of tomography that it is extendable to object containing high-density materials over many tens of metres. The main disadvantage is the length of time required to produce images of sufficient resolution and hence cosmic ray muon tomography will be most suited to the imaging of large structures whose internal composition is effectively static for the duration of the imaging period. Simulation and theoretical results are presented here which demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray muon tomography

  14. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  15. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3 x 10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √s nn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  16. In situ commissioning of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter with cosmic muons

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; Plamondon, M; Aleksa, M; Delmastro, M; Fayard, L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hubaut, F; Lafaye, R; Lampl, W; Lévêque, J; Ma, H; Monnier, E; Parsons, J; Pralavorio, P; Schwemling, Ph; Serin, L; Trocmé, B; Unal, G; Vincter, M; Wilkens, H

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, ATLAS entered the {\\it in situ} commissioning phase. The primary goal of this phase is to verify the detector operation and performance with cosmic muons. Using a dedicated cosmic muon trigger from the hadronic Tile calorimeter, a sample of approximately $120\\,000$ events was collected in several modules of the barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter between August 2006 and March 2007. As cosmic events are generally non-projective and arrive asynchronously with respect to the trigger clock, methods to improve the standard signal reconstruction for this situation are presented. Various selection criteria for projective muons and clustering algorithms have been tested, leading to preliminary results on calorimeter uniformity in $\\eta$ and timing performance.

  17. Horizontal cosmic ray muon radiography for imaging nuclear threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, Joseph; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Sugita, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses information contained in the Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons to generate three dimension images of volumes between tracking detectors. Advantages of this technique are the muons ability to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the long exposure times and limited resolution because of the low flux. Here we compare the times needed to image objects using both vertically and horizontally mounted tracking detectors and we develop a predictive model for other geometries

  18. Horizontal cosmic ray muon radiography for imaging nuclear threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, Joseph; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Sugita, Tsukasa

    2014-07-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses information contained in the Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons to generate three dimension images of volumes between tracking detectors. Advantages of this technique are the muons ability to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the long exposure times and limited resolution because of the low flux. Here we compare the times needed to image objects using both vertically and horizontally mounted tracking detectors and we develop a predictive model for other geometries.

  19. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  20. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is designed to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 10 17 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 10 18 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations. (paper)

  1. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ and $J\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  2. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\mbox{ TeV}$ is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  3. Alignment of the CMS Muon System with Cosmic-Ray and Beam-Halo Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS muon system has been aligned using cosmic-ray muons collected in 2008 and beam-halo muons from the 2008 LHC circulating beam tests. After alignment, the resolution of the most sensitive coordinate is 80 microns for the relative positions of superlayers in the same barrel chamber and 270 microns for the relative positions ofendcap chambers in the same ring structure. The resolution on the position of the central barrel chambers relative to the tracker is comprised between two extreme estimates, 200 and 700 microns, provided by two complementary studies. With minor modifications, the alignment procedures can be applied using muons from LHC collisions, leading to additional significant improvements.

  4. Calibration of the calorimeter of the ATLAS muon cosmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federic, P.

    2006-01-01

    This summer is for the ATLAS experiment at CERN scheduled calibration with cosmic muons ECC. It is one of the standard methods of calibrating calorimeters. Before these measurements it is necessary to perform precise Monte Carlo simulation, which is essential to a detailed understanding of the physics of the processes. Based on the known data on the spectra of cosmic muons, such as the frequency (flux) or the energy spectrum can be achieved highly accurate results. So far were simulated 3 samples for max. muon angle of incidence 45, 60 and 75 degrees, each containing 1 M events. Based on this we found the first necessary data and in particular, they allow us to determine the best angle for the ratio of the number of muons generated a number of events in the calorimetric system. (author)

  5. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √(s nn )=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  6. The cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio in CosmoALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, D; Kotaidis, V; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Wachsmuth, H W; Tcaciuc, R; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2004-01-01

    The ALEPH experiment at the LEP e**+e**- storage ring at CERN has been used to measure the momentum spectrum of cosmic ray muons. ALEPH is located at a vertical depth of 320 m.w.e. underground close to the Jura mountains. The high resolution of the time projection chamber (TPC) of ALEPH allows to reconstruct muon tracks with momenta up to the TeV region. The measured muon momentum spectrum and the charge ratio in the range from 80 to 2500 GeV are presented. After corrections for energy loss in the overburden the sea level muon spectrum at nearly vertical incidence is obtained. The experimental data are compared to theoretical expectations and results from other experiments.

  7. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The “muon generator” produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0–90° and energies in the range 1–100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance–Rejection and Metropolis–Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1–60 GeV and zenith angles 0–90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic–polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed “muon generator” is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  8. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The "muon generator" produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0-90° and energies in the range 1-100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance-Rejection and Metropolis-Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1-60 GeV and zenith angles 0-90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic-polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed "muon generator" is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  9. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzidakis, S., E-mail: schatzid@purdue.edu; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    2015-12-21

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The “muon generator” produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0–90° and energies in the range 1–100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance–Rejection and Metropolis–Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1–60 GeV and zenith angles 0–90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic–polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed “muon generator” is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  10. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  11. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  12. Aligning the CMS Muon Chambers with the Muon Alignment System during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; 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Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector comprises three independent subsystems of optical and analog position sensors. It aligns muon chambers with respect to each other and to the central silicon tracker. System commissioning at full magnetic field began in 2008 during an extended cosmic ray run. The system succeeded in tracking muon detector movements of up to 18 mm and rotations of several milliradians under magnetic forces. Depending on coordinate and subsystem, the system achieved chamber alignment precisions of 140-350 microns and 30-200 microradians. Systematic errors on displacements are estimated to be 340-590 microns based on comparisons with independent photogrammetry measurements.

  13. Cosmic ray muons and their associated shower particles underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleonic contamination of the underwater cosmic ray muon flux is studied as a function of depth. Stacks of Ilford G-5 photographic emulsions were assembled and processed in an underground laboratory (9 hg/cm 2 below sea level). In between the assembly and the development they were exposed, stored in small pressure chambers, at various depths underwater for periods of time up to six months. At each depth approximately 10 cm 3 of emulsion were scanned for stopping particles and nuclear disintegrations. Altogether approximately 2000 stopping muons, 50 stopping mesons, and 200 recoil protons were found and analyzed. Comparison with theories as to how the underground cosmic ray muon beam produces a secondary flux of nuclearly active particles are made. Additionally measurements on the residue flux at 440mwe underground are made. Projected rates from the shallow depth studies are used to analyze the results at large depth. Anomalous particle production is observed at the large depth

  14. 3D Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography from an Underground Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Rowe, Charlotte; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily; Roy, Mousumi; George, Nicolas; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey; Durham, Matthew; Morley, Deborah; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Poulson, Daniel; Baker, Diane; Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We present an underground cosmic ray muon tomographic experiment imaging 3D density of overburden, part of a joint study with differential gravity. Muon data were acquired at four locations within a tunnel beneath Los Alamos, New Mexico, and used in a 3D tomographic inversion to recover the spatial variation in the overlying rock-air interface, and compared with a priori knowledge of the topography. Densities obtained exhibit good agreement with preliminary results of the gravity modeling, which will be presented elsewhere, and are compatible with values reported in the literature. The modeled rock-air interface matches that obtained from LIDAR within 4 m, our resolution, over much of the model volume. This experiment demonstrates the power of cosmic ray muons to image shallow geological targets using underground detectors, whose development as borehole devices will be an important new direction of passive geophysical imaging.

  15. Review of possible applications of cosmic muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checchia, P.

    2016-01-01

    Muon radiographic methods can be used to explore inaccessible volumes profiting of the property of muons to penetrate thick materials. An extension of the muon radiographic methods, the muon scattering tomography, was proposed for the first time in 2003 and it is based on the measurement of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons crossing the volume under investigation. In this talk, the principles of tomographic image reconstruction are first outlined and then the experimental setup and the most adequate detectors are described. A review of the possible applications of this technique is reported, with specific reference to security in transports and monitoring of industrial processes. The technique can also be used to provide precise measurements of the properties of various materials. The experimental challenge related to this activity is discussed.

  16. Review of possible applications of cosmic muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Muon radiographic methods can be used to explore inaccessible volumes profiting of the property of muons to penetrate thick materials. An extension of the muon radiographic methods, the muon scattering tomography, was proposed for the first time in 2003 and it is based on the measurement of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons crossing the volume under investigation. In this talk, the principles of tomographic image reconstruction are first outlined and then the experimental setup and the most adequate detectors are described. A review of the possible applications of this technique is reported, with specific reference to security in transports and monitoring of industrial processes. The technique can also be used to provide precise measurements of the properties of various materials. The experimental challenge related to this activity is discussed.

  17. Study of high muon multiplicity cosmic ray events with ALICE at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Located 52 meters undergroundwith 28meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect atmosphericmuons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. We present the muon multiplicity distribution of these cosmic-ray events and their comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density larger than 5.9 m$^{−2}$. The measured rate of these events shows that they stem from primary cosmic-rays with energies above 10$^{16}$ eV. The frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic-rays in this energy range and using the most recent hadronic interaction models to simulate the development of the resulting air sh...

  18. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Marchese, Luigi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Muons are of key importance to study some of the most interesting physics topics at the LHC. We show the status of the performance of the muon reconstruction in the analysis of proton-proton collisions at the LHC, recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2016. Reconstruction efficiency and momentum resolution have been measured using "$J/\\psi$" and "$Z$" decays for different classes of reconstructed muons.

  19. Angle Statistics Reconstruction: a robust reconstruction algorithm for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, M.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Steer, C.

    2014-11-01

    Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) is a technique for using the scattering of cosmic ray muons to probe the contents of enclosed volumes. As a muon passes through material it undergoes multiple Coulomb scattering, where the amount of scattering is dependent on the density and atomic number of the material as well as the path length. Hence, MST has been proposed as a means of imaging dense materials, for instance to detect special nuclear material in cargo containers. Algorithms are required to generate an accurate reconstruction of the material density inside the volume from the muon scattering information and some have already been proposed, most notably the Point of Closest Approach (PoCA) and Maximum Likelihood/Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) algorithms. However, whilst PoCA-based algorithms are easy to implement, they perform rather poorly in practice. Conversely, MLEM is a complicated algorithm to implement and computationally intensive and there is currently no published, fast and easily-implementable algorithm that performs well in practice. In this paper, we first provide a detailed analysis of the source of inaccuracy in PoCA-based algorithms. We then motivate an alternative method, based on ideas first laid out by Morris et al, presenting and fully specifying an algorithm that performs well against simulations of realistic scenarios. We argue this new algorithm should be adopted by developers of Muon Scattering Tomography as an alternative to PoCA.

  20. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaralingam, N.

    1993-01-01

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth's surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10 5 TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment's fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m x10 m x 31 m proportional tube array (the ''active shield''). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ''knee'' region (10 3 - 10 4 TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events

  1. Study of multi-muon bundles in cosmic ray showers detected with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Boonekamp, M.; Jarry, P.; Lutz, P.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A.; Pierre, F.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Turluer, M.L.; Vilanova, D.

    2007-01-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP has been used to measure multi-muon bundles originating from cosmic ray interactions with air. The cosmic events were recorded in 'parasitic mode' between individual e + e - interactions and the total live time of this data taking is equivalent to 1.6 * 10 6 s. The DELPHI apparatus is located about 100 m underground and the 84 metres rock overburden imposes a cutoff of about 52 GeV/c on muon momenta. The data from the large volume Hadron Calorimeter allowed the muon multiplicity of 54,201 events to be reconstructed. The resulting muon multiplicity distribution is compared with the prediction of the Monte Carlo simulation based on CORSIKA/QGSJETOI. The model fails to describe the abundance of high multiplicity events. The impact of QGSJET internal parameters on the results is also studied. (authors)

  2. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia

  3. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; 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Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density $\\rho_{\\mu} > 5.9~$m$^{-2}$. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplic...

  4. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Timothy; Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for...

  5. The EEE Project: a sparse array of telescopes for the measurement of cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, P. La; Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Batignani, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccetti, F.; Corvaglia, A.; Gruttola, D. De; Pasquale, S. De; Bencivenni, G.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Coccia, E.; Giovanni, A. Di; D'Incecco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is meant to be the most extensive experiment to detect secondary cosmic particles in Italy. To this aim, more than 50 telescopes have been built at CERN and installed in high schools distributed all over the Italian territory. Each EEE telescope comprises three large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) and is capable of reconstructing the trajectories of the charged particles traversing it with a good angular resolution. The excellent performance of the EEE telescopes allows a large variety of studies, from measuring the local muon flux in a single telescope, to detecting extensive air showers producing time correlations in the same metropolitan area, to searching for large-scale correlations between showers detected in telescopes tens, hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart. In addition to its scientific goal, the EEE Project also has an educational and outreach objective, its aim being to motivate young people by involving them directly in a real experiment. High school students and teachers are involved in the construction, testing and start-up of the EEE telescope in their school, then in its maintenance and data-acquisition, and later in the analysis of the data. During the last couple of years a great boost has been given to the EEE Project through the organization of simultaneous and centralized data taking with the whole telescope array. The raw data from all telescopes are transferred to CNAF (Bologna), where they are reconstructed and stored. The data are currently being analyzed, looking at various topics: variation of the rate of cosmic muons with time, upward going muons, muon lifetime, search for anisotropies in the muon angular distribution and for time coincidences between stations. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array is also presented by showing the most recent

  6. Simulation of the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in extensive air showers using CORSIKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone [University of Siegen (Germany); Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya); Hashim, Nadir; Okumu, John [Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere produces, among other particles, pions and kaons. They decay to muons, which form an important component of extensive air showers. The ratio of positively to negatively charged muons, called the muon charge ratio, provides important information about the cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the theoretical hadronic interaction models in the cosmic ray simulation code CORSIKA have been used to study the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons simulated in extensive air showers. An East - West effect on the charge ratio of simulated cosmic ray muons is observed. It is more pronounced for inclined and low-energy muons (momentum less than 100 GeV/c and zenith angle greater than 80 ). Experimental data from ''MINOS Near'' experiment gives similar results.

  7. Penetration of cosmic ray muons into the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uretsky, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    I present a new analytic solution to the integro-differential equation that describes the underground propagation of cosmic ray muons. The exact solution is given in the form of an infinite series in inverse powers of the muon energy. Convergence is proved for sufficiently high energies. The series is shown to be summable in closed form, in certain approximations. The closed forms provides analytic continuations to low energies of the series solution. One approximation resembles a well-known solution that ignores discrete energy loss, but this approximation introduces additional constants. I apply the approximate solution using an expression for the surface muon flux, derived from the primary flux, as a boundary condition. The result predicts the underground muon vertical intensity over seven orders of magnitude (10 km depth), compares favorably with published Monte Carlo calculations, and can be performed in seconds on a personal computer. As an application, the same approximation predicts the ''catastrophic'' energy-loss event rate at Soudan II. (orig.)

  8. Atmospheric muons reconstruction with Antares; Reconstruction de muons atmospheriques avec ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melissas, M

    2007-09-15

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector contains 900 photomultiplier tubes, dispatched on 12 lines, in order to detect Cerenkov light from muon induced by neutrino interactions in the the vicinity of the detector. Currently the first 5 lines have been deployed. A first task consists in studying the stability of the detector calibration, which is a necessary step to understand the detector response. Then we studied optical properties of water, for this we developed a reconstruction method dedicated to LED Beacon. The extracted parameters are compatible with earlier measurements. A quality criteria to reject badly reconstructed track has been developed based on the likelihood of the tracks fit versus point fit. This has been applied to real data and a preliminary analysis of atmospheric muons with a 5-lines detector is performed. (author)

  9. Undergraduate cosmic ray muon decay experiments with computer interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.S.; MacIntire, D.A.; Egan, S.J.; Caraley, A.

    1987-01-01

    The physics departments of a consortium of higher education in Western Massachusetts, the Five Colleges Incorporated, are developing an advanced undergraduate laboratory course. The participating institutions are Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, and the University of Massachusetts. The course is designed to expose students to a variety of state-of-the-art equipment that would normally exceed reasonable financial commitments and faculty expertise of a single institution. The course is divided into experimental modules, one of which is the cosmic ray muon decay module developed at Smith College. The module is designed to investigate the dependence of the muon lifetime as a function of the medium in which it decays. Useful background information and a description of the module is given in this article

  10. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ∼1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections

  11. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, N; Siol, M

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also sho...

  12. Bayesian image reconstruction for improving detection performance of muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guobao; Schultz, Larry J; Qi, Jinyi

    2009-05-01

    Muon tomography is a novel technology that is being developed for detecting high-Z materials in vehicles or cargo containers. Maximum likelihood methods have been developed for reconstructing the scattering density image from muon measurements. However, the instability of maximum likelihood estimation often results in noisy images and low detectability of high-Z targets. In this paper, we propose using regularization to improve the image quality of muon tomography. We formulate the muon reconstruction problem in a Bayesian framework by introducing a prior distribution on scattering density images. An iterative shrinkage algorithm is derived to maximize the log posterior distribution. At each iteration, the algorithm obtains the maximum a posteriori update by shrinking an unregularized maximum likelihood update. Inverse quadratic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Laplacian priors and inverse cubic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Gaussian priors. Receiver operating characteristic studies using simulated data demonstrate that the Bayesian reconstruction can greatly improve the detection performance of muon tomography.

  13. Cosmic ray runs acquired with ATLAS muon stations

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerutti, F.

    Starting in the fall 2005 several cosmic ray runs have been acquired in the ATLAS pit with six muon stations. These were three large outer and three large middle chambers of the feet sector (sector 13) that have been readout in the ATLAS cavern. In the first data taking period the trigger was based on two large scintillators (~300x30 cm2) positioned in sector 13 just below the large chambers. In this first run the precision chambers (the Monitored Drift Tubes) were operated in a close to final configuration. Typical trigger rates with this setup were of the order of 1 Hz. Several data sets of 10k events were acquired with final electronics up to the muon ROD and analysed with ATHENA-based software. These data allowed the first checks of the functionality and efficiency of the MDT stations in the ATLAS pit and the first measurement of the FE electronics noise in the ATLAS environment. A few event were also collected in a combined run with the TILE barrel calorimeter. An event display of a cosmic ray a...

  14. Muon track reconstruction and data selection techniques in AMANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Bay, R.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Biron, A.; Boersma, D.J.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Collin, B.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaug, M.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Gross, A.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Harenberg, T.; Hauschildt, T.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kestel, M.; Koepke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Muenich, K.S.; Nam, J.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Oegelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schinarakis, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high-energy neutrino telescope operating at the geographic South Pole. It is a lattice of photo-multiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice between 1500 and 2000 m. The primary goal of this detector is to discover astrophysical sources of high-energy neutrinos. A high-energy muon neutrino coming through the earth from the Northern Hemisphere can be identified by the secondary muon moving upward through the detector. The muon tracks are reconstructed with a maximum likelihood method. It models the arrival times and amplitudes of Cherenkov photons registered by the photo-multipliers. This paper describes the different methods of reconstruction, which have been successfully implemented within AMANDA. Strategies for optimizing the reconstruction performance and rejecting background are presented. For a typical analysis procedure the direction of tracks are reconstructed with about 2 deg. accuracy

  15. Study of the RPC Level-1 trigger efficiency in the compact muon solenoid at LHC with cosmic ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A.O.M., E-mail: oiorio@cern.ch

    2012-01-01

    We report a study of the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) Level-1 (L1) trigger system efficiency in the Barrel of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector of LHC in the same region covered also by the DT trigger system. The method used to study the efficiency exploits the independency of the CMS Drift Tube (DT) and RPC trigger systems. Muon tracks in the event are triggered and reconstructed using the Drift Tube subsystem only, and for each of them we search for a compatible RPC L1 trigger object. We discuss in detail the method and the results of the performance obtained with cosmic ray data taken in 2008-2009.

  16. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, N

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also shown as a function of the Òvertical surface energyÓ Eμ cos !. A Þt to a simpliÞed model of muon pro- duction in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  17. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J.; Bryman, D.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Cousins, T.; Didsbury, R.; Erhardt, L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Jason, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; McCall, M.; Noel, S.; Oakham, F.G.; Ong, D.; Stocki, T.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  18. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  19. Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km 2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p T ) spectrum of high p T muons can be determined. The production of the semuons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays

  20. Orientation selective neural network for cosmic muon identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Horn, D.; Naftaly, U.; Sahar-Pikielny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss a novel method for identification of a linear pattern of pixels on a two-dimensional grid. Motivated by principles employed by the visual cortex, we construct orientation selective neurons in a neural network that performs this task. The method is then applied to a sample of data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in order to identify cosmic muons that leave a linear pattern of signals in the segmented uranium-scintillator calorimeter. A two dimensional representation of the relevant part of the detector is used. The algorithm performs well in the presence of noise and pixels with limited efficiency. Given its architecture, this system becomes a good candidate for fast pattern recognition in parallel processing devices. (orig.)

  1. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, D.; Howard, B.; Mufson, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τ T  = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 * triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ''early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, F E  ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is F S  ≈ 36%, where the increase over F E is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter F prompt , the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ∼0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  2. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.; Mufson, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Howard, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  3. Muon reconstruction and the search for leptoquarks at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckert, B

    2006-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on the reconstruction of high-energetic muons. This simulation study was performed within the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is a pp-collider with a centre-of-mass energy p s = 14 TeV. The purpose of this study was to identify muons with strongly overestimated transverse momentum using Monte Carlo simulated data which has been generated using Pythia and run through a full detector simulation. These muons can lead to a faked leptoquark signal, as leptoquark-decays can include high-energetic muons. If leptoquarks exist, only a small number of such events is expected which makes the safe momentum measurement a crucial point. To achieve an optimal reconstruction, selection criteria have been developed which compare the track’s 2, the particle’s -direction and the reconstructed pT s from the different reconstruction algorithms, namely the inner detector standalone reconstruction, the muon spectrometer standalone reconstruction and a combination of both. Th...

  4. An improved muon reconstruction algorithm for INO-ICAL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal; MandaI, Naba K.

    2013-01-01

    The charge current interaction of neutrino in INO-ICAL detector will be identified with a muon (μ ± ) in the detector whose kinematics is related with the kinematics of the neutrino. So, muon reconstruction is a very important step in achieving INO physics goals. The existing muon reconstruction package for INO-ICAL has poor performance in specific regimes of experimental interest: (a) for larger zenith angle (θ > 50°), (b) for lower energies (E < 1 GeV); mainly due to poor error propagation scheme insensitive to energy E, angle (θ, φ) and inhomogeneous magnetic field along the muon track. Since, a significant fraction of muons from atmospheric neutrino interactions will have initial energy < 1 GeV and almost uniform distribution in cosθ a robust package for muon reconstruction is essential. We have implemented higher order correction terms in the propagation of the state and error covariance matrices of the Kalman Iter. The algorithm ensures track element merging in most cases and also increases reconstruction efficiency. The performance of this package will be presented in comparison with the previous one. (author)

  5. Probing Very High Energy Prompt Muon and Neutrino fluxes and the cosmic ray knee via Underground Muons

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Raj; Panda, Sukanta

    2005-01-01

    We calculate event rate and demonstrate the observational feasibility of very high energy muons (1-1000 TeV) in a large mass underground detector operating as a pair-meter. This energy range corresponds to surface muon energies of $\\sim$(5 TeV - 5000 TeV) and primary cosmic ray energies of $\\sim$ (50 TeV - 5 $\\times 10^4$ TeV). Such measurements would significantly assist in an improved understanding of the prompt contribution to $\

  6. A grey incidence algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Xiao, S.; Shuai, M.; Chen, Y.; Lan, M.; Wei, M.; An, Q.; Lai, X.

    2017-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear materials. However, the flux of cosmic ray muons is low, in the real life application, the detection has to be done a short timescale with small numbers of muons. In this paper, we present a novel approach to detection of special nuclear material by using cosmic ray muons. We use the degree of grey incidence to distinguish typical waste fuel material, uranium, from low-Z material, medium-Z material and other high-Z materials of tungsten and lead. The result shows that using this algorithm, it is possible to detect high-Z materials with an acceptable timescale.

  7. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, D.; Durham, J. M.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D.; Hecht, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This paper describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ∼ 18 σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Potential detector technologies and geometries are discussed.

  8. THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT IN SECONDARY COSMIC RAYS (MUONS) OBSERVED AT THE GROUND: ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J. [Space Geophysics Division, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Munakata, K.; Kato, C. [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621 (Japan); Kuwabara, T. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kozai, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M. [Physics Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, 13060 (Kuwait); Tokumaru, M. [Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan); Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 (Australia); Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Sabbah, I. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City, 72853 (Kuwait)

    2016-10-20

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  9. THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT IN SECONDARY COSMIC RAYS (MUONS) OBSERVED AT THE GROUND: ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  10. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  11. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, N.; Sioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio R μ =N μ + /N μ − in the TeV energy region. R μ is shown as a function of the “vertical surface energy” E μ cosθ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  12. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the first LHC dataset recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ and $Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to $99\\%$ over most of the covered phase space ($|\\eta| 2.2$, the $p_{\\text{T}}$ resolution for a typical muon from $Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays is $2.9\\%$ while the precision on the momentum scale for low-$p_{\\text{T}}$ muons from $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays is about $0.2\\%$.

  13. Muon reconstruction with a geometrical model in JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genster, C.; Schever, M.; Ludhova, L.; Soiron, M.; Stahl, A.; Wiebusch, C.

    2018-03-01

    The Jiangmen Neutrino Underground Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction near Kaiping in China. The physics program focuses on the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor anti-neutrinos. For this purpose, JUNO is located 650 m underground with a distance of 53 km to two nuclear power plants. As a result, it is exposed to a muon flux that requires a precise muon reconstruction to make a veto of cosmogenic backgrounds viable. Established muon tracking algorithms use time residuals to a track hypothesis. We developed an alternative muon tracking algorithm that utilizes the geometrical shape of the fastest light. It models the full shape of the first, direct light produced along the muon track. From the intersection with the spherical PMT array, the track parameters are extracted with a likelihood fit. The algorithm finds a selection of PMTs based on their first hit times and charges. Subsequently, it fits on timing information only. On a sample of through-going muons with a full simulation of readout electronics, we report a spatial resolution of 20 cm of distance from the detector's center and an angular resolution of 1.6o over the whole detector. Additionally, a dead time estimation is performed to measure the impact of the muon veto. Including the step of waveform reconstruction on top of the track reconstruction, a loss in exposure of only 4% can be achieved compared to the case of a perfect tracking algorithm. When including only the PMT time resolution, but no further electronics simulation and waveform reconstruction, the exposure loss is only 1%.

  14. Calibration of the forward and rear ZEUS calorimeter using cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Freidhof, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Mitchell, J.; Molthagen, K.; Tsurugai, T.; Yoshida, R.

    1993-08-01

    The forward and rear calorimeter of the ZEUS experiment consists of 48 modules. Before their installation into the ZEUS detector they were calibrated at DESY using cosmic ray muons in order to check their performance and to compare the response to cosmic muons to the response, obtained for some modules, to 100 GeV beam muons. The set-up, the test procedure and the analysis of the data are described in this paper. The relative calibration of the different modules, as well as of the different cells within a module can be obtained with cosmic ray muons with an accuracy of about one percent for a measurement time of 3-5 days/module. (orig.)

  15. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  16. Overview of the GEM muon system cosmic ray test program at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, E.C.

    1993-04-01

    Muon track resolution exceeding 75-μm per plane is one of the main strengths of the GEM detector design, and will be crucial in searches for Higgs Bosons, heavy Z-Bosons, technicolor, and supersymmetry. Achieving this resolution coal requires improved precision in muon chambers and their alignment. A cosmic ray test stand known as the Texas Test Rio, (TTR) has been created at the SSCL for studying candidate GEM muon chamber technologies. Test results led to selecting Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) as the GEM muon system baseline chamber technology

  17. 3D Tomography of a Mesa Using Cosmic Ray Muons Detected in an Underground Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, E.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The LANL Mini Muon Tracker (MMT) is a muon tracking detector made of sealed aluminum drift tubes. The MMT was operated at four locations inside a tunnel under the Los Alamos town site mesa between November 2015 and February 2016 and it collected cosmic ray muons attenuated by the tunnel overburden. The data were analyzed and used to obtain a 3D tomographic image of the mesa and will be later combined with gravity data collected around the same location. We describe here the muon data taking and their analysis, and we show the resulting 3D image.

  18. Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bansal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bellato, Marco; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Passaseo, Marina; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gramenitski, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kurenkov, Alexander; Lanev, Alexander; Makankin, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smolin, Dmitry; Vasilyev, Sergey; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum $p_T$ larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta)<2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with $p_T$ above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with $p_T$ below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be bett...

  19. Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at √s = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    collaboration, The CMS

    2012-10-01

    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.

  20. Methods and Simulations of Muon Tomography and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Henry Fredrick, III

    This dissertation investigates imaging with cosmic ray muons using scintillator-based portable particle detectors, and covers a variety of the elements required for the detectors to operate and take data, from the detector internal communications and software algorithms to a measurement to allow accurate predictions of the attenuation of physical targets. A discussion of the tracking process for the three layer helical design developed at UT Austin is presented, with details of the data acquisition system, and the highly efficient data format. Upgrades to this system provide a stable system for taking images in harsh or inaccessible environments, such as in a remote jungle in Belize. A Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation was used to develop our understanding of the efficiency of the system, as well as to make predictions for a variety of different targets. The projection process is discussed, with a high-speed algorithm for sweeping a plane through data in near real time, to be used in applications requiring a search through space for target discovery. Several other projections and a foundation of high fidelity 3D reconstructions are covered. A variable binning scheme for rapidly varying statistics over portions of an image plane is also presented and used. A discrepancy in our predictions and the observed attenuation through smaller targets is shown, and it is resolved with a new measurement of low energy spectrum, using a specially designed enclosure to make a series of measurements underwater. This provides a better basis for understanding the images of small amounts of materials, such as for thin cover materials.

  1. Muon g-2 Reconstruction and Analysis Framework for the Muon Anomalous Precession Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, Kim Siang [Washington U., Seattle

    2017-10-21

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab, with the aim to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment to an unprecedented level of 140~ppb, has started beam and detector commissioning in Summer 2017. To deal with incoming data projected to be around tens of petabytes, a robust data reconstruction and analysis chain based on Fermilab's \\textit{art} event-processing framework is developed. Herein, I report the current status of the framework, together with its novel features such as multi-threaded algorithms for online data quality monitor (DQM) and fast-turnaround operation (nearline). Performance of the framework during the commissioning run is also discussed.

  2. Measurement of cosmic-ray reconstruction efficiencies in the MicroBooNE LArTPC using a small external cosmic-ray counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2017-07-31

    The MicroBooNE detector is a liquid argon time projection chamber at Fermilab designed to study short-baseline neutrino oscillations and neutrino-argon interaction cross-section. Due to its location near the surface, a good understanding of cosmic muons as a source of backgrounds is of fundamental importance for the experiment. We present a method of using an external 0.5 m (L) x 0.5 m (W) muon counter stack, installed above the main detector, to determine the cosmic-ray reconstruction efficiency in MicroBooNE. Data are acquired with this external muon counter stack placed in three different positions, corresponding to cosmic rays intersecting different parts of the detector. The data reconstruction efficiency of tracks in the detector is found to be $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{data}}=(97.1\\pm0.1~(\\mathrm{stat}) \\pm 1.4~(\\mathrm{sys}))\\%$, in good agreement with the Monte Carlo reconstruction efficiency $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{MC}} = (97.4\\pm0.1)\\%$. This analysis represents a small-scale demonstration of the method that can be used with future data coming from a recently installed cosmic-ray tagger system, which will be able to tag $\\approx80\\%$ of the cosmic rays passing through the MicroBooNE detector.

  3. Measurement of cosmic-ray reconstruction efficiencies in the MicroBooNE LArTPC using a small external cosmic-ray counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Kalousis, L. N.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Lange, G.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pelkey, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; John, J. St.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is a liquid argon time projection chamber at Fermilab designed to study short-baseline neutrino oscillations and neutrino-argon interaction cross-section. Due to its location near the surface, a good understanding of cosmic muons as a source of backgrounds is of fundamental importance for the experiment. We present a method of using an external 0.5 m (L) × 0.5 m (W) muon counter stack, installed above the main detector, to determine the cosmic-ray reconstruction efficiency in MicroBooNE. Data are acquired with this external muon counter stack placed in three different positions, corresponding to cosmic rays intersecting different parts of the detector. The data reconstruction efficiency of tracks in the detector is found to be epsilondata=(97.1±0.1 (stat) ± 1.4 (sys))%, in good agreement with the Monte Carlo reconstruction efficiency epsilonMC = (97.4±0.1)%. This analysis represents a small-scale demonstration of the method that can be used with future data coming from a recently installed cosmic-ray tagger system, which will be able to tag ≈80% of the cosmic rays passing through the MicroBooNE detector.

  4. Optimization of the muon reconstruction algorithms for LHCb Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Dettori, Francesco; Dungs, Kevin; Lopes, Helder; Martinez Santos, Diego; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Sciascia, Barbara; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Stahl, Sascha; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The muon identification algorithm in the LHCb HLT software trigger and offline reconstruction has been revisited in view of the LHC Run 2. This software has undergone a significant refactorisation, resulting in a modularized common code base between the HLT and offline event processing. Because of the latter, the muon identification is now identical in HLT and offline. The HLT1 algorithm sequence has been updated given the new rate and timing constraints. Also, information from the TT subdetector is used in order to reduce ghost tracks and optimize for low $p_T$ muons. The current software is presented here together with performance studies showing improved efficiencies and reduced timing.

  5. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousis, L N; Guarnaccia, E; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ∼ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC

  6. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm{sup −2} min{sup −1}. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. A prototype scintillating-fibre detector has been developed for this application, consisting of two tracking modules above and below the volume to be assayed. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of 2 mm fibres. The modular configuration allows the reconstruction of the initial and scattered muon trajectories which enable the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Fibre signals are read out by Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution of the fibres. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm was developed and tested using a GEANT4 simulation of the prototype system. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented in comparison with experimental results taken with test objects. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  7. A large area cosmic muon detector located at Ohya stone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, N.; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Matsuno, S.; Muraki, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Kamiya, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays between 10 to the 15th power eV and 10 to the 18th power eV were determined by a Large Area Cosmic Muon Detector located at Ohya stone mine. The experimental aims of Ohya project are; (1) search for the ultra high-energy gamma-rays; (2) search for the GUT monopole created by Big Bang; and (3) search for the muon bundle. A large number of muon chambers were installed at the shallow underground near Nikko (approx. 100 Km north of Tokyo, situated at Ohya-town, Utsunomiya-city). At the surface of the mine, very fast 100 channel scintillation counters were equipped in order to measure the direction of air showers. These air shower arrays were operated at the same time, together with the underground muon chamber.

  8. Detection of High-Z Objects using Multiple Scattering of Cosmic Ray Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Gary E.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Gomez, John; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    Detection of high-Z material hidden inside a large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in 3 dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, approximately 10,000 m-2min-1, can generate a reliable detection signal in a fraction of a minute, using large-area muon detectors as used in particle and nuclear physics

  9. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (muon tomography.

  10. Performance of muon reconstruction including Alignment Position Errors for 2016 Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    From 2016 Run muon reconstruction is using non-zero Alignment Position Errors to account for the residual uncertainties of muon chambers' positions. Significant improvements are obtained in particular for the startup phase after opening/closing the muon detector. Performance results are presented for real data and MC simulations, related to both the offline reconstruction and the High-Level Trigger.

  11. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  12. STUDIES OF COSMIC-RAY MUONS AND NEUTRONS IN A FIVE-STORY CONCRETE BUILDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2018-05-01

    This study thoroughly determined the flux and dose rate distributions of cosmic-ray muons and neutrons in a five-story concrete building by comparing measurements with Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray showers. An angular-energy-dependent surface source comprising secondary muons and neutrons at a height of 200 m above ground level was established and verified, which was used to concatenate the shower development in the upper atmosphere with subsequent simulations of radiation transport down to ground level, including the effect of the terrain and studied building. A Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector and a highly sensitive Bonner cylinder were used to perform muon and neutron measurements on each building floor. After careful calibration and correction, the measured responses of the two detectors were discovered to be reasonably consistent with the theoretical predictions, thus confirming the validity of the two-step calculation model employed in this study. The annual effective doses from cosmic-ray muons and neutrons on the open roof of the building were estimated to be 115.2 and 35.2 μSv, respectively. Muons and neutrons were attenuated floor-by-floor with different attenuation factors of 0.97 and 0.78, and their resultant dose rates on the first floor of the building were 97.8 and 9.9 μSv, respectively.

  13. Performance of the CMS Level-1 Trigger during Commissioning with Cosmic Ray Muons and LHC beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; 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    2010-01-01

    The CMS Level-1 trigger was used to select cosmic ray muons and LHC beam events during data-taking runs in 2008, and to estimate the level of detector noise. This paper describes the trigger components used, the algorithms that were executed, and the trigger synchronisation. Using data from extended cosmic ray runs, the muon, electron/photon, and jet triggers have been validated, and their performance evaluated. Efficiencies were found to be high, resolutions were found to be good, and rates as expected.

  14. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  15. Measurement of angular distribution of cosmic-ray muon fluence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chen, Yen-Fu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this work a Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector was used to measure the angular distribution of the cosmic-ray muon fluence rate. Angular response functions of the detector at each measurement orientation were calculated by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, where no energy attenuation was taken into account. Coincidence counting rates were measured at ten orientations with equiangular intervals. The muon angular fluence rate spectrum was unfolded from the measured counting rates associated with the angular response functions using both the MAXED code and the parameter adjusting method.

  16. A Simple Parameterization of the Cosmic-Ray Muon Momentum Spectra at the Surface as a Function of Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, D.

    2006-01-01

    The designs of many neutrino experiments rely on calculations of the background rates arising from cosmic-ray muons at shallow depths. Understanding the angular dependence of low momentum cosmic-ray muons at the surface is necessary for these calculations. Heuristically, from examination of the data, a simple parameterization is proposed, based on a straighforward scaling variable. This in turn, allows a universal calculation of the differential muon intensity at the surface for all zenith an...

  17. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  18. Special relativity in the school laboratory: A simple apparatus for cosmic-ray muon detection

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity and to extended investigations for more inquisitive students.

  19. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  20. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  1. Cosmic-ray muons as a calibration source for high-energy gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerngren Engblom, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper a measurement of the directional distribution of cosmic-ray muons, at the latitude of Stockholm, is reported. In fitting the measured flux to a simple analytical expression, the distribution was found to be symmetric around a line approximately to the northwest at 4.2±0.7 degrees from zenith. The east-west asymmetry amounted to a difference in the total intensity of 20±4% at the zenith angle of 45 degrees. The spectra of energies deposited by the muons in a BGO-detector orientated at different angles, are obtained through a Monte Carlo-simulation, where the muon distribution is used as a weight function for sampling muons in different directions. (author)

  2. New measurements and analysis of high-energy muons in cosmic ray extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Ghose, B.; Murkherjee, N.; Sanyal, S.; Chaudhuri, N.; Chhetri, R.; Basak, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cosmic ray air shower structure measurements and measurement of density and energy of air shower muons of a wide energy range simultaneously in individual air showers by two magnet spectrographs are presented. The measured muon densities have been used to compare with some of the previous measurements on muon densities in air showers of nearly the same size. The measured muon densities have also been applied for distinguishing between various interaction models and between light and heavier air shower primaries. In the air shower size range 10 4 -10 6 particles the present measurements do not provide evidence for iron primaries and the different interaction models seem not to be distinguishable by air shower observations. (Author)

  3. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Pixel Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

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Safonov, A; Safronov, G; Saha, A; Saini, L K; Sakharov, A; Sakulin, H; Sala, L; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Sampaio, S; Samyn, D; Sanabria, J C; Sanchez, A K; Sánchez Hernández, A; Sander, C; Sanders, D A; Sanders, S; Sani, M; Santacruz, N; Santanastasio, F; Santaolalla, J; Santocchia, A; Santoro, A; Sanzeni, C; Saout, C; Sarkar, S; Sartisohn, G; Sarycheva, L; Satpathy, A; Sauce, H; Sauerland, P; Savin, A; Savrin, V; Sawley, M C; Schael, S; Schäfer, C; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schlatter, W D; Schlein, P; Schleper, P; Schmid, S; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, I; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, M; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, S A; Schnetzer, S; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schöfbeck, R; Schott, G; Schreiner, T; Schröder, M; Schroeder, M; Schul, N; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schümann, J; Schum, T; Schwering, G; Schwick, C; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, C; Scodellaro, L; Scurlock, B; Searle, M; Sedov, A; Seez, C; Segneri, G; Segoni, I; Seixas, J; Sekhri, V; Sekmen, S; Selvaggi, G; Selvaggi, M; Semenov, R; Semenov, S; Sengupta, S; Sen, S; Serban, A T; Serin, M; Servoli, L; Sever, R; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sguazzoni, G; Shabalina, E; Shahzad, H; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, S; Sharma, V; Sharp, P; Shaw, T M; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sheldon, P; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Shinde, Y; Shipsey, I; Shiu, J G; Shivpuri, R K; Shi, X; Shmatov, S; Shpakov, D; Shreyber, I; Shukla, P; Shumeiko, N; Siamitros, C; Sibille, J; Sidiropoulos, G; Siegrist, N; Siegrist, P; Signal, T; Sikler, F; Sill, A; Sillou, D; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Silva, J; Silva, P; Silvestris, L; Sim, K S; Simonetto, F; Simonis, H J; Simon, S; Sinanis, N; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Singovsky, A; Sirois, Y; Siroli, G; Sirunyan, A M; Sknar, V; Skuja, A; Skup, E; Slabospitsky, S; Slaunwhite, J; Smiljkovic, N; Smirnov, I; Smirnov, V; Smith, J; Smith, K; Smith, R P; Smith, V J; Smith, W H; Smolin, D; Smoron, A; Snigirev, A; Snow, G R; Soares, D; Sobol, A; Sobrier, T; Sobron Sanudo, M; Sogut, K; Soha, A; Solano, A; Solin, A; Solovey, A; Somalwar, S; Son, D C; Song, S; Sonmez, N; Sonnek, P; Sonnenschein, L; Sordini, V; Soroka, D; Sourkov, A; Sousa, M; Souza, M H G; Sowa, M; Spagnolo, P; Spalding, W J; Spanier, S; Speck, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, P; Spiegel, L; Spiga, D; Spiropulu, M; Sprenger, D; Squires, M; Srivastava, A K; Stadie, H; Stahl, A; Staiano, A; Stark, R; Starodumov, A; Stefanovitch, R; Steggemann, J; Steinbrück, G; Steininger, H; Stenson, K; Stephans, G; Stettler, M; Stickland, D; Stieger, B; Stilley, J; Stober, F M; Stöckli, F; Stolin, V; Stone, R; Stoye, M; Stoykova, S; Stoynev, S; Strang, M; Strauss, J; Stringer, R; Stroiney, S; Stuart, D; Sturdy, J; Sturm, P; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Sudhakar, K; Sulak, L; Sulimov, V; Sultanov, G; Summers, D; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Sun, W; Surat, U E; Suzuki, I; Svintradze, I; Swain, J; Swanson, J; Swartz, M; Sytine, A; Sytnik, V; Szabo, Z; Szczesny, H; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Szleper, M; Sznajder, A; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Takahashi, M; Tali, B; Tancini, V; Tanenbaum, W; Tan, P; Tao, J; Tapper, A; Tarakanov, V; Taroni, S; Taurok, A; Tauscher, L; Tavernier, S; Taylor, L; Taylor, R; Teischinger, F; Temple, J; Tenchini, R; Teng, H; Teodorescu, L; Teo, W D; Terentyev, N; Teyssier, D; Thea, A; Themel, T; Theofilatos, K; Thiebaux, C; Thomas, M; Thomas, S; Thom, J; Thomsen, J; Thyssen, F; Tikhonenko, E; Tikhonov, A; Timciuc, V; Timlin, C; Titov, M; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokesi, K; Tolaini, S; Tomalin, I R; Tonelli, G; Toniolo, N; Tonjes, M B; Tonoiu, D; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Topakli, H; Topkar, A; Torassa, E; Tornier, D; Toropin, A; Torre, P; Torromeo, G; Tosi, M; Toteva, Z; Toth, N; Tourneur, S; Tourtchanovitch, L; To, W; Traczyk, P; Tran, N V; Trapani, P P; Travaglini, R; Trayanov, R; Treille, D; Trentadue, R; Triantis, F A; Tricomi, A; Triossi, A; Tripathi, M; Trocino, D; Trocsanyi, Z L; Troendle, D; Troitsky, S; Tropea, P; Tropiano, A; Troshin, S; Troska, J; Trüb, P; Trunov, A; Tsang, K V; Tsiakkouri, D; Tsirigkas, D; Tsirou, A; Tucker, J; Tully, C; Tumanov, A; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tupputi, S; Tuura, L; Tuuva, T; Tuve, C; Twedt, E; Tytgat, M; Tyurin, N; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Uhl, D; Ujvari, B; Ulmer, K; Ungaro, D; Uplegger, L; Uvarov, L; Uzun, D; Uzunian, A; Vaandering, E W; Valuev, V; Vander Donckt, M; Vander Velde, C; Van Doninck, W; Vanelderen, L; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Hove, P; Vanini, S; Vankov, I; Vanlaer, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van Mulders, P; Van Remortel, N; Vardanyan, I; Varela, J; Varelas, N; Vasil'ev, S; Vasquez Sierra, R; Vaughan, J; Vaurynovich, S; Vavilov, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Vedaee, A; Veelken, C; Veillet, L; Velasco, M; Velichko, G; Velikzhanin, Y; Velthuis, J; Ventura, S; Venturi, A; Verdier, P; Verdini, P G; Veres, G I; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Verrecchia, P; Verwilligen, P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Veverka, J; Vicini, A; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Vilela Pereira, A; Villanueva Munoz, C; Villella, I; Vinogradov, A; Virdee, T; Visca, L; Vishnevskiy, A; Vishnevskiy, D; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Vizan Garcia, J M; Vlasov, E; Vlimant, J R; Vodopiyanov, I; Vogel, H; Volkov, A; Volkov, S; Volobouev, I; Volodko, A; Volpe, R; Volyanskyy, D; Vorobiev, I; Vorobyev, A; Voutilainen, M; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, P; Wagner, S R; Wagner, W; Wakefield, S; Wallny, R; Waltenberger, W; Walton, R; Walzel, G; Wang, C C; Wang, D; Wang, J; Wang, M; Wang, Z; Wan, Z; Warchol, J; Wardrope, D; Washington, E; Watts, T L; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weinberger, M; Weinberg, M; Wendland, L; Wenger, E A; Weng, J; Weng, Y; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; Werner, J S; Wertelaers, P; Wetzel, J; White, A; Whitmore, J; Whyntie, T; Wickens, J; Wicklund, E; Widl, E; Wigmans, R; Wildish, T; Wilke, L; Wilken, R; Wilkinson, R; Williams, G; Williams, J C; Williams, J H; Willmott, C; Wimpenny, S; Wingham, M; Winn, D; Wissing, C; Witherell, M; Wittich, P; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Wöhri, H K; Wolf, R; Womersley, W J; Won, S; Wood, J S; Worm, S D; Wright, D; Wrochna, G; Wulz, C E; Würthwein, F; Wu, S; Wu, W; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Xie, Z; Xue, Z; Yagil, A; Yang, X; Yang, Y; Yang, Z C; Yan, M; Yarba, J; Yaselli, I; Yazgan, E; Yelton, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Yilmaz, Y; Yohay, R; Yoo, H D; Yoon, A S; York, A; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Yuste, C; Zabi, A; Zabolotny, W; Zachariadou, A; Zalewski, P; Zampieri, A; Zanetti, M; Zang, S L; Zarubin, A; Zatzerklyany, A; Zeidler, C; Zeinali, M; Zeise, M; Zelepoukine, S; Zeuner, W D; Zeyrek, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Y; Zhiltsov, V; Zhokin, A; Zhu, B; Zhukova, V; Zhukov, V; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Ziebarth, E B; Zielinski, M; Zilizi, G; Zinonos, Z; Zito, G; Zoeller, M H; Zotto, P; Zub, S; Zumerle, G; Zuranski, A; Zuyeuski, R; Zych, P

    2010-01-01

    The pixel detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment consists of three barrel layers and two disks for each endcap. The detector was installed in summer 2008, commissioned with charge injections, and operated in the 3.8 T magnetic field during cosmic ray data taking. This paper reports on the first running experience and presents results on the pixel tracker performance, which are found to be in line with the design specifications of this detector. The transverse impact parameter resolution measured in a sample of high momentum muons is 18 microns.

  4. Momentum and zenithal dependence of the enhancements of intensities of cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, M.S.; Osborne, A.R.; Benbrook, J.R.; Sheldon, W.R.; Duller, N.M.; Green, P.J.; Choate, L.M.; Magnusson, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute directional differential intensities of high-energy cosmic ray muons near sea level have been measured over the momentum range 2-700 GeV/c in the vertical direction and zenithal interval 55deg-90deg. The measurements were made with the AMH magnetic spectrometer-telescope. The enhancements I(65deg)/I(0deg) and I(80deg)/I(0deg) of the muon intensities as a function of momentum are presented and compared with the theoretical results of Maeda and Asbury et al. (author)

  5. Reconstruction of the muon production depth with ground array data based on the TTC (Time-Track Complementarity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valore L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muon longitudinal profile along the shower axis depends on the nature of the primary particle and primary hadronic interaction with air nuclei. The measurement of muonic component inside showers generated by Very High Energy Cosmic Rays provides a very powerful tool for sensing high energy interactions between cosmic ray particles and air molecules. Fundamental parameters such as the interaction cross section, inelasticity, hadron production and multiplicity can be measured by comparing the development of shower electromagnetic component with that of muonic component. Since 1992 a method has been developed to combine the muon arrival direction in a ground based array for cosmic ray detection with their arrival delay with respect to the shower core. This combination permits to select high energy muons weakly scattered in the atmosphere and to reconstruct their height of production with good accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility to realize a “dual” apparatus able to detect both electromagnetic and muonic component at primary energies greater than 1017eV.

  6. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrica, Bogdan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest, P.O.B.MG-6 (Romania)

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  7. Subsurface density mapping of the earth with cosmic ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K.M. [Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 113-0032 Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Since its original discovery by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen in 1895, one of the directions of researchers pursued was an application of x-ray radiography to larger objects, while the advent of high voltage x-ray tubes allowed radiographs of industrial objects to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In spite of the great motivation we have to survey the earth's interior, we now know that x rays are not sufficiently penetrative to successfully target geophysical objects. Our current knowledge about the cross sections of the muon with matter solves the problem about this x-ray's inspectable size limit. These particles do not interact strongly with matter, and those with relativistic momentum travel long distances penetrating deep into rock. By tracking the ray paths of the muon after passing through the object, the method gives researchers the ability to study the earth in new ways. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing the earth's interior with muons.

  8. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelling, M; Grupen, C; Luitz, S; Maciuc, F; Mailov, A; Müller, A -S; Sander, H -G; Schmeling, S; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

  9. Energy spectrum and angular distribution of prompt cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale); Castellina, A; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G; Vernetto, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1984-07-01

    The energy spectrum and angular distribution of atmospheric prompt muons are calculated by using an integral solution for production of charmed particles, their decay and muon transport in the atmosphere. Current experimental information from accelerator and theoretical ideas about charm cross-section and semi-leptonic decay are used to give a reference prompt muon spectrum to compare with that from conventional sources (..pi.. and K decay). The obtained differential spectrum has an energy dependence which approaches that of the primary cosmic rays. The integral intensity of prompt muons is equal to the conventional one at about 250 TeV. The angular distribution is found to be practically flat in the range (0/80)/sup 0/ irrespective of the muon energy. On the basis of this analysis we estimate that accurate measurements of muon energy spectrum and angular distribution at energies greater than 10 TeV should allow one to obtain useful information regarding charm hadroproduction cross-section in the 100 TeV region.

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  11. NEW APPROACHES: Measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons in the A-level laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter; Costich, David; O'Sullivan, Sean

    1998-09-01

    The Turning Points in Physics module from the NEAB A-level Modular Physics syllabus requires students to have an understanding of relativistic time dilation and offers the measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons as an example of supporting experimental evidence. This article describes a direct measurement of muon lifetime carried out in the A-level laboratory.

  12. First measurement of ice-bedrock interface of alpine glaciers by cosmic muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, R.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Käser, S.; Lechmann, A.; Mair, D.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.; Ereditato, A.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-06-01

    The shape of the bedrock underneath alpine glaciers bears vital information on the erosional mechanism related to the flow of ice. So far, several geophysical exploration methods have been proposed to map the bedrock topography though with limited accuracy. Here we illustrate the first results from a technology, called cosmic ray muon radiography, newly applied in glacial geology to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath the Aletsch Glacier situated in the Central Swiss Alps. For this purpose we installed new cosmic muon detectors made of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel and measured the shape of the bedrock under the uppermost part of Aletsch Glacier (Jungfraufirn). Our results constrain the continuation of the bedrock-ice interface up to a depth of 50 m below the surface, where the bedrock underneath the glacier strikes NE-SW and dips at 45° ± 5°. This documents the first successful application of this technology to a glaciated environment.

  13. The CosmicWatch Desktop Muon Detector: a self-contained, pocket sized particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S. N.; Frankiewicz, K.; Conrad, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    The CosmicWatch Desktop Muon Detector is a self-contained, hand-held cosmic ray muon detector that is valuable for astro/particle physics research applications and outreach. The material cost of each detector is under 100 and it takes a novice student approximately four hours to build their first detector. The detectors are powered via a USB connection and the data can either be recorded directly to a computer or to a microSD card. Arduino- and Python-based software is provided to operate the detector and an online application to plot the data in real-time. In this paper, we describe the various design features, evaluate the performance, and illustrate the detectors capabilities by providing several example measurements.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  15. Seasonal variation of the underground cosmic muon flux observed at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Khan, A.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Qiu, R. M.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sebastiani, C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Yang, Y. Z.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Daya Bay Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors located in three underground experimental halls named as EH1, EH2, EH3, with 250, 265 and 860 meters of water equivalent vertical overburden, respectively. Cosmic muon events have been recorded over a two-year period. The underground muon rate is observed to be positively correlated with the effective atmospheric temperature and to follow a seasonal modulation pattern. The correlation coefficient α, describing how a variation in the muon rate relates to a variation in the effective atmospheric temperature, is found to be αEH1 = 0.362±0.031, αEH2 = 0.433±0.038 and αEH3 = 0.641±0.057 for each experimental hall.

  16. The Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Commissioning with Cosmic Muons and First LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Trocmé, B

    2008-01-01

    In 2009, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will collide protons with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. ATLAS is a general purpose experiment that will allow to explore the wide potential of discovery and achieve high precision measurements. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are presented, with an emphasis on their in situ commissioning using cosmic muons and their response during the first LHC single beam runs on September 2008.

  17. The CCRT: An inexpensive cosmic ray muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpell, E.; Langeveld, W.; McShurley, D.; Shapiro, S.; Venuti, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the authors describe an inexpensive cosmic ray counter useful for physics demonstrations and experiments. Although many university departments use cosmic ray detectors as part of their upper division laboratory courses, these are often large and expensive devices requiring specialized equipment not usually accessible in high school and college programs. This detector is very compact and can be constructed for about $350 using commercially available materials and small scintillator panels that may be available (in limited supply) from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and perhaps other accelerator laboratories. In the following, the authors provide detailed instructions for the construction of the detector as well as suggestions for its use in the classroom and laboratory

  18. A combined cosmic ray muon spectrometer and high energy air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies in excess of 10 20 eV, and individual sources have been conclusively identified as intense emitters of gamma rays at energies up to 10 16 eV. There is clearly a great deal of exciting astrophysics to be learned from such studies, but it has been suggested that there may be particle physics to be learned from the cosmic beam as well. Based in particular on the reports of surprisingly high fluxes of underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 modulated by the known orbital period, there have been several suggestions recently invoking stable supersymmetric particles produced at Cygnus X-3, enhanced muon production from high energy photons, quark matter, and ''cygnets.'' Although the underground muon results have been questioned, it may still be worthwhile to consider the possibility of new physics beyond the standard model with energy scale (G/sub F/)/sup -1/2/ ≥ 0.25 TeV. For example, there have been recent discussions on the experimental signatures to be observed from new high energy photon couplings to matter, exchanges between constituent quarks and leptons, and stable gluinos and photinos mixed in with the cosmic gamma ray flux. We describe here a possible detector to search for such effects. We utilize the possibility that point sources like Cygnus X-3 can be used to provide a directional time-modulated ''tagged'' high energy photon beam

  19. A configurable tracking algorithm to detect cosmic muon tracks for the CMS-RPC based technical trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, R T; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Ranieri, A; Abbrescia, M; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, b, S; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, e, A; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Polese, G; Sciacca, C; Baesso, g, P; Belli, G; Necchi, M; Ratti, S P; Pagano, D; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Bunkowski, K; Kierzkowski, K; Konecki, M; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, K

    2009-01-01

    In the CERN CMS experiment at LHC Collider special trigger signals called Technical Triggers will be used for the purpose of test and calibration. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) based Technical Trigger system is a part of the CMS muon trigger system and is designed to detect cosmic muon tracks. It is based on two boards, namely RBC (RPC Balcony Collector) and TTU (Technical Trigger Unit). The proposed tracking algorithm (TA) written in VHDL and implemented in the TTU board detects single or multiple cosmic muon tracks at every bunch crossing along with their track lengths and corresponding chamber coordinates. The TA implementation in VHDL and its preliminary simulation results are presented.

  20. The use of cosmic muons in detecting heterogeneities in large volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabski, V.; Reche, R.; Alfaro, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Sandoval, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.

    2008-01-01

    The muon intensity attenuation method to detect heterogeneities in large matter volumes is analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions to estimate the collection time and the signal to noise ratio, are proposed and validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Important parameters, including point spread function and coordinate reconstruction uncertainty are also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations

  1. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio ( 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies 15 eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10 13 eV - 10 15 eV. The results show detailed effects of the direction of EAS incidence relative to the geomagnetic field, depending, in particular, of the primary mass. Based on the results, we can say that WILLI-EAS experiment could be used for testing the hadronic interaction models. Measurements of the high energy muon flux in underground of the salt mine from Slanic Prahova, Romania was performed using a new mobile detector developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of 2 scintillator plates measuring in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes in different locations at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes at different sites of Romania and in the underground of the salt mines from Slanic Prahova, Romania where IFIN-HH has a modern underground laboratory. New methods for the detection of cosmic ray muons are investigated in our institute based on scintillator techniques using optical fiber and MPPC photodyodes.

  2. Cosmic Rays and Clouds, 1. Formation of Lead Mesoatoms In Neutron Monitor By Soft Negative Muons and Expected Atmospheric Electric Field Effect In The Cosmic Ray Neutron Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    We extend our model (Dorman and Dorman, 1995) of cosmic ray atmospheric electric field effect on the case of neutron monitor. We take into account that about 0.07 of neu- tron monitor counting rate caused by negative soft muons captured by lead nucleons and formed mesoatoms with generation of several MeV energy neutrons from lead. In this case the neutron monitor or neutron supermonitor works as analyzer which de- tects muons of only one, negative sign. It is very important because the atmospheric electric field effect have opposite signs for positive and negative muons that main part of this effect in the muon telescope or in ionization chamber is compensated and we can observe only small part of total effect of one sign muons. On the basis of our gen- eral theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects with taking into account of negative soft muon acceleration and deceleration in the Earth atmosphere (in dependence of di- rection and intensity of electric field) we discuss the possibility of existing this effect in cosmic ray neutron component and made some rough estimations. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I. and Dorman I.V., 1995. "Cosmic-ray atmospheric electric field effects". Canadian J. of Physics, Vol. 73, pp. 440-443.

  3. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons in various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Yudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The results obtained by studying the background of neutrons produced by cosmic-raymuons in underground experimental facilities intended for rare-event searches and in surrounding rock are presented. The types of this rock may include granite, sedimentary rock, gypsum, and rock salt. Neutron production and transfer were simulated using the Geant4 and SHIELD transport codes. These codes were tuned via a comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data—in particular, with data of the Artemovsk research station of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow, Russia)—as well as via an intercomparison of results of calculations with the Geant4 and SHIELD codes. It turns out that the atomic-number dependence of the production and yield of neutrons has an irregular character and does not allow a description in terms of a universal function of the atomic number. The parameters of this dependence are different for two groups of nuclei—nuclei consisting of alpha particles and all of the remaining nuclei. Moreover, there are manifest exceptions from a power-law dependence—for example, argon. This may entail important consequences both for the existing underground experimental facilities and for those under construction. Investigation of cosmic-ray-induced neutron production in various materials is of paramount importance for the interpretation of experiments conducted at large depths under the Earth's surface.

  4. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  5. Imaging the density profile of a volcano interior with cosmic-ray muon radiography combined with classical gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, S; Tanaka, H K M

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography has the potential to reveal the density structure of gigantic objects. It utilizes the strong penetration ability of high-energy muons. By measuring the number of muons that travel through a target object, the average density can be calculated along the muon path. Since muons travel in straight paths through matter, specially designed detectors can generate density maps with higher spatial resolution than those obtained with conventional geophysical methods. However, this technique has a few notable limitations in that it can only be applied to near-surface structures above the muon sensor and strongly depends on the characteristics of the local topography. This is due to the fact that almost all cosmic-ray muons arrive only from the upper hemisphere. Geological structures, e.g. volcanoes, that allow for muon detectors to be placed on a slope directly below the point of interest are thus the best candidates for this technique. The drawback of muon radiography that only the horizontally integrated density above the sensor is measured with a time resolution larger than several weeks may be partly remedied by combining its results with gravity data, as they are both sensitive to target density while complementary to each other in several aspects. An example of such a combination is presented: real-time monitoring of magma head height in a volcano conduit. (topical review)

  6. Muon reconstruction and identification with the Run II D0 detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 737, Feb (2014), s. 281-294 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Fermilab * D0 * Tevatron Run II * muon identification * muon reconstruction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  7. The reconstruction of tracks with the drift tubes in the muon spektrometers of the neutrino experiment OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonsak, B.S.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis the reconstruction of tracks within the OPERA muon spectrometer is described as well as parts of the simulation software concerning the drift tubes. A method minimising the χ 2 of the tracks is used for the fit, which is supported by liklyhood considerations during the pattern recognition. An analytical description of the time to distance relation for the OPERA drift tubes is introduced to be used in the fit. For simulated events of cosmics a resolution of 410±4 μm and an efficiency of more that 93% has been acquired. For real cosmic data from the OPERA detector a resolution o 374±3 μm and an efficiency of up to 84% has been reached. The acquired angular resolution of 1,2 mrad is sufficient to achieve a momentum resolution of 25% up to momentums of 25 GeV. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  9. The MU-RAY project: Volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Ambrosino, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Battiston, R. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita di Perugia (Italy); Bross, A. [Fermilab (United States); Callier, S. [LAL, Orsay (France); Cassese, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Castellini, G. [CNR-IFAC, Firenze (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN sezione Firenze (Italy); Cozzolino, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [INFN sezione Firenze (Italy); Universita di Firenze (Italy); La Taille, C. de [LAL, Orsay (France); Iacobucci, G. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Marotta, A. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Masone, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Martini, M. [INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Nishiyama, R. [Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Noli, P. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Orazi, M. [INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Parascandolo, L.; Parascandolo, P. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few 100 m of a volcanic cone. With resolutions up to 10s of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods. Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project aims at the construction of muon telescopes and the development of new analysis tools for muon radiography. The telescopes are required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of two X-Y planes of 2x2 square meters area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fiber coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC chip.

  10. Studies of the performance of the ATLAS detector using cosmic-ray muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Pedrosa, F.Baltasar Dos Santos; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.Barreiro; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Harpaz, S.Behar; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ami, S.Ben; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E.Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; 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    2011-01-01

    Muons from cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere provide a high-statistics source of particles that can be used to study the performance and calibration of the ATLAS detector. Cosmic-ray muons can penetrate to the cavern and deposit energy in all detector subsystems. Such events have played an important role in the commissioning of the detector since the start of the installation phase in 2005 and were particularly important for understanding the detector performance in the time prior to the arrival of the first LHC beams. Global cosmic-ray runs were undertaken in both 2008 and 2009 and these data have been used through to the early phases of collision data-taking as a tool for calibration, alignment and detector monitoring. These large datasets have also been used for detector performance studies, including investigations that rely on the combined performance of different subsystems. This paper presents the results of performance studies related to combined tracking, lepton identification and the reconst...

  11. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F.E., E-mail: fgray@regis.ed [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Department of Physics, 1523 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J. [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Zhang, C. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); China Three Gorges University, College of Science, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2011-05-11

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149{+-}0.017 x10{sup -2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67{+-}0.06 x10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56{+-}0.25 x10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  12. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, F.E.; Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J.; Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149±0.017 x10 -2 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67±0.06 x10 -6 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56±0.25 x10 -7 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  13. Calculation on cosmic-ray muon exposure rate in non-walled concrete buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Abe, Siro

    1984-01-01

    Computer simulations on the exposure indoors from cosmic ray muons were practiced in the framework of non-scattering and non-cascade assumptions. The model buildings were two-dimensional, rectangular, and were made of a normal concrete. A stratified structure was assumed in each building, where no mezzanine was considered. Walls were not taken into account yet. The distributions of the exposure rates in 26-story buildings were illustrated in contour maps for various sets of parameters. All of them gave basically archlike patterns. Analyses of the results showed that the exposure rate is affected most largely by the floor board thickness. The ceiling height would be an insignificant factor for short buildings. The min/max ratio of the muon exposure rate in a moderate size building was estimated to be more than 0.7. (author)

  14. Determining of the nuclear composition of primary cosmic rays from the experimental distributions of multiple muons in atmospheric showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1993-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for determining the nuclear composition of the primary cosmic radiation from the distributions of multiple muons. Results are presented of calculations of the distributions of multiple muons for A 1 , A 4 , A 14 , A 26 , A 56 nuclei for an infinite plane and for the underground scintillation telescope of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Russia.The most suitable technique for determination of the primary nuclear composition of cosmic rays from the distribution of multiple muons is shown to be the approximate solution of a set of N equations, in which the respective coefficients of the contributions of various nuclei A i (i=1-N) to the primary composition serve as variables, while the remaining parts of these equations are the distributions of multiple muons obtained experimentally. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  16. Track reconstruction of normal muon decays in the LAMPF TPC: one working scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A working scheme for track reconstruction of normal muon decays in the LAMPF TPC is here outlined. Muon tracks stopping in the TPC and helical electron tracks from muon decay are both identified and fitted for complete event reconstruction. Because of certain geometrical characteristics of the TPC, novel techniques are deployed to find the tracks. Normal road tracing methods do not work reliably; they are replaced by, among other things, a random search technique that locates the helix's planar projection and a carefully worked-out method for correctly putting each coordinate on its proper turn in the helix

  17. A Muon Identification and Combined Reconstruction Procedure for the ATLAS Detector at the LHC at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T; Assamagan, Ketevi A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; Farilla, A; Fisyak, Yu; Goldfarb, S; Gorini, E; Mair, K; Merola, L; Nairz, A; Poppleton, A; Primavera, M; Rosati, S; Shank, S; Spagnolo, S; Spogli, S; Stavropoulos, G D; Verducci, M; Wenaus, T; IEEE-NSS-MIC-2003

    2004-01-01

    Muon identification and high momentum measurement accuracy is crucial to fully exploit the physics potential that will be accessible with ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The muon energy of physics interest ranges in a large interval from few GeV, where the b-physics studies dominate the physics program, up to the highest values that could indicate the presence of new physics. The muon detection system of the ATLAS detector is characterized by two high precision tracking systems, namely the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer plus a thick calorimeter that ensures a safe hadron absorption filtering with high purity muons with energy above 3 GeV. In order to combine the muon tracks reconstructed in the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer the Muon Identification (MUID) Object-Oriented software package has been developed. The purpose of the MUID procedure is to associate tracks found in the Muon Spectrometer with the corresponding Inner Detector track and calorimeter information in order to identify muons a...

  18. A Prototype Scintillating Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-Ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Johnstone, J.R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from...

  19. The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D event display of a cosmic muon event, showing the path of a muon travelling through three layers of the barrel muon spectrometer. Three of the eight coils of the barrel toroid magnet can be seen in the top half of the drawing.

  20. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers-Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC)-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. C/ Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia (Spain); Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2012-05-21

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  1. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e - storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77±11) % protons and (23±11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 -probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88±8) % protons and (12±8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a χ 2 -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  2. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  3. A search for flaring Very-High-Energy cosmic-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, H; Grabosch, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberría, M I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, i; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J

    2006-01-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the Cern electron-position collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic \\gamma-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known \\gamma-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  4. Observation of high-energy cosmic rays by very inclined muon bundles in the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian-Italian NEVOD-DECOR experiment on measurements of the local muon density spectra at various zenith angles gave the possibility to obtain important information on the primary cosmic ray flux and interaction characteristics in a wide energy range from 1015 to more than 1018 eV. At large zenith angles and high muon densities, a considerable excess of muon bundles has been found in comparison with expectation. In this paper, an update of these investigations is presented and some new results obtained by the collaboration are discussed.

  5. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  6. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  7. Discovery of a big void in Khufu's Pyramid by observation of cosmic-ray muons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Kunihiro; Kuno, Mitsuaki; Nishio, Akira; Kitagawa, Nobuko; Manabe, Yuta; Moto, Masaki; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Fujii, Hirofumi; Satoh, Kotaro; Kodama, Hideyo; Hayashi, Kohei; Odaka, Shigeru; Procureur, Sébastien; Attié, David; Bouteille, Simon; Calvet, Denis; Filosa, Christopher; Magnier, Patrick; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Riallot, Marc; Marini, Benoit; Gable, Pierre; Date, Yoshikatsu; Sugiura, Makiko; Elshayeb, Yasser; Elnady, Tamer; Ezzy, Mustapha; Guerriero, Emmanuel; Steiger, Vincent; Serikoff, Nicolas; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Charlès, Bernard; Helal, Hany; Tayoubi, Mehdi

    2017-12-21

    The Great Pyramid, or Khufu's Pyramid, was built on the Giza plateau in Egypt during the fourth dynasty by the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), who reigned from 2509 bc to 2483 bc. Despite being one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, there is no consensus about how it was built. To understand its internal structure better, we imaged the pyramid using muons, which are by-products of cosmic rays that are only partially absorbed by stone. The resulting cosmic-ray muon radiography allows us to visualize the known and any unknown voids in the pyramid in a non-invasive way. Here we report the discovery of a large void (with a cross-section similar to that of the Grand Gallery and a minimum length of 30 metres) situated above the Grand Gallery. This constitutes the first major inner structure found in the Great Pyramid since the nineteenth century. The void, named ScanPyramids' Big Void, was first observed with nuclear emulsion films installed in the Queen's chamber, then confirmed with scintillator hodoscopes set up in the same chamber and finally re-confirmed with gas detectors outside the pyramid. This large void has therefore been detected with high confidence by three different muon detection technologies and three independent analyses. These results constitute a breakthrough for the understanding of the internal structure of Khufu's Pyramid. Although there is currently no information about the intended purpose of this void, these findings show how modern particle physics can shed new light on the world's archaeological heritage.

  8. Muon reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution in pp collisions at 8TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment identifies and reconstructs muons with two high precision tracking systems, the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, which provide independent measurements of the muon momentum. This poster summarizes the performance of the combined muon reconstruction in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution. Data-driven techniques are used to derive corrections to be applied to simulation in order to reproduce the reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution as observed in experimental data, and to asses systematic uncertainties on these quantities. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb−1 from 8 TeV pp collisions recorded in 2012.

  9. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  10. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  11. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  12. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Everton; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  13. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  14. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as M uon Central Slice Theorem . Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction

  15. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  16. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio in the atmosphere from ground level to balloon altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.N. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A measurement of the cosmic ray muon flux in the atmosphere has been carried out from the data collected by the MASS2 (Matter Antimatter Spectrometer System) apparatus during the ascent of the 1991 flight. The experiment was performed on September 23, 1991 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (USA) at a geomagnetic cutoff of about 4.5 GV/c. The negative muon spectrum has been determined in different depth ranges in the momentum interval 0.33-40 GeV/c with higher statistics and better background rejection than reported before. Taking advantage of the high geomagnetic cutoff and of the high performances of the instrument, the positive muon spectrum has also been determined and the altitude dependence of the muon charge ratio has been investigated in the 0.33-1.5 GeV/c momentum range.

  18. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran Yildiz, H; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; 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Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J E; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.C.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; 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Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa Romero, D A; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra Suay, L; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanó, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C.L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  19. Electron Attenuation Measurement using Cosmic Ray Muons at the MicroBooNE LArTPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddage, Varuna [Kansas State U., Manhattan

    2017-10-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment at Fermilab uses liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) technology to study neutrino interactions in argon. A fundamental requirement for LArTPCs is to achieve and maintain a low level of electronegative contaminants in the liquid to minimize the capture of drifting ionization electrons. The attenuation time for the drifting electrons should be long compared to the maximum drift time, so that the signals from particle tracks that generate ionization electrons with long drift paths can be detected efficiently. In this talk we present MicroBooNE measurement of electron attenuation using cosmic ray muons. The result yields a minimum electron 1/e lifetime of 18 ms under typical operating conditions, which is long compared to the maximum drift time of 2.3 ms.

  20. Calculation of the TeV prompt muon component in very high energy cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bloise, C.; Forti, C.; Tanzini, A.

    1995-07-01

    HEMAS-DPM is a Monte Carlo for the simulation of very high energy cosmic ray showers, which includes the DPMJET-II code based on the two component Dual Parton Model. DPMJET-II provides also charm production in agreement with data and, for p exceeding 5 GeV/c, with perturbative QCD results in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. In this respect, a new scheme has been considered for the inclusive production of D mesons at large p in hadronic collisions in the frame work of perturbative fragmentation functions, allowing an analysis at the NLO (next to leading order) level which goes beyond the fixed O(α s 3 ) perturbative theory of open charm production. HEMAS-DPM has been applied to the calculation of the prompt muon component for E μ ≥1 TeV in air showers considering the two extreme cases of primary protons and Fe nuclei

  1. Bose-type distribution and primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum from sea-level muon spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Roychowdhury, R K

    1976-01-01

    The recent CERN Intersecting Storage Ring cross section data on the p +p to pi /sup +or-/+X inclusive reactions have been analysed using the Bose-type distribution of the form E(d/sup 3/ sigma )/(d/sup 3/p)=(Axs /sup 1/2/)/(exp( epsilon ( lambda )/T)-1) proposed by Hoang (1973). This formula has been used to derive the cosmic ray primary nucleon spectrum from the sea-level muon spectrum. It is found that the primary spectrum obeys the following relation: N(E/sub p/)dE/sub p /=2.06E/sub p//sup -2.64/dE/sub p/. The result has been compared with the recent experimental data and theoretical predictions given by different authors. (11 refs).

  2. LHCb: Performance of the fourgap LHCb Muon Chambers tested with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, D

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb Muon System is composed of five detection stations (M1M5)mainly equipped with a total of 1368 MultiWire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). MWPCs need to ensure a high detection efficiency, a fast response and a good space resolution. We present here the results of detailed studies of the performance of different fourgap chambers, completely equipped with the final FrontEnd Electronics, measured with cosmic rays. Aspects such as time resolution, hit multiplicity and time and space structure of the crosstalk hits were measured. For the first time, both types of chambers, those with anodewirereadout and those with cathodepadreadout, were tested and the results are compared. Results hereby obtained will be used to individuate the optimal working conditions of the apparatus and to achieve a more realistic detector description in the LHCb Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Studies of MicroMeGas Chambers for the New Small Wheel using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Micromesh Gaseous Detectors (MicroMeGas) will be implemented in the ATLAS detector in the framework of the New Small Wheel Upgrade during the long shut down II in 2019/20. These detectors are used for position measurement and have a high spatial resolution of 100 μm. In parallel to the ongoing constructions of the later modules, additional performance studies with small MicroMeGas prototypes of a size of 10 × 10 cm$^2$ are performed. These studies include a cosmic muon test setup in combination with a scalable readout system, such that the influences of variations in the pressure of the operation gas or changes in the humidity at the lower ppm level to the detector performance are investigated. These parameters will impact the later design of the slow control system at the New Small Wheel in ATLAS.

  4. Studies of MicroMegas Chamber for the New Small Wheel using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Micromesh Gaseous (MicroMegas) Detectors will be implemented in the ATLAS detector in the framework of the New Small Wheel Upgrade during the long shut down II in 2019/20. These detectors are used for position measurement and have a high spatial resolution of 100$\\mu$m. In parallel to the ongoing constructions of the later modules, additional performance studies with small MicroMegas prototypes of a size of 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ are performed. The studies include a cosmic muon test stand in combination with a scalable readout system, such that the influences of variations in the pressure of the operation gas or changes in the humidity at the lower ppm level to the detector performance are investigated. These parameters will impact the later design of detector slow control system at the New Small Wheel in ATLAS.

  5. Muon tomography with momentum measurements for fast detection of nuclear materials at ports of entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A.; Anghel, V. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J. [Carleton Univ., Physics Dept., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2015-03-15

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring high energy cosmic ray particles called muons to statistically reconstruct 3D images of targets analogously to techniques widely used in medical physics. The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) detector is a Canadian initiative that has demonstrated that the concept of tomography can be applied to cargo using cosmic ray muons. The unique aspect of the CRIPT detector is its use of muon momentum information which decreases the scanning time required to reconstruct an image. The CRIPT detector is currently operating at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  6. Muon tomography with momentum measurements for fast detection of nuclear materials at ports of entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, A.; Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.

    2015-01-01

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring high energy cosmic ray particles called muons to statistically reconstruct 3D images of targets analogously to techniques widely used in medical physics. The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) detector is a Canadian initiative that has demonstrated that the concept of tomography can be applied to cargo using cosmic ray muons. The unique aspect of the CRIPT detector is its use of muon momentum information which decreases the scanning time required to reconstruct an image. The CRIPT detector is currently operating at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  7. Muon tomography with momentum measurements for fast detection of nuclear materials at ports of entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, A.; Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.

    2014-01-01

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring high energy cosmic ray particles called muons to statistically reconstruct 3D images of targets analogously to techniques widely used in medical physics. The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) detector is a Canadian initiative that has demonstrated that the concept of tomography can be applied to cargo using cosmic ray muons. The unique aspect of the CRIPT detector is its use of muon momentum information which decreases the scanning time required to reconstruct an image. The CRIPT detector is currently operating at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  8. Muon tomography with momentum measurements for fast detection of nuclear materials at ports of entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A.; Anghel, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Armitage, J. [Carleton Univ., Physics Dept., Ottawa, ON (Canada); and others

    2014-07-01

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring high energy cosmic ray particles called muons to statistically reconstruct 3D images of targets analogously to techniques widely used in medical physics. The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) detector is a Canadian initiative that has demonstrated that the concept of tomography can be applied to cargo using cosmic ray muons. The unique aspect of the CRIPT detector is its use of muon momentum information which decreases the scanning time required to reconstruct an image. The CRIPT detector is currently operating at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories. (author)

  9. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahão, T.; Anjos, J.C. dos [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Almazan, H.; Buck, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Appel, S. [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Baussan, E.; Brugière, T. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bekman, I. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Bezerra, T.J.C. [SUBATECH, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44307 Nantes (France); Bezrukov, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Blucher, E. [The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Busenitz, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Cabrera, A. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Camilleri, L.; Carr, R. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cerrada, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Chauveau, E. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Chimenti, P., E-mail: hgomez@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); and others

    2017-02-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ∼120 and ∼300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −4} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of α {sub T} = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  10. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Appel, S.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Corpace, O.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Givaudan, A.; Gögger-Neff, M.; Gómez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodman, M.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kale, K.; Kampmann, P.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C.; Laserre, T.; Lastoria, C.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Oralbaev, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I.; Pronost, G.; Reinhold, B.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Sharankova, R.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, P.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2017-02-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ~120 and ~300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10-4 cm-2s-1 for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10-5 cm-2s-1 for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of αT = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  11. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahão, T.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Almazan, H.; Buck, C.; Appel, S.; Baussan, E.; Brugière, T.; Bekman, I.; Bezerra, T.J.C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.

    2017-01-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ∼120 and ∼300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10 −4 cm −2 s −1 for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10 −5 cm −2 s −1 for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of α T = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  12. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E.; Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Stocki, T. J. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer and of Muon Identification at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The large cosmic data samples collected in fall 2009 by the ATLAS experiment have been used to study the performance of the Muon Spectrometer. Detailed studies of the basic Muon spectrometer performance in terms of sagitta resolution, tracking efficiency and momentum resolution are presented and provide an update with respect to the results recently published. The results are also compared with a cosmic data simulation recently improved with a more realistic drift chamber response. The recent collision data collected at a CM of 7 TeV have also been analyzed to determine basic Muon Spectrometer performance. The performance of the ATLAS muon identification was studied with 1 inverse nanobarn of LHC proton-proton collision data at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. Measured detector efficiencies, hit multiplicities, and residual distributions of reconstructed muon tracks are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation. Exploiting the redundancy in the muon identification at detector and reconstruction level the...

  14. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground: Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tcaciuc, Rodica

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e − storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV e nergies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive a ir showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimete r of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at dis tances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, m ultiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muo ns. The experimental data were compared with predictions from d ifferent Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distrib ution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for prot on, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77 ± 11) % protons and (23 ± 11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 - probability of 84 % was d...

  15. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnston, J. R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm-2 min-1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  16. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  17. Observation of a VHE Cosmic-Ray Flare-Signal with the L3+C Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Aziz, T; Bähr, J; Banerjee, S; Becattini, F; Bellucci, L; Betev, B L; Blaising, J J; Bobbink, G J; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Cartacci, A; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Coignet, G; Ding, L K; Duran, I; Eline, A; El Mamouni, H; Faber, G; Fay, J; Filthaut, F; Ganguli, S N; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Groenstege, H; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gurtu, A; Haller, Ch; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, A; Hofer, H; Hoferjun, H; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; Kantserov, V; Kawakami, S; Kittel, W; König, A C; Kok, E; Kuang, H H; Kuijpers, J; Ladron de Guevara, P; Le Coultre, P; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Li, L; Li, Z C; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Lu, Y S; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Nowak, H; Parriaud, J -F; Pauss, F; Petersen, B; Pieri, M; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Qing, C R; Ramelli, R; Ranieri, R; Ravindran, K C; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Shen, C Q; Spillantini, P; Sulanke, H; Tang, X W; Timmermans, C; Tonwar, S C; Trowitzsch, G; Unger, M; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vogt, H; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Wijk, R van; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, C G; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zwart, A N M

    2010-01-01

    The data collected by the L3+C muon spectrometer at the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, have been used to search for short duration signals emitted by cosmic point sources. A sky survey performed from July to November 1999 and from April to November 2000 has revealed one single flux enhancement (chance probability = 2.6X10^{-3}) between the 17th and 20th of August 2000 from a direction with a galactic longitude of (265.02+-0.42)^° and latitude of (55.58+-0.24)^°. The energy of the detected muons was above 15 GeV.

  18. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  19. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-11

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  20. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  1. A generalized muon trajectory estimation algorithm with energy loss for application to muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hayward, Jason P.; Scaglione, John M.

    2018-03-01

    This work presents a generalized muon trajectory estimation algorithm to estimate the path of a muon in either uniform or nonuniform media. The use of cosmic ray muons in nuclear nonproliferation and safeguard verification applications has recently gained attention due to the non-intrusive and passive nature of the inspection, penetrating capabilities, as well as recent advances in detectors that measure position and direction of the individual muons before and after traversing the imaged object. However, muon image reconstruction techniques are limited in resolution due to low muon flux and the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS). Current reconstruction algorithms, e.g., point of closest approach (PoCA) or straight-line path (SLP), rely on overly simple assumptions for muon path estimation through the imaged object. For robust muon tomography, efficient and flexible physics-based algorithms are needed to model the MCS process and accurately estimate the most probable trajectory of a muon as it traverses an object. In the present work, the use of a Bayesian framework and a Gaussian approximation of MCS is explored for estimation of the most likely path of a cosmic ray muon traversing uniform or nonuniform media and undergoing MCS. The algorithm's precision is compared to Monte Carlo simulated muon trajectories. It was found that the algorithm is expected to be able to predict muon tracks to less than 1.5 mm root mean square (RMS) for 0.5 GeV muons and 0.25 mm RMS for 3 GeV muons, a 50% improvement compared to SLP and 15% improvement when compared to PoCA. Further, a 30% increase in useful muon flux was observed relative to PoCA. Muon track prediction improved for higher muon energies or smaller penetration depth where energy loss is not significant. The effect of energy loss due to ionization is investigated, and a linear energy loss relation that is easy to use is proposed.

  2. The CMS muon system status and upgrades for LHC run-2 and performance of muon reconstruction with 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The CMS muon system has played a key role for many physics results obtained from the LHC Run-1 and Run-2 data. During the Long Shutdown (2013-2014), as well as during the last year-end technical stop (2015-2016), significant consolidation and upgrades have been carried out on the muon detectors and on the L1 muon trigger. The algorithms for muon reconstruction and identification have also been improved for both the High-Level Trigger and the offline reconstruction. Results of the performance of muon detectors, reconstruction and trigger, obtained using data collected at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy during the 2015 and 2016 LHC runs, will be presented. Comparison of simulation with experimental data will also be discussed where relevant. The system's state of the art performance will be shown, and the improvements foreseen to achieve excellent overall quality of muon reconstruction in CMS, in the conditions expected during the high-luminosity phase of Run-2, will be described.

  3. Technical description of the mug experiment on cosmic-ray muons in the Pyhaesalmi mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaemsen, T.; Elo, A.-M.; Mursula, K.; Kangas, J.; Peltoniemi, J.; Vallinkoski, M.; Usoskin, I.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Centre for Underground Physics in Pyhaesalmi (CUPP) project is aiming to establish an underground laboratory in the Pyhaesalmi zinc mine, offering a potential location for small-to-medium-scale scientific experiments, which require, e.g., a low level of background radiation. The pilot experiment of CUPP is Muons UnderGround (MUG), consisting of muon detectors placed at different depths. The MUG experiment extends the field of cosmic-ray and heliospheric research of the University of Oulu to underground studies in addition to the long-term neutron monitor observations of cosmic rays on ground level in Oulu. As the first active experiment of the CUPP project, the MUG experiment is also used to evaluate and prove the suitability of the facilities of the Pyhaesalmi mine for underground scientific work. The Pyhaesalmi mine is located 156 m above the sea level, and its geographical coordinates are 63 deg C 39.6' N. 26 deg C 2.5' E. The mine is dry, the surrounding bedrock is stable, and the background radiation level is low. There are several possible experimental sites at different depths down to 1050 m, accessible with small trucks. The locations are, or can easily be equipped with electricity as well as with telephone and data lines. The mining activity is going on below the 1050-m level down to 1400 m, ensuring the maintenance of the mine until at least 2010. The MUG experiment includes five detector units consisting of three pairs of vertically overlapping plastic scintillators, each equipped with standard NIM electronics and a personal computer for data storage. A data acquisition unit designed and manufactured by Detection Technology Inc is used for data recording and pulse height AD- conversion. A substantial part of the equipment is borrowed from the Space Research Laboratory of the University of Turku. One of the MUG units is on the ground level, two units have already been installed in a cavern 210 m underground, and two units will be installed in a

  4. Using a neural network approach for muon reconstruction and triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, E; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Ya; Horn, D; Levinson, L; Livneh, R

    2004-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to take precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. We present a study which used an artificial neural network triggering algorithm and compared it to the performance of a dedicated electronic muon triggering system. Relatively simple architecture was used to solve a complicated inverse problem. A comparison with a realistic example of the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network. A similar architecture trained after the simulation of the electronics first trigger stage showed a further background rejection.

  5. Muon reconstruction and p p → 2μ4j vector boson fusion process at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this paper has been done within the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration, one of the four experimental communities present at Lhc, and covers the description and the performance studies of the muon reconstruction and simulation algorithms. More specifically, the simulation of the drift tube cell, the muon reconstruction within the Drift Tube chamber, the track reconstruction and muon identification with the whole CMS tracking system, are here discussed. These algorithms have been developed in order to obtain a high resolution on the Z → μ + μ - observables, because the presence of the Z particle in the final state is one of the important signatures of the p p → μ + μ - jjjj vector boson scattering channel. A study of the p p → μ + μ - jjjj process has been performed in order to assess the possibility of probing the symmetry-breaking mechanism through the vector boson scattering using the CMS detector, with no assumption on the mechanism which restores the unitarity. The analysis strategy is shown here. The results in this paper have been extracted from the author's PhD thesis. (See CERN-Thesis-2009-139 and CMS T S 2008/021 (2007).)

  6. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzidakis, S., E-mail: schatzid@purdue.edu; Choi, C.K.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    2016-08-21

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 10{sup 6} muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  7. Studies of cosmic ray events in ATLAS sTGC muon chamber prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097847; Warburton, Andreas

    Four years after its first long shutdown in 2015, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be shut down once more for a luminosity upgrade. During that time, the ATLAS detector on the LHC ring will also follow an upgrade program, one upgrade being the replacement of the Small Muon Wheels for a New Small Wheel containing small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs). The sTGCs built in Canada will be tested at McGill University before their installation in ATLAS. A testing facility has been constructed and a 40 × 60 cm^2 sTGC prototype has been used to deliver preliminary measurements from cosmic rays. This thesis will present the development of a robust tracking algorithm which can handle extra clusters and multiple tracks in an sTGC detector. This algorithm also categorizes events based on their number of clusters and tracks. By modifying the trigger time window of the sTGC prototype, the evolution of the distribution of events over this categorization is shown.

  8. Final Technical Report: Imaging a Dry Storage Cask with Cosmic Ray Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori; Hayward, Jason; Can, Liao; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2018-03-31

    The goal of this project is to build a scaled prototype system for monitoring used nuclear fuel (UNF) dry storage casks (DSCs) through cosmic ray muon imaging. Such a system will have the capability of verifying the content inside a DSC without opening it. Because of the growth of the nuclear power industry in the U.S. and the policy decision to ban reprocessing of commercial UNF, the used fuel inventory at commercial reactor sites has been increasing. Currently, UNF needs to be moved to independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), as its inventory approaches the limit on capacity of on-site wet storage. Thereafter, the fuel will be placed in shipping containers to be transferred to a final disposal site. The ISFSIs were initially licensed as temporary facilities for ~20-yr periods. Given the cancellation of the Yucca mountain project and no clear path forward, extended dry-cask storage (~100 yr.) at ISFSIs is very likely. From the point of view of nuclear material protection, accountability and control technologies (MPACT) campaign, it is important to ensure that special nuclear material (SNM) in UNF is not stolen or diverted from civilian facilities for other use during the extended storage.

  9. Stopped cosmic-ray muons in plastic scintillators on the surface and at the depth of 25 m.w.e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletić, D; Dragić, A; Banjanac, R; Joković, D; Veselinović, N; Udovicić, V; Savić, M; Anicin, I; Puzović, J

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic ray muons stopped in 5 cm thick plastic scintillators at surface and at depth of 25 m.w.e are studied. Apart from the stopped muon rate we measured the spectrum of muon decay electrons and the degree of polarization of stopped muons. Preliminary results for the Michel parameter yield values lower than the currently accepted one, while the asymmetry between the numbers of decay positrons registered in the upper and lower hemispheres appear higher than expected on the basis of numerous earlier studies.

  10. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borozdin, K.N.; Asaki, T.J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N.W.; Hogan, G.E.; Morris, C.L.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L.J.; Sottile, M.J.; Vixie, K.R.; Wohlberg, B.E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  11. Characterising Encapsulated Nuclear Waste using Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography (MT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G.; Al Jebali, Ramsey; Kaiser, Ralf; Lumsden, Scott; Mahon, David; Yang, Guangliang [University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of four tracking modules, two above and two below the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  12. Study on a cellmap for the reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks in drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yu; Ma Yuqian

    2005-01-01

    Taking 13 Cosmic experiment (L3+C) as an example, the authors discussed a new Cellmap to reconstruct the hit in drift chamber of magnetic spectrometer for the very inclined comic-ray tracks, and compared the reconstruction results with the standard Cellmap of L3+C. It shows that, for the very inclined cosmic-ray tracks, the new Cellmap can reconstruct more hits than the standard Cellmap, and the distribution of χ 2 of track reconstruction is also improved. (authors)

  13. Muon reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution in pp collisions at 8TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Sforza, F

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment identifies and reconstructs muons with two high precision tracking systems, the inner detector and the muon spectrometer, which provide independent measurements of the muon momentum. This poster summarizes the performance of the combined muon reconstruction in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution. Data-driven techniques are used to derive corrections to be applied to simulation in order to reproduce the reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution as observed in experimental data, and to asses systematic uncertainties on these quantities. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb−1 from pp collisions at center of mass enegy of 8 TeV recorded in 2012.

  14. Muon Reconstruction and Identification for the Event Filter of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A; Armstrong, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Bellomo, M; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Carlino, G; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Comune, G; Conde, P; Conventi, F; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, S; Haller, J; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, N; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A J; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Primavera, M; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sidoti, A; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sobreira, A; Soluk, R A; Spagnolo, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Usai, G; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; 9th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger requires high efficiency and selectivity in order to keep the full physics potential of the experiment and to reject uninteresting processes from the 40 MHz event production rate of the LHC. These goals are achieved with a trigger composed of three sequential levels of increasing accuracy that have to reduce the output event rate down to ~100 Hz. This work focuses on muon reconstruction and identification for the third level (Event Filter), for which specific algorithms from the off-line environment have been adapted to work in the trigger framework. Two different strategies for accessing data (wrapped and seeded modes) are described and their reconstruction potential is then shown in terms of efficiencies, resolutions and fake muon rejection power.

  15. Bedrock topography beneath uppermost part of Aletsch glacier, Central Swiss Alps, revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Käser, Samuel; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    In mountainous landscapes such as the Central Alps of Europe, the bedrock topography is one of the most interesting subjects of study since it separates the geological substratum (bedrock) from the overlying unconsolidated units (ice). The geometry of the bedrock topography puts a tight constraint on the erosional mechanism of glaciers. In previous studies, it has been inferred mainly from landscapes where glaciers have disappeared after the termination of the last glacial epoch. However, the number of studies with a focus on the structure beneath active glaciers is limited, because existing exploration methods have limitation in resolution and mobility. The Eiger-μ project proposes a new technology, called muon radiography, to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath active glaciers. The muon radiography is a recent technique that relies on the high penetration power of muon components in natural cosmic rays. Specifically, one can resolve the internal density profile of a gigantic object by measuring the attenuation rate of the intensity of muons after passing through it, as in medical X-ray diagnostic. This technique has been applied to many fields such as volcano monitoring (eg. Ambrosino et al., 2015; Jourde et al., 2016; Nishiyama et al., 2016), detection of seismic faults (eg. Tanaka et al., 2011), inspection inside nuclear reactors, etc. The first feasibility test of the Eiger-μ project has been performed at Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps, Switzerland. We installed cosmic-ray detectors consisting of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel facing Aletsch glacier (Jungfraufirn). The detectors stayed 47 days in the tunnel and recorded the tracks of muons which passed through the glacier and bedrock (thickness is about 100 m). Successively the films were chemically developed and scanned at University of Bern with microscopes originally developed for the analysis of physics experiments on neutrino oscillation. The analysis of muon

  16. AVERAGE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAYS BEHIND THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK—GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C. [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Kuwabara, T. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S. [National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 12227-010 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, N. J. [Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/INPE), P.O. Box 5021, 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M. [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969 Safat, 13060 (Kuwait); Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Sabbah, I. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Public Authority of Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City 72853 (Kuwait); Tokumaru, M., E-mail: 13st303f@shinshu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kmuna00@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east–west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ∼60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ∼10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic- y component of the density gradient, G {sub y}, shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G {sub z} shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G {sub z} changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  17. AVERAGE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAYS BEHIND THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK—GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.; Tokumaru, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east–west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ∼60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ∼10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic- y component of the density gradient, G y , shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G z shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G z changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  18. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described.

  19. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  20. A cosmic Ray Muon Experiment: a Way to Teach Standard Model of Particles at Community Colleges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barazandeh, C; Gutarra-Leon, A; Rivas, R; Glaser, H; Majewski, W

    2016-01-01

    This experiment is an example of research for early undergraduate students and of its benefits and challenges as an accessible strategy for community colleges, in the spirit of the report on improving undergraduate STEM education from the US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. The goals of this project include measuring average low- energy muon flux, day/night flux difference, time dilation, energy spectra of electrons and muons in arbitrary units, muon decay curve, average lifetime of muons. From the lifetime data we calculate the weak coupling constant g w , electric charge e and the Higgs energy density. (paper)

  1. Deriving the solar activity cycle modulation on cosmic ray intensity observed by Nagoya muon detector from October 1970 until December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Rafael R. S.; Braga, Carlos. R.; Echer, Ezequiel; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rockenbach, Marlos; Schuch, Nelson J.; Munakata, Kazuoki

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that the cosmic ray intensity observed at the Earth's surface presents an 11 and 22-yr variations associated with the solar activity cycle. However, the observation and analysis of this modulation through ground muon detectors datahave been difficult due to the temperature effect. Furthermore, instrumental changes or temporary problems may difficult the analysis of these variations. In this work, we analyze the cosmic ray intensity observed since October 1970 until December 2012 by the Nagoya muon detector. We show the results obtained after analyzing all discontinuities and gaps present in this data and removing changes not related to natural phenomena. We also show the results found using the mass weighted method for eliminate the influence of atmospheric temperature changes on muon intensity observed at ground. As a preliminary result of our analyses, we show the solar cycle modulation in the muon intensity observed for more than 40 years.

  2. First results of the cosmic rays test of the RPC of the ATLAS muon spectrometer at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alviggi, M G; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G

    2004-01-01

    The trigger for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at LHC will be given by means of Resistive Plate Chambers working in avalanche mode. Before being mounted on the experimental apparatus each RPC chamber will undergo detailed quality control tests. A dedicated cosmic rays test station with good tracking resolution is operational in Naples University and INFN laboratory. All working parameters of RPCs are monitored and measured. Moreover, the uniformity of the efficiency on the whole surface is measured. A brief description of the test station and results for the first 148 Units will be presented.

  3. Reconstruction and identification of muons in the experiment DO, study of the resonant production of s-leptons; Reconstruction et identification des muons dans l'experience DO etude de la production resonnante de s-leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deliot, F

    2002-04-01

    In the framework of supersymmetric models with R-parity violation, supersymmetric particles can be singly produced. If the {lambda}'{sub 211} coupling is the dominant one, muon s-neutrino or a s-muon can be resonantly produced at the Tevatron and lead to tri-lepton (with two muons) or like sign dimuon final states. In this thesis, the discovery potential for these signals at Tevatron Run II has been studied in the framework of the minimal supergravity model. Those processes reach a high sensitivity on the model parameters m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2} and allow to reconstruct the masses for the superparticles involved in the decay chain. Tevatron Run II has begun in 2001 after important upgrades in the accelerator complex and in the D0 experiment. In particular the muon spectrometer has been modified. The D0 experiment is in the calibration and alignment phase. The second part of the work presented in this thesis covers the muon reconstruction and identification. The track reconstruction in the muon spectrometer is performed with a fit taking into account magnetic field, energy loss and multiple scattering in the iron toroid. This method gives a momentum resolution limited for low momentum tracks at 20% due to multiple scattering in the toroid. These tracks and its error matrix are then propagated through the calorimeter and combined with the inner tracker tracks. The first Run II data recorded by D0 has allowed to compute the trigger efficiency and to valid the muon identification algorithms which were, for this thesis, entirely based on muon spectrometer informations. The first J/{psi} studies show that the reconstruction works correctly and that the identification criteria are preferment. (author)

  4. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in LHC at √s = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Liqing; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Muon reconstruction and identification plays a crucial rule in most of the physics studies at the ATLAS experiment. This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the LHC dataset recorded at √s =13 TeV. Using a large sample of J/ψ→μμ and Z→μμ decays from pp collision data, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, isolation efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Development of a tomographic method using cosmic ray muons: application to the Mont Terri underground laboratory and la Soufriere de Guadeloupe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesparre, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic muons are produced in cascade processes following the interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. Muons are fundamental particles with a mass 200 times higher than electrons. Their low interaction probability with matter allows them to cross the atmosphere and even the first kilometers of the Earth crust. The muons flux is attenuated through a media as function of the quantity of matter crossed. The study of the muon flux attenuation allows then to obtain a direct measurement of the rock opacity. This opacity corresponds to the media density, integrated along the muon path through rock. Muons' trajectory is indeed considered to be straight when crossing rock. It is then possible to realise geophysical tomographies by setting a sensor network around geological objects in order to determine the internal structures geometry inside these objects. An underground muon flux model is developed herein from flux models estimated at surface and a model of muon flux attenuation through rock. A feasibility equation of the muon tomography is then established in order to determine the minimum time of data acquisition to distinguish heterogeneities. Four muons telescopes have been built during this thesis and conditioned to bear field installation, notably in tropical media. These telescopes are made by two or three matrices of detection constituted of scintillating bars linked to photomultipliers. The modeling of the telescopes detection capacity and angular resolution is realised as function of their geometrical configuration. A calibration method is also established in order to correct the signal from any distortion. Moreover, arrangements to reduce the backward noise produced by low energy particles are set up and evaluated. The development of this new tomographic method is then illustrated by two geophysical applications. The measurements realised in the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland) allowed us to benefit from stable acquisition conditions to

  6. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  7. MARTA: A high-energy cosmic-ray detector concept with high-accuracy muon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; et al.

    2017-12-20

    A new concept for the direct measurement of muons in air showers is presented. The concept is based on resistive plate chambers (RPCs), which can directly measure muons with very good space and time resolution. The muon detector is shielded by placing it under another detector able to absorb and measure the electromagnetic component of the showers such as a water-Cherenkov detector, commonly used in air shower arrays. The combination of the two detectors in a single, compact detector unit provides a unique measurement that opens rich possibilities in the study of air showers.

  8. Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aharmim, B; Peeters, S J M; SNO Collaboration,

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between $-1 \\le \\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} \\le 0.4$ in a tota...

  9. Discovery of a big void in Khufu’s Pyramid by observation of cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Kunihiro; Kuno, Mitsuaki; Nishio, Akira; Kitagawa, Nobuko; Manabe, Yuta; Moto, Masaki; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Fujii, Hirofumi; Satoh, Kotaro; Kodama, Hideyo; Hayashi, Kohei; Odaka, Shigeru; Procureur, Sébastien; Attié, David; Bouteille, Simon; Calvet, Denis; Filosa, Christopher; Magnier, Patrick; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Riallot, Marc; Marini, Benoit; Gable, Pierre; Date, Yoshikatsu; Sugiura, Makiko; Elshayeb, Yasser; Elnady, Tamer; Ezzy, Mustapha; Guerriero, Emmanuel; Steiger, Vincent; Serikoff, Nicolas; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Charlès, Bernard; Helal, Hany; Tayoubi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The Great Pyramid, or Khufu’s Pyramid, was built on the Giza plateau in Egypt during the fourth dynasty by the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), who reigned from 2509 BC to 2483 BC. Despite being one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, there is no consensus about how it was built. To understand its internal structure better, we imaged the pyramid using muons, which are by-products of cosmic rays that are only partially absorbed by stone. The resulting cosmic-ray muon radiography allows us to visualize the known and any unknown voids in the pyramid in a non-invasive way. Here we report the discovery of a large void (with a cross-section similar to that of the Grand Gallery and a minimum length of 30 metres) situated above the Grand Gallery. This constitutes the first major inner structure found in the Great Pyramid since the nineteenth century. The void, named ScanPyramids’ Big Void, was first observed with nuclear emulsion films installed in the Queen’s chamber, then confirmed with scintillator hodoscopes set up in the same chamber and finally re-confirmed with gas detectors outside the pyramid. This large void has therefore been detected with high confidence by three different muon detection technologies and three independent analyses. These results constitute a breakthrough for the understanding of the internal structure of Khufu’s Pyramid. Although there is currently no information about the intended purpose of this void, these findings show how modern particle physics can shed new light on the world’s archaeological heritage.

  10. Performance of the CMS muon detector and muon reconstruction with proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; Assran, Yasser; Mohamed, Amr; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Lomidze, Irakli; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Bagaturia, Iuri; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Philipps, Barthel; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Zantis, Franz Peter; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Franco, Michele; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lacalamita, Nicola; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Martiradonna, Sabino; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Balbi, Gabriele; Baldanza, Casimiro; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Cafaro, Vittorio Domenico; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giordano, Vincenzo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Caponero, Michele; Fabbri, Franco; Ferrini, Mauro; Passamonti, Luciano; Piccolo, Davide; Pierluigi, Daniele; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Saviano, Giovanna; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Barcellan, Lorenzo; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Benettoni, Massimo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Ciano, Luca; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Isocrate, Roberto; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Mocellin, Giovanni; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Toniolo, Nicola; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Cotto, Giorgio; Covarelli, Roberto; Dattola, Domenico; De Remigis, Paolo; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Mazza, Giovanni; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Rotondo, Francesco; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Evdokimov, Anton; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kurenkov, Alexander; Lanev, Alexander; Makankin, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vasilyev, Sergey; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Polikarpov, Sergey; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Bogdanova, Galina; Boos, Edouard; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Vladimir; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cela Ruiz, José Manuel; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Francia Ferrero, David; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Navarro Tobar, Álvaro; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Redondo Ferrero, David Daniel; Romero, Luciano; Sastre, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Dutta, Irene; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Barashko, Victor; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Madorsky, Alexander; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Gutierrez, Alfredo; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    The CMS muon detector system, muon reconstruction software, and high-level trigger underwent significant changes in 2013-2014 in preparation for running at higher LHC collision energy and instantaneous luminosity. The performance of the modified system is studied using proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV, collected at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. The measured performance parameters, including spatial resolution, efficiency, and timing, are found to meet all design specifications and are well reproduced by simulation. Despite the more challenging running conditions, the modified muon system is found to perform as well as, and in many aspects better than, previously.

  11. Reconstruction and identification of muons in the experiment DO, study of the resonant production of s-leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliot, F.

    2002-04-01

    In the framework of supersymmetric models with R-parity violation, supersymmetric particles can be singly produced. If the λ' 211 coupling is the dominant one, muon s-neutrino or a s-muon can be resonantly produced at the Tevatron and lead to tri-lepton (with two muons) or like sign dimuon final states. In this thesis, the discovery potential for these signals at Tevatron Run II has been studied in the framework of the minimal supergravity model. Those processes reach a high sensitivity on the model parameters m 0 and m 1/2 and allow to reconstruct the masses for the superparticles involved in the decay chain. Tevatron Run II has begun in 2001 after important upgrades in the accelerator complex and in the D0 experiment. In particular the muon spectrometer has been modified. The D0 experiment is in the calibration and alignment phase. The second part of the work presented in this thesis covers the muon reconstruction and identification. The track reconstruction in the muon spectrometer is performed with a fit taking into account magnetic field, energy loss and multiple scattering in the iron toroid. This method gives a momentum resolution limited for low momentum tracks at 20% due to multiple scattering in the toroid. These tracks and its error matrix are then propagated through the calorimeter and combined with the inner tracker tracks. The first Run II data recorded by D0 has allowed to compute the trigger efficiency and to valid the muon identification algorithms which were, for this thesis, entirely based on muon spectrometer informations. The first J/ψ studies show that the reconstruction works correctly and that the identification criteria are preferment. (author)

  12. Fast reconstruction of trajectories of charged muons recorded by the MUCH detector in the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazimov, T.O.; Ivanov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    The CBM experiment is currently being developed in GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) at the FAIR accelerator complex by an international collaboration including JINR. One of the main goals of the experiment is a research of charmonium production process in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. The registration of such decays as J/ψ → μ"+μ"− is planned to be carried out in real time. The current paper presents an algorithm suitable for fast reconstruction of trajectories of charged muons from J/ψ decays recorded by the MUCH detector. [ru

  13. Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

  14. Studies of Muons in Extensive Air Showers from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Surface Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, R.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takeda, M.; Nonaka, T.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Sakurai, N.; Okuda, T.; Ogio, S.; Matthews, J. N.; Stokes, B.

    The number of muons in the air shower induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been measured with surface detector (SD) arrays of various experiments. Monte Carlo (MC) prediction of the number of muons in air showers depends on hadronic interaction models and the primary cosmic ray composition. By comparing the measured number of muons with the MC prediction, hadronic interaction models can be tested. The Pierre Auger Observatory reported that the number of muons measured by water Cherenkov type SD is about 1.8 times larger than the MC prediction for proton with QGSJET II-03 model. The number of muons in the Auger data is also larger than the MC prediction for iron. The Telescope Array experiment adopts plastic scintillator type SD, which is sensitive to the electromagnetic component that is the major part of secondary particles in the air shower. To search for the high muon purity condition in air showers observed by the TA, we divided air shower events into subsets by the zenith angle θ, the azimuth angle ϕ relative to the shower arrival direction projected onto the ground, and the distance R from shower axis. As a result, we found subsets with the high muon purity 65%, and compared the charge density between observed data and MC. The typical ratios of the charge density of the data to that of the MC are 1.71 ± 0.10 at 1870 m muon purity. These results imply that the excess of the charge density in the data is partly explained by the muon excess.

  15. Seasonal variations of intensity of muons and electrons of decay in points of probe measurements of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurguzova, A.I.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    Altitude-dependent intensities of muon and electron decay are calculated for the summer and winter seasons in the regions of Murmansk, Moscow, Alma-Ata and Mirnyj (the Antarctica). Values of the calculated temperature coefficients of muonf and electron decay for three levels (50, 500 and 1000 g/cm 2 ) are given. Seasonal variations of the muone and electron intensities are practically the same for all the points at depths X > 300 g/cm 2 (approximately 5% for muons and approximately 1% for electrons); at depths X 2 in Mirnyj the variations are considerably higher than in other points. Seasonal variations of the cosmic ray intensity on the surface of the Earth make up approximately 4%, in the low atmosphere (X=500 g/cm 2 ) they make up approximately 2%. In Mirnyj the seasonal variations of cosmic rays in the stratosphere (X=50 g/cm 2 ) also make up approximately 2%

  16. Track Reconstruction with Cosmic Ray Data at the Tracker Integration Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Elgammal, J.-P. Dewulf. S; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Focardi, R. D'Alessandro. E; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2008-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15\\,\\% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7~million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  17. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  18. Effect of the muon component of cosmic rays on the results of hadron experiments with the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) of the Tien Shan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A. G., E-mail: AGBogdanov@mephi.ru; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shalabaeva, A. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    A full-scale simulation of the response of the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) at the Tien Shan station to the passage of single protons and muons was performed on the basis of the GEANT4 package in order to estimate the contribution of the muon cosmic-ray component to the generation of unusual events (such as Anti-Centauros), which were recorded by this facility, and to the imitation of the long-flying component, which changes the shape of the average cascade curve. A comparison of the results of this simulation with experimental data reveals that the appearance of Anti-Centauros may be reasonably explained by the contribution of multiple interactions of single muons, but that muon events are insufficient for explaining the change in the shape of the cascade curve (in particular, the emergence of a second maximum).

  19. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio derived from the new scaling variable model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1980-01-01

    The charge ratio of sea level muons has been estimated from the new scaling variable model and the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring data of Capiluppi et al. (1974) for pp to pi /sup +or-/X and pp to K/sup +or- /X inclusive reactions. The estimated muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21 and the result has been compared with the experimental data of Parker et al. (1969), Burnet et al. (1973), Ashley et al., and Muraki et al. (1979). (20 refs).

  20. Analysis of RE4 Construction Cosmic Muon Test Data and Comparison with 2015 Collision Calibration Run Data for the Newly Installed RPC Chambers in the 4th Muon Endcap Station of the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Muhammad Ansar

    2015-01-01

    RPC are the heart of the muon system of CMS experiment at LHC, CERN. Recently a new endcap layer, RE4, was added to increase redundancy. These added chambers were tested during the construction period with cosmic muons in the 904 lab at Prevessin, CERN. This study analyzes the HV scan from those tests and compares them with the first 2015 collision data taken at Point-5. The analysis showed that most of the chambers were producing more than 90% efficiency and were in good agreement with the Point-5 results. Those which did not give good results were reported. Other variables like working point and maximum efficiency were also studied.

  1. Development of a portable assembly-type cosmic-ray muon module for measuring the density structure of a column of magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K.M.; Taira, Hideaki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Manobu; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a portable assembly type cosmic-ray muon telescope system with power-effective real-time readings to monitor the internal structure of a volcano. Using this system, we have performed measurements at the Satsuma-Iojima volcano and studied the feasibility of using a continuous flux of cosmic-ray muons over the observation period. The system is based on the measurement of time-dependent muon absorption along different, nearly horizontal paths through a solid body. The rationale is that one can deduce the time-dependent changes in the density distribution of muon absorption in the interior of the object where an absorption variation, i.e., a density path variation, becomes an intensity variation since the muon energy spectrum is exponential or, expressed otherwise, it drops rapidly when the energy threshold increases. The muon telescope, which has a surface area of 1 m 2 , was installed at the observation point located 1.2 km from the summit crater of Satsuma-Iojima. Muon tracks within scintillator layers in the telescope were analyzed continuously by real-time three-dimensional image processing to measure the level of absorption along different ray paths through the summit crater region. A typical angular resolution of the muon detector of ±16 mrad corresponds to a spatial resolution of ±20 m at a distance of 1.2 km. Our results show the density structure determined in Satsuma-Iojima volcano, Japan, which is located above sea level. A density structure situated above sea level can be analyzed at a resolution that is significantly higher than is possible with conventional geophysical measurements. (author)

  2. Temperature effect correction for the cosmic ray muon data observed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C R; Dal Lago, A; Kuwabara, T; Schuch, N J; Munakata, K

    2013-01-01

    The negative atmospheric temperature effect observed in the muon intensity measured by surface-level detectors is related to the atmospheric expansion during summer periods. According the first explanation given, the path of muons from the higher atmospheric level (where they are generated) to the ground becomes longer, and more muons decay, leading to a muon intensity decrease. A significant negative correlation, therefore, is expected between the altitude of the equi-pressure surface and the muon intensity. We compared measurements of the altitude of 100 hPa equi-pressure surface and data from the multidirectional muon detector installed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra, RS. Significant correlation coefficient were found (up to 0.95) when using data observed in 2008. For comparison, data from the multidirectional muon detector of Nagoya, located in the opposite hemisphere, is studied and an anti-phase in the cosmic ray variation related with the temperature effect is expected between data from detectors of Nagoya and São Martinho da Serra. The temperature influence is higher for the directional channels of Nagoya than for ones of São Martinho da Serra.

  3. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Greenlee, H.; James, C.; Jostlein, H.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A.; Moore, C.D.; Palamara, O.; Pavlovic, Z.; Raaf, J.L.; Schukraft, A.; Snider, E.L.; Spentzouris, P.; Strauss, T.; Toups, M.; Wolbers, S.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Adams, C. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); An, R.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A. [Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, IL (United States); Anthony, J.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; De Vries, J.J.; Marshall, J.; Smith, A.; Thomson, M. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Asaadi, J. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J.; Weber, M. [Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Balasubramanian, S.; Fleming, B.T.; Gramellini, E.; Hackenburg, A.; Luo, X.; Russell, B.; Tufanli, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Barnes, C.; Mousseau, J.; Spitz, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Laube, A.; Soleti, S.R.; De Pontseele, W.V. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bay, F. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, Ankara (Turkey); Bishai, M.; Chen, H.; Joshi, J.; Kirby, B.; Li, Y.; Mooney, M.; Qian, X.; Viren, B.; Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blake, A.; Devitt, D.; Lister, A.; Nowak, J. [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Meddage, V.; Rafique, A. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Fadeeva, A.A.; Genty, V.; Kaleko, D.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M.H. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Church, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cianci, D.; Karagiorgi, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Cohen, E.; Piasetzky, E. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Hen, O.; Hourlier, A.; Moon, J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yates, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M.; Eberly, B.; Rochester, L.; Tsai, Y.T.; Usher, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dytman, S.; Graf, N.; Jiang, L.; Naples, D.; Paolone, V.; Wickremasinghe, D.A. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Esquivel, J.; Hamilton, P.; Pulliam, G.; Soderberg, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Foreman, W.; Ho, J.; Schmitz, D.W.; Zennamo, J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States); Furmanski, A.P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Murrells, R.; Porzio, D.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Szelc, A.M. [The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garvey, G.T.; Huang, E.C.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; De Water, R.G.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gollapinni, S. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); and others

    2018-01-15

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies. (orig.)

  4. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The development and operation of Liquid-Argon Time-Projection Chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the...

  5. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies.

  6. Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Sealed Dry Storage Casks via Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Muon Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, J. M.; Poulson, D.; Bacon, J.; Chichester, D. L.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Schwendiman, W.; Tolman, J. D.; Winston, P.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the plutonium in the world resides inside spent nuclear reactor fuel rods. This high-level radioactive waste is commonly held in long-term storage within large, heavily shielded casks. Currently, international nuclear safeguards inspectors have no stand-alone method of verifying the amount of reactor fuel stored within a sealed cask. Here we demonstrate experimentally that measurements of the scattering angles of cosmic-ray muons, which pass through a storage cask, can be used to determine if spent fuel assemblies are missing without opening the cask. This application of technology and methods commonly used in high-energy particle physics provides a potential solution to this long-standing problem in international nuclear safeguards.

  7. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  8. Investigation of the zenith angle dependence of cosmic-ray muons ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For this purpose, first of all, reliability of the simula- tions was tested ... It is a compact and portable apparatus that requires a 12V power source .... have a significant effect on the muons above 0.1 GeV energy [27], and so the electric field ... The default Cartesian coordinate system in Geant4 has its origin at the centre of the.

  9. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the π-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The μ + +μ - data show good agreement in the 1∼30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The μ + /μ - ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).

  10. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  11. The cosmic ray proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the 100 TeV energy region from TeV muons and EAS atmospheric Cherenkov light observations of MACRO and EAS-TOP

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bergamasco, L; Bernardini, P; Bertaina, M; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Chiavassa, A; Choudhary, B C; Cini, G; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Di Sciascio, G; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fulgione, W; Fusco, P; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iacovacci, M; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mannocchi, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Morello, C; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Navarra, G; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Saavedra, O; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Stamerra, A; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Trinchero, G C; Vakili, M; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2004.01.005

    2004-01-01

    The primary cosmic ray (CR) proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories by means of EAS-TOP (Campo Imperatore, 2005 m a.s.l.) and MACRO (deep underground, 3100 m w.e., the surface energy threshold for a muon reaching the detector being E/sub mu //sup th/ approximately=1.3 TeV). The measurement is based on: (a) the selection of primaries based on their energy/nucleon (i.e., with energy/nucleon sufficient to produce a muon with energy larger than 1.3 TeV) and the reconstruction of the shower geometry by means of the muons recorded by MACRO in the deep underground laboratories; (b) the detection of the associated atmospheric Cherenkov light (C.l.) signals by means of the C.l. detector of EAS-TOP. The C.l. density at core distance r>100 m is directly related to the total primary energy E/sub 0/. Proton and helium ("p+He") and proton, helium and CNO ("p +He+CNO") primaries are thus selected at E/sub 0/ approximately=80 Te V, and at E/sub 0/ appro...

  12. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benettoni, M; Checchia, P; Cossutta, L; Furlan, M; Gonella, F; Pegoraro, M; Garola, A Rigoni; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Viesti, G; Bettella, G; Bonomi, G; Donzella, A; Subieta, M; Zenoni, A; Calvagno, G; Cortelazzo, G; Zanuttigh, P; Calvini, P; Squarcia, S

    2013-01-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented

  13. Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G; Bonetti, S; Avanzini, M Buizza; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, D; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Chavarria, A; Galbiati, C; Carraro, C; Davini, S; Chepurnov, A; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Feilitzsch, F von; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gazzana, S

    2011-01-01

    Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 % or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3 0 -5 0 and the lateral resolution is ∼ 35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.

  14. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglietti, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Canale, V. [Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Franchino, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Iengo, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Iodice, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Petrucci, F., E-mail: petrucci@roma3.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Università Roma Tre, Rome (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of ~500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm{sup 2} prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported. - Highlights: • A new MPGD detector designed for cosmic ray tomography is presented. • With respect to existing detectors, the construction procedure is simpler and operating costs are lower. • Construction procedures and preliminary performance are shown.

  15. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of 500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm2 prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported.

  16. Composition of primary cosmic rays near 10/sup 7/GeV from multiple underground muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1980-01-19

    The results on the rate of parallel penetrating particles at the Mt. Blanc Station (approximately 4300 hg.cm/sup -2/) compared with the predictions of the scaling model are in favour of a mean mass A approximately 10-30 for primary cosmic rays at >=10/sup 7/ GeV.

  17. Study of dispersion of mass distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using a surface array of muon and electromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan

    2015-09-01

    We consider a hypothetical observatory of ultra-high energy cosmic rays consisting of two surface detector arrays that measure independently electromagnetic and muon signals induced by air showers. Using the constant intensity cut method, sets of events ordered according to each of both signal sizes are compared giving the number of matched events. Based on its dependence on the zenith angle, a parameter sensitive to the dispersion of the distribution of the logarithmic mass of cosmic rays is introduced. The results obtained using two post-LHC models of hadronic interactions are very similar and indicate a weak dependence on details of these interactions.

  18. The use of cosmic-ray muons in the energy calibration of the Beta-decay Paul Trap silicon-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, T. Y.; Perez Galvan, A.; Burkey, M.; Aprahamian, A.; Buchinger, F.; Caldwell, S.; Clark, J. A.; Gallant, A.; Heckmaier, E.; Levand, A. F.; Savard, G.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents an approach to calibrate the energy response of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) for low-energy nuclear-science experiments by utilizing cosmic-ray muons. For the 1-mm-thick detectors used with the Beta-decay Paul Trap, the minimum-ionizing peak from these muons provides a stable and time-independent in situ calibration point at around 300 keV, which supplements the calibration data obtained above 3 MeV from sources. The muon-data calibration is achieved by comparing experimental spectra with detailed Monte Carlo simulations performed using GEANT4 and CRY codes. This additional information constrains the calibration at lower energies, resulting in improvements in quality and accuracy.

  19. Study of the performance of the ATLAS muon spectrometer at LHC, from cosmic origin to collisions. Measurement of the WZ production cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Menedeu, E.

    2011-09-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located at CERN, Geneva. As the LHC only delivered its first collisions in December 2009, at an energy of 7 TeV in the centre-of-mass, ATLAS recorded millions of cosmic events in 2008 and 2009 in order to better understand the detector. The first part of this PhD thesis deals with these cosmic events in order to estimate the muon spectrometer performances, particularly its efficiency and resolution. Next, using 7 TeV collisions, the efficiency is determined using a 'Tag and Probe' method on Z events decaying into muons. In addition, the missing transverse energy is studied and a clear improvement of its resolution is achieved through a better treatment of the muons. Finally, muons, missing transverse energy, but also electrons, are used to estimate the production cross-section of WZ di-bosons. Event selection, backgrounds estimation and systematics errors are provided. A computation of the WZ cross-section using 1.02 fb -1 of data is proposed: (21.1+3.1-2.8(sta)+1.2-1.2(syst)+0.9-0.8(lumi)) pb. A first estimation of the limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings have been deduced from the value of the cross-section: -0.21 l Z Z < 1.2 and -0.18 < λ < 0.18

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  1. Performance of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter with Cosmic Ray Muons and LHC Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

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Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Hadron Calorimeter in the barrel, endcap and forward regions is fully commissioned. Cosmic ray data were taken with and without magnetic field at the surface hall and after installation in the experimental hall, hundred meters underground. Various measurements were also performed during the few days of beam in the LHC in September 2008. Calibration parameters were extracted, and the energy response of the HCAL determined from test beam data has been checked.

  2. The reconstruction of tracks with the drift tubes in the muon spektrometers of the neutrino experiment OPERA; Die Spurrekonstruktion fuer das Driftroehren-Myon-Spektrometer des Neutrino-Experiments OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, B.S.

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis the reconstruction of tracks within the OPERA muon spectrometer is described as well as parts of the simulation software concerning the drift tubes. A method minimising the {chi}{sup 2} of the tracks is used for the fit, which is supported by liklyhood considerations during the pattern recognition. An analytical description of the time to distance relation for the OPERA drift tubes is introduced to be used in the fit. For simulated events of cosmics a resolution of 410{+-}4 {mu}m and an efficiency of more that 93% has been acquired. For real cosmic data from the OPERA detector a resolution o 374{+-}3 {mu}m and an efficiency of up to 84% has been reached. The acquired angular resolution of 1,2 mrad is sufficient to achieve a momentum resolution of 25% up to momentums of 25 GeV. (orig.)

  3. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  4. Reconstructing matter profiles of spherically compensated cosmic regions in ΛCDM cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fromont, Paul; Alimi, Jean-Michel

    2018-02-01

    The absence of a physically motivated model for large-scale profiles of cosmic voids limits our ability to extract valuable cosmological information from their study. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing the spherically compensated cosmic regions, named CoSpheres. Such cosmic regions are identified around local extrema in the density field and admit a unique compensation radius R1 where the internal spherical mass is exactly compensated. Their origin is studied by extending the standard peak model and implementing the compensation condition. Since the compensation radius evolves as the Universe itself, R1(t) ∝ a(t), CoSpheres behave as bubble Universes with fixed comoving volume. Using the spherical collapse model, we reconstruct their profiles with a very high accuracy until z = 0 in N-body simulations. CoSpheres are symmetrically defined and reconstructed for both central maximum (seeding haloes and galaxies) and minimum (identified with cosmic voids). We show that the full non-linear dynamics can be solved analytically around this particular compensation radius, providing useful predictions for cosmology. This formalism highlights original correlations between local extremum and their large-scale cosmic environment. The statistical properties of these spherically compensated cosmic regions and the possibilities to constrain efficiently both cosmology and gravity will be investigated in companion papers.

  5. Calibration of the ATLAS hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal using 2008, 2009 and 2010 cosmic-ray muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Z

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS iron-scintillator hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides precision measurements of jets and missing transverse energy produced in the LHC proton-proton collisions. Results assessing the calorimeter calibration obtained using cosmic ray muons collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented. The analysis was based on the comparison between experimental and simulated data, and addresses three issues. First the average non-uniformity of the response of the cells within a layer was estimated to be about ±2% . Second, the average response of different layers is found to be not inter-calibrated, considering the sources of error. The largest difference between the responses of two layers is ±4% . Finally, the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at test beams using electrons was found to range between -3% and +1%. The sources of uncertainties in the response measurements are strongly correlated, including the uncertainty in the simulation. The tot...

  6. GNSS troposphere tomography based on two-step reconstructions using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, balloon-based radiosonde soundings are used to study the spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapour. However, this approach cannot be frequently employed due to its high cost. In contrast, GPS tomography technique can obtain water vapour in a high temporal resolution. In the tomography technique, an iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is usually utilised to overcome rank deficiency of observation equations for water vapour inversion. However, the single iterative or non-iterative reconstruction algorithm has their limitations. For instance, the iterative reconstruction algorithm requires accurate initial values of water vapour while the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm needs proper constraint conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, we present a combined iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approach for the three-dimensional (3-D water vapour inversion using GPS observations and COSMIC profiles. In this approach, the non-iterative reconstruction algorithm is first used to estimate water vapour density based on a priori water vapour information derived from COSMIC radio occultation data. The estimates are then employed as initial values in the iterative reconstruction algorithm. The largest advantage of this approach is that precise initial values of water vapour density that are essential in the iterative reconstruction algorithm can be obtained. This combined reconstruction algorithm (CRA is evaluated using 10-day GPS observations in Hong Kong and COSMIC profiles. The test results indicate that the water vapor accuracy from CRA is 16 and 14% higher than that of iterative and non-iterative reconstruction approaches, respectively. In addition, the tomography results obtained from the CRA are further validated using radiosonde data. Results indicate that water vapour densities derived from the CRA agree with radiosonde results very well at altitudes above 2.5 km. The average RMS value of their

  7. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Mahon, David; Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G; Kaiser, Ralf [University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland, (United Kingdom); Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig; Yang, Guangliang [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, England, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of two tracking modules above, and two below, the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. A dedicated mapping scheme has been developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution provided by the fibres. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and, for the first time, within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  8. A unified framework for penalized statistical muon tomography reconstruction with edge preservation priors of lp norm type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baihui; Zhao, Ziran; Wang, Xuewu; Wu, Dufan; Zeng, Zhi; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The Tsinghua University MUon Tomography facilitY (TUMUTY) has been built up and it is utilized to reconstruct the special objects with complex structure. Since fine image is required, the conventional Maximum likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) algorithm is employed. However, due to the statistical characteristics of muon tomography and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always instable and accompanied with severe noise. In this paper, we proposed a Maximum a Posterior (MAP) algorithm for muon tomography regularization, where an edge-preserving prior on the scattering density image is introduced to the object function. The prior takes the lp norm (p>0) of the image gradient magnitude, where p=1 and p=2 are the well-known total-variation (TV) and Gaussian prior respectively. The optimization transfer principle is utilized to minimize the object function in a unified framework. At each iteration the problem is transferred to solving a cubic equation through paraboloidal surrogating. To validate the method, the French Test Object (FTO) is imaged by both numerical simulation and TUMUTY. The proposed algorithm is used for the reconstruction where different norms are detailedly studied, including l2, l1, l0.5, and an l2-0.5 mixture norm. Compared with MLSD method, MAP achieves better image quality in both structure preservation and noise reduction. Furthermore, compared with the previous work where one dimensional image was acquired, we achieve the relatively clear three dimensional images of FTO, where the inner air hole and the tungsten shell is visible.