WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmetic techniques

  1. Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  2. A cosmetic evaluation of breast cancer treatment: A randomized study of radiotherapy boost technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Sylvie; Bairati, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare cosmetic results of two different radiotherapy (RT) boost techniques used in the treatment of breast cancer after whole breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 1998, 142 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with breast conservative surgery and adjuvant RT. Patients were then randomly assigned to receive a boost dose of 15 Gy delivered to the tumor bed either by iridium 192, or a combination of photons and electrons. Cosmetic evaluations were done on a 6-month basis, with a final evaluation at 36 months after RT. The evaluations were done using a panel of global and specific subjective scores, a digitized scoring system using the breast retraction assessment (BRA) measurement, and a patient's self-assessment evaluation. As cosmetic results were graded according to severity, the comparison of boost techniques was done using the ordinal logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results: At 36 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the global subjective cosmetic outcome (OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 0.69-2.85, p = 0.35). Good to excellent scores were observed in 65% of implant patients and 62% of photon/electron patients. At 24 months and beyond, telangiectasia was more severe in the implant group with an OR of 9.64 (95%CI = 4.05-22.92, p < 0.0001) at 36 months. The only variable associated with a worse global cosmetic outcome was the presence of concomitant chemotherapy (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.74-8.62). The BRA value once adjusted for age, concomitant chemotherapy, and boost volume showed a positive association with the boost technique. The BRA value was significantly greater in the implant group (p 0.03). There was no difference in the patient's final self-assessment score between the two groups. Three variables were statistically associated with

  3. In vitro techniques to assess the proficiency of skin care cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Matlam, Munglu; Deshmukh, Vinay Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Cosmetics comprising either natural or synthetic components are used almost regularly and universally in different forms to enhance the beauty. The utmost disclosure of human membrane to sunlight and environmental pollution results in the exhibition of free radical, that react with deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins and fatty acids, causation oxidative destruction dysfunction of the antioxidant system. In skin, the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to skin diseases, predominantly cutaneous malignancies, immunosuppression, wrinkles, aging, etc., The human organism fosters a barrier practice against the destructive action of free radicals, comprising mostly of vitamins, carotenoids and enzymes. Cosmetic products are the best option to reduce skin disorders such as hyper pigmentation, skin aging, skin wrinkling and rough skin texture, etc., Hence in this review, we conferred various in vitro methods that are used for the development of novel cosmetic formulation. There is an expanding fascinate employing in vitro techniques because they are less time consuming, more cost-effective and lessen the participation of human volunteers.

  4. Update on nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  6. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  7. Identification of Key Success Factors in the Marketing of Cosmetics Based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP Analysis Using Topsis Technique (The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Shirin Hashemi, Faranak Salmannejad, Tayebeh Ghari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cosmetic products are one of the most important fields of consumer market. Strategic marketing plan and creating competitive advantages through recognizing of key success factors has become as a main core competency of active firms in this area. Based on this, the aim of our study was to identify the key success factors of cosmetic products' marketing in the Iran's market. Methods: To do this, knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of consumers in Iran were evaluated and key success factors were identified based on the mix marketing theory. Deep interviews and closed-ended questionnaires were used to collect data. The randomized sample population of this study was 1200 people. Results of KAP analysis were classified in seven clusters and then Topsis technique was used to analysis each cluster. Results: Results showed that there are a significant relationship between attitude and practice and also between knowledge and practice because of t-values greater than 1.96 and path coefficient greater than 0.1. Moreover, the results indicated that the most and the least important factors for success of cosmetics' marketing are place (distribution and dispensing and price, with sorted Cli of 0.9 and 0.1 respectively. Conclusion: It demonstrates that appropriate sales and distribution strategies, scientific and enough information and strong marketing at the point of purchase are the most important key success factors in the marketing of cosmetics, and price has a minimum drawing effect on cosmetics' marketing.

  8. Nail cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Madnani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  9. Nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  10. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  11. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  12. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  14. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  15. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveswari, K N

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508

  16. Comparison of metrological techniques for evaluation of the impact of a cosmetic product containing hyaluronic acid on the properties of skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiš, Rahula; Pata, Vladimír; Egner, Pavlína; Pavlačková, Jana; Zapletalová, Andrea; Kejlová, Kristina

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this research was to evaluate mutual interchangeability of four principally different biometric instrumental techniques designed for objective measurement of changes in the physical, mechanical, and topographical properties of the skin surface treated with commercial antiaging cosmetic products with hyaluronic acid. The following instrumental devices were used: Visioscope PC 35, Corneometer Multiprobe Adapter MPA 6, Reviscometer RVM 600, and 3D scanner Talysurf CLI 500. The comparison of the individual methods was performed using cluster analysis. The study involved 25 female volunteers aged 40-65. Measurements were taken before and after 30 daily in vivo applications of an antiaging preparation to the skin surface in the periorbital area. A slight reduction in skin surface roughness was recorded in 55% of the volunteers. On the contrary, a worsening from their initial states was detected in 25% of the subjects, while for 20%, no significant change was reported. Cluster analysis confirmed that the mentioned methodologies can be divided into two basic clusters, namely, a cluster of methods recording the changes in skin relief by means of optical techniques, and a cluster of methods investigating changes in hydration and anisotropy. In practice, the techniques in different clusters are not interchangeable and should be assessed separately.

  17. Lip Repositioning Technique With Smile Elevator Muscle Containment - A Novel Cosmetic Approach for Gummy Smile: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littuma, Gustavo Javier Salazar; de Souza, Humberto Cherem Mendez; Peñarrieta, Gabriella Mercedes; Magini, Ricardo de Souza; Saba-Chujfi, Eduardo

    Excessive gingival display (EGD) is a challenge for dentists attempting to provide their patients a pleasant smile. EGD associated with hyperactivity of the smile elevator muscles can be treated with various surgical techniques; regardless of which technique is used, to achieve a predictable result with long-term stability limiting upper lip movement when the patient smiles, a firm muscle containment is imperative. This report describes an innovative suture procedure associated with a lip repositioning technique aimed at maintaining the traction and containment of the smile elevator muscles. This case demonstrates a successful and stable result for excessive gingival exposure, addressing and satisfying a patient's esthetic concerns.

  18. Radiation hygenization of cosmetics; Radiacyjna higienizacja kosmetykow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec-Czechowska, K; Bryl-Sandelewska, T [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The Polish regulations connected with trade turnover of cosmetics have been described and discussed. The contamination by microbial flora is very limited and regulated in suitable Polish norm. The possibility of application of radiation technique for pasteurization of different kinds of cosmetics has been discussed. 9 refs, 7 tabs.

  19. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  20. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  2. Esthetic and cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto; Berger, Uwe; Abdel-Naser, Mohammed Badawy

    2008-01-01

    The field of esthetic and cosmetic dermatology has gained remarkable interest all over the world. The major advantage of recent years is the high scientific levels of the most significant new developments in techniques and pharmacotherapy and other nonsurgical approaches. The present paper reviews selected fields of interest under this view. Sexual hormones are involved in the aging process of men and women. Skin function, in particular the epidermal barrier, is affected by a loss of endocrine activity. Hormone replacement therapy has only recently been introduced in treatment of aging males. This is an area of gender-medicine in dermatology with a strong well-aging attempt. Botulinum toxin therapy for hyperfunctional lines has become not only well-established but evidence-based medicine on its highest level. Recent advantages were gained in objective evaluation and monitoring the effect. Digital imaging techniques with various facets have been introduced to assess the achievements of treatment in the most objective way. This may become an example for other techniques as peeling, laser therapy, or radiofrequency in esthetic and cosmetic dermatology. Botulinum toxin has become a valuable tool for brow lifts. Details of the technique are discussed. Cellulite is a strongly female gender-related condition. During the past decades numerous treatments had been recommended but only recently a more critical scientific approach led to improvements in therapy of this common and disfiguring condition. Three major approaches are developed: (a) skin loosing with techniques such as subcision, (b) skin tightening with radiofrequency and other approaches, and (c) improving circulation in blood and lymphatic microvasculature using both physical treatments and pharmacotherapy. The last two chapters are devoted to body sculpturing by lipotransfer and lipolysis. Lipotransfer for facial or body sculpturing has a history of about 100 years. Nevertheless, recently the role of adult stem

  3. Lipopeptides in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2010-02-01

    Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food industry. Cosmetics containing lipopeptides are available in various dosage forms according to their beneficial surface properties, which include anti-wrinkle and moisturizing activities and cleansing cosmetics. The microbial production of lipopeptides particularly those with biological and surface activities applicable to cosmetics are summarized based on appropriate studies and patents up to the year 2008 to manage the information and sufficiently review the data.

  4. Cosmetics and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product safely. Also, cosmetics marketed on a retail basis to consumers, such as in stores or person to person, must have a list of ingredients on the label. For cosmetics sold by mail order, including online, this list must be on the label, in ...

  5. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  6. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  7. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....

  8. Biosurfactants in cosmetic formulations: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.

  9. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  10. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  11. Cosmetic surgery: medicolegal considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piras Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery.

  12. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  13. Complications of cosmetic tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Regulated as a Cosmetic “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” Safety Requirements Labeling of Fragrance Ingredients Phthalates as ... or Is It a Soap) ." “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” There is no regulatory definition for “essential oils,” ...

  15. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  16. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  17. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-07

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  18. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  19. A Pilot Assessment of Ethnic Differences in Cosmetic Outcomes following Breast Conservation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot M. Hirsch, MD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although generalizing the results of this study is limited by the small sample size, it seems that there is a difference in the perception of cosmetic outcomes between white and African American patients. The novel techniques of cosmetic evaluation used in this study show promise toward identifying variables that can affect cosmetic outcome following BCT.

  20. Mesotherapy: cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Jill; Botts, Kayla; Rine, Lesley; Kato, Danielle; Pollock, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy, which has been compared to the anti-wrinkle injection Botox, has only recently become popular in the United States for providing body contouring and spot weight loss. Most adverse reactions associated with mesotherapy are mild and transient, and supporters of the procedure consider it a safer alternative to liposuction. Mainly owing to the absence of safety and efficacy data pertaining to mesotherapy, liposuction is currently the only method for fat removal that is endorsed by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons . Although mesotherapy has been used as a treatment for pain syndromes, arthritis, and many other disorders, this article focuses on its cosmetic applications.

  1. Cosmetic Concerns Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J

    2018-01-01

    Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  3. Current trends in sample preparation for cosmetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke

    2017-01-01

    The widespread applications of cosmetics in modern life make their analysis particularly important from a safety point of view. There is a wide variety of restricted ingredients and prohibited substances that primarily influence the safety of cosmetics. Sample preparation for cosmetic analysis is a crucial step as the complex matrices may seriously interfere with the determination of target analytes. In this review, some new developments (2010-2016) in sample preparation techniques for cosmetic analysis, including liquid-phase microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, pressurized liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave digestion, are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in sample preparation techniques and their applications in the separation and purification of allowed ingredients and prohibited substances are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  5. Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Cosmetic emulsions exist today in many forms for a wide variety of applications, including face and hand creams for normal, dry or oily skin, body milks and lotions, as well as sun-block products. Keeping track of them and their properties is not always easy despite informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that clearly indicate their use and properties. This practical manual provides a detailed overview that describes the key properties and explains how to measure them using modern techniques. Written by an expert in flows and flow properties, it focuses on the application of rheological (flow) measurements to cosmetic and food emulsions and the correlation of these results with findings from other tests. Beginning with a brief history of rheology and some fundamental principles, the manual describes in detail the use of modern viscometers and rheometers, including concise explanations of the different available instruments. But the focus remains on practical everyday lab procedure...

  6. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  7. Annex 2. The cosmetics industry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OVERVIEW The cosmetics industry is probably among the most promising for utilisation of natural substances. The dermocosmetics market is booming and, as the use of animal-based substances declines, natural marine or plant-based substances are increasingly sought after. Scientific approach “The cosmetics industry bases a lot of its communication on natural substances. But there is genuine scientific work going on behind the fashion for environmentalism”, says Patrice André, Director of the Dio...

  8. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  9. Complications of cosmetic eye whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ann Q; Hoppener, Catherine; Venkateswaran, Nandini; Choi, Daniel S; Lee, Wendy W

    2017-09-01

    Introduced in 2008 and subsequently popularized in South Korea, cosmetic eye whitening has been offered as a treatment of chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Patients undergo conjunctivectomy with topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% application to achieve a whitened appearance from bleaching of avascular sclera. Much speculation has arisen from this procedure given the limited available evidence on its efficacy and safety. A literature search was performed to review common complications of cosmetic eye whitening, including chronic conjunctival epithelial defects, scleral thinning, avascular zones in the sclera, dry eye syndrome, and diplopia requiring strabismus surgery. Informing the general public of the risks of this procedure is of great importance for dermatologists and other cosmetic surgeons.

  10. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  12. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  13. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  14. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment What's in this article? Hair Loss Skin Problems ...

  15. [Post-operative infections after cosmetic tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Albrechtsen, Sine; Sørensen, Lene Birk; Juel, Jacob

    2018-06-11

    Cosmetic tourism is defined as patient mobility across borders, typically constituted by patients seeking cosmetic surgery at lower costs abroad. The most common procedures are abdominoplasty, fat grafting and breast augmentation. Very little is known about the complication rates after cosmetic tourism, and there is a paucity of evidence in all aspects of cosmetic tourism. In this review, we focus on post-operative complications i.e. post-operative infections, in particular with rare microorganisms such as mycobacteria.

  16. [Cosmetic surgery of the male genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, D; Haertig, A; Faix, A; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    To describe the indications and results of techniques to change the appearance of the penis for aesthetic reasons. Provide recommendations concerning cosmetic surgery of the male genitalia. We have selected from Medline Database, articles published between 1990 and 2011. Forty articles have been selected excluding papers reporting populations less than five cases per type of procedure. There is no consensus on the size below which it is justifiable to accept or attempt to modify the size of the penis. Length of the penis in maximal tension less than 9.5 cm or 10 cm in erection can be considered as an acceptable limit, in a patient who suffers from it. The assessment of men asking for penile enlargement must include a psychosexological or psychiatric evaluation, looking for a dysmorphophobia or another psychiatric condition. Penile extenders under medical control must be the first-line treatment option for patient seeking penile lenghtening procedure when justified. In case of failure, three techniques can be used alone or in combination: penile lengthening by section of the suspensory ligaments and suprapubic skin advancement, lipectomy of Mons pubis and scrotal webbing section. The results are modest, the rate of complications significant and satisfaction low. Girth enlargement techniques by injection of autologous fat give inconsistent aesthetic results and satisfaction rates are low. All other techniques remain experimental. Cosmetic surgery of the penis is associated with a high risk of forensic exposure and surgery should be only proposed after a multidisciplinary consensus, followed by a time of reflection given to the patient after full disclosure. Applications for the purpose of reconstruction surgery after trauma or consequences of cancer treatment are justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.

  18. Testing of cosmetics and toiletries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1986-01-01

    Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining ...... the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products....

  19. Complications After Cosmetic Surgery Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Holger J; Simic, Dario; Fuchs, Nina; Schweizer, Riccardo; Mehra, Tarun; Giovanoli, Pietro; Plock, Jan A

    2017-04-01

    Cosmetic surgery tourism characterizes a phenomenon of people traveling abroad for aesthetic surgery treatment. Problems arise when patients return with complications or need of follow-up care. To investigate the complications of cosmetic surgery tourism treated at our hospital as well as to analyze arising costs for the health system. Between 2010 and 2014, we retrospectively included all patients presenting with complications arising from cosmetic surgery abroad. We reviewed medical records for patients' characteristics including performed operations, complications, and treatment. Associated cost expenditure and Diagnose Related Groups (DRG)-related reimbursement were analyzed. In total 109 patients were identified. All patients were female with a mean age of 38.5 ± 11.3 years. Most procedures were performed in South America (43%) and Southeast (29.4%) or central Europe (24.8%), respectively. Favored procedures were breast augmentation (39.4%), abdominoplasty (11%), and breast reduction (7.3%). Median time between the initial procedure abroad and presentation was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9) for early, 81.5 days (IQR, 69.5) for midterm, and 4.9 years (IQR, 9.4) for late complications. Main complications were infections (25.7%), wound breakdown (19.3%), and pain/discomfort (14.7%). The majority of patients (63.3%) were treated conservatively; 34.8% became inpatients with a mean hospital stay of 5.2 ± 3.8 days. Overall DRG-related reimbursement premiums approximately covered the total costs. Despite warnings regarding associated risks, cosmetic surgery tourism has become increasingly popular. Efficient patients' referral to secondary/tertiary care centers with standardized evaluation and treatment can limit arising costs without imposing a too large burden on the social healthcare system. 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Factors influencing cosmetic results after conservation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Marie E.; Perez, Carlos A.; Halverson, Karen J.; Kuske, Robert R.; Philpott, Gordon W.; Garcia, Delia M.; Mortimer, Joanne E.; Myerson, Robert J.; Radford, Diane; Rush, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Host, tumor, and treatment-related factors influencing cosmetic outcome are analyzed for patients receiving breast conservation treatment. Methods and Materials: Four-hundred and fifty-eight patients with evaluable records for cosmesis evaluation, a subset of 701 patients treated for invasive breast cancer with conservation technique between 1969 and 1990, were prospectively analyzed. In 243 patients, cosmetic evaluation was not adequately recorded. Cosmesis evaluation was carried out from 3.7 months to 22.3 years, median of 4.4 years. By pathologic stage, tumors were 62% T1N0, 14% T1N1, 15% T2N0, and 9% T2N1. The majority of patients were treated with 4-6 MV photons. Cosmetic evaluation was rated by both patient and physician every 4-6 months. A logistic regression analysis was completed using a stepwise logistic regression. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered significant. Excellent cosmetic scores were used in all statistical analyses unless otherwise specified. Results: At most recent follow-up, 87% of patients and 81% of physicians scored their cosmetic outcome as excellent or good. Eighty-two percent of physician and patient evaluations agreed with excellent-good vs. fair-poor rating categories. Analysis demonstrated a lower proportion of excellent cosmetic scores when related to patient age > 60 years (p = 0.001), postmenopausal status (p = 0.02), black race (p = 0.0034), and T2 tumor size (p = 0.05). Surgical factors of importance were: volume of resection > 100 cm 3 (p = 0.0001), scar orientation compliance with the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project (NSABP) guidelines (p = 0.0034), and > 20 cm 2 skin resected (p = 0.0452). Extent of axillary surgery did not significantly affect breast cosmesis. Radiation factors affecting cosmesis included treatment volume (tangential breast fields only vs. three or more fields) (p = 0.034), whole breast dose in excess of 50 Gy (p = 0.0243), and total dose to tumor site > 65 Gy (p = 0.06), as well as

  2. Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierfrancesco MorgantiDepartment of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, delivery systems, chitin nanofibrils, TiO2, ZnO

  3. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhian

    2007-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  4. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cosmetic results following lumpectomy axillary dissection and radiotherapy for smaal breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.A.; Benhamou, S.; Benhamou, E.; Arriagada, R.; Petit, J.Y.; Fontaine, F.; Sarrazin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1970 and April 1982, 592 women, with T/sub 1/, small T/sub 2/, N/sub 0/, N/sub 1/, M/sub 0/ breast cancer were managed by lumpectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy at the Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR). The overall cosmetic result and the degree of assymetry, fibrosis and telangiectasia of the treated breast were assessed by the radiation oncologist at each follow-up visit. The changes in these cosmetic parameters with time are shown. At 5 years the overall cosmetic result was excellent in 58%, good in 38% and fair or poor in 8%. A multivariate analysis was performed of the factors associated with a cosmetic defect. The most significant factors were tumour size, the presence of defect after surgery and the daily applied dose per fraction to the breast. Surgical and radiotherapy technique (especially alternate day fractionation) can significantly affect the cosmetic result obtained

  6. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-08

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  8. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  9. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  10. The evidential value of cosmetic foundation smears in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amanda; Coulson, Sally

    2004-11-01

    Cosmetic foundation products are easily transferred to clothing and other surfaces as a result of contact with such objects. Examination of past cases involving cosmetics in New Zealand has shown cosmetic foundation to be one of the more common cosmetic products encountered. The aim of this research was to determine the most discriminating method for the comparison of transferred foundation with samples obtained from a known source in forensic casework. Fifty-three foundation samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). It was found that a 5 mm2 section of a light smearing was enough to provide detectable results. The discriminating powers for FTIR, SEM-EDX and GC-FID were 98.3, 93.8, and 82.0% respectively. A combination of all three techniques provided a discriminating power of 99.7%, meaning that almost complete discrimination was achieved between the foundation samples.

  11. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  12. Kant and the cosmetic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J S

    1989-07-01

    Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.

  13. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs.

  14. Patients' perceptions of their cosmetic appearance more than ten years after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Of 47 elderly patients treated by simple radiotherapeutic techniques for basal cell carcinomas, 12 are alive and free of disease more than 10 years after treatment. They were asked to rate their perception of the current cosmetic appearance of their lesions on a scale consisting of: excellent, very good, good, mediocre, and poor. Six of the 12 rated their cosmetic appearance as excellent, three considered it very good, and three called it good. Despite undeniable objective deterioration of the cosmetic appearance of irradiated basal cell carcinomas, patients appear to be pleased with the results. (author)

  15. Managing cosmetics technologies in dynamic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rikke Hundal; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to operationalize theoretical and empirical tools suggested for the private label cosmetics manufacturer. The approach is to enable manufacturers to start designing theoretical tools in order to manage technologies and navigate in the cosmetic industry to maintain or ...

  16. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  17. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  18. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE and high-density polyethylene (HDPE, are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

  19. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  20. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

    2009-03-01

    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  3. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed......Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  4. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzsch, Paul; Ramos, Luis; Ciobotă, Valerian

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of moder...

  5. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  6. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lores, Marta, E-mail: marta.lores@usc.es; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  7. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silpa Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  8. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  9. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  10. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs.

  11. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...

  13. Ecodesign of cosmetic formulae: methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Haridon, J; Martz, P; Chenéble, J-C; Campion, J-F; Colombe, L

    2018-04-01

    This article describes an easy-to-use ecodesign methodology developed and applied since 2014 by the L'Oréal Group to improve the sustainable performance of its new products without any compromise on their cosmetic efficacy. Cosmetic products, after being used, are often discharged into the sewers and the aquatic compartment. This discharge is considered as dispersive and continuous. A consistent progress in reducing the environmental impact of cosmetic products can be achieved through focusing upon three strategic indicators: biodegradability, grey water footprint adapted for ecodesign (GWFE) and a global indicator, complementary to these two endpoints. Biodegradability represents the key process in the removal of organic ingredients from the environment. GWFE is defined herein as the theoretical volume of natural freshwater required to dilute a cosmetic formula after being used by the consumer, down to a concentration without any foreseeable toxic effects upon aquatic species. Finally, the complementary indicator highlights a possible alert on formula ingredients due to an unfavourable environmental profile based on hazard properties: for example Global Harmonization System/Classification, Labelling and Packaging (GHS/CLP) H410 classification or potential very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) classification. The ecodesign of a new cosmetic product can be a challenge as the cosmetic properties and quality of this new product should at least match the benchmark reference. As shown in the case studies described herein, new methodologies have been developed to maximize the biodegradability of cosmetic formulae, to minimize their GWFE and to limit the use of ingredients that present an unfavourable environmental profile, while reaching the highest standards in terms of cosmetic efficacy. By applying these methodologies, highly biodegradable products (≥ 95% based on ingredient composition) have been developed and marketed, with a low GWFE. This new

  14. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  15. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Marketing Strategy of Cosmetics Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Today, in the context of globalization and Chinese "open door" policy, many different international cosmetics companies are going to the Chinese market and existing companies are trying to enlarge their appearance to earn more profit margins.The main aim for writing this thesis on this topic was to analyze Chinese cosmetics industry environment via PEST analysis and the development of the industry. It's important to select a marketing strategy when doing business in China because of the huge ...

  17. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information requested about cosmetic products. 720... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.4 Information requested about cosmetic products. (a) Form FDA-2512 requests information on: (1) The name and...

  18. JBA COSMETICS LTD.: MAINTAIN OR CLOSE THE WEST STORE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Sancovschi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this case is to illustrate the use of relevant cost concepts and techniques for the analysis of long-term policy decisions. It was conceived for discussion in the subjects Management Accounting or Cost Accounting in undergraduate and graduate lato sensu programs in Accountancy, Business Administration and Production Engineering. JBA Cosmetics Ltd. Is a small-sized company specialized in the sale of female cosmetics. In 2010, it had three stores, North, South and West. The latter had been presenting unsatisfactory results, despite the growth in the cosmetics sector. Uncomfortable with this situation, the partners had to decide on whether to close the loss-making store or not. Therefore, they had to compare the store’s revenues and attributable costs – variable costs, divisible fixed costs and indivisible traceable costs. The determination of the attributable costs, as the students will be able to perceive when answering the proposed questions, involves a considerable degree of subjectivity. These questions also suggest qualitative factors that should not be ignored in this type of decision. It can be argued that the uncertainties involved in decisions, like the closure of a store, are better conceived through case analysis than through problem solving.

  19. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  20. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  1. Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R E; Hurley, F J; Havery, D C

    2001-01-01

    Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF COSMETICS FOR HAIR COLORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk D.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Henna-based cosmetic products are becoming increasingly popular. They can be used during pregnancy, lactation as well as for temporary children’s tattoo. The aim of this work is to develop quality control methods, allowing determining the naturalness of the composition of hair coloring cosmetic products, as well as the presence of lawsone and its quantitative content. Material & methods The researched objects were eight hair coloring cosmetic products. The spectrophotometer UV-vis Evolution 60S was used in our phytochemical studies. The quantitative content of chlorophyll a and b was determined in methanolic extracts by spectrophotometric method, using the methodology proposed by K. Miazek. By using well-known methods, methanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the studied objects. The extracts, then, were purified to obtain dry residues containing lawsone. Hair color pastes were obtained according to the instructions on the packages of researched products, and finally chloroform extracts were obtained from these pastes.Quantitative content of lawsone in methanolic and aqueous extracts and dry residues after cleaning of the extracts were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The wavelengths at which the solution of lawsone gives absorption maxima were determined experimentally on the basis of the spectra of the standard sample of lawsone dissolved in methanol (methanolic extracts and in water with the addition of aqueous NaHCO3 (aqueous extracts.The quantitative content of polyphenolic compounds in methanolic and aqueous extracts of the researched objects in terms of gallic acid was performed by the spectrophotometric method at the wavelength of 765 nm using the technique of Folin - Ciocalteau. The gallic acid (by virtue of absorbance dependence on concentration was used as a standard sample to construct the calibration graph. Results & discussion The total content of chlorophyll in the samples was determined by

  3. Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Theo K; Mulkens, Sandra; van der Lei, Berend

    2017-02-01

    Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Members of Dutch professional associations for aesthetic plastic surgery, dermatology, and cosmetic medicine received an online survey by means of their association's digital mailing lists; the survey was completed by 173 respondents. Most participants indicated being more or less familiar with the diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. Approximately two-thirds of the participants reported that they had encountered between one and five of these patients in their practice over the past year, a percentage that is significantly lower than the estimated prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of professionals sometimes or often address body image problems during consultation, most of them collaborate with psychologists or psychiatrists when encountering a patient with body dysmorphic disorder, and approximately 70 percent had refused to perform a procedure in such a patient. Our results converge with those of previous studies, showing that most cosmetic professionals have some degree of awareness of body dysmorphic disorder, although the number they report encountering in clinical practice departs from prevalence figures. When a patient is identified as having body dysmorphic disorder, the professionals use this knowledge to guide their decision to perform a cosmetic procedure.

  4. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  5. Purity of paraffins used in drugs and cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S; Fagioli, F; Morozzi, G

    1981-01-01

    A previously developed technique for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in purified petroleum products was applied to some fully-refined paraffin samples for cosmetic and medicinal uses. The analytical procedure provided identification and quantitative assay for ng/g amounts of two well known carcinogenic PAH's, benzo-a-pyrene and benzoflouranthene. The method is compared with rapid pharmacopoeial tests based on different quality criteria. A lack of agreement between PAH content in paraffin samples and the results of the pharmacopoeial tests was noted. (1 diagram, 49 references, 5 tables)

  6. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. Copyright © 2016

  7. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  8. How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers' purchasing behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yinuo

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...

  9. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  11. [Influence of the psyche on cosmetic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, L

    2015-01-01

    The wish for an attractive appearance is evident in many people. Aesthetic, cosmetic and surgical treatment is willingly made use of in order to fit into the current beauty ideal. A considerable portion of people who decide to follow this path show signs of psychological problems. One has to recognize and evaluate these for the planning or, if necessary, refusal of further treatment. In this article, the most common psychological problems in the cosmetic and aesthetic field of work are presented. A guideline for handling these patients is explained. Thus, a productive and relaxed cooperation will be possible which enables psychological and physical satisfaction for the medical team and the patients.

  12. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  13. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work.

  14. Cosmetic websites Scotland: legal or lurid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Eilidh G M; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi

    2014-08-01

    The provision of cosmetic interventions and their advertising have recently come under intense scrutiny in the wake of the PIP scandal and Keogh report. A study of Scottish websites offering esthetic procedures was conducted to determine adherence to the advertising standards and regulations currently in place. Regulations are provided by the Advertising Standards Authority, Committee on Advertising Practice, Independent Healthcare Advisory Services and General Medical Council. An Internet search was then conducted to search for providers of non-surgical and surgical cosmetic procedures. Overall 125 websites were reviewed. 109 local and 16 national with 17 websites associated with cosmetic surgeons. 26 websites failed to adhere to regulations. Failure was related to advertising of POM on the homepage or dropdown menu (20), offering enticements inappropriately (6). 26.6% of websites did not display qualifications of the practitioners. Only 16.6% of websites described the specific and the non-specific side effects of "anti-wrinkle injections" and only 12.5% mentioned alternative treatments. The majority of websites reviewed adhered to current advertising standards. Plastic surgeons provide a small percentage of cosmetic procedures. Greater regulation at the point of product entry and of all esthetic practitioners is required. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and…

  16. Anphibole, an undesirable presence in cosmetic talc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A semi-quantitative X-ray diffractometric study, compared to CaO analysis, for the evaluation of the percentage of amphibole present in cosmetic talcs is presented. Scanning electron images show these needle-like minerals togheter with talc; these minerals can cause from simple allergies to serious health problems to the human being. (Author) [pt

  17. Cosmetic Surgery Training in Plastic Surgery Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton H. L. McNichols, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents.

  18. Clinics of Oblivion: Makeover Culture and Cosmetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et a...

  19. COMPETITIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE ON THE COSMETICS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Ana - Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations are going through massive changes. Their customers are changing, their competition is changing, their customer’s needs are changing and their resources availability is changing - the cosmetics companies are no different. Organizational survival and success depends on the ability of the managers to detect and adapt to critical changes in the environment, which may impact the company. The paper has two main purposes. First to underline the importance performance measurement has in today’s business and second to present a few key elements regarding the performance of the cosmetics sector in Romania. For this we have tried to answer the following question: Are the cosmetics companies competitive? This paper is based on exploratory literature review of different approaches regarding organizational performances in organizations in general. Despite the global economic crisis and the general slowdown of many markets, the Romanian beauty and personal care market continued to grow in 2009. Consumer awareness and product knowledge is growing rapidly and the development of retailing chains and their widening product offer have also helped to further the development of the beauty and personal care market. The paper also presents the results of section three of an online survey conducted at 10 cosmetic companies from Romania. The results have shown that multinationals have both the economic and managerial power to succeed in obtaining their goals. Even though the sample of 72 respondents was rather small, we managed to conclude from the received answers that the majority of companies focus on economic and managerial performance rather than on social and ecological performance indicators. This paper aimed to contribute to the literature review development in the field of performance management. The results of this study can be of use for managers from the analyzed domain or for other researchers in the economic field. The authors have

  20. The impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on Swiss women's body image and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.

    2017-01-01

    International concern has been expressed about advertising for cosmetic surgery (British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons [BAAPS], 2005, 2008). A recent study showed that exposure to such advertising resulted in a more negative body image and attitudes toward surgery among women living in the UK (Ashikali, Dittmar, & Ayers, 2015). This study investigates the impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on women living in Switzerland, a country with relatively little advertising for cosmeti...

  1. Radiation sterilisation and its potential role in the field of cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    International acceptance of ionising radiation as an industrial technique for sterilising a large variety of medical devices and certain pharmaceuticals has come about over the relatively short space of two decades. Radiation sterilisation can make a valuable contribution in improving the microbiological quality of products in the cosmetics industry

  2. Cosmetic surgery consideration among male and female university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cosmetic surgeries are increasing in frequency, only few studies have investigated cosmetic surgery attitudes in Asia. The aim of the study was to investigate male and female university students' experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery in five ASEAN countries. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and ...

  3. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service.... 7805. * * * Par. 5. Section 49.0-3 is added to read as follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic...--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.5000B-1 is...

  4. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...

  5. The influence of radiotherapy on cosmetic outcome after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Beryl; Sacchini, Virgilio; Luini, Alberto; Agresti, Roberto; Greco, Marco; Manzari, Antonella; Mariani, Luigi; Zucali, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of radiotherapy in the cosmetic outcome after conservative surgery for breast cancer was evaluated using an objective method of calculating the asymmetry between the two breasts. Methods and Materials: One hundred and one patients treated with the same conservative surgery were evaluated for cosmetic outcome. Sixty-one of them received external radiotherapy (50 + 10 Gy) to the residual breast; the remaining 40 underwent surgery only. The aspect of the patients' breasts was objectively assessed for symmetry by means of a computerized technique. A subjective assessment of the cosmetic outcome was performed both by physician and patient. These objective and subjective assessments were compared in the two groups treated with or without radiotherapy. Results: The results obtained did not show significant differences in terms of cosmetic outcome in the two groups. Skin telangectasia was noted in two radiotherapy patients, while hypertrophic breast scars were only noted in six nonirradiated patients. Conclusions: We found that standard radiotherapy does not seem to influence the symmetry and the cosmetic results in breast conservative treatment when compared to a similar group of patients with the same quadrantectomy procedure and no radiotherapy

  6. Investigation of the cosmetic ingredient distribution in the stratum corneum using NanoSIMS imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, N.; Okamoto, M.; Katayama, Y.; Hosokawa, M.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of cosmetic ingredients, it is important to establish the distribution of the component agents within the epidermis of the skin. To date, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. However, it is technically difficult to investigate the distribution of the agents in the stratum corneum using TOF-SIMS. Therefore, an analytical method with higher spatial resolution is required. In this study, we investigated an imaging analysis technique based on NanoSIMS to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. Pig skin was used as a model for human skin. The sample was treated with a cosmetic formulation containing 15 N-labelled pseudo-ceramide (SLE). The sample was frozen with liquid nitrogen and cross-sections were cut using a cryomicrotome. As a result, the fine layer structure of the corneocytes was clearly observed by using NanoSIMS. Our studies indicate that SLE penetrates into the stratum corneum via an intercellular route. We conclude that application of NanoSIMS analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the function of cosmetic ingredients in the skin.

  7. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  8. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  9. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

  11. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more newer and much more unknown. Open lumbar sympathectomy for certain indications is a very well ...

  12. [Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A

    2007-12-01

    Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.

  13. Health Affects of Biocide in Cosmetic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Çot, Duygu Ayabakan; Yener, Emine; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Theskin is the largest organ of the body that protects internal tissues fromchemical, physical, and microbial damage. A cosmetic product is any substanceintended to be placed in contact with the external part of the human body forcleaning, perfuming, changing the appearance, protecting or keeping theepidermis, hair, nails, lips or mucous membranes in good condition. Opstrup andfriends says it is well known that chlorhexidine is widely used as adisinfectant in the healthcare setting. Less well...

  14. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D

    2004-01-01

    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  15. Relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh souri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables such as self-esteem and marital satisfaction along with its components in Iran. Methods: The study had an ex-post facto, pre-post-test design. Using purposive sampling method, a total of 30 married women, who had referred for cosmetic surgery to clinics in Tehran, were incorporated during a six-month period. Data collection instruments included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The obtained data were analyzed using inferential statistics (analysis of variance for repeated measures, related sample test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: According to the results of this study, some components of marital satisfaction (such as marital relations, financial management, leisure, and sex and self-esteem of women before and after cosmetic surgery is statistically significant also there is a relationship betwean marital satisfaction and self-esteem, as self-esteem increases, marital satisfaction rises too. Conclusion: Performance of such surgeries always presents risks, and advice should be sought before making any decision about the surgery.

  16. The fourth incision: a cosmetic autopsy incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Amarjyoti

    2010-03-01

    Autopsy procedure includes thorough external examination as well as internal examination including opening of all the body cavities for proper visualization of all the visceral organs. As such, there remains incision marks with stitches which harts the sentiment of the already traumatized relatives of the deceased. Moreover, it looks odd especially in cases of otherwise healthy dead bodies. So, autopsy incisions should be such that, we can get maximum possible visualization of the body cavities, particularly the thorax and abdomen, and at the same time the incision as well as the stitch marks are also hidden. This article is aimed to describe few modifications in the autopsy incisions for opening the thorax and abdomen and also proper visualization of the neck structures during autopsy where the incisions and the stitches are kept hidden.

  17. Clinical outcome and cosmetics in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongqing; Jin Yening; Wang Yajie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and the cosmetics result of radiotherapy after conservative surgery for early breast cancer. Methods: Altogether 109 patients were treated by post-operative whole-breast irradiation and a tumor bed boost from May, 1995 to December, 2002. Among them 79 cases received a brachytherapy boost ( 192 Ir HDR implant Nucletron ) of 10-12 Gy(DB) by single plan of implantation with 1.5 cm between the needles for T1 and double plan for T2-4 tumors, and 30 cases received an electron beam boost with 15 Gy. External beam irradiation was applied to the whole breast with 45-52 Gy(mean 48.6 Gy) in 25 fractions over 5 weeks followed or concurrently with chemotherapy (CMF or CEF) and hormonotherapy. The cosmetic result was scored by a doctor and patients via questionnaire. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months. The actuarial 5-year overall survival rate was 93.8% using Kaplan-Meier method and the within breast recurrence rate was 6.5%. No radiation- induced ulcer in the breast occurred except acute inflammation of skin around the pinholes in 5 patients. Cosmetic results were scored to be good by patients and the doctor (81% and 87%, respectively) for 75 followed-up cases, and good cosmetic rate was reported by the doctor for 82% (39/48) of the cases treated with brachytherapy boost and 85.2%(23/27) for those treated with external beam boost. There was no difference in cosmetic results between these two groups(P>0.05). Conclusion: In patients at high risk for local recurrence, tumor-bed boost with brachytherapy or electron beam carried out after limited surgery and external radiotherapy can provide satisfactory local control without morbidity. Cosmetic result may not be influenced by the boost technique. (authors)

  18. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  19. Blindness following cosmetic injections of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Figus, Michele; Nardi, Marco; Pantaloni, Marcello; Lazzeri, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Complications following facial cosmetic injections have recently heightened awareness of the possibility of iatrogenic blindness. The authors conducted a systematic review of the available literature to provide the best evidence for the prevention and treatment of this serious eye injury. The authors included in the study only the cases in which blindness was a direct consequence of a cosmetic injection procedure of the face. Twenty-nine articles describing 32 patients were identified. In 15 patients, blindness occurred after injections of adipose tissue; in the other 17, it followed injections of various materials, including corticosteroids, paraffin, silicone oil, bovine collagen, polymethylmethacrylate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Some precautions may minimize the risk of embolization of filler into the ophthalmic artery following facial cosmetic injections. Intravascular placement of the needle or cannula should be demonstrated by aspiration before injection and should be further prevented by application of local vasoconstrictor. Needles, syringes, and cannulas of small size should be preferred to larger ones and be replaced with blunt flexible needles and microcannulas when possible. Low-pressure injections with the release of the least amount of substance possible should be considered safer than bolus injections. The total volume of filler injected during the entire treatment session should be limited, and injections into pretraumatized tissues should be avoided. Actually, no safe, feasible, and reliable treatment exists for iatrogenic retinal embolism. Nonetheless, therapy should theoretically be directed to lowering intraocular pressure to dislodge the embolus into more peripheral vessels of the retinal circulation, increasing retinal perfusion and oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. Risk, V.

  20. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  1. Cosmetics to imitate a summer tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos , Z D

    2000-01-01

    Over the past century, tanned skin shifted from being unpopular to becoming the height of fashion. However, the past decade has again seen white skin become fashionable as more and more people become aware of the dangers of spending too much time in the sun. Even so, having tanned skin is still popular and probably will be for some time to come. This article will focus on cosmetic products that are designed to simulate tanning of the skin by coloring or staining the skin without sun exposure.

  2. New bioprinted skin, cosmetic in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadau, Sebastien; Rival, Delphine; Andre-Frei, Valerie; Chavan M, Manasi; Fayol, Delphine; Salducci, Marine; Brisson, Bruno; Guillemot, Fabien

    We developed a new evolution of three-dimensional skin equivalent due to the optimization of four-dimensional laser-assisted bioprinting and skin equivalent culture protocols. This allowed us to produce fully bioprinted skin equivalents that are closed to current skin equivalents and suitable to test cosmetic ingredients. Particularly, we performed preliminary evaluation of maturogens to improve the dermis maturation before the epidermal seeding and we designed a specific "micropattern" to reproduce the nonlinear aspect of the dermal-epidermal junction. Finally an active ingredient was applied during the production of the bioprinted skin equivalent.

  3. BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...

  4. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmet...

  5. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  6. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  8. Immediate and long term effects of a cosmetic formulation with Cichorium intybus root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís R. Paseto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is characterized as a rough and scaling skin surface. It usually has lower water content than normal skin. Vitamin D helps to regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation andcan help to protect skin from environmental factors. However, the stability vitamin D in cosmetic formulations is low. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and protective effects on skin hydration of a cosmetic formulation containing Cichorium intybus root extract, previously shown to be “vitamin D like” (VD. A formulation containing VD or not (vehicle was applied on the arm, forearm and face of fifteen subjects. Measurements of stratum corneum water content, Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL and skin microrelief parameters were performed using biophysical and skin image techniques before (baseline, after 2 hours, and after 45 and 90 days of daily application of the formulations. Only the formulation with VD was effective in maintaining skin barrier function and skin hydration under low humidity conditions. Cichorium intybus root extract is shown to be an effective “vitamin D like” active ingredient to use in cosmetic formulations to avoid skin dryness. In addition, the extract maintained the sensory properties of the studied cosmetic formulation.

  9. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-15

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela D. Gianeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy. The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  11. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Basketter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.

  12. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check.

  13. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...

  14. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  15. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, GianPaolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  16. Sustainable extraction of molecules for potable alcohol, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Gian Paolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since many years the Laboratory of Agro-Industrial Innovation (UTAGRI-INN) ENEA proposed research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), aiming on the sustainability of the process characteristics. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, It has reduced energy consumption and requires a number of process step lower than the extractions traditional. The process also responds to the requirements required by the regulations for food use, cosmetics and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  17. 75 FR 33683 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., pedicures and other cosmetic or spa treatments; and access to sport or exercise facilities) in addition to..., and tanning lotions; manicures, pedicures and other cosmetic or spa treatments; and access to sport or...); (ii) Sleep disorders; (iii) Seasonal affective disorder or other psychiatric disorder; (iv) Neonatal...

  18. Aesthetic journeys: a review of cosmetic surgery tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence Pereira, Ryan; Malone, Carmel M; Flaherty, Gerard T

    2018-06-01

    Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism. Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined. Reference lists of articles identified were further scrutinized. The search terms used included combinations of 'surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery tourism', 'cosmetic surgery complications' and 'aesthetic tourism'. This article critically reviews the epidemiology of cosmetic surgical tourism and its associated economic factors. Surgical complications of selected procedures, including perioperative complications, are described. The implications for travel medicine practice are considered and recommendations for further research are proposed. This narrative literature review focuses on the issues affecting travellers who obtain cosmetic surgical treatment overseas. There is a lack of focus in the travel medicine literature on the non-surgery-related morbidity of this special group of travellers. Original research exploring the motivation and pre-travel preparation, including the psychological counselling, of cosmetic surgical tourists is indicated.

  19. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  20. Psychological characteristics of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2009-01-01

    An excess of suicide among women with cosmetic breast implants compared with controls has consistently been reported in epidemiologic studies. We have evaluated psychological characteristics among 423 Danish women with cosmetic breast implants, compared with 414 controls. Odds ratios (OR) with 95...

  1. Methods for reducing energy dissipation in cosmetic gloves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Cool, J.C.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    For cosmetic reasons, hand prostheses are provided with cosmetic gloves. Their pleasing appearance, however, is accompanied by poor mechanical behavior, resulting in a negative influence on prosthesis operation. Glove stiffness is high and nonlinear, and internal friction in the glove material

  2. Understanding Consumer Purchase of Free-of Cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund

    2012-01-01

    consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...

  3. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-02-22

    We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.

  4. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients With Cosmetic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Sheng Lai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD refers to a preoccupation with an imagined or grossly exaggerated minor physical defect. Those with BDD might seek medical help (cosmetic surgery rather than attend a psychiatric clinic. Therefore, it is often underdiagnosed. To investigate the prevalence of BDD, we reviewed the medical records of 817 individuals who sought cosmetic surgery during a 3-year period. The outcome after surgery was described for those with BDD. Our results showed that 63 (7.7% patients had BDD, of which 54 (85.7% were diagnosed at preoperative evaluation. However, nine (14.3% patients went undiagnosed and all had a bad outcome after cosmetic surgery. BDD was not uncommon at the cosmetic surgery clinic. Our results support the idea that cosmetic surgery should be avoided for patients with BDD. The development of a more effective diagnostic procedure could help address this issue.

  6. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective...... of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  7. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European... for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...

  8. 78 FR 20662 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... authority members will enter into constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics industry trade...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled, ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...

  9. 76 FR 18767 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing a public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation...

  10. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling... FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of... of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701 (OMB Control Number 0910...

  11. Drugs and Cosmetics from the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anake Kijjoa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. This diversity has been the source of unique chemical compounds with the potential for industrial development as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, molecular probes, fine chemicals and agrochemicals. In recent years, a significant number of novel metabolites with potent pharmacological properties has been discovered from the marine organisms. Although there are only a few marine-derived products currently on the market, several robust new compounds derived from marine natural products are now in the clinical pipeline, with more clinical development. While the marine world offers an extremely rich resource for novel compounds, it also represents a great challenge that requires inputs from various scientific areas to bring the marine chemical diversity up to its therapeutic potential.

  12. Do deodorants/underarm cosmetics cause cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Öztürkcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of deodorant use on breast cancer development has generated considerable interest in both the scientific community and the mainstream media. Primary observational studies and numerous reviews investigating the effect of regular deodorant use on breast cancer development have been undertaken. There is no consensus in this regard. Some epidemiological studies have attempted to directly address the issue of underarm cosmetic use and breast cancer. On the other hand, many studies found no association between antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. There is no difference in the current use of antiperspirant/deodorant products between breast cancer patients and nonaffected matched controls. There is no scientific evidence or research data that ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer.

  13. Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Pereira, Neila

    2009-09-01

    The most recent research in the area of cosmetics to sustainability has focused on obtaining formulations rich in nontraditional oils and butters from seeds and fruits native to Brazilian tropical flora. These have contributed to aggregate value for the raw materials and involvement of small farms forming rural production in Brazil, since the plants are cultivated in preservation areas sponsored by companies who are partners in the Government Program for Brazilian Sustainability. Given that the oils extracted from seeds have the potential to replace these cutaneous constituents, it has been verified that new products of strong commercial impact show an increasing tendency to incorporate in their formulas the oils of plants grown in Brazilian soil.

  14. Studying brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge is important to build brand loyalty. Method: Data were collected from the female's students of department from the university of Sargodha Final analysis was performed on 125 valid respondents. Cronbach's Alpha statistic was used in order to check the reliability of the scale.  Regression was used in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the variables such that this analysis studied the positive relation of all the independent variables (brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and product knowledge with the dependent variable (brand loyalty. Results and Conclusion: The results indicate the positive relationships between brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge (independent variables and brand loyalty (dependent variables. Further among all the variables studied brand awareness has the highest impact on brand loyalty and according to this research L'Oreal consumer is more as compare to other brands.  Although this research specifically studies the Brand Loyalty in University of Sargodha. However more importantly, the purpose of this study is that cosmetic industry must focus on brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge, brand credibility in order to build Brand Loyalty. To the best of researcher's knowledge, this research is first of its kind in the University of Sargodha which studies student's credibility, awareness, association, perceived quality, product knowledge and loyalty toward their favorite cosmetics brand. The results of this study are limited by the specificity of the geographic context by taking a sample of 125 students of one department from total population of University of

  15. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of cosmetic products (skin creams, massage gels and hair lotion) and the effect of gamma irradiation on this quality were investigated.The effectiveness of these cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic microorganisms was also examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of examined cosmetic products ranged between 5 cfu/g or ml. Most cosmetic products evaluated were free from mold and yeast. Spore forming bacteria (SFB) were low and ranged between 2 cfu/g or ml. The enterobacteriaceae (Ent) group was generally absent from the examined cosmetic products except for one sample (varic, skin cream) which contained 7x10 3 cfu/g. All cosmetic products studied were free from Pseudomonas species, Aeromonas hydrophila; Bacillus cereus; Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella species. Only one sample (varic, skin cream) contained E. coli (2x10 2 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis was found in three samples of cosmetic products tested (maxi care, panol and varic creams) and the counts were 7x10 2 , 2x10 2 and 5x10 4 cfu/g, respectively. Also Staphylococcus aureus was found in the same three samples and the counts were in the range of 2-3x10 2 cfu/g. The effectiveness of cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic bacteria differs according to the type of cosmetic products examined . The irradiation dose of 6 kGy was very effective in microbial decontamination and elimination of pathogenic bacteria in cosmetic products for enhancing health quality and ensuring safety of these products.

  16. Cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics - current use and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia-Krzyżak, Agnieszka; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Popiół, Justyna; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Marona, Henryk; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2018-06-05

    Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring as well as synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world. Some of them show allergic and photoallergic potential, resulting in restrictions in maximum concentrations and/or a requirement to indicate the presence of some substances in the list of ingredients when their concentrations exceed certain fixed values in a cosmetic product. Another important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene, and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Other rarely utilized functions of cinnamic acid derivatives are as an antioxidant, in skin conditioning, hair conditioning, as a tonic, and in antimicrobial activities. Moreover, some currently investigated natural and synthetic derivatives of cinnamic acid have shown skin lightening and anti-aging properties. Some of them may become new cosmetic ingredients in the future. In particular, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, which is currently indexed as a skin-conditioning cosmetics ingredient, has been widely tested in vitro and in vivo as a new drug candidate

  17. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-containing cosmetic preparations have been represented for many years as skin-bleaching agents or as preparations to remove or prevent freckles and/or brown spots (so-called age spots). Preparations intended for such use are regarded as drugs as well as cosmetics. In addition to such use as skin-bleaching agents...

  18. Cosmetic Surgery Makeover Programs and Intentions to Undergo Cosmetic Enhancements: A Consideration of Three Models of Media Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent proliferation of reality-based television programs highlighting cosmetic surgery has raised concerns that such programming promotes unrealistic expectations of plastic surgery and increases the desire of viewers to undergo such procedures. In Study 1, a survey of 170 young adults indicated little relationship between cosmetic surgery…

  19. Analysis of cosmetic results following primary radiation therapy for stages I and II carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Svensson, G.; Hellman, S.

    1979-01-01

    In 31 cases of Stages I or II carcinoma of the breast treated by primary radiation therapy, the cosmetic results were analyzed with regard to the details of treatment. Three principal treatment factors were identified which influenced the cosmetic outcome: (1) the extent and location of the biopsy procedure; (2) the time/dose factors of the radiation therapy; and (3) the technique of the radiation therapy. Cosmetic results were lessened when the biopsy procedure included a wide resection of adjacent breast tissue or when the biopsy scar was obvious. Increasing doses of external beam radiation were associated with greater degrees of retraction and fibrosis of the treated breast. All 6 patients who received 6000 rad by external beam had significant retraction, and fibrosis while patients who received 5000 rad rarely showed significant changes. Local boost doses by interstitial implantation did not diminsh the cosmetic outcome. All patients were treated using supervoltage equipment without bolus and skin changes secondary to treatment were infrequent. Seventeen patients developed localized areas of fibrosis and skin changes at the matchline between adjacent radiation fields. Recommendations are made for improved cosmetic results based on these findings

  20. Evaluation of the perceptions and cosmetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients undergoing totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Gabriel; El Houkayem, Michel; Viste, Claire; Bouazza, Fikri; Moreau, Michel; El Nakadi, Issam; Veys, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Totally implantable vascular access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients. While great progress has been made with respect to breast surgical reconstruction to take into account both aesthetics and patients' perceptions of body integrity, these aspects have not been considered with regard to the impact of TIVAD. In order to address this practice gap, we have adapted our TIVAD implantation technique to improve cosmetic results. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer patients' comfort level and aesthetic satisfaction with regard to TIVAD insertion. Patients with breast cancer admitted for chemotherapy at an outpatient clinic completed a previously validated survey evaluating three main domains: symptoms (pain, discomfort) related to the TIVAD itself in daily activity, information received before and during the surgical procedure, and cosmetic aspects regarding the port insertion site (scar, port, and catheter location). Between September 2010 and June 2011, 232 patients were evaluated. Cosmetic satisfaction with scar location was high (93.3 %). Information given to patients before and during the procedure had a major impact on both symptom perception in daily activity and on cosmetic satisfaction. Obtaining a more aesthetic scar by placing the TIVAD in the deltopectoral groove contributed to a high rate of cosmetic satisfaction. Furthermore, the relevance of information given to patients before and/or during surgery had a major impact on symptom perception. Therefore, we suggest including a pre-operative information session in the care pathway.

  1. Radiation decontamination (hygienisation) of cosmetic raw materials and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological purity of cosmetics is a problem of today because of growing hygienic requirements to these products. The demand for high hygienic purity from one side and the limitation in the use of conservants to cosmetics from the other side stimulate the research activity, the aim of which is to satisfy present requirements in this field. The application of radiation decontamination (hygienisation) seems to be one of solutions. In present report were present the results of the study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on microbial contamination of selected cosmetics and some raw materials used in cosmetic industry. Radiation doses applied were not higher than 6.0 kGy. The level of microbial contamination in both unirradiated and irradiated samples was determined by applying the standard microbiological methods. In addition, the quality and usefulness of irradiated cosmetics were examined by methods used in cosmetic industry. The results obtained show conclusively that radiation treatment can be successfully used for the decontamination (hygienisation) of cosmetics and some raw materials used in their production, without changing the quality and the usefulness of the product released. (author)

  2. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmetic results of conservative treatment for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Seong Deok; Ha, Sung Whan; Noh, Dong Young

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of conservative treatment for early breast cancer and to analyze the factors influencing cosmetic outcome. From February 1992 through January 1997, 120 patients with early breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The types of conservative surgery were quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection for 108 patients (90%) and lumpectomy or excisional biopsy for 10 patients (8.3%). Forty six patients (38%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF). Cosmetic result evaluation was carried out between 16 and 74 months (median, 33 months) after surgery. The cosmetic results were classified into four categories, i.e., excellent, good, fair, and poor. The appearances of the patients' breasts were also analyzed for symmetry using the differences in distances from the stemal notch to right and left nipples. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables influencing the cosmetic outcome. Cosmetic score was excellent or good in 76% (91/120), fair in 19% (23/120) and poor in 5% (6/ 120) of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (T1 versus T2) (p=0.04), axillary node status (NO versus N1) (p=0.0002), extent of surgery (quadrantectomy versus lumpectomy or excisional biopsy) (p=0.02), axillary node irradiation (p=0.0005) and chemotherapy (p=0,0001) affected cosmetic score. Multivariate analysis revealed that extent of surgery (p=0.04) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) were significant factors. For breast symmetry, univariate analysis confirmed exactly the same factors as above. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p=0.003) and lymph node status (p=0.007) affected breast symmetry. Conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent or good cosmetic outcome in a large portion of the patients. Better cosmetic results were achieved generally in the group of patients with smaller tumor size, without axillary

  4. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  5. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  6. Recovery of DNA for forensic analysis from lip cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L G; Egan, S E; Turbett, G R

    2001-11-01

    To obtain a reference DNA profile from a missing person, we analyzed a variety of personal effects, including two lip cosmetics, both of which gave full DNA profiles. Further investigations were undertaken to explore this previously unreported source of DNA. We have tested a range of brands and types of lip cosmetics. Our studies have revealed that lip cosmetics are an excellent source of DNA, with almost 80% of samples giving a result. However, artifacts are frequently observed in the DNA profiles when Chelex is used for the DNA extraction and additional DNA purification procedures are required to ensure that an accurate DNA profile is obtained.

  7. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlates of dysmorphic concern in people seeking cosmetic enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, David J.; Molton, Michael; Hoffman, Keturah; Preston, Neil J.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical correlates of dysmorphic concern in persons seeking cosmetic enhancement from cosmetic physicians. Method A questionnaire survey of 137 patients attending the practices of two cosmetic physicians. Results Four subjects (2.9%; 95% CI = 0.8%–7.3%) had a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but many more expressed overconcern with physical appearance (‘dysmorphic concern’). Dysmorphic concern accounted for a substantial amount of the variance for mood, social anxiety, and impairment in work and social functioning, while concerns related to how self or others perceive the putative flaw in appearance, impacted significantly on work and leisure activities, but did not apparently influence mood and social anxiety to any significant degree. Conclusions Dysmorphic concern is a broad dimensional construct that is related to both inter- and intrapsychic distress and disablement associated with people seeking cosmetic enhancement PMID:15209836

  9. Mobile cosmetics advisor: an imaging based mobile service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Chao, Hui; Clearwater, Scott; Harville, Mike; Jain, Jhilmil; Lyons, Nic; Marguier, Joanna; Schettino, John; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cosmetics requires visual information and often benefits from the assessments of a cosmetics expert. In this paper we present a unique mobile imaging application that enables women to use their cell phones to get immediate expert advice when selecting personal cosmetic products. We derive the visual information from analysis of camera phone images, and provide the judgment of the cosmetics specialist through use of an expert system. The result is a new paradigm for mobile interactions-image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones. The application is designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available MMS and SMS features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, it must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system and not on the handset itself. We present the imaging pipeline technology and a comparison of the services' accuracy with respect to human experts.

  10. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  11. PARTICULARITIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE COSMETICS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Harja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on some results of a research organized in the county of Bacau on consumers of cosmetics, using the questionnaire, this article analyses a number of issues with regard to consumer behavior, namely: cosmetics brand most commonly purchased by consumers, cosmetics category to which are allocated the largest sums of money, the amounts of money that consumers are willing to spend per month to purchase these types of products, the importance of some of the main criteria considered when buying cosmetic products and differences manifested in categories of respondents by a number of variables such as age, sex, marital status, income and living environment. The research was conducted using a sample of 500 respondents non-randomly selected, so that the results presented refer only to the studied sample, being a guide to community from which it was extracted.

  12. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Briasco; Priscilla Capra; Arianna Cecilia Cozzi; Barbara Mannucci; Paola Perugini

    2016-01-01

    In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packag...

  13. Evaluation of the cosmetic potential of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Alessandra Cristine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Toiletry, Perfumery and Cosmetics Sector (TPCS) occupies a prominent place in modern society. The search for beauty and wellness, combined with increased life expectancy of the population, causes the intensive search to products that improve appearance, hygiene and health. Thus, the development of cosmetics is very stimulated. Another important feature is the continuously pressure from consumers and companies to this development of new and innovative products, raising competitivenes...

  14. Body odor based personality judgments: The effect of fragranced cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eSorokowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven female observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use; the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = .20 than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = .15. Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = .34 for natural BO and rs = .21 for BO+cosmetics, whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

  15. Sun, sea, sand and silicone: mapping cosmetic surgery tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, R; Bell, D; Jones, M; Probyn, E; Sanchez Taylor, J

    2014-01-01

    This multi-site, mixed methods project charted the experiences of British, Chinese and Australian patients travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery tourism is a fast developing industry that incorporates novel forms of labour and organisational structures that cross national boundaries, as well as drawing together pre-existing medical and tourism infrastructure. While medical tourism has often been characterised as wealthy patients from the global south travelling to the globa...

  16. The Regional Sales of Multinationals in the World Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regional characteristics and strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the world cosmetics and toiletries industry, based on the new work by Rugman on regional strategy. We test the proposition that MNEs may asymmetrically develop their upstream and downstream firm specific advantages (FSAs). We find that the upstream activities of the MNEs in cosmetics are home region based but that downstream activities are less so. Further, the asymmetry of FSAs in the world...

  17. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products. (a...

  18. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 250.250 Section 250.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for Drugs and Cosmetics § 250.250 Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products... cosmetic products has expanded widely in recent years. It is used in such products because of its...

  19. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number. The...

  20. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  2. 21 CFR 700.27 - Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.27 Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic products. (a) Definitions. The definitions and interpretations of...

  3. Materialism, Sociocultural Appearance Messages, and Paternal Attitudes Predict College Women's Attitudes about Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-King, Donna; Brooks, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of cosmetic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, but only recently have studies of cosmetic surgery attitudes among the general population begun to appear in the literature. The vast majority of those who undergo cosmetic surgery are women. We examined cosmetic surgery attitudes among 218…

  4. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  5. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Shaheen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%, hair growth (11%, bad breath (12%, facial spots (9%, allergy, (9%, fairness (8%, wrinkles (8%, eye and lip care (9%. Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%, Leaves (25.2%, seeds (13.4% and roots (8.9%. Women of older (>30 years age group showed greater (67% response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area.

  6. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  7. Clinics of Oblivion: Makeover Culture and Cosmetic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Jones

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et al. 2011. Chris Rojek’s work on contemporary tourist practices is deployed in order to argue that the cosmetic surgery tourist’s body is itself the ‘site’ to be visited and discovered; it is also the souvenir that is brought home. When body and site are brought together in cosmetic surgery tourism, they form a potent nexus that is unique to a contemporary moment tied up with globalisation and consumption, where both identity and self-transformation are managed through the body.

  8. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  9. Cosmetic Detection Framework for Face and Iris Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.

  10. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vargas Jentzsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.

  11. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  13. Psychosocial predictors in consideration of cosmetic surgery among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerini, Amanda; Matera, Camilla; Stefanile, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of psychosocial factors on the consideration of cosmetic surgery. The authors hypothesized that the internalization of thin ideals and social comparisons mediate the relationship between media pressure, family and peer influence (appearance conversations, perception of teasing, and peer attributions), and the desire to pursue cosmetic surgery. The study participants were 429 Italian women (mean age, 33 years). They completed a questionnaire containing the Appearance Conversations With Friends Scale, the Perception of Teasing Scale for Friends, the Peer Attribution Scale, the "Pressure and Internalization-General" subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale, and the "Consider" subscale of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was performed. The results indicated that media pressure and appearance conversations with peers predicted the outcome variable through the full mediation of internalization of thin ideals. The relation between peer attributions and interest in cosmetic surgery was partially mediated by internalization of thin ideals. Although social comparison was significantly related to both sociocultural variables and consideration of cosmetic procedures, it was not a significant mediator of this relationship. Neither family influence nor perception of teasing predicted the outcome variable. Overall, these results provide important information about the factors implicated in the consideration of cosmetic surgery by women. This research confirms that cosmetic surgeons need to adopt a base psychological approach. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  14. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  15. Perceived realism and Twitter use are associated with increased acceptance of cosmetic surgery among those watching reality television cosmetic surgery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; King, Kahlil

    2014-08-01

    Reality television programming is a popular type of television programming, and features shows about cosmetic surgery. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly popular methods of sharing information. The authors surveyed college students to determine among those watching reality television cosmetic surgery programs whether perceived realism or social media use was associated with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Participants (n=126) were surveyed about their reality television cosmetic surgery program viewing habits, their perception of the realism of reality television programming, and social media topics of Twitter and Facebook. Outcome variables were the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scales of social, intrapersonal, and consider. Perceived realism was significantly associated with increased scores on the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale subscales of social (p=0.004), intrapersonal (p=0.03), and consider (p=0.03). Following a character from a reality television program on Twitter was significantly associated with increased social scores (p=0.04). There was no significant association of Facebook behavior with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic plastic surgeons may benefit by advertising their services on cosmetic surgery reality television programs. These reality television programs portray cosmetic surgery in a positive manner, and viewers with increased perceived realism will be a potential receptive audience toward such advertising. Also, advertising cosmetic surgery services on Twitter feeds that discuss cosmetic surgery reality television programs would be potentially beneficial.

  16. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients referred to Razi hospital cosmetic clinic with complaints of cosmetic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang Ehsani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital were selected if they agreed to participate in the study. They were evaluated by Yale brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder (YBOCS-BDD as well as questionnaires containing demographic characteristics of patients including gender, educational status, marital status, history of reference to psychiatrist or psychologist, other medication, history of cosmetic surgery and rate of satisfaction of cosmetic surgery. YBOCS-BDD questionnaires then processed by educated specialist to determine BDD score of patie-nts. Demographic questionnaires, also analysed to evaluate epidemiologic properties of patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Results: The prevalence of BDD in current sample was 33.3%. 70.7% of BDD patients were female while 29.3% were male. The commonest age range was 21-50 years (82.8%. 65.5% were educated to level of diploma or lower, while 34.5% had academic degrees. 51.7% were married. 20.7% had history of reference to psychiatrist or psycholo-gist. 17/2% had history of cosmetic surgery with satisfaction ranging from unsatisfied (20% to relative satisfaction (80%. None were fully satisfied.Conclusion: BDD had high prevalence in patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi skin hospital. This high rate of prevalence show the necessity of diagnosis of BDD in skin patients and it is critical for them to refer to psychiatrists or psychologists.

  17. Mortality and suicide among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Poul Harboe; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2004-01-01

    disorders as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital among women seeking cosmetic surgery. METHODS: Cohort study of 2761 women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery or public hospitals, 7071 women who underwent breast reduction surgery at public.......7-5.2). Women who underwent breast reduction exhibited low SMRs for death overall (0.7; 95% CI, 0.7-0.8) and several specific causes, including breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6), whereas death from suicide was moderately above expectation (SMR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5). The prevalence of psychiatric admission...... prior to cosmetic surgery was higher among women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery (8.0%; 95% CI, 7.0%-9.0%) than among women who underwent breast reduction (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.2%-5.2%) or other cosmetic procedures (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.5%-6.7%). When compared with all control groups, women...

  18. Coupled exposure to ingredients of cosmetic products: III. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gonçalo, Margarida; Yazar, Kerem; Kratz, Eva-Maria; Mildau, Gerd; Lidén, Carola

    2014-09-01

    The use of cosmetics exposes consumers to mixtures of ingredients, many of which are potential allergens. Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used not just in sunscreens, but also in other products. Many UV filters are known contact allergens and photoallergens. To examine the pattern of co-exposure to UV filters in cosmetics. A survey of products marketed in Germany, conducted in 2006-2009 by the Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office in Karlsruhe, identified 4447 products (of all 5667 cosmetic products examined) (i) that were categorizable according to Annex I to the Cosmetics Directive, and (ii) with information on the presence of UV filters or zinc oxide. The occurrence and co-occurrence of UV filters were analysed and presented in tabular and graphical format. UV filters or zinc oxide were present in 22.5% of all 4447 products, ranging from almost 100% in sunscreens to a few per cent in, for example, some hair products; they were absent in two product categories. Frequently, several different UV filters were included in one product, for example in sunscreens (median 4) and in perfumes (median 3). The overall most frequent UV filters were butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and titanium dioxide, combined mostly with octocrylene in sunscreens and with ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in creams. The frequent co-occurrence of UV filters in cosmetic products possibly facilitates sensitization, and may explain why patients often react to chemically unrelated UV filters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Use of Cosmetics and Personal Care Products During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Aksu Arica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Personal care products and cosmetics are substances that have various chemical contents whose reliability is not exactly known. There is not enough study to demonstrate the safety of their use in pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usage frequency of personal care products and cosmetics. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a pre-prepared questionnaire was filled out by 179 pregnant women. In this questionnaire, the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and the usage frequency of cosmetics/personal care products were evaluated in 26 different categories. Results:In our study, the most frequently used products in pregnancy were general hygiene products such as toothpaste, shampoo, and soap. Hand cream, wet wipes, shower gel, hair conditioner, and moisturizer use were following these products, respectively. When evaluated according to the education levels, it was found that the usage of hair dye, powder and foundation in primary school graduates were significantly higher than university graduates. The use of sun protection products in fair skin types was found significantly higher than in dark ones. Conclusion:Our study reveals which personal care products and cosmetics are used more often during pregnancy. Our data will provide the exposure studies associated with cosmetic use in pregnancy to be planned more accurately.

  20. Influence of the container on the consumption of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Berrada, M P; Ficheux, A S; Galonnier, M; Rolfo, J E; Rielland, A; Guillou, S; De Javel, D; Roudot, A C; Ferret, P J

    2017-11-01

    The container, also known as primary package or inner package, could be defined as the packaging designed to come into direct contact with the cosmetic product. To author's knowledge, no study was available regarding the effect of the primary package on the consumption of cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the container on the consumption of three cosmetic products widely used, i.e. shampoo, shower gel and emollient cream. The three products were contained in a tube with a flip top cap and in a bottle with a pump. The study was conducted on 221 French adults: 108 women and 113 men. Results showed that the consumption of each cosmetic product was slightly higher when the product was packaged in tube with a flip top cap than in bottle with a pump. The difference of consumption could vary from 5 % to 23 % when calculated with mean values. This information could be interesting for safety evaluators, safety agencies and commercial services of cosmetic manufacturers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  2. Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Louise; Ng, Sze; Ahern, Susannah; Cooter, Rodney; Hopper, Ingrid

    2017-12-03

    The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases. The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad. We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective. Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Bacterial infection as a likely cause of adverse reactions to polyacrylamide hydrogel fillers in cosmetic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    patients and 24 controls were systematically examined for the presence of bacteria by culture, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Gram stain, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results. Bacteria, mostly normal skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, were identified...... in the presence of polyacrylamide filler in cosmetic surgery, possibly due to a biofilm mode of growth. Adequate skin preparation and use of sterile technique in these procedures are mandatory, but antibiotic prophylaxis prior to injection of nondegradable gels like polyacrylamide should be explored as well....

  4. Thermal Behavior and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in Cosmetic Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions.

  5. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect...... cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated...... with the presence of those agents. Methods We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Results Fillers...

  7. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Presenting for Cosmetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among patients seeking cosmetic treatment in surgery or dermatology clinics is higher than general population. As postoperatively some patients dissatisfied with the surgery, dermatologists and surgeons should be informed about body dysmorphic disorder. This aim of this review was to assess prevalance, clinical features, motivational factors of patients with body dysmorphic disorder presenting for cosmetic medical treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 324-338

  8. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  9. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  10. Logistics’ diagnostic in cosmetics and toiletries supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arturo Orjuela-Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sector of cosmetics and toiletries is a world class sector, consolidated in Colombia with 690 companies of which 420 are in Bogotá D.C. Taking into account that logistics management generates competitive advantage in organizations as factor of success in a global economy, this paper proposes a logistics analysis applied to the case of cosmetics and toiletries supply chain. The results include the diagnosis of logistics processes and resources, which they were studied with an own methodology proposal. The methodology allowed study the logistics factors and variables, elements that recognized the logistical behaviour in the different links of the supply chain.

  11. Discount cosmetic surgery: industry trends and strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-08-01

    Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is

  12. Safety Assessment of Polyether Lanolins as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan; Heldreth, Bart

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these polyether lanolin ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  13. Recent progresses in application of fullerenes in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Marko

    2011-08-01

    Cosmetic industry is a fast growing industry with the continuous development of new active ingredients for skin care products. Fullerene C(60) and its derivates have been subject of intensive research in the last few years. Fullerenes display a wide range of different biological activities. Strong antioxidant capacities and effective quenching radical oxygen species (ROS) made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the formulation of skin care products. Published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their application in cosmetics use and examples of published patents are presented. Recent trends in the use of fullerenes in topical formulations and patents are reviewed. Future investigations covering application of fullerenes in skin care are discussed.

  14. Safety Assessment of Chlorphenesin as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    Chlorphenesin functions as a biocide in cosmetics and is used at concentrations up to 0.32% in rinse-off products and up to 0.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that chlorphenesin was well absorbed when applied to the skin of rats; however, any safety concern was minimized because available data demonstrated an absence of toxicity. The Panel concluded that chlorphenesin is safe in the present practices of use and concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  16. In-store promotional mix and the effects on female consumer buying decisions in relation to cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lee, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between the females' in-store purchasing decision process and the promotional mix. Two cosmetic salesmen groups were interviewed by using focus group interview technique to understand females' buying decision process with in-store promotional mix. The results indicated that females with buying intention will improve the effectiveness of in-store promotional strategies. The purchase behavior stimulated by in-store promotions was related to...

  17. An overview of the cosmetic treatment of facial muscles with a new botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Luitgard G

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is used nowadays in a much more differentiated way with a much more individualized approach to the cosmetic treatment of patients. To the well known areas of the upper face new indications in the mid and lower face have been added. Microinjection techniques are increasingly used besides the classic intramuscular injection technique. BTX injections of the mid and lower face require small and smallest dosages. The perioral muscles act in concert to achieve the extraordinarily complex movements that control facial expressions, eating, and speech. As the mouth has horizontal as well as vertical movements, paralysis of these perioral muscles has a greater effect on facial function and appearance than does paralysis of muscles of the upper face, which move primarily in vertical direction. It is essential that BTX injections should achieve the desired cosmetic result with the minimum dose without any functional discomfort. In this paper the three-year clinical experience with average dosages for an optimal outcome in the treatment of facial muscles with a newly developed botulinum toxin type A (Xeomin) free from complexing proteins is presented.

  18. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  19. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  20. Makeup and Menstrual Cycle: Near Ovulation, Women Use More Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they had spent…

  1. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics. K Pili. Abstract.

  2. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  3. Indigenous Knowledge Applied to the Use of Clays for Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of clay for cosmetic purposes in Africa is an age-old long-standing practice, which has been practiced through all regions of the continent. Red, white, yellow and their related shades of clays, in combination with other natural substances such as plant and animal extracts have over time been used by different ...

  4. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  5. Complications related to a cosmetic eye-whitening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Rosalind C; Stafeeva, Ksenia; Aldave, Anthony J; Stulting, R Doyle; Moore, Quianta; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Chungfat, Neil C; Holsclaw, Douglas S; Margolis, Todd P; Deng, Sophie X

    2014-11-01

    To report sight-threatening complications following extensive bulbar conjunctival resection and postoperative mitomycin C therapy for cosmetic eye-whitening in the United States. Retrospective noncomparative case series. Multicenter report of 9 patients referred for evaluation and management of complications following bilateral cosmetic eye whitening. Seventeen eyes of 9 patients underwent cosmetic eye-whitening performed between 2 and 48 months prior to referral to one of the centers. Sixteen of the 17 eyes had persistent conjunctival epithelial defects, with 10 eyes requiring amniotic membrane grafting to facilitate re-epithelialization. Four eyes of 2 patients developed limbal stem cell compromise confirmed with in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. One patient developed infectious scleritis and diplopia resulting from Tenon capsule scarring. Another patient developed scleral necrosis, secondary infectious scleritis, and infectious endophthalmitis. This patient subsequently developed noninfectious scleritis that required 3-drug-regimen immunosuppression. Severe adverse effects can occur after extensive cosmetic conjunctival resection followed by topical mitomycin C application. Patients and physicians should be aware of the potential sight-threatening complications associated with this eye-whitening procedure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test, eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test, mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test, and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  8. Database search for safety information on cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    Ethical considerations with respect to experimental animal use and regulatory testing are worldwide under heavy discussion and are, in certain cases, taken up in legislative measures. The most explicit example is the European cosmetic legislation, establishing a testing ban on finished cosmetic products since 11 September 2004 and enforcing that the safety of a cosmetic product is assessed by taking into consideration "the general toxicological profile of the ingredients, their chemical structure and their level of exposure" (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003). Therefore the availability of referenced and reliable information on cosmetic ingredients becomes a dire necessity. Given the high-speed progress of the World Wide Web services and the concurrent drastic increase in free access to information, identification of relevant data sources and evaluation of the scientific value and quality of the retrieved data, are crucial. Based upon own practical experience, a survey is put together of freely and commercially available data sources with their individual description, field of application, benefits and drawbacks. It should be mentioned that the search strategies described are equally useful as a starting point for any quest for safety data on chemicals or chemical-related substances in general.

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  10. STANDARDIZATION OR ADAPTATION IN COSMETICS WEBSITES MARKETING ? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Constantinescu-Dobra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The websites marketing is becoming an important tool both for multinationals and SMEs, in their effort to internationalizing their business.This study focuses on the international opportunities that are present within the European markets. The paper aims at identifying the degree of websites marketing standardization vs. adaptation, as a marketing tool for cosmetic products. Moreover, the study examines in a comparative manner the standardization strategy of multinationals and small and medium enterprises (SMEs, leaders in European markets, for different cosmetic cathegories.The evaluation of online advertising standardization is based on the modified Model for Testing Advertising Standardization, developed by Whitelock and Chung. The web sites degree of localizations areanalyzed based upon 98 criteria, as resulted from an adapted methodology of ProfNet Institut fur Internet Marketing, Munster (Germany. The sample includes the 101 leaders from European markets.The research outcomes reflect a standardized websites marketing policy for SMEs and localized for multinationals. Also, for perfumes, dental care products and toiletry, European cosmetic leaders implementstandardized websites marketing policies and balanced for the other cosmetics categories. The hypothesis concerning a strong correlation between standardization and handling dimension was supported.

  11. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  12. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 [REG-112841-10] RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice...

  13. Myth 6: Cosmetic Use of Multiple Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Nimz, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, armed with the courage of her convictions and a respectable collection of empirical evidence, the author articulated what she considered to be a compelling argument against the cosmetic use of multiple selection criteria as a guiding principle for identifying children and youth with high potential. To assess the current…

  14. Difficulties in avoiding exposure to allergens in cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics. The questi......The aim of the study is to describe the ability of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to avoid exposure to allergens in cosmetics. The study is a questionnaire survey among 382 patients with contact allergy to preservatives and fragrances, included from 3 dermatological clinics....... The questionnaire included questions about the level of difficulty in reading labels of ingredients on cosmetics and about patients' strategies to avoid substances they were allergic to. It also included questions about eczema severity as well as about educational level. 46% of the patients found it difficult...... or extremely difficult to read the ingredient labelling of cosmetics, and this finding was significantly related to low educational level. Patients allergic to formaldehyde and methyldibromo glutaronitrile experienced the worst difficulties, while patients with fragrance allergy found ingredient label reading...

  15. Women's preference of cosmetic results after gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kathryn; Goldberg, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cosmetic appeal of different incision types used in gynecologic surgery. One hundred women between the ages of 20 and 40 years were shown 4 color photographs of a female abdomen with incision sites marked for Pfannenstiel, minilaparotomy, traditional laparoscopy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopy. The women were asked to rank the photographs on cosmetic appeal alone. An additional photograph depicting single-port laparoscopy was then added, and patients were asked to again rank the photographs. Participants were also asked basic demographic information and prior surgical history. Office practice. One hundred women between the ages of 20 and 40. Participants. Minilaparotomy was ranked as the most appealing incision among the first set of photographs by 74% of the participants, and the remaining 26% preferred traditional laparoscopy. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy was ranked as the least appealing scar type by 42%, and no patient selected it as their first choice. Sixty-four percent preferred the appearance of a single-port laparoscopic scar when that option was added. The only demographic variable that reached statistical significance was the presence of prior abdominal surgery. Patients without prior surgery ranked minilaparotomy as more cosmetically appealing. When several minimally invasive surgical approaches are possible, the patient should be counseled regarding the cosmetic results of each. Patients in this study strongly preferred the appearance of minilaparotomy and single-port incisions over full Pfannenstiel or robotic incisions. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular Injury in Cosmetic Laser Treatments of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony; Hui, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers.

  17. Clinical outcome and cosmetic results of conservative surgery plus radiation therapy in early stage breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yening; Wang Yajie; Zhang Xiaoqing; Meng Yan; Li Rongqing; Shi Junyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome and cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery plus radiation therapy. Methods: From May 1995 to December 2002, 109 such patients were so treated. The post-operative radiotherapy consisted of whole-breast 6 MV linear accelerator irradiation with two tangential half-fields to a total dose of 45-52 Gy (mean 48.6 Gy), followed by a boost irradiation to the tumor bed. Among them, 79 patients received 10-12 Gy (DB) boost by interstitial implantation brachytherapy ( 192 Ir HDR, Nucletron), with single plane implantation for T1 and double plane implantation for T2 tumor. Thirty patients received 15 Gy boost by electron beam. Adjuvant/concurrent chemotherapy (CMF or CEF) and hormonotherapy were also used according to the patients' clinical characteristics. The cosmetic results were scored by both the doctor and the patients. Results: The overall actuarial 5-year survival was 93.8%, with local recurrence of 6.5%. No radiation-induced ulcer was observed in the breast except for acute inflammation at skin pinholes in 5 patients treated by interstitial implant brachytherapy. Among the 75 patients who had had breast examination, cosmetic result scored as good by patient and doctor were 81% and 87%, respectively. The good rate assessed by doctor in brachytherapy boost group and electron beam boost group were 81.2% (39/48) and 85.2% (23/27), There was no significant difference between these two boost techniques (P>0.05). Conclusions: Tumor bed boost irradiation by either brachytherapy or electron beam technique can provide satisfactory local control in early breast cancer treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy without increasing the side effects. There is no significant difference in cosmetic result between these two boost techniques. (authors)

  18. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  19. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Cosmetic effects of skin-crease camouflage incision versus longitudinal incision following carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Rybicka, Anita; Rynio, Pawel; Gutowski, Piotr; Wiernicki, Ireneusz

    2018-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA) nonetheless remains a more medically beneficial method of treatment for carotid artery stenosis. Therefore, one possibility for progress within this procedure may be to use minimally invasive carotid surgery, especially when the scar is in plain sight: the use of the natural wrinkles (skin crease) as a camouflage of the skin incision provides significant cosmetic improvements. To compare the cosmetic effects of classic and trans-wrinkle CEA. To assess the distance between the carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) and the skin-crease incision whilst attempting CEA. It was a randomized prospective study with two groups: patients undergoing classic surgery (control group; n = 100) and skin-crease trans-wrinkle camouflaged CEA (study group; n = 100). Follow-up was at 2 months and 1 year. The medical results of the treatment were similar in both groups. The cumulative count of strokes and myocardial infarctions was 0.5% within 30 days, and after one year 3.5% (and 5.5% including cases of death). The superiority of the transverse crease being hidden compared to the conventional longitudinal technique was proven in the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) score, respectively 11.4 ±1.0 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.0001) after 2 months and 13.5 ±2.8 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.039) after a year. Trans-wrinkle incision gives better cosmetic results, can be safely performed in most cases, and offers a comfortable approach during CEA.

  1. Botox® after Botox® - a new approach to treat diplopia secondary to cosmetic botulinic toxin use: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Rodrigues Isaac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for the treatment of diplopia secondary to cosmetic botulinum toxin A use is described. In this interventional case reports, two consecutive patients who developed diplopia after periocular cosmetic use of botulinum toxin A were treated with intramuscular botulinum toxin A injection into the antagonist extraocular muscle. Diplopia resolved in both patients in less than 1 week with no side effects or complications. In conclusion, the injection of intramuscular botulinum toxin A is an encouraging option for treatment of diplopia secondary to botulinum toxin A use for facial lifting.

  2. 10 Years Later: Lessons Learned from an Academic Multidisciplinary Cosmetic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny T. Chen, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion:. Although the creation of our academic cosmetic ambulatory surgery center has greatly increased the overall volume of cosmetic surgery performed at the University of Wisconsin, the majority of surgical volume and revenue is reconstructive. As is seen nationwide, minimally invasive cosmetic procedures represent our most rapidly expanding revenue stream.

  3. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic products. This guidance is intended to assist industry in... Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist industry in identifying the potential safety...

  4. A new multiple noncontinuous puncture (pointage technique for corneal tattooing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the safety and cosmetic efficacy of a new multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for tattooing a decompensated cornea.METHODS:It was anon-comparative clinical case series study.The study examines 33 eyes in 33 patients with total corneal opacity due to corneal decompensation, which developed following intraocular surgery.Corneal tattooing was performed using the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique (i.e. pointage. The safety of this new surgical strategy was assessed by occurrence of adverse events for the follow-up period. The cosmetic efficacy was determined by the patient’s cosmetic satisfaction and independent observer’s opinion about patient appearance.RESULTS:Seven women and 26 men were included in the study. The mean age was 46.4±17.5y (range:7-67. In total, 30 of 33 patients (91% reported cosmetic satisfaction within the follow-up period. Only 3 patients (9% required additional tattooing due to cosmetic unsatisfaction. Cosmetic outcomes were analyzed and classified as excellent or good in 13 (39% and 17 (52% patients, respectively. No serious adverse events developed, except delayed epithelial healing in 3 cases.CONCLUSION:The cosmetic outcomes of the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for corneal tattooing were good. The safety of this method is higher than conventional procedures. This new procedure also provides improved cost-effectiveness and safety over current corneal tattooing techniques.

  5. Wrinkle and roughness measurement by the Antera 3D and its application for evaluation of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Hurley, S; Doyle, L; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-01-24

    Skin topographic measurements are of paramount importance in the field of dermo-cosmetic evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate how the Antera 3D, a multi-purpose handheld camera, correlates with other topographic techniques and changes in skin topography following the use of a cosmetic product. Skin topographic measurements were collected on 26 female volunteers aged 45-70 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on parallel-polarized pictures. Different filters for analysis from the Antera 3D were investigated for repeatability, correlations with other imaging techniques and ability to detect improvements of skin topography following application of a serum. Most of Antera 3D parameters were found to be strongly correlated with the DermaTOP parameters. No association was found between the Antera 3D parameters and measurements on parallel-polarized photographs. The measurements repeatability was comparable among the different filters for analysis, with the exception of wrinkle max depth and roughness Rt. Following a single application of a tightening serum, both Antera 3D wrinkles and texture parameters were able to record significant improvements, with the best improvements observed with the large filter. The Antera 3D demonstrated its relevance for cosmetic product evaluation. We also provide recommendations for the analysis based on our findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Analysis of cosmetic results and complications in patients with Stage I and II breast cancer treated by biopsy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.; Martinez, A.; Cox, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Between May, 1973 and December, 1980, 78 Stage I and II breast carcinomas in 76 patients were treated by biopsy and radiotherapy with curative intent. With a maximum follow-up of 10 years, a minimum of 2 1/2 years and a median follow-up of 3 1/2 years, a loco-regional control rate of 97% was obtained. Cosmetic results and treatment complications were studied. Patient characteristics, tumor size, excisional biopsy technique, axillary staging procedure and radiotherapy techniques were analyzed and all found to be important factors affecting cosmesis and complications. The most common complications included transient breast edema observed in 51% of patients, breast fibrosis (usually mild) seen in 23% of the population, axillary hematoma or seroma formation in 15%, mild arm edema in 14% and basilic vein thrombosis in 10% of patients. The causes of these and other less frequent complications are discussed. The overall cosmetic result was excellent in 78%, satisfactory in 18% and unsatisfactory in 4% of patients. Recommendations for improving cosmetic results and minimizing complications are made

  7. Portable EDXRF for Quality Assurance of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Melquiades

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Portable Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence is a viable, cost and time effective analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a wide range of samples. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for quantification of nail polishes, eye shadows, lipsticks and lip gloss using thin film geometry. The samples were applied over thin films, simulating its use on face and nails. It was possible to quantify S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Bi. The methodology is viable and could be useful to forensic science, quality control on industry of raw materials or final products and supervision by regulatory agencies.

  8. Oxygen permeability of the pigmented material used in cosmetic daily disposable contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galas S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Galas, Lenora L Copper Johnson & Johnson Vision Care Inc., Jacksonville, FL, USA Purpose: To evaluate the individual contributions of pigment colorant and packing solution containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP on the oxygen permeability (Dk of a cosmetic printed etafilcon A daily disposable contact lens packaged with PVP. Method: The oxygen transport of a contact lens is evaluated through the central optical zone of the lens. Cosmetic printed contact lenses contain pigment colorant in the periphery or mid-periphery of the lens. Therefore, to assess the impact of cosmetic print on oxygen permeability, special lenses need to be produced that contain the colorant within the central optical zone. This technique was used to obtain multiple measurements of nonedge-corrected Dk/t of both the center pigmented lens and its nonpigmented equivalent, using a polarographic measurement described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO 18369-4:2006(E, and the Dk derived for each measurement is corrected for edge effect. In addition, the edge-corrected Dk values of lenses made from the same monomer batch were measured. The lenses were packaged and autoclaved with and without proprietary technology which embeds PVP in the contact lens during autoclaving. The resulting Dk value of the printed lens material was then used with thickness data to generate true Dk/t profiles for a given lens power. Results: The edge-corrected Dk of the printed etafilcon A lens with offset pigment colorant was measured to be 19.7×10-11 (cm2/s (mL O2/mL·mmHg at 35°C. This was within ±20% tolerance range as specified in ISO 18369-2:2012(E for the edge-corrected Dk of the nonpigmented etafilcon A control lens evaluated during the same session, 19.5×10-11 (cm2/s (mL O2/mL·mmHg. The edge-corrected Dk values of the lenses packaged with PVP (mean 20.1, standard deviation [SD] 0.3 were also within the ±20% tolerance range compared to those packaged without PVP

  9. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bei; Gao, Yanli; Ma, Jiehua; Li, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular in China. However, reports on the predictive factors for cosmetic surgery in Chinese individuals are scarce in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed 4550 cosmetic surgeries performed from January 2010 to December 2014 at a single center in China. Data collection included patient demographics and type of cosmetic surgery. Predictive factors were age, sex, marital status, occupational status, educational degree, and having had children. Predictive factors for the three major cosmetic surgeries were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Patients aged 19-34 years accounted for the most popular surgical procedures (76.9 %). The most commonly requested procedures were eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher education level (college, P = 0.01, OR 1.21) was predictive for eye surgery. Age (19-34 years, P = 0.00, OR 33.39; 35-50, P = 0.00, OR 31.34; ≥51, P = 0.00, OR 16.42), female sex (P = 0.00, OR 9.19), employment (service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 2.31; non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.76), and higher education level (college, P = 0.00, OR 1.39) were independent predictive factors for Botox injection. Married status (P = 0.00, OR 1.57), employment (non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.50), higher education level (masters, P = 0.00, OR 6.61), and having children (P = 0.00, OR 1.45) were independent predictive factors for nevus removal. The principal three cosmetic surgeries (eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal) were associated with multiple variables. Patients employed in non-service occupations were more inclined to undergo Botox injection and nevus removal. Cohort study, Level III.

  10. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  11. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreign producers submitted their official websites and online trading platforms was used. The specificity of extraction of biologically active substances of plant extracting agents: water, ethyl alcohol, glycols, vegetable oils, carbon dioxide used to obtain extracts was described on the basis of available scientific literature (eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, Google Books. Results. Examples of external drugs and cosmetic products based on plant raw materials extracts from a range of pharmaceutical organizations are given. It was found that from the extracting solvent used the range is presented by hydrophilic, such as glycol (propylene glycol, glycerin, water, alcoholic extracts; lipophilic (oil, CO2-extracts, and two-phase (caprylic/caprate triglyceride/water extracts. The main features of the extracting solvent used for this category of extracts: the specifics of the use in cosmetics (the skin specific effect, in particular selectivity to groups of biologically active plant substances, microbiological purity, are noted. Results of research data on the study of the prospects for the use of cosmetic ingredients – silicones, caprylic/ capric triglyceride, isopropyl myristate both solvents. The extraction techniques: classical (maceration, percolation and intensified (electro-plasma dynamic extraction, vacuum extraction circulation, CO2 supercritical extraction used in industry to produce cosmetic extracts are described

  12. Fatal Complications of Aesthetic Techniques: The Gluteal Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Kenerson, Katherine; Hutchins, Kenneth D; Garavan, Fintan; Lew, Emma O; Shuman, Mark J

    2018-02-21

    Cosmetic procedures are common and utilize many techniques to obtain aesthetically good outcomes for patient satisfaction with acceptable safety standards. Cosmetic procedures that involve the gluteal region are becoming increasingly popular as various procedures can target the gluteal region such as liposuction, tumescent liposuction, cosmetic filler injections, autologous fat transfer, depot drug delivery, and implants. Complications of cosmetic gluteal procedures can be localized or systemic with systemic complications being responsible for most deaths. These reported systemic complications include sepsis, thromboembolism, fat embolism with or without fat embolism syndrome, macroscopic fat embolism, anesthesia-related and blood volume abnormalities. We herein report 10 deaths due to elective gluteal cosmetic procedures. Autologous fat transfer (fat grafting, lipoinjection) following liposuction resulted in 8 of 10 fatal outcomes of the gluteal aesthetic procedures. A comprehensive discussion of gluteal anatomy, gluteal contouring procedures, and the approach to such cases is presented along with the autopsy findings of the reported cases. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arebu I. Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%, shampoos and conditioners (35%, and deodorants and perfumes (29%. Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44% of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area.

  14. Local complications after cosmetic breast implant surgery in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, Ilona; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Pakkanen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding potential health effects of silicone breast implants have recently shifted from long-term illnesses to postoperative local complications. In this study, occurrence of local complications and treatment procedures were evaluated in a population of 685 Finnish women who received...... implantation. Most of the women were satisfied with the implantation, but only 40% considered the preoperative information on possible risks related to implantation as sufficient. With respect to the occurrence of local complications following cosmetic breast implantation, the findings of this study...... cosmetic silicone breast implants between 1968 and 2002. Patient records were abstracted, and additional information was gathered using a structured questionnaire that was mailed to 470 of the women in the cohort. Overall, 36% of the women had 1 or more diagnoses of postoperative complications...

  15. Strategies in Development and Delivery of Nanotechnology Based Cosmetic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Usama; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Ahmed Abdullah; Akhtar, Juber; Singh, Satya Prakash; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2018-03-26

    The science of formulation involving cosmetic ingredients has always been a challenge since the release of active components greatly depends upon the carrier system involved and the selectivity of skin barrier. The principle obstacle of the skin resides in the epidermis and it's hard for many active components to cross it. The formulation related factors like size of particles, viscosity and lipophilicity of the components also play an important role in permeation of the dermal composition. Though widely used; conventional creams and gels still struggle in terms of success. This work focuses on nano based formulation strategies for successful delivery of cosmetic agents. Novel strategies like nanoemulsion, nanogels, liposomes, aquasomes, niosomes, dendrimers and fullerenes have paved way for successful delivery of dermal formulations to desire depths in the skin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [EU-Cosmetics: timetables for the replacement of animal experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela Wiltrud

    2005-01-01

    According to the 7(th) Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive the European Commission had to establish timetables for the phasing out of the various animal tests for the safety evaluation of ingredients used in cosmetics. However, the published timetables do not reflect the objectives of the 7(th) Amendment but contain longer deadlines for the ban on animal experiments of several endpoints. The European Commission also had to draw up a Directive for establishing an Annex IX that should list validated alternative methods which are not already listed in Annex V of the Dangerous Substances Directive. Although various alternative methods could have been listed in this Annex IX, the Commission published an empty table. From the point of view of the German Animal Welfare Federation amendments of the timetables and the Directive establishing Annex IX are urgently required. Additionally, the Commission has to provide optimal conditions for the replacement of alternative methods.

  17. Radiation sterilization of some cosmetic raw materials and preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmatowicz-Szmajke, T.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Galazka, M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of microbiological purity of cosmetic preparations is discussed. Some results obtained on the influence of ionizing radiation on organoleptic and physicochemical properties of some cosmetic raw materials and final products are reported. The samples of raw materials and the final products were irradiated with a 10 MeV electron beam from an LAE 13/9 linear accelerator located in INR. The doses delivered to the materials were 0.5 - 2.3 Mrad (5-23 kGy). Immediately after irradiation, organoleptic estimations were made and over the next few days physicochemical investigations were performed. Non-irradiated samples were investigated together with irradiated ones. (T.I.)

  18. Copies without originals: the psychodynamics of cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    The use of cosmetic surgery and procedures has sharply increased in recent years. This paper outlines an object-relational framework for understanding the unconscious fantasies that may drive the pursuit of body modification and proposes three categories of such fantasies. For some individuals, the pursuit of "beauty" through cosmetic surgery provides a psychic retreat from the reality of dependency as the self retreats into believing that it can create itself (the self-made fantasy). For others, it is a means for creating a felt-to-be ideal self, thereby averting the pain of the loss of an object that would love and desire the self (the perfect-match fantasy). For still others, it may be the only means of expelling an object felt to be alien or polluting that is unconsciously identified with the body (the reclaiming fantasy).

  19. Decontamination of cosmetic and their raw materials by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virzeu, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation over some cosmetic materials (solvent; thickening, talc, wax, vegetal oils, mineral, animal and synthetic oils, grease, emulsifying, conserving anti oxidizing and vitamin) are shown. The doses used were 20 KGy and 50 KGy, that are considered sterilizing and used in medical-surgical materials. The relation of the showed products is useful as a radio sensibility standard, but both can take as an indicator of what can be or not irradiated. (C.G.C.)

  20. Contemporary cosmetic surgery: the potential risks and relevance for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2011-07-01

    To examine and critique the risks of cosmetic surgery and consider implications for practice. Cosmetic surgery is a growing industry with a significant global phenomenon. Feminists have been critical of aesthetic surgery practice, offering a range of representations in regard to 'identity', 'normality', 'cultural and social pressures', 'agency' and 'self-enhancement'. Discourses around minimising risk information acknowledge deficits in not supplying patients with full risk information. The results are usually devastating and lead to serious health complications that incisively diminish well-being for patients and increase health costs. Critical review. This paper represents a critical review of risks associated with cosmetic surgery. A Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (Medline) and British Nursing Index (BNI) search with relevant key words were undertaken and selected exemplary articles and research describing and/or evaluating cosmetic surgery risk. Only papers in the English language from 1982-2009 were reviewed. The papers examined were mainly empirical studies; some opinion papers, policy documents, textbooks and websites were examined too. The literature revealed that several factors influence consumer risks including regulation vagaries, medicalisation processes, fear of ageing discrimination, wanting to avoid ethnic prejudice and media pressure. Government strategies in the United Kingdom (UK) have attempted to improve clinical standards; however, little attempt has been made globally to raise institutional and professional awareness of the huge impact of cultural and social pressures on consumers. Avoiding shattering complications by improving the provision of risk information for patients is a worthwhile goal. Therefore, health professionals need to consider consumer rights and autonomy more carefully, facilitate rigorous screening and develop knowledge in regard to

  1. Testing Cosmetics on Animals: An Idea Who's Time Has Gone

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Noah

    2005-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in reducing animal testing in the assessment the safety of cosmetic products, it persists and there is no definitive end in sight. The reasons for this are not entirely clear because the major constituents, consumers, animal rights activists, and the corporations engaged in the testing all seem to want it to end. While the government still requires animal testing for drugs and other consumer products, there is no explicit requirement for the animal testing of cosme...

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency and safety in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckaya, Meryem; Uckaya, Fatih; Demir, Nazan; Demir, Yasar

    2016-02-29

    Chemicals used in cosmetics have to interact with enzymes for beneficial or destroy purpose after they enter in our body. Active sections of enzymes that catalyze reactions have three dimensions and they are active optically. When these limitations of catalytic sections are considered, it may be considered that defining geometric specifications of chemical materials and functional groups they contain may contribute on safety evaluations of cosmetic products. In this study, defining similarities and differences of geometric structures of chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and chemical that are allowed to be used by using group theory and analyze of functional groups that are often encountered in these chemicals are aimed. Molecule formulas related to chemical material of, 276 pieces chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and 65 pieces chemicals that are allowed, are used as the material. Two and three-dimension structures of these formulas are drawn and types and quantity of functional groups they contain are defined. And as a method, freeware (Free Trial) version of "Chem-BioOffice Ultra 13.0 Suite" chemical drawing program to draw two and three-dimension of formulas, "Campus-Licensed" version that are provided for use by our university of "Autodesk 3DS Max" for three-dimension drawings are used. In order to analyze geometric specifications of drawn molecules according to Group Theory and define type and quantity of available functional groups, Excel applications developed by Prof. Dr. Yaşar Demir are used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  4. The Examination of Brand Switching Behaviour in Cosmetic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    Cometic industry is a lucrative business that progressively attracts more attentions from marketing research. The highly competitive environment in the cosmetic industry makes it a valuable area to study consumer behaviours. Brand switching behaviour is one of the most important consumer behaviours which is significant for the management to sustain competitive advantages in the global market. In this research, the relationship between brand switching behaviour and factors influencing such beh...

  5. Borrowed beauty? Understanding identity in Asian facial cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance.

  6. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  7. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  8. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  9. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  10. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cosmetic evaluation of breast conserving treatment for mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Limbergen, E.; Van der Schueren, E.; Van Tongelen, K.

    1989-01-01

    In a population of 142 patients with stage I and II breast cancer, treated with tumor excision and external radiotherapy, using a wide range of radiation doses and fractionation schedules, an attempt was made to quantify the cosmetic outcome. Quantitative measurements of nipple displacement and breast contour retraction were compared and correlated with qualitative scoring by a panel. In the vast majority, the quantitative assessments correlate very well with subjective, qualitative scoring, making this method relevant for clinical use. There are a few exceptions, mainly cases where localized skin changes such as severe teleangiectasia or skin necrosis affect strongly the cosmetic result but can go undetected in this measuring system. Also limited surgical deformations, which can detract seriously from cosmetic success, particularly when they occur in the medio inferior quadrants, taken in standard conditions is needed. Measurements can be carried out quickly, using the plottin device of a treatment planning system. This system may be of great use for follow-up of new treatment modalities and the study of the development of radiation fibrosis in breast cancer. (author). 15 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Mistakes and missed opportunities regarding cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2017-04-24

    In her paper 'Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection', Minerva rightly identifies cosmetic surgery as an interesting test case for the question of conscientious objection in medicine. Her treatment of this important subject, however, seems problematic. It is argued that Minerva's suggestion that a doctor has a prima facie duty to satisfy patient preferences even against his better clinical judgment, which we call Patient Preference Absolutism, must be regarded with scepticism. This is because (1) it overlooks an important distinction regarding autonomy's meaning and place in clinical practice, and (2) it makes obsolete the important concepts of expert clinical judgment and beneficence. Finally, we discuss two ideas which emerge from consideration of cosmetic surgery in relation to conscientious objection. These are the possible analogy between clinical judgment and conscientious objection, and the possible role the goals of medicine can play in defining the scope of conscientious objection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.

  14. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been...

  16. Outcomes Analysis of Chief Cosmetic Clinic Over 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas J; Crantford, John C; Rudolph, Megan A; David, Lisa R

    2018-06-01

    Adequate resident training in aesthetic surgery has become increasingly important with rising demand. Chief resident aesthetic clinics allow hands on experience with an appropriate amount of autonomy. The purpose of this study was to compare resident cosmetic clinic outcomes to those reported in the literature. Furthermore, we sought to assess how effective these clinics can be in preparing residents in performing common aesthetic surgery procedures. A retrospective chart review of 326 patients and 714 aesthetic procedures in our chief cosmetic clinic over a 13-year period was performed, and complication and revision rates were recorded. In addition, an electronic survey was sent to 26 prior chief residents regarding their experience and impressions of the chief resident aesthetic clinic. A total of 713 procedures were performed on 326 patients. Patient ages ranged from 5 to 75 years old (mean, 40.8 years old) with a mean follow-up of 76.2 days. On average, there were 56 procedures performed per year. Of the 714 total procedures performed, there were 136 minor procedures and 578 major procedures. Of the 136 minor procedures, there were no complications and there was 1 revision of a cosmetic injection. Of the 578 major procedures, the overall complication rate was 6.1% and the revision rate was 12.8%. Complication and revision rates for each individual surgery were further analyzed and compared with the literature. The complication rates for these procedures fell within the reference ranges reported. In regards to the chief resident survey, there was a 77% response rate. All respondents reported that the chief resident clinic positively affected their residency education and future practice. Ninety percent of respondents felt "very comfortable" performing facelifts, body contouring, and aesthetic breast surgery. No respondents completed a subsequent cosmetic fellowship, and 60% stated that their positive experience in chief clinic contributed to their decision not

  17. Treatment of cosmetic tattoos using carbon dioxide ablative fractional resurfacing in an animal model: a novel method confirmed histopathologically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2013-04-01

    Treating cosmetic tattoos using quality-switched lasers is difficult. We used carbon dioxide ablative fractional resurfacing (CO2 AFR) to remove cosmetic tattoos and examined the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this technique in an animal model. Twelve rats were tattooed on their backs with white and flesh-colored pigments. Half of each tattoo was treated with CO2 AFR (5 sessions at 1-month intervals), and the other half was the untreated control. An independent observer reviewed photographic documentation of clinical response. Serial skin samples obtained at baseline and at various times after laser treatment were evaluated using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Four rats had excellent responses to laser treatment and eight had good responses. White and flesh-colored tattoos had similar clearance rates and tissue reactions. Histologic analysis showed immediate ablation of tattoo pigments in the microscopic ablation zones. Tattoo pigments in the microscopic coagulation zones migrated to the epidermis and became part of the microscopic exudative necrotic debris appearing on day 2 that was exfoliated after 5 days. Increased fibronectin expression around the microscopic treatment zones during the extrusion of tattoo pigments indicated that wound healing facilitates this action. CO2 AFR successfully removes cosmetic tattoos. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods:  This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report

  19. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  20. Physical attractiveness, cosmetic use and self-perception in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J A; Kligman, A M

    1985-04-01

    Synopsis The relationships between physical attractiveness, cosmetic practices and self-perception were examined in elderly females. Sixteen individuals of high and 16 of low attractiveness were evaluated with regard to 'how they saw themselves'in terms of their behaviour, attitude, appearance, etc., and some aspects of their utilization of cosmetics. The attractive evaluated themselves more highly than the unattractive on an overall measure of self-perception, and they rated themselves more highly on a number of important individual dimensions of self-perception: they perceived themselves as being healthier, with a greater feeling of wellbeing, as having a more positive outlook on life; as being more cheerful/less depressed, and better adjusted; they registered greater satisfaction with their lives; were more socially engaged; and more realistic. Attractiveness did not appear to be correlated with the aspects of cosmetic practices examined. The physically attractive and unattractive did not differ significantly with respect to cosmetic usage (frequency and number of products), attitude towards cosmetics, history of cosmetic care, or difference between their cosmetic and basic attractiveness. Since our previous research(1) on this subject sample has shown that the unattractive elderly benefit from cosmetic therapy more than the attractive - not only in terms of appearance but psychologically - it is suggested that explicit training in effective cosmetic usage as used in cosmetic therapy programmes could help to bridge the psychological gap between the handsome and unhandsome elderly and reduce discrimination against the unhandsome elderly.

  1. A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Milothridis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. Conclusions: The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients' characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure.

  2. Cancer risk among Los Angeles women with cosmetic breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis M; Hirsch, Elliot M; Brody, Garry S

    2007-06-01

    As the first generation of women who received cosmetic breast implants ages, questions remain about cancer risk. This study is an update of the Los Angeles Augmentation Mammaplasty Study and examines cancer risk among women with long-term exposure to breast implants. The authors conducted a record linkage cohort study of patients with cosmetic breast implants by abstracting from records of the private practices of 35 board-certified plastic surgeons in Los Angeles County, California. They included 3139 Caucasian women who received cosmetic breast implants between 1953 and 1980. Spanish-surnamed women, nonresidents of Los Angeles County, and patients with prior subcutaneous mastectomy or breast cancer were excluded. Cancer outcomes through 1994 were ascertained through record linkage with the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. With a mean follow-up period of 15.5 years, 43 cases of breast cancer were observed, compared with 62.6 expected, based on Los Angeles County population-based incidence rates (standardized incidence ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93). Significant increases were observed for cancer of the lung and bronchus (standardized incidence ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.09) and vulvar cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.39 to 7.16). The breast cancer results of this study are consistent with the previous reports of the Los Angeles study as well as with several other long-term cohort studies. Lung cancer has previously been found to be increased in this cohort and also in some, but not most, other studies. The increased risk of vulva cancer has previously been observed in this cohort and just one other.

  3. The Recurrence and Cosmetic Results After Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alican Kazandı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Photodynamic therapy (FDT is a photochemotherapy modality which is used frequently and effectively in the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and basal cell carcinomas. This study was performed to determine cure rates, cosmetic outcome and recurrence rates after aminolevulinic acid (ALA-based photodynamic therapy for skin lesions showing complete response to treatment procedure. Material and Method: Sixty-eight patients (27 females and 41 males with 78 lesions were included in the study. Among them, 25 were actinic keratosis (AK, 8 were actinic cheilitis (AC, 30 were basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 3 were Bowen disease, 10 were intraepidermal epithelioma (IEE, one lesion was parapsoriasis and one lesion was verruca plantaris. Six to 8 hours after topical administration of ALA (20%, the lesions were exposed to light from a broad-band light source. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 74 lesions for histopathological control. Results: At the end of the second month of treatment, fifty-six (72% of seventy-eight lesions showed complete clinical response, whereas fourty-seven of 74 lesions (63.5% exhibited complete histopathological clearance. A total of 9 recurrences (16% was observed during a median follow-up of 36 months. Recurrence rates were 3 (14% in AK, 1 (17% in AC, 1 (8% in superficial BCC, 3 (75% nodular BCC and 1 (12.5% in IEE. Cosmetic outcome was excellent and good in 42 lesions (89%, fair in 3 lesions (6% and poor in 2 lesions (5%. Conclusion: Topical photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive, effective and cosmetic modality of treatment in the selected skin lesions, as an alternative to the conventional procedures.

  4. Sub-nanosecond lasers for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We report about the development of two new subnanosecond solid-state laser models for application in dermatology and cosmetics. One model uses subnanosecond Nd: YAG microchip laser as a master oscillator and includes Nd: YAG double- and single-pass amplifiers. At 10 Hz this laser produces more than 600 mJ pulse energy with duration 500 +/- 5 ps. Another model (under development) is gain-switched Ti: Sapphire laser with short cavity. This laser produces 200 mJ, 560 ps pulses at 790 nm and uses standard Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser with nanosecond pulse duration as a pumping sourse.

  5. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: recommendations for cosmetic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, C.; Carvalho, F.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The beginning of the so-called tanning industry made possible the acquisition of a tanned skin independently of the available solar radiation. The tan is produced by ultraviolet radiation and, as well as in solar exposure, there are additional risks on the use of the so-called sun-beds. The damaging effects of ultraviolet exposure are well documented and reasonably quantified. The objective of this paper is to inform the potential effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure in sun-beds and to provide recommendations in order to reduce the associated risks. These recommendations are adapted for cosmetics use only (author)

  6. Cosmetics and the esthetic patient and laboratory communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, R T

    1995-08-01

    With increasing consumer awareness of the innovative procedures available for cosmetic dentistry, this area of practice is growing rapidly and has become an excellent source for patient referrals. Unfortunately, it can also be a large source of stress for the practitioner. Esthetics has been described by The Pocket Oxford Dictionary as "the philosophy of beautiful"; its perception varies from individual to individual. In the field of dentistry, there are criteria which define one tooth as being more esthetic than another and one individual's smile as more pleasing than another. However, that which is esthetically pleasing to the clinician may not be esthetically pleasing to the patient.

  7. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  8. Evaluation of Cosmetic Results of Surgical Wound Closure in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Williams

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the correlation between wound cosmesis and pet owner satisfaction, to determine the agreement among vet surgeons, and pet owners evaluating a surgical wound with a visual assessment score (VAS, and to determine the agreement between the VAS, a semi-quantitative score of wound inflammation, and wound width.Background: Perception of post-surgical cosmesis by human patients has been found to influence their satisfaction and perceived adequacy of vet surgeons. Due to the trend of owners anthropomorphising pets, this logic can be extended to veterinary patients. Also, there is a lack of consistent, reliable methods to evaluate cosmesis have been developed, creating the need for a scoring system that is accurate and reproducible.Evidentiary value: This was a prospective cohort study with one hundred and seven patients. This study may not change day-to-day practices, but it will bring to light for practitioners the discordance between pet owners and vet surgeons concerning attractiveness of an incision as well as overall satisfaction with a procedure.Methods: Photographs of surgical wounds were taken immediately, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks after surgery in dogs. Owners were asked to evaluate satisfaction with the procedure and attractiveness of the incision using the VAS. Photos were evaluated for cosmetic outcome by pet owner and vet surgeon evaluators with different scoring systems. The reliability of the scoring systems was evaluated using intraclass correlations and kappa statistics as appropriate.Results:  Owners’ evaluation of cosmetic outcome correlated with their overall satisfaction. (r2=0.37, where r2 is the coefficient of determination, and can be used to determine what proportion of variance in one variable is predictable from the other variableThere was generally poor reliability of the subjective scoring between both vet surgeons and pet owners, and the less subjective scoring systems.Conclusion: The cosmetic outcome

  9. Transformative Possibilities: Politics and Cosmetic Surgery in the Bolivarian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2017-10-01

    I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela's long-standing embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement.

  10. Determination of inorganic impurities in henna for eyebrow cosmetic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinheiro, Thamires S.; Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Jesus, Tatiane A. de

    2017-01-01

    The mass fraction of Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in henna for Eyebrow coloring was evaluated. Henna of different colors and brands marketed in the market and applied in hairdressing salons were analyzed. Four of the 11 samples analyzed presented barium mass fraction values about 250 times higher than the value recommended by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), a fact that may represent a potential risk to users of this type of product. The mass fractions of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn presented values below the regulated limits for cosmetics

  11. Strategic marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Laskina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is discusses the scientific and theoretical approaches to marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market in the strategic aspect. It is showing the development of the concept of strategic marketing innovation in the foreign and domestic scientific literature; the key concepts of marketing innovations is clarified; elements of the commercialization of innovative products is identified; the specificity of strategic marketing innovations in the cosmetic market in the Russian conditions is established; actual problems of innovative development and commercialization of innovations is identified; an assessment of the Russian market of innovations. The marketing of innovations – is a systematic methodological approach that combines the strategy and tactics of promotion goods (works, services, technologies, having substantially new properties, at the level of economic entities, it is proved. Under the innovative products offered to understand the implementation of the results of scientific and technological activities in the form of goods, works and services, which have an absolute or relative scientific and technological novelty and (or consumer value, going beyond the existing traditions. Innovative production is subdivided into two main categories: not commercialized and the commercialized production. Process of commercialization of innovative goods is considered as three-level system: the first level is the state innovation policy (macro-level; the second level – regional innovation policy (meso-level; the third level – commodity innovative policy of enterprise (micro-level. It was shown that the weak spots for Russian manufacturers of innovative products has been and remains insufficient elaboration of organizational and methodological approaches to strategic marketing of innovations in industry the as aspect, including in the sector of cosmetic goods. Recommendations for the development of marketing strategy of

  12. Effect of Advertising on the Brand Loyalty of Cosmetic Products among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Abraham Gyamfi; Yamoah, Emmanuel Erastus

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between advertising and brand loyalty of cosmetic products. The multinomial logit model was used to ascertain the effect of advertising on different loyalty profiles for cosmetic products among college students. Based on a survey of 200 Ghanaian students drawn randomly, findings indicated that advertising plays no significant role on college students’ loyalty for cosmetic products. It can be argued, however, that the most promiscuous buyer is more amenable...

  13. Determinants of satisfaction with cosmetic outcome in breast cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Joo Ho

    Full Text Available Little research has been done into cosmetic outcomes in non-Western breast cancer populations. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of dissatisfaction with cosmetic outcome after breast cancer surgery of Asian breast cancer survivors, and its association with patient-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. In a hospital-based cross-sectional study, 384 breast cancer survivors of at least 12 months after diagnosis completed questionnaires on satisfaction with cosmetic appearance, quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30 and anxiety and depression (HADS. Cumulative logit models were used to examine the adjusted association between dissatisfaction with cosmetic appearance and demographic and clinical characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to test for associations between dissatisfaction with cosmetic appearance and patient-reported outcomes. Overall, 20% of women reported to be (very dissatisfied with cosmetic appearance. Survivors of Chinese ethnicity were more likely dissatisfied with cosmetic appearance compared to Malay survivors (22% and 14% respectively, adjusted OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4-3.9. Women with DCIS (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.7 or advanced stage disease (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.2-3.9 had a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their cosmetic appearance. Women treated with mastectomy were at a higher risk of dissatisfaction with cosmetic appearance (adjusted OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.1-2.5. Dissatisfaction with cosmetic appearance was associated with increased depression scores. In this South-East Asian population, one in five breast cancer patients were (very dissatisfied with the cosmetic outcome of treatment. Chinese women, women with larger tumors and women treated with mastectomy were most likely to report dissatisfaction with cosmetic appearance.

  14. Does breast reconstruction impact the decision of patients to pursue cosmetic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M; Tahiri, Youssef; Wes, Ari M; Yan, Chen; Selber, Jesse C; Nelson, Jonas A; Kovach, Stephen J; Serletti, Joseph M; Wu, Liza C

    2014-12-01

    Breast reconstruction is an integral component of breast cancer treatment, often aiding in restoring a patient's sense of femininity. However, many patients choose to have subsequent cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons that motivate patients to have cosmetic surgery after breast reconstruction. The authors performed a retrospective study examining patients who had breast reconstruction and subsequent cosmetic surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Health System between January 2005 and June 2012. This cohort received a questionnaire assessing the influences and impact of their reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. A total of 1,214 patients had breast reconstruction, with 113 patients (9.3%) undergoing cosmetic surgery after reconstruction. Of 42 survey respondents, 35 had autologous breast reconstruction (83.3%). Fifty-two cosmetic procedures were performed in survey respondents, including liposuction (26.9%) and facelift (15.4%). The most common reason for pursuing cosmetic surgery was the desire to improve self-image (n = 26, 61.9%), with 29 (69.0%) patients feeling more self-conscious of appearance after reconstruction. Body image satisfaction was significantly higher after cosmetic surgery (P = 0.0081). Interestingly, a multivariate analysis revealed that patients who experienced an improvement in body image after breast reconstruction were more likely to experience a further improvement after a cosmetic procedure (P = 0.031, OR = 17.83). Patients who were interested in cosmetic surgery prior to reconstruction were also more likely to experience an improvement in body image after cosmetic surgery (P = 0.012, OR = 22.63). Cosmetic surgery may improve body image satisfaction of breast reconstruction patients and help to further meet their expectations.

  15. Factors affecting the choice of a cosmetic brand : a case study of Skinfood Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are becoming more and more careful in selecting the cosmetic brands they use today. Women are fond of a cosmetic brand and trust it, because they believe in its superiority. How a brand is perceived affects customers’ choices and the success of the brand. Companies attempting to enter cosmetic markets should be aware of what the key factors affecting the consumer’s choice of a cosmetic brand are, and then develop a corresponding brand strategy, which can create brand equity for thei...

  16. The dental public health implications of cosmetic dentistry: a scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, J; Lala, R; Marshman, Z

    2016-09-01

    The popularity of cosmetic surgery has seen a rapid increase recently, with the trend mirrored in dentistry. The Department of Health expressed concerns about the potential for biological and psychosocial harm of these cosmetic procedures. Furthermore, the dental public health implications (DPH) of the growing uptake of cosmetic dental procedures have not been explored. Conduct a scoping review to explore the DPH implications of cosmetic dentistry and identify gaps for future research. A fivestage scoping review was conducted of studies identified using the search terms cosmetic AND dentistry. Data from the studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted, collated and summarised into themes. Fifty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria (11 cross-sectional studies, 10 literature reviews and 36 opinion pieces). The DPH implications were summarised into five emergent themes: dento-legal and ethical, marketing, psychosocial, biological and workforce. These themes revealed patients' increased expectations, expanding commercialisation of the profession, psychological risks to vulnerable patients, the iatrogenic consequences of invasive cosmetic dental procedures and workforce implications of the current trends. The scoping review found that existing literature on cosmetic dentistry is predominately anecdotal - professional opinions and discussions. Despite this, our findings demonstrated workforce training and governance implications due to increased demand for cosmetic dentistry. Further empirical research is needed to understand the DPH implications of the increasing demand and uptake of cosmetic dental procedures to guide evidence-based policy to safeguard patients and improve the quality of dental services. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  17. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  19. Detection of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in commercial cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, Troy M.; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Detection methods are necessary to quantify fullerenes in commercial applications to provide potential exposure levels for future risk assessments of fullerene technologies. The fullerene concentrations of five cosmetic products were evaluated using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry to separate and specifically detect C 60 and C 70 from interfering cosmetic substances (e.g., castor oil). A cosmetic formulation was characterized with transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed that polyvinylpyrrolidone encapsulated C 60 . Liquid-liquid extraction of fullerenes from control samples approached 100% while solid-phase and sonication in toluene extractions yielded recoveries of 27-42%. C 60 was detected in four commercial cosmetics ranging from 0.04 to 1.1 μg/g, and C 70 was qualitatively detected in two samples. A single-use quantity of cosmetic (0.5 g) may contain up to 0.6 μg of C 60 , demonstrating a pathway for human exposure. Steady-state modeling of fullerene adsorption to biosolids is used to discuss potential environmental releases from wastewater treatment systems. - Highlights: → Fullerenes were detected in cosmetics up to 1.1 μg/g. → Liquid-liquid extraction efficiently recovers fullerenes in cosmetic matrices. → Solid-phase extraction reduces LC-MS detection interferences for C60. → Cosmetics can increase human and environmental fullerene exposures. - Fullerenes were detected in cosmetics with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry up to 1.1 μg/g, demonstrating a source for human/environmental exposure.

  20. Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial cheeks with different hydration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Lee, Soyoun; Kim, Sungwoo; Han, Hyuntak; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-04-01

    Basic cosmetics was used by volunteers belonging to high (HHG) and low (LHG) hydration groups for 4 weeks, and bacterial communities and biophysical parameters in facial skin were analyzed. Hydration level increases and transepidermal water loss and roughness decreases were observed in both groups after cosmetic use. Bacterial diversity was greater in LHG than HHG, and increased after cosmetic use in both groups. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities that were higher in LHG than HHG increased in HHG after cosmetic use, whereas they decreased in LHG. The phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and the genera Propionibacterium, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Cupriavidus, and Pelomonas were identified as common groups and they were not significantly different between LHG and HHG except for Propionibacterium that was more abundant in HHG. After cosmetic use, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium decreased, whereas Ralstonia, not a core genus, increased, as did KEGG categories of lipid metabolism and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, suggesting that Ralstonia in skin may have the ability to metabolize cosmetics components. Bacterial communities after cosmetic use were different from those in both LHG and HHG before the cosmetic use, indicating that bacterial communities in LHG were not shifted to resemble those in HHG by cosmetics use. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Usage of Cosmetics in Female Students Training in Different Departments of the Same Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Kaymak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of cosmetic products depends on age, sex, socioeconomic status and underlying medical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and behaviors affecting the consumption of cosmetic products, and also to investigate side effects of such products.\tMethod: One hundred and sixty girls from three different departments of the same faculty were enrolled in this study. All subjects were requested to complete a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic data, attitutes and behaviors related to the consumption of cosmetic products and their side effects.\tResults: Of the subjects, 98.8% declared to use cosmetic products. The most common region for the application of cosmetic products were the face (67.5% and hands (67.5%. The most commonly used products were hand cream (80% and facial moisturizer (76.3%. The decision affecting the choice of cosmetic products were: themselves (78.1%, friend's advice (20%, a beauty specialist (14.4% and a dermatologist (11.9%. Of the 160 subjects, 25 (15.6% experienced side effects related to cosmetic products. The most common side effects were erythema (36% and allergic reactions (16% on the face. Conclusion: Consumption of cosmetic products needs consultation by specialists and youngs should be informed by visual and written media, and also by their families regarding the correct consumption of cosmetic products.

  2. Oxygen permeability of the pigmented material used in cosmetic daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Stephen; Copper, Lenora L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the individual contributions of pigment colorant and packing solution containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) on the oxygen permeability (Dk) of a cosmetic printed etafilcon A daily disposable contact lens packaged with PVP. The oxygen transport of a contact lens is evaluated through the central optical zone of the lens. Cosmetic printed contact lenses contain pigment colorant in the periphery or mid-periphery of the lens. Therefore, to assess the impact of cosmetic print on oxygen permeability, special lenses need to be produced that contain the colorant within the central optical zone. This technique was used to obtain multiple measurements of nonedge-corrected Dk/t of both the center pigmented lens and its nonpigmented equivalent, using a polarographic measurement described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 18369-4:2006(E), and the Dk derived for each measurement is corrected for edge effect. In addition, the edge-corrected Dk values of lenses made from the same monomer batch were measured. The lenses were packaged and autoclaved with and without proprietary technology which embeds PVP in the contact lens during autoclaving. The resulting Dk value of the printed lens material was then used with thickness data to generate true Dk/t profiles for a given lens power. The edge-corrected Dk of the printed etafilcon A lens with offset pigment colorant was measured to be 19.7×10 -11 (cm 2 /s) (mL O 2 /mL·mmHg) at 35°C. This was within ±20% tolerance range as specified in ISO 18369-2:2012(E) for the edge-corrected Dk of the nonpigmented etafilcon A control lens evaluated during the same session, 19.5×10 -11 (cm 2 /s) (mL O 2 /mL·mmHg). The edge-corrected Dk values of the lenses packaged with PVP (mean 20.1, standard deviation [SD] 0.3) were also within the ±20% tolerance range compared to those packaged without PVP (mean 20.0, SD 0.3). The pigment colorant and PVP embedded in the contact lens during autoclaving were not found to

  3. Ultrathin split-thickness skin grafting followed by narrowband UVB therapy for stable vitiligo: An effective and cosmetically satisfying treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different surgical techniques in the form of tissue or cellular grafting procedures are used alone or in combination with narrowband UVB (NBUVB to treat stable vitiligo resistant to medical treatment. Aim: To evaluate the cosmetic results obtained with ultrathin split-thickness skin grafts followed by NBUVB therapy in resistant, stable vitiligo. Methods: Forty patients of stable vitiligo were treated with ultrathin split-thickness grafting and the patients were then put on NBUVB therapy. The results obtained were analyzed by the extent of repigmentation achieved as well as the final cosmetic outcome at the recipient as well as donor sites. Results: The first evidence of repigmentation was seen in the second week after starting NBUVB. On objective assessment, more than 90% repigmentation was seen in 83% of patients and the overall cosmetic results at the recipient site were graded as good to excellent in 90% patients at the end of NBUVB treatment. Perigraft halo of depigmentation was seen in six patients (15% on the recipient site. Hypertrophic scarring was observed in two patients at the donor site. Conclusions: Ultrathin split-thickness skin grafting, when combined with NBUVB therapy, leads to better cosmetic outcome with faster onset of repigmentation in resistant stable vitiligo.

  4. Parameters for assessing the aquatic environmental impact of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, N A; Brohem, C A; Canavez, A D P M; Oliveira, C F S; Kruger, O; Lorencini, M; Carvalho, C M

    2018-05-01

    The cosmetic industry's growing concern about the impact of its supply chain on the environment, sustainability of raw materials, and biodiversity increases the need to ensure that the final product has a lower environmental impact. The objective of this review is to summarize and compare the information available from international organizations and legislation regarding the main criteria used to assess raw materials for aquatic toxicity, as well as the most suitable alternative methods for obtaining assessment parameters. Using the literature available in databases, a review of the scientific literature and international legislation, this work discusses and compares the parameters established by international organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Cradle to Cradle (C2C), as well as European legislation, namely, European Regulation 1272/2008, for assessing environmental impact. Defining the ecotoxicity parameters of the main classes of raw materials in rinse-off cosmetic products can enable the development of products that are more environmentally sustainable, prioritizing substances with less environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cosmetic components causing contact urticaria: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Lien; Goossens, An

    2016-12-01

    Immediate skin reactions are common in dermatological practice, but may often be overlooked. The main objective of this article is to provide an update of the literature concerning immediate-type reactions or contact urticaria/contact urticaria syndrome caused by cosmetic ingredients in terms of immediate clinical symptoms, positive reactions following open, scratch or, most often, prick testing, and sometimes the detection of specific IgE antibodies. To this end, a selective search in different medical literature databases was performed. This yielded a list of cosmetic ingredients causing immediate reactions, including hair dyes and bleaches, preservatives, fragrance and aroma chemicals, sunscreens, hair glues, plant-derived and animal-derived components, permanent makeup and tattoos, glycolic acid peel, lip plumper, and alcohols. Many of the reported cases, however, lack appropriate controls and detailed investigation. Contact urticaria may occur with or without systemic symptoms, which are sometimes life-threatening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cosmetic Potential of a Liotropic Liquid Crystal Emulsion Containing Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bonato Alves Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity but low bioavailability, we evaluated the antiaging potential of resveratrol as a liotropic liquid crystal emulsion. Initially, we performed in vitro assays to quantify both the organoleptic characteristics and stability of the emulsion. Next, an in vivo trial was performed on the faces of 30 volunteers to determine the cream’s cosmetic potential and to measure porphyrins, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, expression lines, and porosity. The emulsion maintained its characteristics during the in vitro assays and, in the in vivo trial, it had some effect only on pore size in forehead, without any significant effects on the other parameters. We had 6 dropouts throughout the study, then the final number of volunteers was 24. Most volunteers did not show any changes in skin pigmentation throughout the study. Similarly, there was not any noticeable improvement on any other parameters evaluated. However, volunteers related a high level of satisfaction with the product.

  7. Biopower and postfeminism: cosmetic surgery in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Menéndez Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postfeminism; according to authors like MacRobbie; Projansky; or Ferris and Young; is a new form of backlash transmitted through popular culture. It appropriates the achievements of western feminism to propose practices of normative femininity as liberating; in an exercise of profound rejection of feminism that is deeply embedded in the neoliberal capitalist system. Applying this line of thought to bodily and aesthetic issues; critics warn about these practices becoming an instance of biopolitics that pursues the construction of docile bodies –particularly female docile bodies– through new technologies like biomedicine. This article offers a theoretical reflection about the two paradigms –postfeminism and biopower–; applying them to the representation of cosmetic surgery in the female press; and it concludes in a critical note: cosmetic surgery; presented by women’s magazines as a new way of “constructing oneself”; has become yet another mechanism of control; even among those who intend to use it as an element of resistance.

  8. Skin sparing mastectomy: Technique and suggested methods of reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Farahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Skin Sparing mastectomy through a circum-areolar incision has proven to be a safe and feasible option for the management of breast cancer in Egyptian women, offering them adequate oncologic control and optimum cosmetic outcome through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast when ever indicated. Our patients can benefit from safe surgery and have good cosmetic outcomeby applying different reconstructive techniques.

  9. Vapocoolant Anesthesia for Cosmetic Facial Rejuvenation Injections: A Randomized, Prospective, Split-Face Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiderman, Matthew R; Kelishadi, Shahrooz Sean; Tutela, John Paul; Rao, Arun; Chowdhry, Saeed; Brooks, Ronald M; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2018-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are the most commonly performed aesthetic techniques by plastic surgeons. Patients are interested in a pain-free experience. Surgeons desire patient satisfaction and time-efficient utilization of office staff and resources. Clinical evidence exists for use of vapocoolant technology to reduce pain associated with intravenous cannulation in the pediatric population and in hemodialysis patients. Applying vapocoolant technology to facial rejuvenation is a novel approach to decrease pain associated with neurotoxin or filler injection. Methods: A randomized, prospective study was conducted, testing 15 subjects receiving filler injections and another 15 patients receiving neurotoxin injections using a split-face model. The vapocoolant spray used was composed of a 95:5 ratio of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Within each group, individual patients randomly received injection (filler or neurotoxin) alone versus injection (filler or neurotoxin) plus vapocoolant on an equivalent half of his or her face. An independent examiner recorded from each patient on a scale of 1 to 10 perceived pain for injection alone versus injection plus vapocoolant spray. Results were calculated as a percentage change of pain scores experienced after injection for each person between the control (nonvapocoolant) and treatment (vapocoolant) sides of the face. Results: Vapocoolant spray at the time of cosmetic facial injections leads to a 59% decrease in perceived pain score with neurotoxin injections (range, 0%-100% change) and 64% decrease in perceived pain score with filler injections (range, 0%-100% change). These results were statistically significant with P reduces pain associated with facial rejuvenation procedures.

  10. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  12. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  13. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis A review is given of the manufacture, properties and applications of the anionic surfactants commonly known as taurates and isethionates (fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters, respectively). Originally developed in the 1930s for textile processing, these surfactants are used increasingly in the cosmetic field, particularly those derived from coconut fatty acid. Both types are produced from sodium isethionate, HO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na. The acyl isethionate, R degrees COO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by reaction with a fatty acid ('direct process'). or fatty acid chloride ('indirect process'). The direct process is cheaper but requires extreme conditions which can lead to discoloration of the product and a loss of shorter chain fatty acid components. The N-methyl-N-acyltaurate, R degrees CON(R(1))C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by Schotten-Baumann reaction of a fatty acid chloride with N-methyltaurine, which is derived from sodium isethionate via methylamine. Taurates and isethionates retain the benefits of the soaps to which they are structurally similar, but chemical modifications have eliminated many undesirable features. Thus they combine good detergency and wetting with high foaming, and maintain their performance in hard or salt water. Taurates are stable to hydrolysis over the whole pH range. Isethionates are prone to hydrolysis at high (>8) or low (soap bars based on isethionate can be formulated at neutral pH ('Dove type'bars) instead of the alkaline pH of soap, and have been shown in various studies to be milder than soap and better tolerated by the young, the old and those with sensitive skins. Similarly, isethionates have been shown to be less irritating than other anionic or amphoteric surfactants used in cosmetics. The difference has been related to the negligible effect of isethionate on the water-binding capacity of stratum corneum. Other cosmetic applications besides toilet bars include shampoos (excellent cleaning, mild to scalp

  14. Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (or Is It Soap?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... structure or any function of the body of man or other animals" [FD&C Act, sec. 201(g)(1)]. back to top How can a product be both a cosmetic and a drug? Some products meet the definitions of both cosmetics and drugs. This may happen ...

  15. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  16. Cosmetic gynecology in the view of evidence-based medicine and ACOG recommendations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam

    2011-09-01

    To conduct a methodological review of the existing scientific literature within the field of cosmetic gynecology in the view of evidence-based medicine and to establish their relevance to the ACOG Committee Opinion No. 378. The appropriate medical subject heading terms were selected and applied in the search of the Internet multiple databases since 1900 until January 2010. Articles focusing on cosmetic gynecology were reviewed. Also, anecdotal and advertising literatures were analyzed. A methodological review of the literatures was conducted. In peer review journals, 72 relevant articles related to cosmetic gynecology were identified. Anecdotal information was identified in 3 sources and over 1,100 published marketing literatures were identified on the Internet and no scientific journals. Among reviewed articles on cosmetic gynecology, only two articles met the level II-2 in evidence-based medicine. The absence of documentations on the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic vaginal procedures in the scientific literatures was ACOG's main concern. Practicing cosmetic gynecology within ACOG recommendations is desirable and possible. Currently, the standard of practice of cosmetic gynecology cannot be determined due to the absence of the documentation on safety and effectiveness. Traditional gynecologic surgical procedures cannot be called cosmetic procedures, since it is a deceptive form of practice and marketing. Creating medical terminology trademarks and establishing a business model that tries to control clinical-scientific knowledge dissemination is unethical.

  17. levels of heavy metals in drinking water, cosmetics and fruit juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr John A. M. Mahugija

    Heavy metals were determined in samples of drinking water, cosmetics (nail polish, lip glosses ... The samples were analyzed using Atomic. Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) after digestion with concentrated acids, filtration and dilution. Lead, zinc ... concentrations of lead in cosmetics exceeded the EU/US permissible limits.

  18. Fragrance contact allergens in 5588 cosmetic products identified through a novel smartphone application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S

    2018-01-01

    -on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. OBJECTIVE: To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. METHODS: The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide...

  19. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti Corp.), Tapistron International, Inc., Telscape International, Inc. (n/k/a Scapetel Debtor, Inc.), and Universal Beverages... concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing Co. because it has not filed any periodic...

  20. Consumer exposure to certain ingredients of cosmetic products: The case for tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Bernhard O

    2017-10-01

    Reliable exposure data are essential to evaluate the safety of ingredients in cosmetics. The study reported here was carried out on behalf of the Australian Tea Tree Industry Association in order to support safety assessment of TTO in consumer cosmetic products. Data regarding the use of TTO-containing cosmetic products were collected through a web-survey among 2535 qualified users of validated TTO-containing cosmetics in 5 European countries. Data regarding the percentage of TTO present in the individual products (TTO-inclusion) were collected from the suppliers of those products. Beyond TTO exposure-measures there were several significant findings: One is a special "TTO-effect" for several categories of TTO-containing cosmetic products showing a positive correlation between consumers' strength of TTO-orientation and frequency of product use, combined with a negative correlation between frequency of product use and amount of product used per application. Another is significant differences regarding the intensity of product use between TTO-containing cosmetics and respective types of products in general. Thus it seems not to be appropriate to evaluate the toxicological safety of certain ingredients of cosmetic products from exposure data on "generic" types of cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  2. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (CEI) submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the...

  3. Development of a cosmetic knee disarticulation prosthesis : A single-patient case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; de Vos, Wouter; Geertzen, Jan; Roorda, Leo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: If a person does not become ambulant after an amputation, a knee disarticulation (KD) shouldbe considered and the person may then benefit from a cosmetic KD prosthesis. The features of a cosmetic KD prosthesis are, however, seldom described. The aim of this clinical note is to

  4. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (Fragrance Bottling); Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (CEI) has submitted a notification of proposed production...

  5. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...

  6. Design of a cosmetic glove stiffness compensation mechanism for toddler-sized hand prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.A.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    The addition of a cosmetic glove to an upper limb prosthesis has a distinct effect on the cosmetic value, but its viscoelastic behaviour adds a substantial amount of stiffness and hysteresis to the system. As a result, the overall usability of the prosthesis is degraded. A novel negative

  7. Local tumor control and cosmetic outcome following breast-conserving surgery and radiation up to a total dose of 56 Gy without boost in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate overall survival, local tumor control and cosmetic outcome after breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy without boost irradiation. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study 270 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving surgery combined with a homogenous radiation of the tumor bearing breast up to a total dose of 56 Gy without local boost irradiation. Mean follow-up was 48 months. Local tumor control, side effects, cosmetic results and contentment with treatment were assessed using physical examinations and interviews based on a standardized questionnaire. Results: Cause-specific survival at 5 years after treatment was 88.3%, actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years was 76.1%. Within 23 to 78 months after treatment 12 patients suffered from ipsilateral breast recurrence. The actuarial freedom from local recurrence (single tumor manifestation) was 96.8% at 5 years after treatment, 89% at 10 years. The occurrence of local failures was not significantly correlated to tumor size, margins, grading, nodal status, age or lymphangiosis. 15.6% of the patients developed distant metastases. In all patients treatment was performed without interruption. Side effects were predominantly of mild degree, no severe side effects were detected. 73% of physicians and 81% of patients scored their cosmetic outcome as excellent or good. 93% of patients would again decide in favor of this procedure. Whereas, use of adjuvant chemotherapy as well as subcutaneous reconstruction of breast tissue did not significantly affect breast cosmesis, analysis demonstrated impaired cosmetic results related to a larger breast size. Conclusion: The data of this study show that tumor control achieved by breast conserving surgery in combination with a radiation technique up to a total dose of 56 Gy which omits boost irradiation is within the range of literature data. Side effects of the therapy were tolerable. The treatment displayed a good

  8. Cosmetic dermatologic surgical training in US dermatology residency programs: identifying and overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bruce; Williams, Erin; Stratman, Erik J

    2014-02-01

    The public and other medical specialties expect dermatologists who offer cosmetic dermatology services to provide competent care. There are numerous barriers to achieving cosmetic dermatology competency during residency. Many dermatology residents enter the workforce planning to provide cosmetic services. If a training gap exists, this may adversely affect patient safety. To identify resources available for hands-on cosmetic dermatology training in US dermatology residency training programs and to assess program director (PD) attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and strategies, including discounted pricing, used by training programs to overcome barriers related to resident-performed cosmetic dermatology procedures. An online survey in academic dermatology practices among PDs of US dermatology residency programs. Frequency of cosmetic dermatology devices and injectables used for dermatology resident hands-on cosmetic dermatology training, categorizing PD attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and describing residency-related discounted pricing models. Responses from PDs were received from 53 of 114 (46%) US dermatology residency programs. All but 3 programs (94%) offered hands-on cosmetic dermatology training using botulinum toxin, and 47 of 53 (89%) provided training with hyaluronic acid fillers. Pulsed dye lasers represented the most common laser use experienced by residents (41 of 52 [79%]), followed by Q-switched Nd:YAG (30 of 52 [58%]). Discounted procedures were offered by 32 of 53 (60%) programs, with botulinum toxin (30 of 32 [94%]) and fillers (27 of 32 [84%]) most prevalent and with vascular lasers (17 of 32 [53%]) and hair removal lasers (12 of 32 [38%]) less common. Various discounting methods were used. Only 20 of 53 (38%) PDs believed that cosmetic dermatology should be a necessary aspect of residency training; 14 of 52 (27%) PDs thought that residents should not be required to perform any cosmetic

  9. Recalls of microbiologically contaminated cosmetics in EU from 2005 to May 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Zachariae, Claus Otto Carl

    2008-01-01

    The Rapid Alert System for non-food consumer products in the EU (RAPEX) notifies each week the member countries on dangerous products sold in the EU. Microbiological contaminated cosmetics pose a potential health risk and are recalled from the market. This study investigated the number of recalled...... of contaminated cosmetic products could be two to three times higher in 2008 compared to 2007. The recalled products were manufactured in 17 different countries and only one company had more than one product recalled. It is important to keep monitoring the cosmetic products for contamination because an increasing...... microbiological contaminated cosmetics products in the RAPEX database from 2005 to until week 17 in 2008. A total of 173 cosmetic products were recalled in the period, 24 were contaminated and the most frequently found micro-organism was the pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It appears that the number...

  10. Halal Cosmetics Adoption Among Young Muslim Consumers in Malaysia: Religiosity Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohezar, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in Muslim populations and purchasing power has created a new demand for halal cosmetic product development.While the introduction of new product may facilitate companies in gaining competitive advantage, the failure rates of product innovation is also high. Owing to such interests, this paper aims to determine factors that motivate young adult Muslim consumers in the emerging market to adopt halal cosmetics. This study expands prior research by integrating Diffusion of Innovation theory and religiosity dimension to explain the antecedents of halal cosmetics adoption among young Muslim consumers. Data were collected from 238 young Muslim consumers using questionnaires distributed at a number of supermarkets in Kuala Lumpur. The conceptual model and hypotheses developed were tested using partial leased square.Our results demonstrate that perceived product characteristics, social influence and consumer innovativeness influence young Muslim consumers to adopt halal cosmetics products. This study also report religiosity as moderator between these three predictors and halal cosmetic adoption.

  11. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women's Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women's consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women) in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective.

  12. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  13. Cosmetics Alter Biologically-Based Factors of Beauty: Evidence from Facial Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex L. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast.

  14. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-02-28

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast.

  15. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  16. Microbiological decontamination of cosmetics and beauty products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Galaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    Contamination by microorganisms in cosmetics and beauty products create two types of disadvantage: degradation of the product itself, making it unusable (change in color, ordor, etc); health hazards for users, liable to lead them to abandon the product (allergies caused by preservatives or infections). Radiosterilization is designed to achieve the most thorough possible disappearance of these microorganisms. In the case of radiodecontamination, the aim is merely to reduce the number below the acceptable level from the product quality standpoint, namely, a condition eliminating the above drawbacks. Cobalt 60 is currently the most widely used radiation source for treating products in irradiation installations, the operating conditions of which are discussed. The problems associated with this treatment are analyzed. Also provided are orders of magnitude of investments and costs [fr

  17. Cosmetic surgery for children and adolescents. Deontological and bioethical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, A; Rinaldi, R; Napoletano, S; di Luca, N M

    2017-01-01

    The only interventions deemed ethically acceptable are those that serve the "objective interest" of the minors involved from the standpoint of and conducive to sound mental health and balance in a patient's teenage years; by the same token, disproportionate interventions (e.g. overly invasive or pointlessly risky), or all those deemed unsuitable with regards to a poor cost-benefit ratio are viewed as unacceptable. In the process of considering the best interest of the minors involved, a wide array of factors come into play, such as: age, maturity, psychological and emotional conditions, motivations put forth by the underage patient, the opportunity to procrastinate the operation: parents, who are naturally entitled to give consent to the surgical procedures, and physicians are primarily liable to safeguard and act in the minor's best interest. The authors attempt to lay out how medical science has evolved over the past century, and aim to set forth an array of considerations centered on cosmetic surgery for adolescents.

  18. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  19. Physico-chemical separation process of nanoparticles in cosmetic formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín, R. R. Retamal; Babick, F.; Stintz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the world of nanoparticles, especially their interactions with the environment, begins with their correct detection and successive quantification. To achieve this purpose, one needs to perform correctly developed standard operating procedures (SOPs). Furthermore, the study of nanoparticles frequently requires their characterisation in complex media (e.g. in cosmetic formulations). In this study, a set of sample preparation procedures for the detection and extraction of NMs in emulsion-based formulations is proposed and their performance for model and real-life products is discussed. A separation or extraction of lipid phases is achieved by means of organic solvents. The polarity of the lipid phases is decisive for selecting an optimum solvent. The use of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) may clearly support this decision. (paper)

  20. Application of Fenton oxidation to cosmetic wastewaters treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, P; Mohedano, A F; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Rodriguez, J J

    2007-05-08

    The removal of organic matter (TOC and COD) from a cosmetic wastewater by Fenton oxidation treatment has been evaluated. The operating conditions (temperature as well as ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide dosage) have been optimized. Working at an initial pH equal to 3.0, a Fe(2+) concentration of 200 mg/L and a H(2)O(2) concentration to COD initial weight ratio corresponding to the theoretical stoichiometric value (2.12), a TOC conversion higher than 45% at 25 degrees C and 60% at 50 degrees C was achieved. Application of the Fenton oxidation process allows to reach the COD regional limit for industrial wastewaters discharges to the municipal sewer system. A simple kinetic analysis based on TOC was carried out. A second-order equation describes well the overall kinetics of the process within a wide TOC conversion range covering up to the 80-90% of the maximum achievable conversion.

  1. Photomutagenicity of cosmetic ingredient chemicals azulene and guaiazulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Yan Jian; Fu, Peter P.; Parekh, Karishma A.; Yu Hongtao

    2003-01-01

    The photomutagenicity of the popular skin conditioning agents azulene and guaiazulene were tested in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102. Following irradiation with UVA and/or visible light, both azulene and guaiazulene exhibited mutagenicity 4-5-fold higher than the spontaneous background mutation. In contrary, naphthalene, a structural isomer of azulene, was not photomutagenic under the same conditions. Azulene was photomutagenic when irradiated with UVA light alone, visible light alone, or a combination of UVA and visible light. Azulene and guaiazulene are not mutagenic when the experiment is conducted with the exclusion of light. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when using cosmetic products with azulene/guaiazulene as ingredients since after applying these products on the skin, exposure to sunlight is inevitable

  2. Cosmetic surgery in teenagers: To do or not to do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The media makes it out to be a big story that teens are getting cosmetic surgery in larger numbers than ever. However, this is far from the truth. Yearly data, is increasingly showing a reduction in the percentage, as well as absolute numbers of these surgeries. Only, very essential surgery should be done for teenagers. The consult should be done in the presence of a parent, and even if the teen is above legal consenting age, parental supervision is still needed. A cooling off period, informed consent under parental supervision, and a time to rethink is essential. If a problem is severe enough to cause psychological problems, a psychologist can help in arriving at a decision.

  3. Cosmetic surgery in teenagers: to do or not to do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    The media makes it out to be a big story that teens are getting cosmetic surgery in larger numbers than ever. However, this is far from the truth. Yearly data, is increasingly showing a reduction in the percentage, as well as absolute numbers of these surgeries. Only, very essential surgery should be done for teenagers. The consult should be done in the presence of a parent, and even if the teen is above legal consenting age, parental supervision is still needed. A cooling off period, informed consent under parental supervision, and a time to rethink is essential. If a problem is severe enough to cause psychological problems, a psychologist can help in arriving at a decision.

  4. Cosmetic head and face surgery--ethnic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, H E

    1980-05-01

    In recent years there has developed an "image awareness" among various racial and ethnic groups throughout the world. Perhaps because people live longer, a greater sense of self-esteem based on the way one looks has developed. The communications media are highly promotional of interest in one's self. People want to feel good and look good, even if it requires blepharoplasty, face-lift, rhinoplasty, dermabrasion, or other types of cosmetic surgery. It is interesting that persons born in one place, and for business or personal reasons transposed to another part of the world, soon desire to remold their physical and cultural images in accordance with the practices and customs of their new milieux. This paper addresses these problems.

  5. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha......-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...... of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients....

  6. Cosmetics and Cosmeceutical Applications of Chitin, Chitosan and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Aranaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine resources are well recognized for their biologically active substances with great potential applications in the cosmeceutical industry. Among the different compounds with a marine origin, chitin and its deacetylated derivative—chitosan—are of great interest to the cosmeceutical industry due to their unique biological and technological properties. In this review, we explore the different functional roles of chitosan as a skin care and hair care ingredient, as an oral hygiene agent and as a carrier for active compounds, among others. The importance of the physico-chemical properties of the polymer in its use in cosmetics are particularly highlighted. Moreover, we analyse the market perspectives of this polymer and the presence in the market of chitosan-based products.

  7. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Do, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos [Department of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  8. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-01-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  10. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  11. Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

  12. [A look at pharmaceutical and cosmetic advertising in "Comoedia Illustré" at the time of the Ballets Russes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    1994-01-01

    The author analyses the pharmaceutical and cosmetic advertising in Comoedia Illustré, a very famous French cultural magazine at the beginning of the century. He emphasizes the relation between pharmacists and the development of cosmetics.

  13. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates... recovery from tortiously liable third persons for the cost of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic... of the full cost of all services provided. The outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery...

  14. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates... recovery from tortiously liable third persons for the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic... of the full cost of all services provided. The CY13 Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery...

  15. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food products...

  16. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of a...

  17. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are used in practically all walks of life as a means of improving skin and beautifying complexion. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the cosmetic safety. In response to the cosmetic safety issue, the accurate measurement of the heavy metals in cosmetics is, therefore, particularly important. NMIs from different countries should establish their chemical metrology traceability system in this area, which includes both measurement methods research and certain CRMs development. It should be noted that because the matrix of many cosmetics is complex and the contents of the heavy metals are relatively low, it still is a challenging task to measure the analytes with high accuracy and precision. CCQM-K106 followed up CCQM pilot study 'CCQM-P128: Pb, As measurements in cosmetic (cream)' coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) in 2009. The cream was selected as the testing material, which is widely used as a daily skin care worldwide. This is the first CCQM key comparison regarding the measurement of toxic metal elements with the cosmetic matrix, which includes pure water, liquid paraffin, silicone oil, synthetic squalane, hyaluronic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, allantoin, preservative and so on. The aim of the CCQM-K106 is to demonstrate the capability of participating NMIs and designated institutes in measuring the contents of poisonous elements, including lead, arsenic and mercury in a cosmetic sample (cream), and support CMC claims relating to inorganic elements in cosmetic materials and similar chemical industry products. The cream matrix sample was prepared under the guidance of professional technicians. The formula of the cream was carefully chosen to match with a real cosmetic. The homogeneity and stability level of Pb, As and Hg in the cream sample were fit for the objective of the comparison. Each participant received two numbered bottles containing about 5g samples in each bottle. The instruction

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  20. Insights on in vitro models for safety and toxicity assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andreia; Sarmento, Bruno; Rodrigues, Francisca

    2017-03-15

    According to the current European legislation, the safety assessment of each individual cosmetic ingredient of any formulation is the basis for the safety evaluation of a cosmetic product. Also, animal testing in the European Union is prohibited for cosmetic ingredients and products since 2004 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, the commercialization of any cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animal models was forbidden in 2009. In consequence of these boundaries, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes a list of validated cell-based in vitro models for predicting the safety and toxicity of cosmetic ingredients. These models have been demonstrated as valuable and effective tools to overcome the limitations of animal in vivo studies. Although the use of in vitro cell-based models for the evaluation of absorption and permeability of cosmetic ingredients is widespread, a detailed study on the properties of these platforms and the in vitro-in vivo correlation compared with human data are required. Moreover, additional efforts must be taken to develop in vitro models to predict carcinogenicity, repeat dose toxicity and reproductive toxicity, for which no alternative in vitro methods are currently available. This review paper summarizes and characterizes the most relevant in vitro models validated by ECVAM employed to predict the safety and toxicology of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU. Reality and challenges for the toxicologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2004-06-15

    Council Directive 76/768/EEC, its seven amendments and 30 adaptations to technical progress form the basis of the cosmetic EU legislation today. There are actually four key principles for safety in the cosmetic legislation. (i) The full responsibility for the safety of cosmetics for human health is placed on the manufacturer, first importer in the EU or marketer. (ii) The safety evaluation of finished products is based on safety of individual ingredients, more specifically on their chemical structure, toxicological profile and their level of exposure. (iii) A compilation of information on each cosmetic product (dossier) must be kept readily available for inspection by the competent authorities of the Member State concerned. This information source, usually called a technical information file (TIF) or product information file/requirements (PIF(R)), contains, as the most important part, the safety assessment of the product undersigned by a competent safety assessor. (iv) The use of validated replacement alternative methods instead of animal testing forms the 4th key principle for safety of cosmetic products on the EU market. The 7th amendment imposes strict deadlines for the abolition of animal in vivo studies on cosmetic ingredients. These legal requirements induce a number of important challenges for the cosmetic industry and more specifically for the toxicologist involved as safety assessor.

  2. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  3. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Factor structure and correlates of the acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale among South Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hwang, Choon-Sup; Jung, Jaehee

    2012-02-01

    Research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery has focused on relatively affluent Western samples, to the exclusion of non-Western samples and any potential cross-cultural differences. While rates of cosmetic surgery in South Korea have risen sharply in the past decade, mirroring rates in other East Asian nations, little is known about attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in the Korean population. To examine the factor structure and correlates of a Korean adaptation of the previously-published Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS). South Korean university students (N = 267) completed the ACSS, as well as included Korean translations of measures for actual vs. ideal body weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and demographics. The Korean ACSS reduced to a two-factor solution, mirroring results among other non-Western samples, although a one-factor solution was deemed more plausible. Compared to men, women had significantly higher total scores, suggesting that they were more accepting of cosmetic surgery. A multiple regression showed that, after controlling for the effects of participant sex, the only significant predictor of acceptance of cosmetic surgery was general body appreciation, suggesting that some may view cosmetic surgery as a means of enhancing their body image. The results reveal important global information for plastic surgeons-not only on the treatment of non-Western patients but on the South Korean market, in which the cosmetic surgery industry remains unregulated. Given the popularity and acceptance of cosmetic surgery in South Korea, there is an urgent need for regulatory intervention to ensure patient safety and satisfaction.

  5. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cynthia Figueroa; Champion, Angela; Secor, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The fascination in physical beauty is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society. Beauty in American culture is defined by the media through magazines, television, and music. The perfect career, the perfect family, social status, and high self-esteem all revolve around having an impeccable figure. Research shows that 94% of the covers of women's magazines showcase a woman with a thin physique (A. R., Malkin, K., Wornian, & J. C. Chrisler, 1999). Therefore, it is not surprising that year after year, millions of people elect for cosmetic surgery. According to the , approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures. This is a 457% increase since 1997. As the demand for elective cosmetic surgery continues to rise, it is important for healthcare employees to recognize the motive behind the decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this literature review project was to ascertain those factors that influence or motivate patients to seek cosmetic surgery. This project investigated physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors associated with individuals who undergo elective cosmetic surgery. It has been shown that the motivation for cosmetic surgery is based on a combination of psychological and emotional factors. Researchers surmise that body image, teasing history, and self-esteem were associated with motivational factors for those patients who elected to seek cosmetic surgery (T. Soest, I. L. Kvalem, K. C. Skolleborg, & H. E. Roald, 2006). In addition, the researchers concluded that body dysmorphic disorder, education, and culture are also predicting factors in the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

  6. Aesthetic problems associated with the cosmetic use of bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Fatimata; Soko, Anta Soumare; Dione, Demba Anta; Niang, Suzanne Oumou; Kane, Assane; Bocoum, Thierno Ibrahima; Dieng, Mame Thierno; Ndiaye, Bassirou

    2007-10-01

    The use of skin bleaching products for cosmetic purposes is a frequent practice (25-96%) in women from sub-Saharan Africa. The dermatologic complications associated with this practice have been comprehensively reported. The aim of this work was to study the epidemiologic, clinical, and cosmetic aspects of these complications in order to produce better therapeutic guidelines for their management. This was a prospective, descriptive study performed over a 6-month period. All women aged between 15 and 50 years, who consulted a dermatologist (Le Dantec Hospital or Institute of Social Hygiene), experienced a complication associated with artificial depigmentation, and agreed to take part in the study, were included. The data were input and analyzed using Epi info version 6.0. Eighty-six female patients were included, with a mean age of 29.34 years (range, 16-49 years). The breakdown by level of education was as follows: primary (48.8%), secondary (18.3%), and higher (8.5%) education. Twenty-two per cent of our population had not attended school. The mean monthly cost of skin bleaching products was 6.22 euros. The initial skin tone before using skin bleaching products was black in 41.5% of patients, light in 32.9%, and intermediate in 25.6%. The mean duration of exposure was 6.7 +/- 5 years (range, 1-30 years). The breakdown by skin bleaching products showed that topical corticosteroids were the most frequently used (78%), followed by hydroquinone (56%), products based on vegetable extracts (31.7%), caustic products (8.5%), and, finally, products of unknown composition (41.4%). Two components or more were frequently combined (86.5%). The aesthetic complications of artificial depigmentation were the reason for consulting a dermatologist in 10 patients (12%). Nineteen types of aesthetic complication were reported in our sample. Hyperpigmentation of the joints was the most frequently found complication (85.4%), followed by striae atrophicae (72%) and skin atrophy (59

  7. Body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic dermatology: more than skin deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, David J; Phillips, Katharine A; Dufresne, Raymond G

    2006-01-01

    Summary Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is relatively common in cosmetic practise, yet it remains under-recognized. BDD patients are unnaturally concerned with minimal or non-existent flaws, most commonly in the skin (e.g. facial acne or scarring) and hair (e.g. hair loss). Many patients develop social avoidance and suffer occupational or academic impairment. More severely ill patients may become housebound or even attempt suicide. Despite the minimal or non-existent nature of the perceived appearance flaws, patients with BDD may request dermatological treatments such as isotretinoin or dermabrasion. Although treatment outcome has received little investigation, it appears that most patients are dissatisfied with dermatological treatment and, even if the outcome is objectively acceptable, they do not worry any the less about their appearance afterwards. In contrast, a majority of patients respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy. Treatment of these patients is best given by an experienced health professional. This may be a mental health professional or a dermatologist with an interest in psychological medicine. PMID:17147563

  8. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczyk, Jeremi; Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Kowalik, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the treatment process of three cosmetic wastewater types has been investigated. Coagulation allowed to achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 74.6%, 37.7% and 74.0% for samples A (Al2(SO4)3), B (Brentafloc F3) and C (PAX 16), respectively. The Fenton process proved to be effective as well - COD removal was equal to 75.1%, 44.7% and 68.1%, respectively. Coagulation with FeCl3 and the subsequent photo-Fenton process resulted in the best values of final COD removal equal to 92.4%, 62.8% and 90.2%. In case of the Fenton process, after coagulation these values were equal to 74.9%, 50.1% and 84.8%, while in case of the H2O2/UV process, the obtained COD removal was 83.8%, 36.2% and 80.9%. High value of COD removal in the Fenton process carried out for A and C wastewater samples was caused by a significant contribution of the final neutralization/coagulation. Very small effect of the oxidation reaction in the Fenton process in case of sample A resulting from the presence of antioxidants, 'OH radical scavengers' in the wastewater.

  9. Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing herbal remedies and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2002-10-01

    The Compositae (Asteraceae) family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe. The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a growing number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica (Arnica montana), German and Roman chamomile (Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobile), marigold (Calendula officinalis), Echinacea and elecampane (Inula helenium), have been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis. Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely with the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, but there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene. The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae-containing products in Compositae-sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown.

  10. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Manasi; Dhulap, Sivakami; Mandhare, Anita; Hirwani, Rajkumar

    2013-12-01

    Mangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone [2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthone], is abundantly present in young leaves and stem bark of the mango tree. The xanthonoid structure of mangiferin with C-glycosyl linkage and polyhydroxy components contributes to its free radical-scavenging ability, leading to a potent antioxidant effect as well as multiple biological activities. An extensive search was carried out to collect patent information on mangiferin and its derivatives using various patent databases spanning all priority years to date. The patents claiming therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin and its derivatives were analyzed in detail. The technology areas covered in this article include metabolic disorders, cosmeceuticals, multiple uses of the same compound, miscellaneous uses, infectious diseases, inflammation, cancer and autoimmune disorders, and neurological disorders. Mangiferin has the potential to modulate multiple molecular targets including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. Mangiferin exhibits antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperuricemic, antiviral, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. The molecular structure of mangiferin fulfils the four Lipinski's requisites reported to favor high bioavailability by oral administration. There is no evidence of adverse side effects of mangiferin so far. Mangiferin could thus be a promising candidate for development of a multipotent drug.

  11. Multiscale modelling approaches for assessing cosmetic ingredients safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frédéric Y; Ochoa, Juan G Diaz; Gajewska, Monika; Kovarich, Simona; Mauch, Klaus; Paini, Alicia; Péry, Alexandre; Benito, Jose Vicente Sala; Teng, Sophie; Worth, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The European Union's ban on animal testing for cosmetic ingredients and products has generated a strong momentum for the development of in silico and in vitro alternative methods. One of the focus of the COSMOS project was ab initio prediction of kinetics and toxic effects through multiscale pharmacokinetic modeling and in vitro data integration. In our experience, mathematical or computer modeling and in vitro experiments are complementary. We present here a summary of the main models and results obtained within the framework of the project on these topics. A first section presents our work at the organelle and cellular level. We then go toward modeling cell levels effects (monitored continuously), multiscale physiologically based pharmacokinetic and effect models, and route to route extrapolation. We follow with a short presentation of the automated KNIME workflows developed for dissemination and easy use of the models. We end with a discussion of two challenges to the field: our limited ability to deal with massive data and complex computations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  13. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, Adam L.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique

  14. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ben-David, Merav A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique.

  15. Controlled release of astaxanthin from nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride complex for cosmetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Sun; Sung, Dae Kyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Won Il; Hwang, Ee Tag; Choi, Doo Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride (nSPLs@BN) powder was prepared and demonstrated for use in controlled release of anti-oxidant astaxanthin (AX) as a cosmetic application. The nanoporous silicified phospholipids (nSPLs) were obtained by the silicification with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) of the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involved the co-assembly of chemically active phospholipid bilayers within the porous silica matrix. In addition, nSPLs@BN was characterized using several analytical techniques and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. We calculated the maximum release amounts as a function of time and various pH. The release rate of AX from the nSPLs@BN for the initial 24 h was 10.7 μmol/(h mg) at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant activity (KD) for the released AX with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical and the result was 34.6%.

  16. A critical review of cosmetic treatment outcomes in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Laura; Krebs, Georgina; Mataix-Cols, David; Veale, David; Monzani, Benedetta

    2016-12-01

    A high proportion of individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) undergo cosmetic treatments in an attempt to 'fix' perceived defect/s in their physical appearance. Despite the frequency with which such procedures are sought, few studies have prospectively examined the outcomes of cosmetic procedures in individuals with BDD. This article aims to critically review the literature and discuss the current debate that exists on outcomes of cosmetic treatment for individuals with BDD. An emerging literature suggests the majority of individuals with BDD have poor outcomes after cosmetic interventions; however, based on the current literature, it cannot be fully ruled out that certain individuals with mild BDD and localised appearance concerns may benefit from these interventions. Gaps in the current literature are highlighted, alongside recommendations for future research. Carefully conducted longitudinal studies with well-characterised patient populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Orthodontics and cosmetic composite for treatment ending: ultra conservative approach of the smile restoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossetti, François

    2013-12-01

    Thanks to alignment, bleaching and bonding, cosmetic dentistry is rising. The cases presented in this article are treated through minimal invasive dentistry linked to orthodontics. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2013.

  18. Simulated environmental risk estimation of engineered nanomaterials: a case of cosmetics in Johannesburg City

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to quantify the potential risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems from cosmetic-based nanoproducts. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were modelled for the silver (n...

  19. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: Facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wiechers, JW

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers’ needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from...

  20. levels of heavy metals in drinking water, cosmetics and fruit juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr John A. M. Mahugija

    Lead, zinc, and cadmium were detected in all the cosmetics at concentrations ranging from 6.6 to ... pigmenting minerals, such as iron oxide and tin oxide. ... becoming an essential part of the modern ...... trichloroethylene) 1: Interaction of.

  1. Determination of arsenic and mercury in facial cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Martinez, J.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of arsenic and mercury in some chilean facial cosmetics was investiged. Since in Chile there is no regulations dealing with the maximum permisible concentration of some chemical elements in cosmetics products, the national industry control neither the presence nor the quantity, if any, of those elements. The study was performed on compact or powder eye shadows by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were analized without any chemical treatment and with minimum manipulation to avoid any possible contamination. A total of 67 samples from 9 different cosmetic industries were analysed. Arsenic was detected and determined quantitatively in 46 samples, ranging from 0.32 to 136 ppm. Mercury was not detected in any sample. The contamination of arsenic is due to the high concentration of this element in some of the raw material used in the manufacturing of the cosmetics, as was demonstrated by the analysis of these materials. (EC)

  2. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to..., direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. The application deadline has been extended to...

  3. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention are positively related to the consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products. By addressing the consumers’ traits that can predict halal cosmetics and personal care products necessity, marketers could generate proper marketing strategies to validate consumers’ demand which in turn will stimulate the growth of halal products industry in Indonesia.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.1867

  4. Negative predictors for satisfaction in patients seeking facial cosmetic surgery: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herruer, J.M.; Prins, J.B.; Heerbeek, N. van; Verhage-Damen, G.W.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial cosmetic surgery is becoming more popular. Patients generally indicate they are satisfied with the results. Certain patient characteristics, however, have been described as negative predictors for satisfaction. Psychopathology such as body dysmorphic disorder and personality

  5. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...... frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch...

  6. Factors influencing metaphor translation in online cosmetic advertising in the context of the PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Luanjuan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines metaphor translation from English to Mandarin in online cosmetic advertisements in the recent socio-cultural and historical context of the People's Republic of China. This examination of metaphor translation occurs at the level of discourse. In this thesis, discourse is understood as the linguistic representation of metaphor for persuasive and localised communicative purposes. In my study, I argue that in the translation of these online cosmetic advertisements, the trans-...

  7. Quantifying the impact cosmetic make-up has on age perception and the first impression projected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Steven H; Cho, Katherine; Siracusa, Mary; Gutierrez-Borst, Selika

    2015-04-01

    First impressions are lasting, consequential and defined as the immediate judgment made of another from zero acquaintance. Multiple studies have reported the benefits of cosmetic make-up. We set out to investigate the psychosocial and aesthetic effects of cosmetic make-up in order to better understand why women wear it. Twenty-seven women were recruited in order to examine the effects of cosmetic make-up on first impressions. The photographs of individual subjects wearing the control cosmetics, their own make-up, and no make-up were randomly assigned to three binders (A, B, and C). Three hundred evaluators participated (100 evaluators per book) and completed a 10-point First Impression Scale for each of the 27 photos in their binder. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted in SPSS using two-tailed t-tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences between first impressions of Own Make-up vs No Make-up, No Make-up vs Control Make-up, and Own Makeup vs Control Make-up. There was a significant difference in improvement in all pairings across all 8 categories in the First Impressions questionnaire particularly in perceived age between own make-up, no make-up, control make-up (41, 42, 38; Pfirst impressions, age perception, self-esteem, and the quality of life impact that cosmetic makeup has on women's appearance and confidence. Subjects wearing cosmetic make-up appeared 4 years younger than those wearing no make-up. And the control cosmetic make-up subjects on average projected a 37% better first impression than subjects wearing no make-up. We objectively quantified and qualified the benefits of applying cosmetic make-up. Make-up can reduce the perceived age, improve the first impression projected and increase the self-esteem of those who apply it.

  8. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed...

  9. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a d...

  10. What is the Impact of the Cosmetic Industry in the West on Caucasian Female Consumer Wellbeing?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbickaite, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact that cosmetics have on female well-being regarding psychological, physical, social, career and education aspects. In the western world, cosmetic products are not only accepted, but are also often encouraged to be used for Caucasian females to look most attractive, thus be perceived more positively by society. “What is beautiful is good” (Dion, Berscheid, Walster, 1972), but it can also be harmful. Through various media channels, the perceptions of beauty are sha...

  11. Objective assessment of cosmetic outcome after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Williams, Norman R; Bulsara, Max

    2013-01-01

    and thus impair cosmesis further, so we objectively evaluated the aesthetic outcome of patients within the TARGIT randomised controlled trial. We have used an objective assessment tool for evaluation of cosmetic outcome. Frontal digital photographs were taken at baseline (before TARGIT or EBRT) and yearly...... in a randomised setting, the aesthetic outcome of patients demonstrates that those treated with TARGIT have a superior cosmetic result to those patients who received conventional external beam radiotherapy....

  12. The impact of cosmetic surgery media portrayals on body image and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina

    2014-01-01

    The cosmetic surgery industry has rapidly expanded and Professional Associations for surgery in the UK and USA have expressed concern over the ways in which surgery is portrayed in the media. This thesis aimed to investigate how different portrayals of cosmetic surgery in the media impact women and adolescent girls’ body image and attitudes towards surgery. Moreover, it examined a number of moderating variables which may affect responses to such media.\\ud The first three studies examined the ...

  13. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Beth F.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

  15. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  16. Improved antibacterial efficacy of bacteriophage-cosmetic formulation for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Abo-elmaaty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently phages are used as alternative antibiotics for treating pathogenic bacteria causing skin disease. However, the efficacy of pure preparations of phage is greatly reduced due to its short longevity on surface of skin. supplemented cosmetic phages [0.5% phage conc./cosmetic] significantly increased phage longevity on skin surface. The phages were isolated by the single plaque assay from the infected skin showing edema and erythema symptoms. The isolated phages had plaques with 3–5 mm diameters and a distinct translucent spreading halo. The morphological phage particles were cubic nucleocapsid with 65–75 nm across with short contractile tails. The supplemented cosmetic phages reduced the bacterial growth to 95.45%, compared with free phages and non-supplemented cosmetic 86.1% and 77% respectively. The phage containing cosmetic was applied for disease treatment and increased the phage longevity from 24 to 100 h and preserved initial phage population. This work indicated the enhanced antibacterial efficacy of fortifying specific bacteriophage in cosmetics to be a promising formulation for efficient treatment of skin diseases.

  17. [Feasibility and cosmetic outcome of oncoplastic surgery in breast cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwell-Cabello, Santiago; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Villegas-Carlos, Felipe; Domínguez-Reyes, Carlos; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading oncological cause of death in Mexican women over 25 years old. Given the need to improve postoperative cosmetic results in patients with breast cancer, oncoplastic surgery has been developed, which allows larger tumour resections and minor cosmetic alterations. To determine the oncological feasibility and cosmetic outcome of oncoplastic surgery at the Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama, FUCAM, AC. A review was conducted from January 2010 to July 2013, which included patients with breast cancer diagnosis treated with conventional breast-conserving surgery or with oncoplastic surgery in the Institute of Diseases of the Breast, FUCAM AC. Clinical and histopathological parameters were compared between the two groups, and a questionnaire of cosmetic satisfaction and quality of life was applied. Of the 171 patients included, 95 of them were treated with conventional breast-conserving surgery and 76 with oncoplastic surgery. Pathological tumour size was significantly larger in patients treated with oncoplastic surgery (p = 0.002). There were no differences found between the groups as regards the number of patients with positive surgical margin, the rate of complications, and cosmetic satisfaction. This study demonstrates the oncological feasibility and high cosmetic satisfaction of oncoplastic surgery with minimal psycho-social impact on patients. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. 10 Years Later: Lessons Learned from an Academic Multidisciplinary Cosmetic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenny T; Nayar, Harry S; Rao, Venkat K

    2017-09-01

    In 2006, a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-accredited multidisciplinary academic ambulatory surgery center was established with the goal of delivering high-quality, efficient reconstructive, and cosmetic services in an academic setting. We review our decade-long experience since its establishment. Clinical and financial data from 2006 to 2016 are reviewed. All cosmetic procedures, including both minimally invasive and operative cases, are included. Data are compared to nationally published reports. Nearly 3,500 cosmetic surgeries and 10,000 minimally invasive procedures were performed. Compared with national averages, surgical volume in abdominoplasty is high, whereas rhinoplasty and breast augmentation is low. Regarding trend data, breast augmentation volume has decreased by 25%, whereas minimally invasive procedural volume continues to grow and is comparable with national reports. Similarly, where surgical revenue remains steady, minimally invasive revenue has increased significantly. The majority of surgical cases (70%) are reconstructive in nature and insurance-based. Payer mix is 71% private insurance, 18% Medicare and Medicaid, and 11% self-pay. Despite year-over-year revenue increases, net profit in 2015 was $6,120. Rent and anesthesia costs exceed national averages, and employee salary and wages are the highest expenditure. Although the creation of our academic cosmetic ambulatory surgery center has greatly increased the overall volume of cosmetic surgery performed at the University of Wisconsin, the majority of surgical volume and revenue is reconstructive. As is seen nationwide, minimally invasive cosmetic procedures represent our most rapidly expanding revenue stream.

  19. Malaysian consumers’ awareness, perception, and attitude toward cosmetic products: Questionnaire development and pilot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hadi, Hazrina; Jaffri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers’ perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed in the English language based on information collected from a literature search, in-depth interviews conducted with consumers prior to this study and consultations with experts. Subsequently, the questionnaire was subjected to translation, validation, and test-retest reliability. A final version of the questionnaire was piloted among 66 consumers via convenient sampling. A descriptive analysis was performed, and the internal consistency and the differences between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed. Results: The developed and translated questionnaire produced repeatable data for each of the domains (Spearman's correlation ≥ 0.7, P awareness, perceptions and attitudes indicates good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value of more than 0.7 for each domain). Significant differences were found between the perception scores for the race, religion, and monthly expenses for cosmetic products, respectively, and the same pattern was found for the attitude scores, but monthly expenses for cosmetic products was replaced by monthly income. Conclusion: The results achieved via the Bahasa Malaysia questionnaire indicated that the developed and translated questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products in Malaysia in future studies. PMID:27413348

  20. The determination of the radical power - an in vitro test for the evaluation of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, T; Seifert, M; Sandig, G; Jung, K

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic formulations are influenced by environmental impacts and ageing, resulting in rancidity and change of colour and structure. These changes are caused by free radicals (FRs). The sensitivity of cosmetics generating FRs is a metric for its quality and should be determined. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with UV irradiation tested cosmetics such as creams, milks, lotions and fragrances. The probes were directly measured without expensive preparation. Nine formulations are tested for its radical generation and ranked corresponding to the radical power. The transformation of the FR properties of three formulations to skin is measured by the radical skin status factor (RSF) method. It shows that the higher the radical power (RP) is, the lower the radical status RSF of skin will be. The knowledge of the sensitivity of cosmetics to generate FRs is necessary for its stabilization and prevention of potential damages to skin. It is a new way in development of cosmetics which has to be considered. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Introducing an Undergraduate Degree of Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design within a College of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Baki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a unique and versatile undergraduate degree program, a Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS is offered by a number of colleges/schools of pharmacy. These provide a bachelor's degree concentrated in pharmaceutical sciences, and can be a non-Doctor of Pharmacy option, possibly before progressing to graduate degree studies. Recently implemented at the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UTCPPS, one such BSPS major is Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design. This new undergraduate major was created to serve the needs of the cosmetic and personal care industry, with a great need identified for well-trained new professionals with basic knowledge in the sciences and business. This Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design major was added to four other BSPS majors at UTCPPS. Introduced in 2013, this major is the only functioning undergraduate degree in Cosmetic Science and Formulation Design in the United States. Preliminary job placement data provides promising evidence that this undergraduate major has helped graduates launch a career in the cosmetic and personal care, or pharmaceutical industries. Based on our experience from the past three years, we believe that this cosmetic science major has been worth its resource investment. We hope others designing new undergraduate pharmaceutical sciences programs might integrate advice from this experience into their impending programs.   Type: Idea Paper

  3. Facial Identity and Self-Perception: An Examination of Psychosocial Outcomes in Cosmetic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Benjamin; Beer, Jacob

    2017-06-01

    The psychosocial health of patients undergoing cosmetic procedures has often been linked to a host of pre-existing conditions, including the type of procedure being performed. Age, gender, and the psychological state of the patients also contribute to the perceived outcome. Specifically, the presence or absence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) has been identified as an independent marker for unhappiness following cosmetic procedures.1 However, no study has, to our knowledge, identified a more precise indicator that is associated with higher rates of patient dissatisfaction from cosmetic procedure. This review identifies facial identity and self-perception as potential identifiers of future patient dissatisfaction with cosmetic procedures. Specifically, we believe that patients with a realistic facial identity and self-perception are more likely to be satisfied than those whose self-perceptions are distorted. Patients undergoing restorative procedures, including blepharoplasty, rhytidectomy, and liposuction, are more likely to have an increased outcome favorability rating than those undergoing type change procedures, such as rhinoplasty and breast augmentation. Age, which typically is an independent variable for satisfaction, tends to be associated with increased favorability ratings following cosmetic procedures. Female gender is a second variable associated with higher satisfaction. The authors believe that negative facial identity and self-perception are risk factors for patient dissatisfaction with cosmetic procedural outcomes. Based on this assumption, clinicians may want to focus on the face as a particular area of psychosocial concern. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6):617-620..

  4. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Fryzek, Jon P; Henriksen, Trine F; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2006-02-15

    The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a carcinogenic effect of silicone breast implants on breast or other cancers. Data on cancer risk other than breast cancer are limited and few studies have assessed cancer risk beyond 10-15 years after breast implantation. We extended follow-up of our earlier cohort study of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants by 7 years, yielding 30 years of follow-up for women with longest implant duration. The study population consisted of women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery (n = 1,653) or public hospitals (n = 1,110), and a control group of women who attended private clinics for other plastic surgery (n = 1,736), between 1973-95. Cancer incidence through 2002 was ascertained using the Danish Cancer Registry. Risk evaluation was based on computation of standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, calendar period and reproductive history. We observed 163 cancers among women with breast implants compared to 136.7 expected based on general population rates (SIR = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.4), during a mean follow-up period of 14.4 years (range = 0-30 years). Women with breast implants experienced a reduced risk of breast cancer (SIR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-1.0), and an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). Stratification by age at implantation, calendar year at implantation and time since implantation showed no clear trends, however, the statistical precision was limited in these analyses. When excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, the SIR for cancer overall was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.8-1.2). With respect to other site-specific cancers, no significantly increased or decreased SIR were observed. Similar results were found when directly comparing women who had implants at private clinics with women who attended private clinics for other plastic surgery, with rate ratios for cancer

  5. Applying dynamic mold temperature control to cosmetic package design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Shih-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fashion trend and the market needs, this study developed the eco-cushion compact. Through the product design and the advanced process technology, many issues have improved, for instance, the inconvenience of transportation, the lack of multiuse capability, the increase of costs, and the low yield rate. The eco-cushion compact developed in this study was high quality, low cost, and meets the requirements of the eco market. The study aimed at developing a reusable container. Dynamic mold temperature control was introduced in the injection modeling process. The innovation in the product was its multi-functional formula invention, eco-product design, one-piece powder case design, and multifunctional design in the big powder case, mold flow and development of dynamic mold temperature control. Finally, through 3D drawing and modeling, and computer assistance for mold flow and verification to develop and produce models. During the manufacturing process, in order to solve the problems of tightness and warping, development and manufacture of dynamic mold temperature control were introduced. This decreased the injection cycle and residual stress, and deformation of the products has reduced to less than 0.2 mm, and the air tightness increased. In addition, air leakage was less than 2% and the injection cycle decreased to at least 10%. The results of the study can be extended and applied on the future design on cosmetic package and an alternative can be proposed to solve the problems of air tightness and warping. In this study, dynamic mold temperature control is considered as a design with high price-performance ratio, which can be adopted on industrial application for practical benefit and improvement.

  6. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

  7. Effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on cosmetic outcome and late normal-tissue reactions after breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Joergen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Marie

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether adjuvant treatment with CMF or tamoxifen predisposes to an unfavorable cosmetic outcome or increased breast morbidity after radiotherapy in breast conservation. Data from 266 patients who entered a randomized breast conservation trial (DBCG-82TM protocol) was analyzed. The patients were treated with lumpectomy and axillary dissection followed by external beam radiotherapy to the residual breast. High-risk patients (n 94), as well as 31 low-risk patients, received additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all high-risk patients: premenopausal patients (n = 67) received eight cycles of CMF intravenously (600/40/600 mg/m 2 ) every fourth week; postmenopausal patients (n = 27) received 30 mg of tamoxifen daily for one year. Clinical assessments included cosmetic outcome, breast fibrosis, skin telangiectasia, and dyspigmentation which were scored on a 4-point categorical scale after median 6.6 years. The observations were analyzed in multivariate logistic regression analysis which included potential risk factors on outcome related to systemic treatment, surgery, radiation technique, tumor, and patient characteristics. In premenopausal patients, systemic treatment with CMF independently predicted a fair/poor cosmetic outcome, RR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.2), as well as increased skin telangiectasia, RR = 3.3 (1.4-8.2). There was no impact of tamoxifen treatment on cosmetic outcome in postmenopausal patients (p 0.32). However, univariate analysis showed that tamoxifen was significantly associated with breast fibrosis (p <0.004), as was radiation to the regional lymph nodes (p <0.0001). A strong interaction between axillary irradiation and tamoxifen treatment occurred since 26 of 27 high-risk postmenopausal patients had received both tamoxifen and axillary irradiation. In multivariate regression analysis, axillary irradiation independently predicted moderate/severe breast fibrosis with a relative risk of 5

  8. The Prevalence of Cosmetic Facial Plastic Procedures among Facial Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayer, Roxana; Sand, Jordan P; Han, Albert; Nabili, Vishad; Keller, Gregory S

    2018-04-01

    This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cosmetic facial plastic surgery use among facial plastic surgeons. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency with which facial plastic surgeons have cosmetic procedures themselves. A secondary aim is to determine whether trends in usage of cosmetic facial procedures among facial plastic surgeons are similar to that of nonsurgeons. The study design was an anonymous, five-question, Internet survey distributed via email set in a single academic institution. Board-certified members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) were included in this study. Self-reported history of cosmetic facial plastic surgery or minimally invasive procedures were recorded. The survey also queried participants for demographic data. A total of 216 members of the AAFPRS responded to the questionnaire. Ninety percent of respondents were male ( n  = 192) and 10.3% were female ( n  = 22). Thirty-three percent of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years ( n  = 70), 25% were aged 41 to 50 years ( n  = 53), 21.4% were aged 51 to 60 years ( n  = 46), and 20.5% were older than 60 years ( n  = 44). Thirty-six percent of respondents had a surgical cosmetic facial procedure and 75% has at least one minimally invasive cosmetic facial procedure. Facial plastic surgeons are frequent users of cosmetic facial plastic surgery. This finding may be due to access, knowledge base, values, or attitudes. By better understanding surgeon attitudes toward facial plastic surgery, we can improve communication with patients and delivery of care. This study is a first step in understanding use of facial plastic procedures among facial plastic surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Characterization of phthalates exposure and risk for cosmetics and perfume sales clerks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chin; Liao, Kai-Wei; Chang, Jung-Wei; Chan, Shiou-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2018-02-01

    High levels of phthalates in name-brand cosmetics products have raised concerns about phthalate exposure and the associated risk for cosmetics sales clerks. We assessed the exposure and risk of phthalates in 23 cosmetics, 4 perfume, and 9 clothing department store sales clerks. We collected 108 urine samples pre- and post-shift and analyzed for phthalate monoesters through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Phthalates in 32 air samples were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics and information on the exposure scenarios were obtained through questionnaires. Principal component analysis, cluster and risk analysis were applied to identify the exposure profile and risk of phthalate. Median post-shift levels of urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP) were significantly higher than the corresponding pre-shift levels in cosmetics group (53.3 vs. 30.9 μg/g-c for MEHP; 34.4 vs. 22.5 μg/g-c for MMP; both P perfume group (26.6 vs. 14.9 μg/g-c, P perfume (1.75 μg/m 3 ) groups and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in perfume group (6.98 μg/m 3 ) were higher than those in clothing group (DEP: 0.89; DEHP: 2.16 μg/m 3 ). Over half of cosmetic (70%) and perfume sale clerks had exceeded cumulative risk of phthalate exposure for anti-androgenic effect. We concluded that cosmetic and perfume workers had increased risks of reproductive or hepatic effects for DBP and DEHP exposure. We suggest that not only inhalation but dermal exposure is important route of phthalate exposure for cosmetics and perfume workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pricing of common cosmetic surgery procedures: local economic factors trump supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Clare; Mattison, Gennaya; Workman, Adrienne; Gupta, Subhas

    2015-02-01

    The pricing of cosmetic surgery procedures has long been thought to coincide with laws of basic economics, including the model of supply and demand. However, the highly variable prices of these procedures indicate that additional economic contributors are probable. The authors sought to reassess the fit of cosmetic surgery costs to the model of supply and demand and to determine the driving forces behind the pricing of cosmetic surgery procedures. Ten plastic surgery practices were randomly selected from each of 15 US cities of various population sizes. Average prices of breast augmentation, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, blepharoplasty, and rhytidectomy in each city were compared with economic and demographic statistics. The average price of cosmetic surgery procedures correlated substantially with population size (r = 0.767), cost-of-living index (r = 0.784), cost to own real estate (r = 0.714), and cost to rent real estate (r = 0.695) across the 15 US cities. Cosmetic surgery pricing also was found to correlate (albeit weakly) with household income (r = 0.436) and per capita income (r = 0.576). Virtually no correlations existed between pricing and the density of plastic surgeons (r = 0.185) or the average age of residents (r = 0.076). Results of this study demonstrate a correlation between costs of cosmetic surgery procedures and local economic factors. Cosmetic surgery pricing cannot be completely explained by the supply-and-demand model because no association was found between procedure cost and the density of plastic surgeons. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Studies on Decontamination of Cosmetic Creams by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 50 cosmetic cream samples were purchased from the market in Egypt. Cream samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria and fungi in the range of 1.0 x10 5 to 1.0 x 10 8 and 1.3 x 10 3 to 2.1 x 10 6 respectively. The contaminating organisms were gram positive cocci, gram positive rods, gram negative cocci, gram negative rods, gram negative cocci, Aspergillus species and penicillium species. The effect of consumer handling and time on the microbial levels of the tested cream samples which showed, in the present investigations, no microbial contamination were used. The results reveal that the level of contamination was found to increase with time and during use. The contamination were identified as gram positive rods, gram positive cocci. Aspergillus species and Penicillium species. Samples were subjected to gamma radiation, bacterial sublethal dose levels ranged between 1.5 and 20 kGy, 5 and 7 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy, while the fungal sublethal dose levels ranged between 3 and 5 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy also 3 and 5 kGy for foundation creams, foundation moisturizing and moisturizing creams, respectively. Bacteria survived sublethal dose levels were identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus sp. Bacillus brevis, Staphylococcus hominis-novo, Bacillus spharicus, Bacillus-pantothenticus and Bacillus Alvei in foundation cream. While, Acenatobacter baumann / haem, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus pumilus are the bacteria that survived the sublethal dose levels in foundation-moisturizing cream. Bacillus pantothenticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Micrococcus. sp. were recorded in moisturizing cream samples. The surviving fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus in foundation cream, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari and Penicillium chrysogenum in foundation-moisturizing cream, while the fungi surviving is Aspergillus niger in moisturizing cream. For foundation cream, the sterilizing doses were calculated to be (6

  12. JRC Guidelines for 1 - Selecting and/or validating analytical methods for cosmetics 2 - Recommending standardization steps of analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    VINCENT Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of cosmetics constitutes a challenge mainly due to the large variety of ingredients and formulations, and to the complexity of cosmetic products, in particular due to huge matrix variability. In 2009, the European Commission issued a Regulation (Regulation (EC) N° 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council) establishing the requisites for cosmetic products and the responsibilities of the stakeholders. While the manufacturers' are responsible to ensure the safety of t...

  13. Patient use of social media to evaluate cosmetic treatments and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichte, Megan J; Karimkhani, Chante; Jones, Trevor; Trikha, Ritika; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-04-16

    With a growing sphere of influence in the modern world, online social media serves as a readily accessible interface for communication of information. Aesthetic medicine is one of many industries increasingly influenced by social media, as evidenced by the popular website, "RealSelf," an online community founded in 2006 that compiles ratings, reviews, photographs, and expert physician commentary for nearly 300 cosmetic treatments. To investigate the current preferences of patients regarding cosmetic non-surgical, surgical, and dental treatments on RealSelf and in the documented medical literature. On a single day of data collection, all cosmetic treatments or procedures reviewed on the RealSelf website were tabulated, including name, percent "worth it" rating, total number of reviews, and average cost. Patient satisfaction rates documented in the current medical literature for each cosmetic treatment or procedure were also recorded. Statistical t-testingcomparing RealSelf ratings and satisfaction rates in the literature was performed for each category-non-surgical, surgical, and dental. The top ten most-commonly reviewed non-surgical treatments, top ten most-commonly reviewed surgical procedures, and top 5 most-commonly reviewed dental treatments, along with documented satisfaction rates in the medical literature for each treatment or procedure were recorded in table format and ranked by RealSelf "worth it" rating. Paired t-testing revealed that satisfaction rates documented in the literature were significantly higher than RealSelf "worth it" ratings for both non-surgical cosmetic treatments (p=0.00076) and surgical cosmetic procedures (p=0.00056), with no statistically significant difference for dental treatments. For prospective patients interested in cosmetic treatments or procedures, social media sites such as RealSelf may offer information helpful to decision-making as well enable cosmetic treatment providers to build reputations and expand practices. "Worth

  14. [Body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery - prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.

  15. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women’s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K.; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women) in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:28855884

  16. PATENT ANALYSIS: A LOOK AT THE INNOVATIVE NATURE OF PLANT-BASED COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C. S. César

    Full Text Available The use of plants have become a important trend in cosmetic market, with a crescent number of patent applications. Despite various herbal-based ingredients have been described in scientific literature, most of them are restricted to patent databases. In this work we analyze the innovative use of plants and its derivatives in cosmetic technologies, based on patent analysis. The investigation was conducted using Derwent World Patents Index (Thomson Reuters Scientific, USA from 1995 to 2015. The search was carried out to evaluate the number of patent deposits, the patent depositors profiles, the countries with most patent applications, the International Patent Classification (IPC and the main plant families using in cosmetics. Patent analysis revealed an increase number of applications involving cosmetic containing plants components, with a higher number of deposits related to anti-ageing and whitening skin treatment. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Lilliacae and Apiaceae were the key plant families used in cosmetic formulations for skin care treatment. Comparison between scientific and technological data pointed out divergences between patents deposits and aid-based scientific reports. The use of patent analysis in combination with scientific data opens up wider aspects of knowledge and enables a better rationalization of innovative works.

  17. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women’s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective.

  18. THE ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN COSMETICS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Melo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest growing scientific fields. The products of this science have become part of our everyday lives. However, to date, regulatory agencies have not yet established a single definition for nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Therefore, each country has its own definitions and legislation to control products containing nanomaterials. Being relatively new materials, there are no long-term studies showing their impact on human health and the environment. Consequently, countries control the amount of nanomaterials present in cosmetics, allowing the end consumer to choose which cosmetic to use, by choosing products with or without nanomaterials. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to identify the most used nanomaterials in cosmetics and verify whether these formulations are in accordance with the laws in force in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, thereby determining if the cosmetics on the market are in line with the existing laws in these three economic powers. This study is unique and will contribute to furthering the discussion on existing laws pertinent to the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics.

  19. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  20. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  1. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  2. Psychological effects of a cosmetic education programme in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H Y; Kim, J H; Choi, S; Kang, E; Oh, S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S W

    2015-07-01

    Treatments for breast cancer often include interventions related to psychosocial issues such as negative body image, loss of femininity, and low self-esteem. We identified the psychological effects of a cosmetics education programme in patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic programme is a specific care designed to help patients handle appearance-related side effects. Thirty-one women with breast cancer at a university hospital in South Korea who received a cosmetics education programme were compared with 29 subjects in a control group who received the treatment as usual. Psychological factors including distress, self-esteem, and sexual functioning were assessed three times (before and after the programme, and at the 1-month follow-up). After the programme, patients in the treatment group were significantly less likely than those in the control group to rely on distress (P = 0.038) and avoidance coping (P cosmetics education programme for reducing distress and reliance on negative coping strategies. Implementing a cosmetics programme for patients with breast cancer may encourage patients to control negative psychological factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cosmetic Cleansing Oil Absorption by Soft Contact Lenses in Dry and Wet Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama, Junko; Miyamoto, Yuko; Kodama, Aya; Fukuda, Masahiko; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Previous reports showed that cosmetic cleansing oil for removing makeup, which contains mineral oil and surfactant, can deform some silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCLs) when applied directly to the lenses, although plasma-coated SHCLs (lotrafilcon A and B) were not affected. In the present study, we investigated hydrogel lenses and SHCLs in both wet and dry conditions. Several brands of hydrogel and SHCLs were immersed in a cleansing oil solution containing Sudan Black B for 5 min under wet and dry conditions. The lenses under the wet condition were simply picked up from the saline, whereas those under the dry condition were blotted with paper wipes. After immersing, the excess solution remaining on the lenses was removed by finger rubbing with a multipurpose solution. The lenses were then examined using a stereomicroscope, and their mean brightness was measured and compared. The cosmetic cleansing oil was not absorbed by the hydrogel lenses under wet or dry conditions. However, four of seven brands of SHCLs absorbed the cosmetic cleansing oil under both conditions (dry and wet), whereas asmofilcon A absorbed it only under the dry condition. Lotrafilcon B and delefilcon A did not absorb cleansing oil even under the dry condition. Hydrogel lenses resist cosmetic cleansing oil. However, SHCLs have different degrees of resistance depending on the lens material. Some SHCLs absorbed cosmetic cleansing oil more under dry conditions than under wet conditions.

  4. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  5. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  6. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  8. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  9. Functional and cosmetic results of a lower eyelid crease approach for external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mitiko Santello Akaishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: External dacryocystorhinostomy is routinely performed through a cutaneous vertical incision placed on the lateral aspect of the nose. The lower eyelid crease approach has been seldom reported. The purpose of this study is to report the cosmetic and functional results of the lid crease approach for external dacryocystorhinostomy in a series of patients. METHODS: Prospective, interventional case series. Twenty-five consecutive patients (17 women ranging in age from 3 to 85 years (mean ± SD= 44.84 ± 23.67 were included in the study. All patients but one underwent unilateral external dacryocystorhinostomy with a 10 to 15 mm horizontal incision placed on a subciliary relaxed eyelid tension line. The inner canthus was photographed with a Nikon D70S digital camera with a macrolens and resolution of 3008 x 2000 pixels at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. The resulting scar was judged from the photographs by 3 observers (ophthalmologist, plastic and head and neck surgeons according to a four level scale (1= unapparent, 2= minimally visible, 3= moderately visible, 4= very visible. RESULTS: The surgery was easily performed in all patients with a 90.48% success. Three of the elderly patients (ages 61, 79 and 85 yr developed mild lacrimal punctum ectropion, which resolved with conservative treatment. One patient had a hypometric blink which spontaneously recovered within one month. The mean score for scar visibility was 2.19 (1st mo, 1.65 (3th mo and 1.44 (6th mo. CONCLUSIONS: The eyelid crease approach is an excellent option for external dacryocystorhinostomy. It leaves an unapparent scar since the first month after surgery, even in younger patients. The functional results are excellent and comparable to other techniques. Care should be taken in elderly patients with lower eyelid laxity in order to prevent lacrimal punctum ectropion.

  10. Functional and cosmetic outcome of partial penile disassembly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bhat

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... Technique: Penile de-gloving with mobilization of urethral plate from ventral to dorsal ... BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). ..... Literature search , Clinical studies, Experimental studies, Data.

  11. ANALYSIS OF MARKETING MIX ON COSMETICS PRODUCTS CASE STUDY: AVON COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA PALADE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an analysis of the marketing mix followed by a Swot analysis of company Avon. It continues with a market research conducted among women in Brasov highlighting the attitudes, opinions and behaviour of women in Brasov on the acquisition and use of cosmetics product. The present paper analyzes the cosmetics market, the company Avon position in Brasov’s market, identifying the company’s main competitors, population segmentation. After analyzing data from market research shows that most women acquires cosmetic products from Avon company, the representatives role being extremely important. Most women buy products through the catalogue, 77% of them using the products every day, often buying the personal care products.

  12. Adverse reactions to cosmetic products and the Notification System in Health Surveillance: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, Gisele; Rito, Priscila da Nobrega; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Boas, Maria Helena Simoes Villas

    2013-12-01

    This paper is part of a study that investigates the quality of cosmetic products and evaluates the cosmetic surveillance system. This study presents the results of a research that aimed to describe the point of view of the population in terms of the prevalence of Adverse Reactions (AR) and information about the surveillance system. A structured questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 200 people from the administrative staff of the Municipal Guard of Rio de Janeiro. 38% of the participants declared AR to some cosmetic product used in the past two years. To our knowledge, this is an unpublished study in Brazil, which presents results regarding the estimated prevalence of AR similarly to international studies.

  13. Safety assessment of decyl glucoside and other alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 19 alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of these ingredients function as surfactants in cosmetics, but some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, hair-conditioning agents, or emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data on these ingredients. Since glucoside hydrolases in human skin are likely to break down these ingredients to release their respective fatty acids and glucose, the Panel also reviewed CIR reports on the safety of fatty alcohols and were able to extrapolate data from those previous reports to support safety.

  14. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzblau, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States. PMID:25289258

  15. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Franzblau, BS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States.

  16. Impact of medical tourism on cosmetic surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzblau, Lauren E; Chung, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States.

  17. Final safety assessment of thiodipropionic acid and its dialkyl esters as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Catherine; Fiume, Monice Zondlo; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Dilauryl thiodipropionate (DLTDP), dicetyl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, and ditridecyl thiodipropionate are dialkyl esters of their respective alcohols and thiodipropionic acid (TDPA) used in cosmetics. Ingested DLTDP was excreted in the urine as TDPA. Single-dose acute oral and parenteral studies and subchronic and chronic repeated dose oral studies did not suggest significant toxicity. Neither DLTDP nor TDPA was irritating to animal skin or eyes and they were not sensitizers. TDPA was neither a teratogen nor a reproductive toxicant. Genotoxicity studies were negative for TDPA and DLTDP. Clinical testing demonstrated some evidence of irritation but no sensitization or photosensitization. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel considered that the data from DLTDP reasonably may be extrapolated to the other dialkyl esters and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use in cosmetic products that are formulated to be nonirritating.

  18. Functional evaluation of healthcare products such as cosmetics, drugs, and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The present paper surveys analytical methods recently employed in the field of healthcare products such as cosmetics, drugs, and foods by using Spring-8 facility which delivers high-intensity X-ray beams from electron cyclotron accelerator. These X-ray beams can be used to analyze atoms and their chemical state in human tissues such as skin, hair, whisker, teeth, and new developed products. Thus, a variety of products related with medical supplies, health food products, health maintenance, and preventive medicine concern this research group. Here, the results on colloidal states, such as lipid-molecule aggregates and lamellar structure type, generally present in cosmetic products and food substances, are focused and reported, specifically focusing on hair cuticle and honey cell layer of the skin regarding to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. (S. Ohno)

  19. [Detection of the preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Miyazawa, Norimasa; Shimamura, Kimio; Sato, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masahito; Takano, Katsuhiro; Miyamoto, Michiko; Kojima, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiio, Makiko

    2009-01-01

    A simple determination method for preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics was developed. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in methanol. The sample solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ODS column, using water-methanol (55:45) or water-acetonitrile (3:1) adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid as the mobile phase. Chlorphenesin was detected with ultraviolet light detection at 280 nm. A linear relation was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of chlorphenesin in the range of 1-500 microg/ml. The determination limit of chlorphenesin was 1-2 microg/ml. Recoveries of chlorphenesin spiked in lotion and milky lotion at the levels of 0.03% and 0.3% were 98.8-100.0%. This method was applied for cosmetics including 0.03% and 0.3% of chlorphenesin and their content corresponded with the determined values.

  20. Sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics: consumer, products, efficacy, toxicological and regulatory considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fonseca-Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in sustainable products has increased along the years, since the choice of products, packaging and production processes have a great impact on the environment. These products are classified by regulatory agencies in different categories, aggregating advantages to the product and increasing the demand by consumers. However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment. Many cosmetic products have in their formulation natural products that perform a specific biological function, but these products should be evaluated on efficacy and toxicological aspects. The aim of this article is to approach sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics, considering the consumer and the efficacy, toxicological and regulatory aspects.

  1. Bioaccessible trace metals in lip cosmetics and their health risks to female consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Lei, Tingting; Jia, Liming; Yury, Badmatsybenov; Zhang, Zhaohan; Du, Yingqiu; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-07-01

    Females can be exposed to toxic elements in lip cosmetics following ingestion. The bioaccessibility of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sb and Pb in lip cosmetics (n = 32) were assessed via the dilute HCl extraction method, In Vitro Gastrointestinal protocol (IVG) and the United States Pharmacopeia Methodology (USPM), and then health risks were characterized. The total concentrations of trace metals (TMs) in lip cosmetics were in the range of 15.55-111.97 mg/kg (Mean: 60.99 mg/kg). Cu, Pb and Cr were the three major TMs and accounting for >75% of the total concentrations. Except Sb and Pb in 4/32 and 4/32 samples were higher than the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States) limits, the other TMs were lower than that limits. Only bioaccessible Pb in all samples significantly exceeded the FDA limit 0.1 mg/kg in candy. Using IVG or USPM might be preferable for evaluating the TMs exposure over HCl since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. The estimated average daily intake (ADI) of bioaccessible ∑TMs through lip cosmetics ingestion of career women and female college students were under safety level. The long-term exposure of bioaccessible TMs by lip cosmetics using would inevitably cause non-carcinogenic health risk. This is the first report on the in vitro tests used for evaluating bioaccessible TMs in lip cosmetics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Borgen, Patrick; Fey, Jane; Goldberg, Jessica; Sacchini, Virgilio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size ≤2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterally to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm 3 (range, 20-97 cm 3 ). Patients with ≤47 cm 3 of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm 3 of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary

  3. The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, T; Kvalem, I L; Roald, H E; Skolleborg, K C

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to investigate whether cosmetic surgery has an effect on an individual's body image, general self-esteem, and psychological problems. Further tests were conducted to assess whether the extent of psychological problems before surgery influenced improvements in postoperative psychological outcomes. Questionnaire data from 155 female cosmetic surgery patients from a plastic surgery clinic were obtained before and approximately 6 months after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of measures on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. Pre- and postoperative measures were also compared with the data compiled from a representative sample of 838 Norwegian women, aged 22-55, with no cosmetic surgery experience. No differences in psychological problems between the presurgery patient and comparison samples were found, whereas differences in body image and self-esteem between the sample groups were reported in an earlier publication. Analyses further revealed an improvement in body image (satisfaction with own appearance) after surgery. A significant but rather small effect on self-esteem was also found, whereas the level of psychological problems did not change after surgery. Postoperative measures of appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems did not differ from values derived from the comparison sample. Finally, few psychological problems before surgery predicted a greater improvement in appearance satisfaction and self-esteem after surgery. The study provides evidence of improvement in satisfaction with own appearance after cosmetic surgery, a variable that is thought to play a central role in understanding the psychology of cosmetic surgery patients. The study also points to the factors that surgeons should be aware of, particularly the role of psychological problems, which could inhibit the positive effects of cosmetic surgery.

  4. Influence of UV filters on the texture profile and efficacy of a cosmetic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossa Shirata, M M; Campos, P M B G Maia

    2017-12-01

    Considering that many cosmetic products contain UV filters in their composition and that few studies have evaluated the role of UV filters in the physical properties and clinical efficacy of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of UV filters on the properties and immediate effects of a cosmetic formulation. Four cosmetic formulations, vehicle (V), vehicle containing UV filters (F), vehicle containing cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa (A) oligosaccharides and vehicle containing UV filters plus cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa oligosaccharides (multifunctional formulation, M) were developed. The texture profile of the formulations was analysed with a TA.XT plus Texturometer ® . Twenty female volunteers aged 39-45 years were then selected for the assessment of immediate clinical efficacy of the formulations under study and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content and microrelief of the skin obtained with their use. The presence of UV filters resulted in an improvement of the physical properties of the multifunctional cosmetic formulation (M) and of skin microrelief. However, the presence of UV filters also caused a significant decrease in hydration. The presence of sunscreens had a negative influence on immediate skin hydration and TEWL. On the other hand, it positively influenced parameters related to the physical properties of the multifunctional formulation and skin microrelief. Thus, we conclude that the influence of UV filters on the development of cosmetic formulations is an important factor to be considered because it can have either positive or negative effect on the efficacy of the product. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Non-animal photosafety assessment approaches for cosmetics based on the photochemical and photobiochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Hirota, Morihiko; Nishida, Hayato; Kitagaki, Masato; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-12-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to establish a non-animal photosafety assessment approach for cosmetics using in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical screening systems. Fifty-one cosmetics, pharmaceutics and other chemicals were selected as model chemicals on the basis of animal and/or clinical photosafety information. The model chemicals were assessed in terms of photochemical properties by UV/VIS spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). Most phototoxins exhibited potent UV/VIS absorption with molar extinction coefficients of over 1000M(-1)cm(-1), although false-negative prediction occurred for 2 cosmetic phototoxins owing to weak UV/VIS absorption. Among all the cosmetic ingredients, ca. 42% of tested chemicals were non-testable in the ROS assay because of low water solubility; thereby, micellar ROS (mROS) assay using a solubilizing surfactant was employed for follow-up screening. Upon combination use of ROS and mROS assays, the individual specificity was 88.2%, and the positive and negative predictivities were estimated to be 94.4% and 100%, respectively. In the 3T3 NRU PT, 3 cosmetics and 4 drugs were incorrectly predicted not to be phototoxic, although some of them were typical photoallergens. Thus, these in vitro screening systems individually provide false predictions; however, a systematic tiered approach using these assays could provide reliable photosafety assessment without any false-negatives. The combined use of in vitro assays might enable simple and fast non-animal photosafety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethics and/or Aesthetics? Reflections on Cosmetic Surgery for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Marinelli, Enrico; Napoletano, Simona; Di Luca, Natale Mario; Zaami, Simona

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery entails various ethical issues, even more so in cases involving adolescent patients. Cosmetic surgeons need to take into account how modern societies consider physical appearance an essential component of everyday life, as well as the vulnerability of youths and adolescents. For that reason, it is imperative to thoroughly assess the psychological and emotional states, in addition to the motivations, of minor patients. That goal can be achieved through the use of the DAS-59, (the Derriford Appearance Scale)1 , an effective and dependable tool devised to evaluate the psychological difficulties and distress experienced by people living with problems of appearance. Prior to undergoing cosmetic surgery procedures, adolescents should be required to go through adequate counseling, over multiple sessions and extended to their family members as well, on account of the complex issues inherent in evaluating the risk-benefit ratio and a prospective patient's decision-making capability. A concerted effort on the part of surgeons, psychiatrists or psychologists is key in determining the real motivations behind a minor's decision to opt for cosmetic surgery in the first place. Possible psychiatric conditions may in fact prevent a minor from making a free, informed decision. From an ethical standpoint, cosmetic surgery procedures should be geared to serve the best interest of the minor patient, who may experience distress over his or her body image, from a health and psychological balance perspective and improve his or her social, affective and working life. Besides, cosmetic surgery should not be overly invasive compared to its potential benefits. Those procedures aimed at achieving ″ideal beauty″ are not desirable and ought to be banned. By virtue of such criteria, the authors have set out to evaluate the ethical admissibility of some aesthetic treatments. Thus, doctors should not consent to any request coming from their patients, but rather, intervene only

  7. Quantitative monitoring of corticosteroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2012-07-10

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids such as prednisolone, hydrocortisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide without these ingredients being indicated on the label. Due to their severe side effects such as permenent skin atopy, these corticosteroids have to be monitored in cosmetic products from a forensic point of view. Many cosmetic product samples (N=65) have been collected from both local and online markets in Korea. The corticosteroid content of these samples was analyzed by LC-MS/MS with diagnostic ions (m/z). Linearity was studied with 0.1-10 μg/mL range in all corticosteroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.997) were found and the limits of quantification were 4.68-7.97 ng/mL for each of the corticosteroids. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were 97.2-113.5%and precisions (RSD) for intra-day and inter-day analysis were less than 8.9%. Also, accuracy (Bias %) was less than 11.8%. The results showed that between 0.76-0.94 μg/g levels of prednisolone were detected in four cosmetic products and triamcinolone acetonidewas detected with a concentration in the range of 11.5-272 μg/g in nine samples. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have arbitrarily added these corticosteroids in their cosmetic products without indicating them on the label. Thus, these cosmetic products have to be monitored and if proven illegal preparations removed from the market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of suspected allergens in cosmetic products by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Pérez-Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, a strategy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 24 volatile compounds listed as suspected allergens in cosmetics by the European Union is reported. The list includes benzyl alcohol, limonene, linalool, methyl 2-octynoate, beta-citronellol, geraniol, citral (two isomers), 7-hydroxycitronellal, anisyl alcohol, cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol (two isomers), coumarin, alpha-isomethyl ionone, lilial, alpha-amylcinnamal, lyral, alpha-amylcinnamyl alcohol, farnesol (three isomers), alpha-hexyl cinnamal, benzyl cinnamate, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl salicylate. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) detector is explored. By using a headspace sampler, sample preparation is reduced to introducing the sample into the vial. This reduces the analysis time and the experimental errors associated with this step of the analytical process. Two different injection techniques were used: solvent-vent injection and hot-split injection. The first offers a way to improve sensitivity at the same time maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation and it is recommended for compounds at trace levels. The use of a liner packed with Tenax-TA allowed the compounds of interest to be retained during the venting process. The signals obtained when hot-split injection was used allowed quantification of all the compounds according to the thresholds of the European Cosmetics Directive. Monodimensional gas chromatography coupled to a conventional quadrupole mass spectrometry detector was used and the 24 analytes were separated appropriately along a run time of about 12 min. Use of the standard addition procedure as a quantification technique overcame the matrix effect. It should be emphasized that the method showed good precision and accuracy. Furthermore, it is rapid, simple, and--in view of the

  9. [Cosmetic innovations in the Guerlain patents deposited in the XIXth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Frédéric; Sirot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The XIXth century was the century of the development of hygiene, cosmetics industry, chemistry and modern pharmacy. After the French revolution, a new legislation establishes a law of recognition of the property of the inventors on their inventions. This paper describes the content of patents and certificates deposited in the XIXth century at the INPI, french national institute of the industrial property, by the creators of Guerlain, a luxury brand of perfumes and cosmetics. This paper allows to discover the variety of the inventions which recovers whitening lotion, soaps, ingenious devices and new perfume substances.

  10. Fragrance contact allergens in 5588 cosmetic products identified through a novel smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S; Kirkeby, C S; Jørgensen, C; Christensen, A B; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D

    2018-01-01

    More than 25% of the adult European population suffers from contact allergy, with fragrance substances recognized as one of the main causes. Since 2005, 26 fragrance contact allergens have been mandatory to label in cosmetic products within the EU if present at 10 ppm or above in leave-on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide information to consumers about chemical substances in cosmetic products. Products registered through the app between December 2015 and October 2016 were label checked according to International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) for the presence of the 26 fragrance substances or the wording 'fragrance/parfum/aroma'. The largest product categories investigated were 'cream, lotion and oil' (n = 1192), 'shampoo and conditioner' (n = 968) and 'deodorants' (n = 632). Among cosmetic products labelled to contain at least one of the 26 fragrances, 85.5% and 73.9% contained at least two and at least three of the 26 fragrances, respectively. Linalool (49.5%) and limonene (48.5%) were labelled most often among all investigated products. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC/Lyral ® ) was found in 13.5% of deodorants. Six of the 26 fragrance substances were labelled on less than one per cent of all products, including the natural extracts Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). A total of 329 (5.9%) products had one or more of the 26 fragrance substances labelled but did not have 'parfum/fragrance/aroma' listed on the label. Consumers are widely exposed to, often multiple, well-established fragrance contact allergens through various cosmetic products intended for daily use. Several fragrance substances that are common causes of contact allergy were rarely

  11. Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Juliano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan, and microplastics.

  12. The impact of innovation on customer satisfaction: A study of the cosmetics producer in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daragahi Gholamreza Askarpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customer satisfaction is one of the basic requirements of manufacturing companies in developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of innovation in product presentation on customer satisfaction. The statistical population includes the customers of cosmetics produced by ten companies in Iran. The simple random sampling method was used to select 387 individuals. The results indicated that innovation in product presentation had a positive effect on the satisfaction of customers consuming cosmetics. In this study, open innovation and closed innovation paradigms were employed to deal with the main research problem.

  13. Radiation as a microbiological contamination control of drugs, cosmetics and medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizeki, Chuichi

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with current status of radiation sterilization or disinfection of drugs, cosmetics, their materials, and medical devices, and with quality control as a tool for securing microbiological safety, especially current status of sterilization tests. Ointment containing tetracyclin, steroid hormones, gelatin, and enzymes are presented as drug samples to be irradiated, and explanations for radiation sterilization of these drugs are provided. An outline of the application of radiation in cosmetics and medical devices is given. Issues are also provided from the viewpoint of safey and effectiveness of radiation sterilization. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Cosmetic and functional reconstruction achieved using a split myofascial bone flap for pterional craniotomy. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K; Akagi, K; Abekura, M; Ohkawa, M; Tasaki, O; Tomishima, T

    2001-04-01

    Cosmetic deformities that appear following pterional craniotomy are usually caused by temporal muscle atrophy, injury to the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve, or bone pits in the craniotomy line. To resolve these problems during pterional craniotomy, an alternative method was developed in which a split myofascial bone flap and a free bone flap are used. The authors have used this method in the treatment of 40 patients over the last 3 years. Excellent cosmetic and functional results have been obtained. This method can provide wide exposure similar to that achieved using Yaşargil's interfascial pterional craniotomy, without limiting the operative field with a bulky temporal muscle flap.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  16. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  17. Radiation processing technology for cosmetics: a report on a Canadian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.D.; Wilson, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    For several years some cosmetic raw materials and finished products have been successfully treated with irradiation to control microbial growth. Basic studies have been initiated to test the successful application of irradiation to a raw material or finished product in the cosmetics industry. Acceptance of this technology by industry and by regulatory agencies, is dependent upon the correct application of the technology and documenting the results of carefully controlled studies. A short list of raw materials was selected on which the immediate test work was undertaken. It includes talc, starch, gelatin and bentonite. This will increase confidence and expertise in this technology. (author)

  18. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  19. Predictors of Adverse Cosmetic Outcome in the RAPID Trial: An Exploratory Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, David; Truong, Pauline T.; Parpia, Sameer; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Berrang, Tanya; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kong, Iwa; Germain, Isabelle; Nichol, Alan; Akra, Mohamed; Roy, Isabelle; Reed, Melanie; Fyles, Anthony; Trotter, Theresa; Perera, Francisco; Balkwill, Susan; Lavertu, Sophie; Elliott, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with adverse cosmesis outcome in breast cancer patients randomized to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or whole-breast irradiation in the RAPID (Randomized Trial of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) trial. Methods and Materials: Subjects were trial participants with nurse-assessed global cosmetic scores at baseline and at 3 years. Adverse cosmesis was defined as a score of fair or poor. Cosmetic deterioration was defined as any adverse change in score from baseline to 3 years. The analysis is based on data from the previously reported interim analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of risk factors for these outcomes among all patients and those treated with APBI only. Results: Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between subjects randomized to APBI (n=569) or whole-breast irradiation (n=539). For all subjects, factors associated with adverse cosmesis at 3 years were older age, central/inner tumor location, breast infection, smoking, seroma volume, breast volume, and use of APBI; factors associated with cosmetic deterioration were smoking, seroma volume, and use of APBI (P<.05). For APBI subjects, tumor location, smoking, age, and seroma volume were associated with adverse cosmesis (P<.05), and smoking was associated with cosmetic deterioration (P=.02). An independent association between the V95/whole-breast volume ratio and adverse cosmesis (P=.28) or cosmetic deterioration (P=.07) was not detected. On further exploration a V95/whole-breast volume ratio <0.15 was associated with a lower risk of cosmetic deterioration (p=.04), but this accounted for only 11% of patients. Conclusion: In the RAPID trial, a number of patient tumor and treatment-related factors, including the use of APBI, were associated with adverse cosmesis and cosmetic deterioration. For patients treated with APBI alone, the high-dose treatment

  20. Predictors of Adverse Cosmetic Outcome in the RAPID Trial: An Exploratory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Truong, Pauline T. [Vancouver Island Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Parpia, Sameer [Ontario Clinical Oncology Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Berrang, Tanya [Vancouver Island Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Kim, Do-Hoon; Kong, Iwa [Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Germain, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Pavillon Hôtel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Québec (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Vancouver Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Akra, Mohamed [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Roy, Isabelle [Centre intégré de cancérologie de Laval, Laval, Québec (Canada); Reed, Melanie [Center for the Southern Interior, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Fyles, Anthony [University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Perera, Francisco [London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Balkwill, Susan [Fraser Valley Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Lavertu, Sophie [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Elliott, Elizabeth [Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with adverse cosmesis outcome in breast cancer patients randomized to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or whole-breast irradiation in the RAPID (Randomized Trial of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) trial. Methods and Materials: Subjects were trial participants with nurse-assessed global cosmetic scores at baseline and at 3 years. Adverse cosmesis was defined as a score of fair or poor. Cosmetic deterioration was defined as any adverse change in score from baseline to 3 years. The analysis is based on data from the previously reported interim analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of risk factors for these outcomes among all patients and those treated with APBI only. Results: Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between subjects randomized to APBI (n=569) or whole-breast irradiation (n=539). For all subjects, factors associated with adverse cosmesis at 3 years were older age, central/inner tumor location, breast infection, smoking, seroma volume, breast volume, and use of APBI; factors associated with cosmetic deterioration were smoking, seroma volume, and use of APBI (P<.05). For APBI subjects, tumor location, smoking, age, and seroma volume were associated with adverse cosmesis (P<.05), and smoking was associated with cosmetic deterioration (P=.02). An independent association between the V95/whole-breast volume ratio and adverse cosmesis (P=.28) or cosmetic deterioration (P=.07) was not detected. On further exploration a V95/whole-breast volume ratio <0.15 was associated with a lower risk of cosmetic deterioration (p=.04), but this accounted for only 11% of patients. Conclusion: In the RAPID trial, a number of patient tumor and treatment-related factors, including the use of APBI, were associated with adverse cosmesis and cosmetic deterioration. For patients treated with APBI alone, the high-dose treatment

  1. Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed.

  2. Safety Assessment of Amino Acid Alkyl Amides as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the product use, formulation, and safety data of 115 amino acid alkyl amides, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents and as surfactants-cleansing agents in personal care products. Safety test data on dermal irritation and sensitization for the ingredients with the highest use concentrations, lauroyl lysine and sodium lauroyl glutamate, were reviewed and determined to adequately support the safe use of the ingredients in this report. The Panel concluded that amino acid alkyl amides are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  3. Hyaluronidase: Understanding Its Properties and Clinical Application for Cosmetic Injection Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeanine; Rhodes, Oriol

    The recent global consensus on the management of cosmetic aesthetic injectable complications from hyaluronic acid (HA) has increased the focus on the use of hyaluronidase more than ever before (M. Signorini et al., 2016). A comprehensive knowledge of facial anatomy, including structural positioning of facial arteries and veins, and an extensive knowledge of HA products available for injection procedures, combined with best practice protocols, will assist to prevent adverse events. Despite the growing number of patients using cosmetic fillers for facial restoration, the incidents incidence of adverse events remains low. Indeed, the avoidance of complications through safe and effective injection practice remains the key to preventing the need to use hyaluronidase.

  4. Cosmetic doping--when anabolic-androgenic steroids are not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vandré Casagrande; Silva, Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da

    2014-07-01

    Doping is considered to be a major sports problem. This article describes a new threat and challenge to the sport of bodybuilding; the nonmedical use of a chemical in order to mimic muscle hypertrophy. Although muscle fillers are not new, being used for cosmetic purposes in medicine for a long time, the illegal use of muscle fillers has been increasing during the last few years and decades. The history of cosmetic doping, with particular attention to the Brazilian case, is discussed. Limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  5. Application of an ultrasound-guided low-approach insertion technique in three types of totally implantable access port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wei Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Our study highlights a revised technique for placement of TIAP systems of differing types of material or size. Not only was the curvature of the device catheter smooth, but patients were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance.

  6. Patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery at a time of globalization, medical consumerism, and mass media culture: a French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Câlin Constantin; Deneuve, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    The global popularity of cosmetic surgery, combined with mass media attention on medical consumerism, has resulted in misinformation that may have negatively affected the "collective image" of aesthetic practitioners. The authors assess patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery and analyze their decision-making processes. During a 2-year period, 250 consecutive patients presenting to either of 2 public hospitals for cosmetic surgery treatment were asked to complete a 7-item questionnaire evaluating their knowledge of opinions about, and referring practices for, aesthetic procedures. Patients undergoing oncologic, postbariatric, or reconstructive procedures were not included in the study. After exclusion of 71 cases for refusal or incompletion, 179 questionnaires were retained and analyzed (from 162 women and 17 men). Overall, repair (70.4%), comfort (45.3%), and health (40.8%) were the words most frequently associated with cosmetic surgery. Quality of preoperative information (69.3%), patient-physician relationship (65.4%), and results seen in relatives/friends (46.3%) were the most important criteria for selecting a cosmetic surgeon. Moreover, 82.7% of patients knew the difference between cosmetic surgery and cosmetic medicine. Although potential patients appear to be more educated about cosmetic surgery than they were several years ago, misinformation still persists. As physicians, we must be responsible for disseminating accurate education and strengthening our collaboration with general practitioners to improve not only our results but also the accuracy of information in the mass media.

  7. Determination of methyldibromoglutaronitrile in cosmetic products by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Method validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2004-01-01

    An increased frequency of contact allergy to methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN), a commonly used preservative in cosmetics and other consumer products, has been reported in recent years. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of MDBGN in cosmetic products ha...

  8. Determination of methyldibromoglutaronitrile in cosmetic products by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Method validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2004-01-01

    An increased frequency of contact allergy to methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN), a commonly used preservative in cosmetics and other consumer products, has been reported in recent years. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of MDBGN in cosmetic products has...

  9. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise explicitly...

  10. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The...

  11. 76 FR 22672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Distribution of Cosmetic, Organizer and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1754] Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Distribution of Cosmetic, Organizer and Electronic Bags and Accessories... grants authority for subzone status for activity related to cosmetic, organizer and electronic bags and...

  12. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The Administrator...

  13. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding... recovery from tortiously liable third persons for the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic...

  14. A comparison of laws preventing unnecessary canine cosmetic surgery in Italy and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Quartarone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many invasive procedures, including surgery (ear cropping, tail docking, and debarking in the dog, are performed on dogs for purely cosmetic reasons or convenience. These procedures, also known as “cosmetic surgery”, fall into a variety of categories from the questionably unethical to the undoubtedly criminal, because they are mostly carried out solely to alter a dog’s physical appearance. Although in several European countries these procedures are banned, except when performed by a veterinarian for medical reasons, veterinarians are often requested to perform them for various reasons. Though controversial, canine cosmetic surgery continues to be performed, reaching epidemic proportions. The authors summarize legislation, individual positions and veterinary attitudes regarding cosmetic surgery in Italy and the Czech Republic. Additionally, they explain the ways in which the law is being used in the two countries to prevent these unnecessary procedures, and how current and future anti-cruelty laws can stop unethical use of cosmetic surgery.

  15. Determination of trace elements in eyeshadow, face powder and rouge make-up cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Some trace elements exist in cosmetics due to the mineral origin of their raw materials and there is no information about their concentration levels in these products. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the elements: cerium, cesium, europium, hafnium, lanthanum, lutetium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, sodium, tantalum, terbium, tungsten and ytterbium in eyeshadow, face powder and rouge make-up cosmetic products from the Greek market. According to the results, a wide range of values was found between the three examined cosmetics as well as between the different samples belonging to the same kind of cosmetics. This probably could be attributed to the various manufacturers of the analyzed samples. Moreover, the use of neutron activation analysis as a suitable routine method is discussed for the control of some elements which must not be contained in cosmetics. (author)

  16. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading among late adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New developments in the extraction and determination of parabens in cosmetics and environmental samples. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocaña-González, Juan Antonio; Villar-Navarro, Mercedes; Ramos-Payán, María; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Bello-López, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of parabens in cosmetics and environmental samples is reviewed. • Literature in this field from 1980 to 2003 is briefly discussed. • Determination and extraction methods in the last decade are discussed in-depth. - Abstract: Parabens are a family of synthetic esters of p-hydroxibenzoic acid widely used as preservatives in cosmetics and health-care products, among other daily-use commodities. Recently, their potential endocrine disrupting effects have raised concerns about their safety and their potential effects as emerging pollutants, leading to the regulation of the presence of parabens in commercial products by national and trans-national organizations. Also, this has led to an interest in developing sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples, cosmetics and health-care products. This paper is a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature concerning the determination of parabens in environmental samples and cosmetic and health-care products. A brief revision of the literature concerning the traditional determination of parabens (1980–2003) is included, followed by an in-depth revision of the recent developments in both measurement and extraction methods for parabens in the last years (2003–2013). Finally, possible future perspectives in this field are proposed

  18. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs...

  19. THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF SOME COSMETIC PROCEDURES: PROTECTION POSSIBILITIES, MEDICAL AND PREVENTIVE AGENTS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Majorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possible side responses on cosmetic procedures. There is a review of pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical agents for external use to treat and prevent the complications. We have described the reasonability of the external dosage forms use of anti-histaminic action.

  20. Chemical sexualities: the use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardon, A.; Idrus, N.I.; Hymans, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although young people in their everyday lives consume a bewildering array of pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic products to self-manage their bodies, moods and sexuality, these practices are generally overlooked by sexual and reproductive health programmes. Nevertheless, this self-management can