WorldWideScience

Sample records for cosmetic industries part

  1. Annex 2. The cosmetics industry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OVERVIEW The cosmetics industry is probably among the most promising for utilisation of natural substances. The dermocosmetics market is booming and, as the use of animal-based substances declines, natural marine or plant-based substances are increasingly sought after. Scientific approach “The cosmetics industry bases a lot of its communication on natural substances. But there is genuine scientific work going on behind the fashion for environmentalism”, says Patrice André, Director of the Dio...

  2. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

    2009-03-01

    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  3. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-07

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  4. Self-Regulation in the Cosmetic Industry: A Necessary Reality or a Cosmetic Illusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, Casey

    2006-01-01

    The 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act brought the cosmetic industry under the regulatory jurisdiction of the FDA. However, the confluence of federal administrative budgetary constraints, historical conditions of the cosmetic industry’s development, and pragmatic policy considerations has fostered a unique regulatory regime. The FDA has come to rely heavily on the cosmetic industry to regulate itself in order to ensure consumer safety. Recent criticisms allege that this syst...

  5. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Studying brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge is important to build brand loyalty. Method: Data were collected from the female's students of department from the university of Sargodha Final analysis was performed on 125 valid respondents. Cronbach's Alpha statistic was used in order to check the reliability of the scale.  Regression was used in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the variables such that this analysis studied the positive relation of all the independent variables (brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and product knowledge with the dependent variable (brand loyalty. Results and Conclusion: The results indicate the positive relationships between brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge (independent variables and brand loyalty (dependent variables. Further among all the variables studied brand awareness has the highest impact on brand loyalty and according to this research L'Oreal consumer is more as compare to other brands.  Although this research specifically studies the Brand Loyalty in University of Sargodha. However more importantly, the purpose of this study is that cosmetic industry must focus on brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge, brand credibility in order to build Brand Loyalty. To the best of researcher's knowledge, this research is first of its kind in the University of Sargodha which studies student's credibility, awareness, association, perceived quality, product knowledge and loyalty toward their favorite cosmetics brand. The results of this study are limited by the specificity of the geographic context by taking a sample of 125 students of one department from total population of University of

  8. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  9. The Regional Sales of Multinationals in the World Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Rugman, Alan M

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regional characteristics and strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the world cosmetics and toiletries industry, based on the new work by Rugman on regional strategy. We test the proposition that MNEs may asymmetrically develop their upstream and downstream firm specific advantages (FSAs). We find that the upstream activities of the MNEs in cosmetics are home region based but that downstream activities are less so. Further, the asymmetry of FSAs in the world...

  10. Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  11. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic products...

  12. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B; Steiling, W; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Tozer, S; Firmani, C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2011-02-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enterobacter gergoviae adaptation to preservatives commonly used in cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, M; Pagès, J-M; Davin-Regli, A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding regarding the origin of recurrent contamination by Enterobacter gergoviae in diverse cosmetic formula. We studied 65 isolates collected from various sources (clinical, food, cosmetics). RAPD analysis using AP12H, REP and ERIC-PCR was carried out for epidemiological typing. Evaluation of susceptibility to preservatives currently used in cosmetics for a representative panel of collection strains was measured. Preservative efficacy was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Eighty per cent of isolates was unrelated. E. gergoviae showed significant levels of resistance to preservatives. MBC was higher than maximum permitted concentrations imposed by European Commission (EC). Association of preservatives showed in rare case additive effects, and no synergic effects were observed. Most of the cosmetic formulations are contaminated with unrelated E. gergoviae strains. Maximum allowed concentrations for sodium benzoate are inefficient to limit proliferation and control adaptability to this bacterium in cosmetic products. Efflux mechanisms should be involved in methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone and triclosan adaptation. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. CSR and its Impact on Consumer Behavior : A Study of the Cosmetic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Problem: CSR appears frequently in various kinds of reports of different corporations. However, managers are confused about how to practice CSR strategically. Little is known about consumers’ awareness of CSR and how consumers react toward socially responsible corporations and their products. The cosmetic industry has been criticized a lot on CSR because of unethical and unsustainable business activities. Renowned companies in the cosmetic industry are working on different CSR initia...

  15. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women's Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women's consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women) in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women?s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari; Nicole Barbaro; Yael Sela; Todd K. Shackelford; Razieh Chegeni

    2017-01-01

    Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 in...

  17. Influence of vegetation and gravel mesh on the tertiary treatment of wastewater from a cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos G; Mai, Sofia T H; Barampouti, Elli Maria P; Loukakis, Haralampos N

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the influence of gravel mesh (fine and coarse) and vegetation (Phragmites and Arundo) on the efficiency of a reed bed, a pilot plant was included after the wastewater treatment plant of a cosmetic industry treatment system according to a 22 factorial experimental design. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorous (TP) reduction was observed in the reactor, where Phragmites and fine gravel were used. In the reactor with Phragmites and coarse gravel, the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction was observed. The maximum total solids reduction was measured in the reed bed, which was filled with Arundo and coarse gravel. Conclusively, the treatment of a cosmetic industry's wastewater by reed beds as a tertiary treatment method is quite effective.

  18. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women’s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K.; Chegeni, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women) in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:28855884

  19. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women’s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective.

  20. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vargas Jentzsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.

  1. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  2. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  3. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  4. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in

  5. Assessing a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbasivar; Mirahmad Amirshahi; Kambiz Heidarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ten factors on brand equity. The study provides an assessment using a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry. The study has accomplished among people who purchase goods in six major cities of Iran based on an adapted questionnaire originally developed by Aaker (1992a) [Aaker, D. A. (1992a). The value of brand equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13(4), 27-32.]. Cronbach alpha ha...

  6. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  7. The Liability of Corporate Social Influence in Brand Image: A Study in Brazilian Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluate the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in brand image (BI and corporate reputation (CR analyzing Brazilian companies in the cosmetics industry. The empirical investigation explores the perception of two large Brazilian brand cosmetic companies interviewing undergraduate students belonging to highincome classes. The objective was to compare the perceptions and the differences between the two companies that publish social reports with GRI methodology. The development of this study occurred in two stages: the first stage involved a literature review, verifying theories and published research on corporate social responsibility, IM and CR. The second stage involved collecting data through a survey. The results demonstrate that the CSR has a positive influence on the IM, but such effect demonstrated only significant for one of the brands studied, and moderately to the second. Among the contributions of this work are to review the literature on the subject, identified the influence of variables of CSR in BI and RC and the differences in consumer perception for each of the brands studied, as well recommendations for future studies.

  8. Enterobacter gergoviae membrane modifications are involved in the adaptive response to preservatives used in cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, Marina; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms in Enterobacter gergoviae which are involved in recurrent contaminations in cosmetic products that are incorporated with preservatives. Bacterial strains from two backgrounds were examined for a profound understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation against preservatives. It included a series of Ent. gergoviae strain-ATCC 33028 derivatives, isolated using increasing methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT-CMIT) and triclosan concentrations. The other series was of Ent. gergoviae isolates from cosmetic products exhibiting MIT-CMIT and triclosan resistance. We evaluated the outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanisms activities responsible for the resistant trait via immunoblotting assays. Additionally, for understanding the efflux activity real-time efflux, experiments were performed. A cross-insusceptibility between preservatives and some disinfectants was observed in MIT-CMIT-resistant derivative isolates, but antibiotics susceptibility was not altered. Resistance to EDTA was significant in all preservatives insusceptible derivative strains, indicating modifications in the LPS layer. Furthermore, an array of real-time efflux assays indicated different activity levels while no variations were detected in porins and AcrAB-TolC pumps production. Overexpression of a specific flagellin-type protein was observed in one of the MIT-CMIT- and triclosan-resistant strains. Another candidate, a 25-kDa peroxiredoxin enzyme involved in oxidative detoxification, was identified to be overexpressed in MIT-CMIT derivative. A similar profile was also observed among strains isolated from cosmetic products. Our study highlights the existence of adaptive mechanisms such as overexpression of detoxifying enzymes, flagellin, modification of membrane structure/function in Ent. gergoviae. They might be involved in recurrent episodes of contaminations occurring in the cosmetic production

  9. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper.

  10. Vigilance in industry: cosmetics and household cleaning products. Balance sheet of case report from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld-Lecanu, S; Zajaczkowski, F; Dubourg, S; Martin, L; Lefort, S; Siest, S

    2010-12-01

    Unlike medicinal products, cosmetics are not subject to marketing authorization in France. Nevertheless, the Agence Francaise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS; French Agency for the Safety of Healthcare Products) has been working on the development of a cosmetovigilance system for several years, with the aim of establishing standard procedures for collecting adverse reactions to cosmetics from the manufacturers. To assess the incidence of skin reactions to cosmetics or household products. Unilever established its own 'vigilance' standard system in France in late 2003. This report describes the experience acquired from 2005 to 2007. Case reports were collected in compliance with a standard procedure. The cases were then analysed by the consultant dermatologist in accordance with a pharmacovigilance-based method (chronological criteria, clinical criteria, possible rechallenge test, patch tests). During the period 2005 to 2007, a total of 102,689 consumers contacted the consumer department, including 842 (0.82%) who reported skin reactions. After analysis of the collected data, 0.144 skin reaction cases per million units sold were found to be attributable to cosmetic or household products. The implementation of a structured vigilance system in the cosmetics and household products industry is an efficient tool for manufacturers, both for information purposes and for product improvement, as well as meeting the transparency requirements of health authorities and consumers. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  12. Assessing a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karbasivar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ten factors on brand equity. The study provides an assessment using a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry. The study has accomplished among people who purchase goods in six major cities of Iran based on an adapted questionnaire originally developed by Aaker (1992a [Aaker, D. A. (1992a. The value of brand equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13(4, 27-32.]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.7. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.878, 276628 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. The proposed study of this paper uses structural equation modeling to test different hypotheses of the survey. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA, Comparative Fit Index (CFI and Chi-Square/df are 0.067, 0.840 and 4.244 and they are within desirable levels. While the effects of seven factors on brand equity have been confirmed. However, the survey does not confirm the effects of perceived value, advertisement effectiveness and advertisement to brand on brand equity. In our survey, brand loyalty maintains the highest positive impact followed by having updated brand, trust to brand, perceived quality to brand, brand awareness, intensity of supply and perception to brand.

  13. What is the Impact of the Cosmetic Industry in the West on Caucasian Female Consumer Wellbeing?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbickaite, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact that cosmetics have on female well-being regarding psychological, physical, social, career and education aspects. In the western world, cosmetic products are not only accepted, but are also often encouraged to be used for Caucasian females to look most attractive, thus be perceived more positively by society. “What is beautiful is good” (Dion, Berscheid, Walster, 1972), but it can also be harmful. Through various media channels, the perceptions of beauty are sha...

  14. Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery As Part of Women’s Benefit-Provisioning Mate Retention Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Atari; Nicole Barbaro; Yael Sela; Todd K. Shackelford; Razieh Chegeni

    2017-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that women’s consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors...

  15. History of cosmetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, NK; Chaudhri, SK

    2009-01-01

      Cosmetics have become part of our routine. Their use has increased significantly in recent years however the continuous use of cosmetics over prolonged time may result into various undesirable effects, which may be serious at times...

  16. Update on nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  18. Nail cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Madnani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  19. History of cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri S; Jain N

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics have become part of our routine. Their use has increased significantly in recent years however the continuous use of cosmetics over prolonged time may result into various undesirable effects, which may be serious at times. This review is an attempt to trace out the history of cosmetics used by different civilizations over centuries

  20. Ethical marketing in 'aesthetic' ('esthetic') or'cosmetic dentistry'. Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Martin G D; Djemal, Serpil; Lewis, Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    This, the third and final article in this series on ethical marketing, makes it clear that cosmetic dentistry is not a guaranteed one-way ticket to happiness for either patients or dentists, but it can be for lawyers. In fact, this area of dentistry is fraught with many dangers for the unwary patient and even for the enthusiastic or experienced dentist. In general, it is not at all wise to raise patient expectations beyond that which is definitely going to be easily achievable in his/her particular case. If things go wrong with extensive cosmetic dentistry, or are judged as being suboptimal, or unacceptable, by the patient, then that dentist may become liable for all the remakes of that elective cosmetic dentistry for the lifetime of the patient, together with all the associated general and specific damages. This is because, if the elective cosmetic dentistry had not been done, the patient would not have needed to have the remakes. Informed consent is a major issue with cosmetic dentistry, as is avoiding any possible claims for breach of contract, which could be verbal, implied or written.

  1. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population second part: Amount data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Chevillotte, G; Wesolek, N; Morisset, T; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Bertho, A; Romanet, A; Leroy, L; Mercat, A C; Creusot, T; Simon, E; Roudot, A C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the amount per use of cosmetic products consumed at home by the adult, child and baby French population. 1078 men and women participated in the study which was performed in four cities of France. This enquiry was performed on 106 cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory, and baby products. Coupled to frequency data previously obtained (Ficheux et al., 2015), these amounts per use data will be used in order to assess the exposure to cosmetics by the French population. These current exposure values could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population. First part: frequency data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of users, the frequency of use and the number of cosmetic products consumed at home by the French population. The evaluation was performed for adult, child and baby consumers. Pregnant women were also taken into account in this work. All in all, 141 products cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory products were studied. The strengths of the study were the separation of data by sex and by age groups, the consideration of a priori at risk subpopulations and the consideration of a large number of cosmetic products. These current consumption data could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at risk subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-06-01

    To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

  4. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  5. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  6. Ethical marketing in'aesthetic' ('esthetic') or'cosmetic dentistry'. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Martin G D; Djemal, Serpil; Lewis, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Prior to undertaking any elective,'cosmetic' dental procedures, it is vital for the treating dentist to discuss the merits and drawbacks of all viable options. It is important that the patient understands what the consequences and limitations of treatment are likely to be, and what the potential failures could entail later in his/her life. Informed consent should be obtained (preferably in writing) and the clinical notes and records should be clearly documented, with accurate and concise details provided of all the investigations carried out, and their findings, as well as including details of the various discussions that have taken place. Dentists need to be aware of the existence of heightened expectations in this group of patients and be cautious about accepting patients who have unrealistic 'cosmetic' expectations. Where possible, cosmetic or aesthetic dental treatment should be provided which is minimally destructive and, in the long-term, be in the 'best interests' of the patient. Important matters such as the gaining of informed consent and maintaining meticulous, contemporaneous dental records will also be emphasized. It is hoped that the article will provide clear definitions of some commonly used terms such as 'ethical marketing', 'ethics', and 'values', which are often used in association with the marketing, planning and undertaking of supposedly 'cosmetic' dental procedures. The important role of less invasive alternative treatment options will also be emphasized. The aims of this article are to consider the common pitfalls that may arise when contemplating the marketing and provision of invasive,'cosmetic, dental restorations and to discuss how best to avoid a dento-legal claim where such treatment plans may not fulfil the patient's desired outcome.

  7. Lipopeptides in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2010-02-01

    Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food industry. Cosmetics containing lipopeptides are available in various dosage forms according to their beneficial surface properties, which include anti-wrinkle and moisturizing activities and cleansing cosmetics. The microbial production of lipopeptides particularly those with biological and surface activities applicable to cosmetics are summarized based on appropriate studies and patents up to the year 2008 to manage the information and sufficiently review the data.

  8. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Byun, Myung [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jeun An, Bong [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: anbj@dhu.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  9. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun; Jo, Cheorun; Woo Byun, Myung; Jeun An, Bong

    2007-11-01

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  10. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population. Third part: Product exposure amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2017-08-01

    A recent study in France provided valuable data on the frequency and amount of use of cosmetic products (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016a). The aim of the present study was to generate Product Exposure Amount data, i.e. the amounts of cosmetics applied to the skin among the French population using the raw data collected during the previous enquiry. These data are useful to derive Consumer exposure level data which are paramount for skin sensitization risk assessments. Exposure data were generated for 69 different cosmetics, classified as products for the hair, face, buccal hygiene, hands, feet, body, shaving and depilation, sunscreens as well as products specifically intended for babies. Exposure was calculated using a probabilistic Monte Carlo method. The main strength of this work was the break-down of data by age and sex. The results showed that some data used by the International Fragrance Association in skin sensitization risk assessments, in particular facial care products and deodorants, could be unsuitable for the protection of French consumers. For the first time, data were also generated for products intended for babies' nappy area. These data will be useful for the implementation of the Quantitative Risk Assessment for skin sensitization among the French population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  12. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and p53 as a biomarker of carcinogenesis among workers exposed to formaldehyde in the cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Dalia; Mansour, Neveen; Taha, Fatma; Seif El Dein, Aisha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the wide use of cosmetic products, they exert a number of health effects on tissues ranging from irritation to cancer. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of formaldehyde on lipid peroxidation and verifying the susceptibility to carcinogenesis using p53 as a biomarker among workers exposed to formaldehyde in cosmetic industry. Our entire exposed group (n = 40) and the controls (n = 20) were subjected to estimation of formate in urine, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and p53. Also, complete blood picture, liver, and kidney function tests were carried out. The study revealed significant increase in the levels of formate, MDA, and p53 in the exposed group compared with their control group. Our results showed that workers in cosmetic industry had significant exposure to formaldehyde. Furthermore, the study pointed to the negative impact of formaldehyde as a cause of oxidative stress and suspicious carcinogen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Risks and factors of the consumer relations governance in a cosmetic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell A. Phiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to identify and discuss the factors that influence consumers’ in their choice of female cosmetic brands. The article goes on to assess the degree of importance that female consumers attach to certain factors which affect consumer choice. The study’s population, consisting of female consumers, comprised of 340 respondents. In order to achieve the paper’s objective, the researcher developed a structured questionnaire and collected and analyzed the data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The findings of the study indicate that the product quality ranked the most important factor even though other factors such as the feminine looking packaging and size of the container were also considered as influential factors in the purchase decision making process. The most influential external influence in the decision-making process was age, followed by sales discounts on the price of the product. The use of celebrities was not considered as an influential factor in the consumer decision-making process.

  14. High yield lipase-catalyzed synthesis of Engkabang fat esters for the cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahman, Nur Fariza; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2011-02-01

    Engkabang fat esters were produced via alcoholysis reaction between Engkabang fat and oleyl alcohol, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The reaction was carried out in a 500 ml Stirred tank reactor using heptane and hexane as solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-factor-five-level Central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, namely temperature, substrate molar ratio (oleyl alcohol: Engkabang fat), enzyme amount and impeller speed. The optimum yields of 96.2% and 91.4% were obtained for heptane and hexane at the optimum temperature of 53.9°C, impeller speeds of 309.5 and 309.0 rpm, enzyme amounts of 4.82 and 5.65 g and substrate molar ratios of 2.94 and 3.39:1, respectively. The actual yields obtained compared well with the predicted values of 100.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, the properties of the esters show that they are suitable to be used as ingredient for cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The contributions of the European cosmetics industry to the development of alternatives to animal testing: dialogue with ECVAM and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Odile

    2002-12-01

    COLIPA (the European Federation of the Cosmetics Industry) represents 24 international companies and 2000 small and medium-sized enterprises. Together with ECVAM, COLIPA has been involved in the development and validation of alternative methods since the beginning of the validation efforts. The work of the Steering Committee on Alternatives to Animal Testing (SCAAT) is based on collaboration between companies, but also with academia, trade associations, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), European Commission Directorates General, and ECVAM. Some success has been achieved, but some validation efforts have failed. One lesson is that the search for alternatives requires a lot of humility.

  16. SIMULATION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pekarčíková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the simulation as an efficient scientific method of problem solving in industrial practice. It creates an overview of the simulation program means used in industrial practice and creates an overview of tools for discrete, continuous, and combined.

  17. STUDIES CONCERNIMG THE OBTAINMENT OF ASTAXANTHIN, AN IMPORTANT NATURAL PIGMENT USED IN COSMETIC, FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments (CP are natural compounds which impart to the tissues wherethey occur, a yellow, orange, red and even blue color. They are precursors ofvitamins A, B12, D3 and can not be biosynthesized by any animal taxonomic groupincluding man. In plants they avoid chlorophyll bleaching and destruction of somebiological active substances like citocroms, peroxidases, catalase, flavonoidicpigments, vitamins B12, E, K etc./1/. They are used in cosmetics, in aquaculture,poultry farming, in food industry as antioxidants and natural colorants for drinksand dairy products, as fodder additives for color, organoleptic and biologicalqualities improvement. Due to the restrictive use in food industry or as fodderadditives of the synthetically obtained CP, though they are less expensive, thebiotechnologies based on carotenogenic yeasts, in particular for astaxanthinproduction, are now reconsidered even if the bioprocesses are more costly. Newsources identification and economic efficiency and feasibility of CP obtainmentprocesses are a constant challenge, especially since recent studies pointed out CProle in medicine for prevention and treatment of some chronic maladies like cancer,arteriosclerosis, cataract, cardiovascular diseases, immunodeficiency’s syndromes,brain dysfunctions, etc./2-4/. with a great occurrence in human population. Thispaper presents a technological model at laboratory scale for the red-violaceuspigment Astaxanthin (3,3'-dehidroxy-β,β'-caroten-4,4'dione obtainment with theSporobolomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSMZ 5626 [ICCF338].The yeast was screened for genetic purity and media and cultivating conditionswere studied. The pigment was extracted and separated chromatographically fromthe alkaline treated wet biomass, for cell wall disruption. The separated Astaxanthinwas diluted with sunflower oil up to a content of 50 μg/ml. The product can beconditioned as soft capsules, or as it is as food supplement for human

  18. STUDIES CONCERNIMG THE OBTAINMENT OF ASTAXANTHIN, AN IMPORTANT NATURAL PIGMENT USED IN COSMETIC, FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RĂDULESCU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments (CP are natural compounds which impart to the tissues wherethey occur, a yellow, orange, red and even blue color. They are precursors ofvitamins A, B12, D3 and can not be biosynthesized by any animal taxonomic groupincluding man. In plants they avoid chlorophyll bleaching and destruction of somebiological active substances like citocroms, peroxidases, catalase, flavonoidicpigments, vitamins B12, E, K etc./1/. They are used in cosmetics, in aquaculture,poultry farming, in food industry as antioxidants and natural colorants for drinksand dairy products, as fodder additives for color, organoleptic and biologicalqualities improvement. Due to the restrictive use in food industry or as fodderadditives of the synthetically obtained CP, though they are less expensive, thebiotechnologies based on carotenogenic yeasts, in particular for astaxanthinproduction, are now reconsidered even if the bioprocesses are more costly. Newsources identification and economic efficiency and feasibility of CP obtainmentprocesses are a constant challenge, especially since recent studies pointed out CProle in medicine for prevention and treatment of some chronic maladies like cancer,arteriosclerosis, cataract, cardiovascular diseases, immunodeficiency’s syndromes,brain dysfunctions, etc./2-4/. with a great occurrence in human population. Thispaper presents a technological model at laboratory scale for the red-violaceuspigment Astaxanthin (3,3'-dehidroxy-β,β'-caroten-4,4'dione obtainment with theSporobolomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSMZ 5626 [ICCF338].The yeast was screened for genetic purity and media and cultivating conditionswere studied. The pigment was extracted and separated chromatographically fromthe alkaline treated wet biomass, for cell wall disruption. The separated Astaxanthinwas diluted with sunflower oil up to a content of 50 μg/ml. The product can beconditioned as soft capsules, or as it is as food supplement for human

  19. Mushrooms extracts and compounds in cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Taofiq, Oludemi; González-Paramás, A.M.; Martins, Anabela (Coord.); Barreiro, M.F.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    The cosmetic industry is constantly in search of ingredients from natural sources because of their competitive effectiveness and lower toxicity effects. Mushrooms have been an important part of our diet for years and are now finding their way as cosmetic ingredients, either as cosmeceutical or as nutricosmetics. The present review focuses on the most relevant activities of mushroom extracts, as well as on their bioactive compounds, which make them interesting ingredients for cosmetic formulat...

  20. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  1. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cortes, Rodrigo [Georgia Institute of Technology; Deitchman, Benjamin H [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  2. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Semiotics of the Other and Physical Beauty: The Cosmetics Industry and the Transformation of Ideals of Beauty in the U.S. and Japan, 1800's - 1960's

    OpenAIRE

    Isa, Masako; 伊佐, 雅子; 沖縄大学人文学部国際コミュニケーション学科

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical aspects of the "Other" by Jacques Lacan and examines the historical development of ideals of physical beauty in the United States and Japan. The Lacan's concept of the "Other" in relation to a technology for creating the appearance of the Other in the beauty industry is investigated. Cosmetic industry tries to create the appearance of the Other by using the technology of cosmetics and discourse of ads. In the U.S., beauty culture, motion pictures, the establis...

  5. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices.

  6. A Review of the Biological Activities of Microalgal Carotenoids and Their Potential Use in Healthcare and Cosmetic Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Sathasivam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits. The main objectives of this review are to provide an updated view of recent work on the health and cosmetic benefits associated with carotenoid use, as well as to provide a list of microalgae that produce different types of carotenoids. This review could provide new insights to researchers on the potential role of carotenoids in improving human health.

  7. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  8. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland.......The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  9. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, M N

    2000-10-01

    There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin.

  10. Application of radiation technology to develop green tea leaf as a natural resource for the cosmetic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Kwan Soo

    2004-09-01

    The irradiation of natural resources such as green tea leaf, persimmon leaf, licorice root and stolon or Lonicera japonica improved the color of the extract, resulting in a higher applicability without any adverse change to the beneficial functions such as the inhibitory effects of oxidation, melanin hyperpigmentation on the skin, and others. To investigate the application of irradiated natural resources for a real cosmetic composition, the physiological activities of irradiated green tea leaf extract powder dissolved in butylene glycol and ethanol were compared to a commercial green tea extract product. Furthermore, a cream lotion was manufactured using the powder and the physiological activities were compared. Results showed that the irradiation of the green tea leaf extract and the freeze-dried powder from the extract had the same physiological activities as the commercial product in a cosmetic composition.

  11. STUDIES CONCERNIMG THE OBTAINMENT OF ASTAXANTHIN, AN IMPORTANT NATURAL PIGMENT USED IN COSMETIC, FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. RĂDULESCU; E. MOCANU; G. CARAENE; I. CIUHU; N. MĂNĂILĂ; G. SĂVOIU; C.M. EREMIA; R.I. DUMITRU

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments (CP) are natural compounds which impart to the tissues wherethey occur, a yellow, orange, red and even blue color. They are precursors ofvitamins A, B12, D3 and can not be biosynthesized by any animal taxonomic groupincluding man. In plants they avoid chlorophyll bleaching and destruction of somebiological active substances like citocroms, peroxidases, catalase, flavonoidicpigments, vitamins B12, E, K etc./1/. They are used in cosmetics, in aquaculture,poultry farming, in ...

  12. Lip cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engasser, P G

    2000-10-01

    Throughout the centuries, the beauty of lips has been extolled by poets, and painters; and people in many different cultures decorate their lips. Modern cosmetics are designed not only to beautify the lips but also to moisturize and protect them from environmental hazards. Familiarity with the ingredients used in lip cosmetics is essential to recognizing and diagnosing the adverse reactions that are associated with these products.

  13. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  14. Cosmetics and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some general safety information. On This Page: What the Law Says About Cosmetic Safety How FDA Monitors Cosmetic ... Products” That Are Not Cosmetics More Resources What the Law Says About Cosmetic Safety It’s important to know ...

  15. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S. S

    2016-01-01

    ... by the global cosmetics industry which is worth billions of pounds [5]. Women report using cosmetics for a variety of reasons, ranging from anxiety about facial appearance, conformity to social norms, and public self-consciousness [6-8], through to appearing more sociable and assertive to others [6]. Cosmetics are effective at improving social perceptions that...

  16. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  17. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    impact of subsequent changes during pregnancy or menopause should also be discussed and considered part of the informed consent process. (III-L) 4. There is little evidence to support any of the female genital cosmetic surgeries in terms of improvement to sexual satisfaction or self-image. Physicians choosing to proceed with these cosmetic procedures should not promote these surgeries for the enhancement of sexual function and advertising of female genital cosmetic surgical procedures should be avoided (III-L) 5. Physicians who see adolescents requesting female genital cosmetic surgery require additional expertise in counselling adolescents. Such procedures should not be offered until complete maturity including genital maturity, and parental consent is not required at that time. (III-L) 6. Non-medical terms, including but not restricted to vaginal rejuvenation, clitoral resurfacing, and G-spot enhancement, should be recognized as marketing terms only, with no medical origin; therefore they cannot be scientifically evaluated. (III-L).

  18. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  19. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  20. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  1. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  2. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  3. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  4. Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Louise; Ng, Sze; Ahern, Susannah; Cooter, Rodney; Hopper, Ingrid

    2017-12-03

    The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases. The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad. We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective. Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  6. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  7. The allergens in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A. C.; Bruynzeel, D. P.; Bos, J. D.; van der Meeren, H. L.; van Joost, T.; Jagtman, B. A.; Weyland, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most

  8. Managing cosmetics technologies in dynamic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rikke Hundal; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to operationalize theoretical and empirical tools suggested for the private label cosmetics manufacturer. The approach is to enable manufacturers to start designing theoretical tools in order to manage technologies and navigate in the cosmetic industry to maintain......, NGO’s and experts, supporting the theoretical review. The cosmetic industry is driven by trends and regulations, which manufacturers have to meet. Suggestions for further work have been made on investigating how to break the vicious circle of critical customers and stakeholders. This paper...... is suggesting a broader approach to cosmetics than the traditional view of chemistry and marketing; given that private label cosmetics is being marketing within the supermarket/discount sector it means greater availability, but also more concerns and confusions....

  9. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  10. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnieszka Fischer; Barbara Brodziak-Dopierała; Krzysztof Loska; Jerzy Stojko

    2017-01-01

    ... phytotherapy or cosmetology [2]. The increasing demand for cosmetics and versatility of their use result in gradual development of the cosmetic industry. Over the last 20 years, global production of cosmetics has increased by an average of 4.5% a year [3,4]. In response to the increase in popularity of cosmetic products, an increased incidence of adverse react...

  11. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  12. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  14. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  15. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Protect Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products.

  17. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu...

  18. 75 FR 33683 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40, 49, and 602 RIN 1545-BJ41 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic..., footwear, towels, and tanning lotions; manicures, pedicures and other cosmetic or spa treatments; and... indoor tanning or other cosmetic services cannot become a QPFF by allowing users access to exercise...

  19. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services... follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.0-3 is the same.... Subpart G is added to read as follows: Subpart G--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning...

  20. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  1. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U. S.; Sabitha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  2. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silpa Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  3. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  4. Structural colors, cosmetics, and fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushkina, Natalia; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2009-08-01

    Structural colors are non-pigment colors that originate from the scattering of light from ordered microstructures, thin films, and even irregular arrays of scatterers. Examples include the flashing sparks of colors in opals and the brilliant hues of some butterflies such as Morpho rhetenor. Structural colors arise in nature from one or more of a palette of physical mechanisms that are now understood quite well and can be implemented industrially to produce structurally colored paints, fabrics, and cosmetics.

  5. Sugar and food additives as a part of food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Szulc, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to provide general information about the food industry, as well as the risks and negative side effects associated with its development. Sugar breakdown in the body, huge amount of the names that can be found on the products’ labels, food products that it is found in, and ravages of its excessive consumption are significant matters to explain. Food additives, their types, examples and consequences to human are explained. The author’s objective is to check and incr...

  6. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  7. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  8. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...

  9. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  10. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Matić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.

  11. Biosurfactants in cosmetic formulations: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.

  12. Nanoemulsions For Cosmetic Applications: What Innovation Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Myla L; Oliveira, Douglas Dourado; Ribeiro, Paulo Lima; de Paula Pereira, Neila; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2017-10-10

    Brazil is the fourth largest personal hygiene, perfumery and cosmetics (HPPC) consumer market in the world, leading industries to invest heavily in cosmetic research. Nanotechnology is studied and applied in several branches of health and, in the cosmetic area, focuses on the effectiveness of the products, safety of use and stability of the formulation. Thus, nanoemulsions appear as an attractive option for cosmetic manufacturers. In this context, a technological investigation was carried out, through a patent search, with the objective of verifying the current panorama of the nanoemulsions for the development of cosmetic formulations. To do this, we consulted the Espacenet® database, using the word "nanoemulsion", associated with the IPC code "A61q19". A total of 188 patents were found, of which 118 were available for display, whose data were organized into charts for discussion. The results show that developed countries are still the largest patent holders in the area, with the exception of South Korea, which ranked first with 39 patent applications. France appears as the most important in this research, but the largest market of interest for this technology is North American. Brazil seems timid in the number of patents (3) and no deposit in the country. The predominance of cosmetic nanoemulsions was mainly for aesthetic purposes. Nanoemulsions for cosmetic application still have potential for research and development, especially when related to raw materials of plant origin, where Brazil can be highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Pozzolanic properties of residues of sugar industries (first part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martirena-Hernández, J. F.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Non altered straw and sugar cane bagasse ash (CPC, CBC collected directly from the boilers in the sugar industry and from non-controlled burning in the open fields turned up to be a reasonably good pozzolana, which can be utilized for the manufacture of lime-pozzolana binders. This paper presents a detailed survey of this material with the aim to use it as raw material in the manufacture of binders.

    Las cenizas de bagazo y paja de caña de azúcar (CPC, CBC, obtenidas en forma inalterada directamente de las calderas de la fábrica de azúcar, y de la quema incontrolada en el campo, representan una interesante fuente de puzolana reactiva, con potencialidad de ser usada en la preparación de aglomerantes del tipo cal/puzolana. El trabajo que se presenta realizó una evaluación integral de estas puzolanas, con el interés de utilizarlas como materia prima en la producción de aglomerantes.

  14. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  15. Nanotechnology in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Linda M; Dewan, Kapal; Bronaugh, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterials are being used in cosmetic products for various effects. However, their use also raises potential safety concerns. Some of these concerns can be addressed by determining the type of nanomaterials used, as well as stability, potential for skin absorption, route of exposure, and how they are formulated in cosmetic products. There has been considerable effort internationally to harmonize approaches in order to address definitional issues and safety concerns related to the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Honigman, Roberta; David J. Castle

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome.

  17. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to perform cosmetic procedures involving the functional and aesthetic aspects of the face, mouth, teeth and jaws. Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  18. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  19. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  20. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  1. Female genital cosmetic surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saini, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    ... reported that the staggering 31% increase in the uptake of cosmetic surgery in UK women accounted for 92% of this uptake. [sup][2] The increased demand for cosmetic genitoplasty may reflect a narrow social definition of normal, or a confusion of what is normal and what is idealised. The provision of genitoplasty could nar...

  2. Do plastic surgeons have cosmetic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin

    2009-12-01

    Thoughts and attitudes of plastic surgeons about having cosmetic surgery on themselves remain obscure for the most part and pose an attractive subject to study. A survey was distributed to a random sample of 2635 American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons to determine plastic surgeons' interest in both minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and cosmetic surgical procedures, selection of facility type, selection of surgeon, and their satisfaction level. There were 276 responses. Sixty-two percent of the plastic surgeons had undergone at least one type of minimally invasive cosmetic procedure. Female plastic surgeons had significantly more minimally invasive cosmetic procedures compared with male plastic surgeons (84.9 versus 57 percent; p cosmetic surgery. The most common cosmetic surgical procedure was liposuction of the trunk and/or extremity (18.6 percent). Male plastic surgeons were more likely to have a procedure than men in the general population, and female plastic surgeons were less likely to have breast augmentation than the general population. The percentage of operations conducted by a plastic surgeon was 88.2 percent. The percentage performed by a nationally known surgeon was 45.3 percent; 75.9 percent of plastic surgeons selected a surgeon who was certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The satisfaction rate was 90 percent. The survey provides insight on the stance of American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons on the subject. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey designed for this purpose.

  3. Internacionalização comercial e produtiva na indústria de cosméticos: desafios competitivos para empresas brasileiras Comercialization and productive internacionalization in the cosmetic industry: competitive challenges for brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Garcia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As formas de internacionalização produtiva têm ganhado importância crescente nas estratégias das grandes empresas de diversos setores. Na indústria de cosméticos, convergente com essa tendência geral, as grandes empresas têm procurado internacionalizar suas funções corporativas, em uma estratégia de busca de oportunidades de mercado em todo o mundo. Nesse contexto, este trabalho discute as formas de internacionalização das empresas de cosméticos, com o propósito de estabelecer um padrão de ação dessas organizações. Para isso, são investigados os dados do comércio internacional de produtos cosméticos e as estratégias de algumas das grandes empresas que atuam no mercado global. A partir das experiências das empresas internacionais, será possível extrair algumas implicações gerenciais que podem ser úteis para que as empresas brasileiras aumentem sua pequena participação no mercado internacional.The great companies on several industries are increasing their action in the international markets, not just even by selling globally their products, but also by foreign direct investments. In the cosmetic industry, in convergence with this general tendency, the big firms are increasing their international acting, in a strategy of looking for new market opportunities all around the world. In this way, this paper discusses the internationalization strategies of the cosmetic firms, with the objective to establish a standard of actions of the big firms. To do that, it is showed some data of the international trade of cosmetic products and the strategies of some of the big international firms that act in the global markets. By doing that, it will be possible to get some managerial implications to the Brazilian firms, in order to increase their small share in the international markets.

  4. Applications for Marine Resources in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Guillerme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C and oligo-elements such as copper, iron and zinc. All those active principles play roles in hydration, firming, slimming, shine and protection. Marine organisms inhabit a wide spectrum of habitats. Photo-protective compounds can be obtained from organisms subjected to strong light radiation, such as in tropical systems or in shallow water. In the same way, molecules with antioxidant potential can be obtained from microorganisms inhabiting extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents. For example, marine bacteria collected around deep-sea hydrothermal vents produce complex and innovative polysaccharides in the laboratory which are useful in cosmetics. There are many properties that will be put forward by the cosmetic industries.

  5. Wind energy development as a part of Poland’s industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoerring Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland as an European Union (EU member state has to increase its share of renewable energy (RE in gross domestic energy consumption from 2.4% in 2003 to 12% in 2010. This paper discusses perspectives for wind energy development in Poland as a part of the industrial development given the political system supports RE. It shows that the fulfillment of the EU’s RE obligations could be used to the advantage of Poland’s sustainable development. Wind energy development may create a new industry that involves spare capacity of traditional Polish industries and generates new work places. This may help to overcome Poland’s main macro-economical problems: high unemployment and budget deficit. This paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing RE support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland. .

  6. Safety Assessment of Achillea millefolium as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. Additionally, industry was advised to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities. The Panel concluded that achillea millefolium extract, achillea millefolium flower extract, and achillea millefolium flower/leaf/stem extract are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics when formulated to be nonsensitizing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Frosch, P; Bruze, M; Andersen, K E; Lepoittevin, J P; Wakelin, S; White, I R

    1999-08-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products were analysed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Target substances were the fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other fragrance substances, most of which have been described as contact allergens. The fragrance mix ingredients were either not present in children's shampoos/shower gels and cream/lotions, or they were present in fairly low concentrations. In hydro-alcoholic products, such as eau de parfum, eau de toilette, several ingredients of the fragrance mix were found: geraniol was present in 7/7 products, hydroxycitronellal in 6/7 and isoeugenol in 2/7 products. Isoeugenol was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards.

  8. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of bat compliance: Part 1: Paper manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    elimination 85% in 7 days). Thus, the algae toxicity of the respective paper mill cannot be explained with the TMP partial stream; presumably other raw materials such as biocides might be the source of algae toxicity. Comparative data from wastewater surveillance of authorities confirmed the range of ecotoxicity observed in the study. Wastewater from paper mills generally has no or a moderate ecotoxicity (median LID 1 and 2) while the maximum LID values, especially for the algae and daphnia tests, are considerably elevated (LIDA up to 128, LIDD up to 48). Wastewater from paper mills generally is low to moderately ecotoxic to aquatic organisms in acute toxicity tests. Some samples show effects in the chronic algae growth inhibition test which cannot be explained exclusively with colouration of the samples. The origin of elevated algae ecotoxicity could not be determined. In the algae test, often flat dose-response relationships and growth promotion at higher dilution factors have been observed, indicating that several effects are overlapping. At least one bioassay should be included in routine wastewater control of paper mills because the paper manufacturing industry is among the most water consuming. Although the algae test was the most sensitive test, it might not be the most appropriate test because of the complex relationship of colouration and inhibition and the smooth dose-effect relationship or even promotion of algae growth often observed. The Lemna test would be a suitable method which also detects inhibitors of photosynthesis and is not disturbed by wastewater colouration.

  9. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  10. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye (scratching your cornea, for example) with a mascara wand or other applicator. Even a slight scratch ... containers of eye cosmetics. Manufacturers usually recommend discarding mascara two to four months after purchase. Discard dried- ...

  11. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye...

  12. Patch Test Results with Standard and Cosmetic Series in Patients with Suspected Cosmetic-Induced Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Hacıoğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to evaluate the hypersensitivity to cosmetic chemicals in patients with clinically suspected cosmetic-induced contact dermatitis in Bursa and the South Marmara Region (Turkey by patch testing with standard and cosmetic series.Material and Method: Seventy-three patients with clinically suspected contact dermatitis due to cosmetics were patch tested by the European standard series and cosmetic series. The patch test results were analyzed as percentages. x2 test was used to demonstrate the relationship between cosmetic products and cosmetic allergens.Results: 90.4% of patients in our study group were female and 9.6% were male; the median age was 37.5 (range 16-71 years. The most commonly involved parts of the body were the face (49.3%, hands (16.4%, periocular region (6.8%, lips (6.8%, and the neck (5.5%. The most common offending cosmetic products causing allergic contact dermatitis were soaps and cleansing lotions (32.8%, moisturizer creams (21.9%, make-up (15.0%, and hair dyes (9.6%. 41.0% of patients showed positive reaction to at least one cosmetic allergen included in either standard or cosmetic series. The cosmetic allergens in the standard series and the rates of positivity were as follows: fragrance mix (6.8%, lanolin alcohols (5.5%, paraphenylenedaimine (2.7%, colophony (1.4%, paraben mix (1.4%, formaldehyde (1.4%, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (Kathon CG in descending order. The most common offending cosmetic allergen groups were preservatives (21.9%, antioxidants (8.2% and fragrances (6.8%. Conclusion: Allergic or irritant contact dermatitis due to cosmetics should be considered in cases of eczema involving face, neck, eyelids, lips, scalp or hands. Patch testing with cosmetic series beside standard series would be more helpful in detecting the responsible allergen(s.

  13. The application of Rapid Manufacturing technologies in the spare parts industry

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hasan; Rennie, A. E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The advancement of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) has ushered the possibility of realising complex designs. This paper identifies the potential of possible applications of RM in the spare parts industry. It further underlines the need for a fully functional RM supply chain before proposing an e-business enabled business model for RM technologies.

  14. Optimization of cosmetic preservation: water activity reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdudo, A; Fontaine-Vive, F; Dingas, A; Faure, C; Fernandez, X

    2015-02-01

    Preservation of cosmetics is a prerequisite for industrialization, and among the proposed solutions, self-preserved cosmetics are of great interest. One key influencing parameter in self-preservation is water activity; its reduction can help to fight against microbial growth in cosmetic products. This work presents a study on the influence of humectants on water activity and its consequence on the preservation of cosmetic formulations. First, water-humectants mixtures were considered. The influence of glycol and glycerin content, glycol chemical structure, glycerin purity and formulation process on the water activity of the binary mixture was studied. Molecular modelling was performed for a better understanding of the impact of glycol chemistry. Then, the results were applied to five different cosmetic formulations to get optimized products. Challenge test on five strains was carried out in that sense. We showed that the higher the humectants concentration, the lower the water activity. Glycol chemical structure also influenced water activity: propan-1,2-diol was more efficient than propan-1,3-diol, certainly because of a better stabilization in water of propan-1,2-diol as shown by DFT calculation. A drop by drop introduction of glycol in water favoured aw reduction. The best water activity loss was 6.6% and was reached on the cream formulation whose preservation was improved as evidenced by challenge test. Fabrication process as well as humectants concentration were shown to influence water activity. The hydroxyl group positions as well as the presence of an alkyl group on the glycol carbon chain impacted water binding as suggested by DFT calculation. Reducing aw improved the preservation of a cosmetic cream, inhibiting or slowing down the growth of bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. [Prevalence of cosmetic sensitivity among beauticians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, A; Shaman, F; Garcá, J A; Sánchez Palacios, M A

    1995-01-01

    Cosmetics are a frequent cause of contact dermatitis, not only in females but also in males. Men use cosmetics in the form of deodorant, hair dye and aftershave lotions. U.S.A men spent more than 6,000,000,000 million dollars in cosmetic products. Responsible substances of contact dermatitis are unidentified in many occasions, what impedes the estimation of morbidity data. It is calculated that 2-4% of dermatological consultations are due to contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics. The Spanish industry manufactures each year articles valued in several thousands of million pesetas, 14% of which are exported. Annual manufacturing is raising between 10 and 11%. The French journal Cosmetology (IMS) pointed as an example the fact that in the third trimester of 1978, the number of sold products was as follows: 87,880 units of cleansing milk; 128,020 creams; 237,200 tonics; 10,228 lip protectors. The Committee of European Unions for Perfumery and Cosmetology (COLIPA) reported in 1978 a yearly sale in Europe of 225,000,000 units of hair dyes, exclusively. Adverse reactions to cosmetics affect not only the skin in the form of irritant or contact dermatitis, but cases of conjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, rhinitis, angioedema, pneumonitis and anaphylaxis-like reactions due to cosmetic products, mainly hair bleaching agents, perm liquids and hair spray, have been also reported. The present work studied the prevalence of sensitizations to cosmetic products on the professional staff of a beauty salon in our city of Las Palmas (SEM). Twenty people came to our Unit of Allergology to fill a questionnaire and undergo a skin test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15.......4%) had doubtfully positive reaction(s) and 31 (5.8%) had irritant reaction(s). Skin-care products were tested most frequently and were also found to cause most positive, doubtfully positive and irritant reactions, 80% of the patients with positive reactions to their own products had no history of contact...... of common cosmetic ingredients. Fragrance mix and formaldehyde were found to be the ingredients most often responsible and were significantly more frequent in patients with positive reactions to their own products, compared to a control group of eczema patients also seen in the patch-test clinic....

  17. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  18. [Cosmetic treatments and acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Florence

    2002-04-15

    Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic.

  19. Complications of cosmetic tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Marketing Strategies in the Luxury Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Palis, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the marketing strategies used in the luxury industry differentiate luxury from premium and research the motivations values and beliefs of luxury consumers. Research was done on five main luxury activities: fashion and leather goods jewelry and watches and perfumes and cosmetics spirits and automobiles. The literature part has been structured in a way to present the evolution of the luxury industry and its development over the course of years. The section...

  1. Contact allergy caused by isothiazolinone derivatives: an overview of non-cosmetic and unusual cosmetic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Lambert, Julien; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The isothiazolinone derivatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), methylisothiazolinone (MI), benzisothiazolinone (BIT), and octylisothiazolinone (OIT), owing to their strong bactericide, fungicide and algicide properties, are widely used in non-cosmetic products, such as chemical (industrial) products, household detergents, and water-based paints, and the former two derivatives are also used in cosmetic products. However, given their inherent sensitization potential (with MCI > MI > BIT > OIT), allergic contact dermatitis is frequently observed, both in consumers as well as workers in various industries. In this review, we provide an update on the use of MCI/MI and MI in cosmetics, highlighting certain aspects of MI; the use of excessive concentrations, the presence in some less familiar cosmetic products, and the association with unusual clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the use of isothiazolinones in dish-washing and washing-machine liquids, cleaning agents for dental care, and their general presence in multi-purpose household detergents, which may elicit (airborne) allergic contact dermatitis, is discussed. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the use of isothiazolinone derivatives in the paint and textile industry, and of OIT in the leather industry in particular.

  2. Cosmetic Surgery: What to Know Beforehand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or infection at the surgical site. Recovery. After cosmetic surgery, you might need days, weeks or even months to recover. Understand the physical effects that might be part of your recovery, as well as how the surgery might affect aspects of your personal and professional life. Also, ...

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Banned Corticosteroids in Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Twelve most popular brands of each of the two types of cosmetic creams were randomly purchased from retail pharmacy outlets in different parts of Lagos metropolis. The products were evaluated by HPLC assay methods of the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) for the two Corticosteroids. Results: All samples did not ...

  4. Computed tomography as a tool for tolerance verification of industrial parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is becoming an important technology for industrial applications, enabling fast and accurate control of manufactured parts. In only a few minutes, a complete 3D model of a part may be obtained, allowing measurements of external and internal features. This paper presents...... results of tolerance verification of a plastic housing for an insulin pen manufactured by Novo Nordisk A/S. Calculation of measuring uncertainties was taken into account in decision making regarding the specified tolerance limits. Variables in terms of CT systems, data sets, and evaluation software...

  5. Cosmetics, categories, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics is an interesting unregulated category of over-the-counter products designed to enhance appearance and skin health. The coloring agents used in cosmetics are regulated along with their preservative constituents. New understandings of skin physiology have allowed cosmetics to advance beyond appearance issues into the functional arena. Cosmeceuticals is an unrecognized term from a regulatory perspective that conveys the new cosmetic formulations ability to improve skin health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Room fresheners Carpet fresheners Statements on labels, marketing claims, consumer expectations, and even some ingredients may determine a product’s intended use. To learn more about the differences, including the different requirements, see " Is it a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (or Is It a ...

  7. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  8. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  9. Interface Between Cosmetic and Migraine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfrerer, Lisa; Guyuron, Bahman

    2017-10-01

    This article describes connections between migraine surgery and cosmetic surgery including technical overlap, benefits for patients, and why every plastic surgeon may consider screening cosmetic surgery patients for migraine headache (MH). Contemporary migraine surgery began by an observation made following forehead rejuvenation, and the connection has continued. The prevalence of MH among females in the USA is 26%, and females account for 91% of cosmetic surgery procedures and 81-91% of migraine surgery procedures, which suggests substantial overlap between both patient populations. At the same time, recent reports show an overall increase in cosmetic facial procedures. Surgical techniques between some of the most commonly performed facial surgeries and migraine surgery overlap, creating opportunity for consolidation. In particular, forehead lift, blepharoplasty, septo-rhinoplasty, and rhytidectomy can easily be part of the migraine surgery, depending on the migraine trigger sites. Patients could benefit from simultaneous improvement in MH symptoms and rejuvenation of the face. Simple tools such as the Migraine Headache Index could be used to screen cosmetic surgery patients for MH. Similarity between patient populations, demand for both facial and MH procedures, and technical overlap suggest great incentive for plastic surgeons to combine both. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection provisions in FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701 (OMB...

  11. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  12. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  13. Governing Lipitor and Listerine: the domestic roots of international pharmaceutical and cosmetics re

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID BACH

    2008-01-01

    Technical standards and product regulations increasingly shape international trade patterns, the organization of cross-national production, and global investment flows. This paper examines the evolution of international market regulation in the pharmaceutical- and cosmetics industries over the past three decades. International market regulation of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics poses an intriguing empirical puzzle. Both industries have seen the emergence and subsequent institutionalization of ...

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  15. Kathon CG and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S C

    1990-03-01

    Kathon CG was determined in 156 of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Denmark. 42% of the cosmetic products were found to contain Kathon CG. Kathon CG was present in 48% of "rinse off" and 31% of "leave on" cosmetic products. The 3:1 ratio of chloromethyl isothiazolinone (CMI): methyl isothiazolinone (MI) in Kathon CG was found to be disturbed in 41% of Kathon CG preserved cosmetic products. The disturbed CMI/MI ratio was shown in 29% "rinse off" and 73% "leave on" cosmetic products. It is suggested that the chemical reaction of the ketone group of the isothizaolinones with other ingredients in cosmetic products may disturb the CMI/MI ratio of Kathon CG. The results of the study have been discussed in relation to the use of Kathon CG in cosmetic products as well as test material for allergic reaction.

  16. Use of fullerenes in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Marko

    2009-01-01

    As cosmetic technology advances, there is an increasing need to use new active ingredients in the development of cosmetic products. In the last few years application of fullerene C(60) and its derivates in cosmetics has been intensively tested. Fullerenes display a wide range of biological activities. Potent scavenging capacities against radical oxygen species (ROS) and excellent potential as biological antioxidants made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the preparation of skin rejuvenation cosmetic formulations. Currently published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their cosmetic use and examples of published patents to illustrate application of fullerenes in cosmetic technology are presented. Future trends in the development of cosmetic formulations including fullerenes are discussed.

  17. Socioeconomic Impact of Ethnic Cosmetic Surgery: Trends and Potential Financial Impact the African American, Asian American, Latin American, and Middle Eastern Communities Have on Cosmetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wimalawansa, Sunishka; McKnight, Aisha; Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic surgery has increased around the world, and whereas in the past, the patient base consisted of mainly Caucasian individuals, interest in this field has grown among persons of varying ethnic backgrounds. Growing interest enables ethnic populations to contribute to the economic growth of the cosmetic surgery industry and impact the direction of the field in the future. Minority populations accounted for 22% of the cosmetic procedures performed in 2007, with the most c...

  18. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank is c...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  19. Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Study Highlights the Beauty Industry's Ugly Side Cosmetics, personal care products get little regulatory scrutiny To ... found that's not always the case. And, because cosmetics are woefully underregulated in the United States, and ...

  20. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    maximum conductivity of the samples was 43,700 microS cm(-1) and indicates that salts might contribute to the overall toxicity. Half of the wastewater samples proved to be biologically well treatable in the Zahn-Wellens test with COD elimination above 80%, whilst the others were insufficiently biodegraded (COD elimination 28-74%). After the pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test, wastewater samples from four (out of ten) companies were extremely ecotoxic especially to algae (maximum LID(A) = 16,384). Three wastewater samples were genotoxic in the umu test. Applying the rules for salt correction of test results as allowed in the German Wastewater Ordinance, only a small part of toxicity could be attributed to salts. Considering the PBS, wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry exhibited very low levels of PBS. In one factory, the origin of ecotoxicity has been attributed to the organosulphide dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) used as a water treatment chemical for metal precipitation. The assumption based on rough calculation of input of the organosulphide into the wastewater was confirmed in practice by testing its ecotoxicity at the corresponding dilution ratio after pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test. Whilst the COD elimination of DMDTC was only 32% in 7 days, the pretreated sample exhibited a high ecotoxicity to algae (LID(A) = 1,536) and luminescent bacteria (LID(lb) = 256). Comparative data from wastewater surveillance by authorities (data from 1993 to 2007) confirmed the range of ecotoxicity observed in the study. Whilst wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry usually did not exhibit ecotoxicity (median LID 1-2), the maximum LID values reported for the algae, daphnia and luminescent bacteria tests were very high (LID(A) up to 3,072, LID(D) up to 512 and LID(lb) up to 2,048). DMDTC was found to be one important source of ecotoxicity in galvanic wastewater. DMDTC is added in surplus, and according to the supplier, the amount in excess should

  1. Studying brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Yousaf; Rida Zulfiqar; Madiha Aslam; Mohsin Altaf

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge...

  2. Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Operational Performance of the Thai Auto Parts Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Yaibuathet Tippayawong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, operational performance in the green supply chain management (SCM of the Thai auto parts industry was investigated. A green supply chain performance measurement (GSPM model was developed from the combination of various concepts including an SCM logistics scorecard, a supply chain operations reference model, a balance scorecard, and green supply chain management. The GSPM has been designed for use as a self-evaluation tool focusing on five decisive areas, or factors, and 28 sub-factors. A factor analysis was conducted using the survey results of the GSPM in order to identify significant factors that represent the green supply chain operation performance. Grouped as three major factors, namely green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing; reverse logistics and eco-design; and reuse and recycle of manufacturing, their significance and impact on the auto parts industry in Thailand were highlighted. Specifically, the factor of green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing, as major factor 1, in relation with the factor of reverse logistics and eco-design, as major factor 2, were found to have a strong positive relationship with the asset turnover ratio.

  3. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzheng Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches.

  5. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly...

  6. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  7. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  8. Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, D

    1999-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  9. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  10. Mesotherapy: cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Jill; Botts, Kayla; Rine, Lesley; Kato, Danielle; Pollock, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy, which has been compared to the anti-wrinkle injection Botox, has only recently become popular in the United States for providing body contouring and spot weight loss. Most adverse reactions associated with mesotherapy are mild and transient, and supporters of the procedure consider it a safer alternative to liposuction. Mainly owing to the absence of safety and efficacy data pertaining to mesotherapy, liposuction is currently the only method for fat removal that is endorsed by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons . Although mesotherapy has been used as a treatment for pain syndromes, arthritis, and many other disorders, this article focuses on its cosmetic applications.

  11. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  12. Determination of Cadmium and Lead Concentration in Cosmetics (Sunscreen, Lipstick and Hair Color)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Mohammadi; Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari; Saber Khodabandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Development of cosmetics industry has increased the affinity to use these products by people especially women for makeup and toilet. Due to the presence of metals such as lead and cadmium as preservative and colored element in these products, concentrations of these metals in sunscreen cosmetics, lipstick and hair color were determined. Materials and Methods: Different brands of cosmetics were analyzed to determine Cd and Pb concentration (in µg/kg dry weight) us...

  13. [Cosmetic nail products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, R; Goettmann, S; André, J

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic embellishment of fingernails involves the use of substance that harden either after the evaporation of solvents (varnishes) or after polymerisation (artificial acrylic nails, gel tips, glue-on artificial nails). Pathological reactions to cosmetics usually occur at a remote site for varnishes, and, most commonly, in situ with polymerising substances. Unvarnished artificial nails do not affect pulse oximetry readings, and in theory, patients are not required to remove them. However, a real problem of contamination via artificial nails exists. Increased carriage of pathological Gram-negative organisms and of Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts has been noted among nursing staff wearing artificial nails, both before and after fingernail cleaning. Fingernail fragility manifests itself through a number of different physical signs such as soft, breaking nails, with longitudinal or transverse fissures, showing distal doubling or friability. In some subjects, excessive manicuring with metal instruments or manicure sticks results in rolled onycholysis, of evocative appearance, or transverse onycholysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Special Issue “Cosmetic Contact Allergens”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Corsini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.[...

  16. Recent progresses in application of fullerenes in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Marko

    2011-08-01

    Cosmetic industry is a fast growing industry with the continuous development of new active ingredients for skin care products. Fullerene C(60) and its derivates have been subject of intensive research in the last few years. Fullerenes display a wide range of different biological activities. Strong antioxidant capacities and effective quenching radical oxygen species (ROS) made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the formulation of skin care products. Published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their application in cosmetics use and examples of published patents are presented. Recent trends in the use of fullerenes in topical formulations and patents are reviewed. Future investigations covering application of fullerenes in skin care are discussed.

  17. Consumer behavior towards green skin care cosmetic products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Eftimiya

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores consumer behavior towards green cosmetic products in Finland. The goal of the study is to explore the various factors which influence the purchasing decisions of facial products. Moreover, the study aims to reveal consumers’ attitudes towards natural cosmetic products and the value of the natural ingredients. The theoretical part of the work consists of consumer behavior theories by different authors. In addition, motivational models and dimensions are closely expla...

  18. Associations between air pollution in the industrial and suburban parts of Ostrava city and their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik, Vitezslav; Brezna, Barbara; Machaczka, Ondrej; Honkysova, Sabina; Miturova, Hana; Janout, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city. Presented are associations between industrial (IP) and suburban parts (SP) as well as correlations between concentrations of various pollutants at the same site. Results of air pollutant monitoring come from Ostrava, an industrial city in Central Europe with a population of over 300,000. The study showed that certain pollutants were strongly correlated, especially particulate matter (r = 0.940) and ozone (r = 0.923) between the IP and SP. Statistically significant correlations were also found between different pollutants at the same site. The highest correlations were between PM10 and NO2 (r IP = 0.728; r SP = 0.734), NO2 and benzo(a)pyrene (r IP = 0.787; r SP = 0.697), and NO2 and ozone (r IP = -0.706; r SP = -0.686). This could contribute to more cost-effective solutions for air pollution monitoring in cities and their surroundings by using computational models based on the correlations, optimization of the network of monitoring stations, and the best selection of measuring devices.

  19. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  20. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery.

  1. [Contact urticaria induced by hydrolyzed wheat proteins in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiwan, A; Pecquet, C; Mathelier-Fusade, P; Francès, C

    2010-04-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat protein, produced by hydrolysis of gluten, is used in certain cosmetics and foods as emulsifiers and stabilizers. It can induce contact urticaria to cosmetics and/or anaphylaxis to food via an immunologic mechanism. A 28-year-old female beautician presented recurrent contact urticaria, initially on the hands and then more diffused, immediately after applying cosmetics of the same brand containing hydrolyzed wheat protein. Skin tests were positive with the cosmetics and with the hydrolyzed wheat protein contained therein. A 34-year-old woman presented four episodes of generalized urticaria after eating industrially prepared foods. She had also experienced contact urticaria with cosmetics. Skin tests with hydrolyzed wheat protein were positive. For both patients, withdrawal of cosmetics and foods containing hydrolyzed wheat protein led to the regression of symptoms. They were both tolerant to traditional wheat products, such as bread and pastries. Although contact urticaria to hydrolyzed wheat protein is rarely described, it must be understood since treatment by eradication of this product is simple and because contact urticaria may precede food allergy. Patients are tolerant to products containing unmodified wheat protein. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Post internship student-industry collaborative projects - as vehicle for the realization of challenging parts of the CDIO syllabus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    Architectural engineering the 5 month internship period is placed early in the curriculum, after 4 semesters of study. It is obviously more challenging to find industry internships for students that are at an early stage in their studies because they need more supervision. However the investment is worth......A large part of the CDIO syllabus concerns skills that are difficult to address in a solely academic environment. Collaboration with industry is in reality a must in order to perform the CDIO based education. Student internships in the industry, hence is the core of the DTU B. Eng. program. At DTU...... the trouble because the post internship curriculum is provided with pedagogical means to address parts of the syllabus that are on an advanced level in the learning taxonomy. The interface between the internship period and post internship student-industry collaborative projects is an important point of focus...

  4. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Shaheen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%, hair growth (11%, bad breath (12%, facial spots (9%, allergy, (9%, fairness (8%, wrinkles (8%, eye and lip care (9%. Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%, Leaves (25.2%, seeds (13.4% and roots (8.9%. Women of older (>30 years age group showed greater (67% response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area.

  5. Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.

  6. Scanning of the internal structure part with laser ultrasonic in aviation industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2011-01-01

    The detection of internal defects is a major production and safety issue for the newest generations of aircraft. New materials and manufacturing processes in the aircraft industry demand efficient quality assurance in manufacturing and inspection in maintenance. Advanced metallic material processes (titanium) are used or developed for the production of heavily loaded flying components (in fan blade construction). The inspection of these parts mainly made out of titanium (or CFRP) requires the determination of the percentage of bonded grain sizes around 10-30 µm. This is primarily due to the advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio and good detection sensitivity. In this article, a diagnosing method of the blade interior by means of the laser ultrasonic is presented. Identification of small fatigue cracks presents a challenging problem during nondestructive testing of fatigue-damaged structures. Laser ultrasonic is a technique that uses two laser beams; one with a short pulse for the generation of ultrasound and another with a long pulse or continuous coupled to an optical interferometer for detection. The results of research of the internal blade structure are presented. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  8. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  9. Cosmetics, diet, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics and diet are two new areas of antiaging interest for the dermatologist. Novel delivery systems in the form of nanoparticles may allow the penetration of cosmetic actives into the skin creating new opportunities for active agent efficacy, but possibly also creating safety issues. The best method of introducing active agents into the body is through the oral route. New understandings of diet and how it affects aging are also becoming important in dermatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics: consumer, products, efficacy, toxicological and regulatory considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    .... However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment...

  11. Clinics of Oblivion: Makeover Culture and Cosmetic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Jones

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et al. 2011. Chris Rojek’s work on contemporary tourist practices is deployed in order to argue that the cosmetic surgery tourist’s body is itself the ‘site’ to be visited and discovered; it is also the souvenir that is brought home. When body and site are brought together in cosmetic surgery tourism, they form a potent nexus that is unique to a contemporary moment tied up with globalisation and consumption, where both identity and self-transformation are managed through the body.

  12. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... selling of tires. These ] tire guides have since been eliminated. Should the Used Auto Parts Guides be... Guides helped make the advertising and selling of Industry Products more consistent across the country... personal information, such as a Social Security number, date of birth, driver's license number or other...

  13. CYCLODEXTRINS – FIELDS OF APPLICATION. PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Duca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is dedicated to different fields of use of cyclodextrins, a family of three cyclic natural oligosaccharides and their derivatives. The first part of the review gives a brief description of the main and the most recent developed applications of cyclodextrins in food, cosmetic industry, environmental protection technologies and agriculture. Different products based on inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins and technologies with different use of cyclodextrins and inclusion complexes are described.

  14. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables -Part II. Colour and bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Paciulli, Maria; Chiavaro, Emma; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ganino, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content

  15. Salary administration as part of employee incentive system at industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandykov Michail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the financial staff incentives at industrial enterprises. The paper concludes that the incentive system should be developed taking into account the developed staff motivation. The only efficient target of influence is the existing staff motivation components. A 3-element employee incentive framework for industrial enterprises is suggested. The article presents the critical analysis of the existing payroll systems of several industrial enterprises, elicits the common flaws of the incentive payments, and develops requirements for such systems. The paper also provides an industrial enterprise needs matrix and an incentive payment types matrix required to build up a rational monetary staff incentive system. These matrices can be adapted for any industrial enterprise with regard to its long-term objectives.

  16. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  18. A review of general cosmetic surgery training in fellowship programs offered by the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Ethan; Tavassoli, Javad; Dhaliwal, Hardeep; Murray, Matthew; Haiavy, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    We sought, first, to evaluate the operative experience of surgeons who have completed postresidency fellowships offered by the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery (AACS), and second, to compare this cosmetic surgery training to other surgical residency and fellowship programs in the United States. Finally, we suggest how new and existing oral and maxillofacial surgeons can use these programs. We reviewed the completed case logs from AACS-accredited fellowships. The logs were data mined for 7 of the most common cosmetic operations, including the median total number of operations. We then compared the cosmetic case requirements from the different residencies and fellowships. Thirty-nine case logs were reviewed from the 1-year general cosmetic surgery fellowships offered by the AACS from 2007 to 2012. The fellows completed a median of 687 total procedures. The median number of the most common cosmetic procedures performed was 14 rhinoplasties, 31 blepharoplasties, 21 facelifts, 24 abdominoplasties, 28 breast mastopexies, 103 breast augmentations, and 189 liposuctions. The data obtained were compared with the minimum cosmetic surgical requirements in residency and fellowship programs. The minimum residency requirements were as follows: no minimum listed for plastic surgery, 35 for otolaryngology, 20 for oral and maxillofacial surgery, 28 for ophthalmology, 0 for obstetrics and gynecology, and 20 for dermatology. The minimum fellowship requirements were as follows: 300 for the AACS cosmetic surgery fellowship, no minimum listed for facial plastic surgery and reconstruction, no minimum listed for aesthetic surgery, 133 for oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery, and 0 for Mohs dermatology. Dedicating one's practice exclusively to cosmetic surgery requires additional postresidency training owing to the breadth of the field. The AACS created comprehensive fellowship programs to fill an essential part in the continuum of cosmetic surgeons' education, training, and

  19. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  20. 29 CFR Non - Mandatory Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1904-Partially Exempt Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, unless they are asked in writing to do so by OSHA... Membership Organizations. 723 Beauty Shops 87 Engineering, Accounting, Research, Management, and Related...

  1. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes.

  2. [Acne vulgaris. Role of cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible.

  3. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    /shower gels and cream/lotions, or they were present in fairly low concentrations. In hydro-alcoholic products, such as eau de parfum, eau de toilette, several ingredients of the fragrance mix were found: geraniol was present in 7/7 products, hydroxycitronellal in 6/7 and isoeugenol in 2/7 products. Isoeugenol...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...

  4. Produtos em filme – Inovação na tecnologia de cosméticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.6987 Film products - Innovation in cosmetics technology. The cosmetics industry has invested heavily in the research and development of new products, to satisfy consumer demands - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.6987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Torrado Truiti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A indústria cosmética tem investido fortemente na pesquisa e no desenvolvimento de novos produtos, para melhor atender as exigências do consumidor. Como inovação neste segmento têm despontado os cosméticos em filme. A partir de uma fórmula inicial, contendo como formador de película um polissacarídeo constituído de maltotriose e como agente gelificante sodium polyacrylate, foram obtidos géis viscosos que foram espalhados em placas de vidro, de maneira a se obter filmes de 1 mm de espessura. Após secagem à temperatura ambiente, os mesmos foram recortados (1 cm2 e acondicionados. Várias alterações foram realizadas a fim de se obter um filme flexível, com rigidez adequada, ausência de rachaduras e de bolhas, fácil dissolução em água e sensorial agradável. As formulações foram submetidas a diferentes temperaturas para avaliação preliminar da estabilidade. Foram desenvolvidos dois produtos, um contendo extratos hidroglicólicos de Aloe Vera e de Rosa Branca, auxiliares no tratamento da acne, e outro contendo extratos hidroglicólicos de Camomila e de Pera, auxiliares no combate a olheiras. Pequenos, leves e finos, os cosméticos em filme representam inovação que pode ocupar o lugar de produtos tradicionais, por proporcionarem maior praticidade e facilidade de uso e de transporte, mantendo a eficácia e a segurança necessárias a um cosmético.As a result of the innovation in this sector, cosmetics have emerged in film format. Starting from an initial formula containing a polysaccharide consisting of maltotriose units as a film former and sodium polyacrylate as gelling agent, viscous gels were obtained and dispersed in glass plate, in order to obtain 1 mm thick films. After drying to room temperature, they were cut out (1 cm2 and conditioned. Various alterations were carried out in order to obtain a film with good flexibility, adequate rigidity, without cracks and bubbles, easy dissolution in water and a pleasant feel

  5. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) part 6-2 : generic standards : immunity for industrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, for which no designed product or product-family immunity standard exists. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered, in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. Test requirements are specified for each port considered. Apparatus intended to be used in industrial locations are characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: - a power network exists powered by a high or medium voltage power transformer for the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant; - industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus; - heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; - currents and associated magnetic fields are high.

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) part 6-2 : generic standards : immunity for industrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, for which no designed product or product-family immunity standard exists. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered, in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. Test requirements are specified for each port considered. Apparatus intended to be used in industrial locations are characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: - a power network exists powered by a high or medium voltage power transformer for the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant; - industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus; - heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; - currents and associated magnetic fields are high.

  9. Exposure method development for risk assessment to cosmetic products using a standard composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillotte, G; Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Roudot, A C

    2014-06-01

    In a risk assessment of cosmetic products, it is necessary to know both qualitative and quantitative compositions. Currently, European Regulation No. 1223/2009 requires the industries to provide ingredient lists for finished cosmetic products but not their concentrations. Ingredient concentrations are available in few bibliographic references but in an incomplete and approximate way. In this study, we propose a method to qualitatively and quantitatively estimate the composition of a cosmetic product. This method has the advantages of being applicable to all cosmetic products and supplying concentration data for all ingredients. The results obtained seem quite fair compared to literature data. Applied to nail polish as an example, this method can be used to assess exposure per ingredient according to the Monte Carlo probabilistic method. It should be promising to assess the consumer risk to cosmetic product compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on...

  11. Research and industrialization of near-net rolling technology used in shaft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenghuan; Wang, Baoyu; Zheng, Zhenhua

    2018-03-01

    Shaft part rolling is an efficient and green nearnet shaping technology offering many advantages, including high production efficiency, high material utilization rate, high product quality, and excellent production environment. In this paper, the features of shaft part rolling are introduced along with the working principles of two main shaft part rolling technologies, namely, cross wedge rolling (CWR) and skew rolling (SR). In relation to this technology, some R&D achievements gained by the University of Science and Technology Beijing are summarized. Finally, the latest developments in shaft part rolling are presented, including SR steel balls, precise forming of camshaft blank by CWR, SR phosphorous copper balls at room temperature, and CWR hollow axle sleeve. Although the shaft part rolling technology has been widely used in China, it only accounts for about 15% of applicable parts at present. Nevertheless, this technology has broad application prospects.

  12. The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part I : Why Measuring Fertility Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Sear, Rebecca; Barrett, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Is fertility relevant to evolutionary analyses conducted in modern industrial societies? This question has been the subject of a highly contentious debate, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to this day. Researchers in both evolutionary and social sciences have argued that the measurement of fitness-related traits (e.g., fertility) offers little insight into evolutionary processes, on the grounds that modern industrial environments differ so greatly from those of our ancestral past that our behavior can no longer be expected to be adaptive. In contrast, we argue that fertility measurements in industrial society are essential for a complete evolutionary analysis: in particular, such data can provide evidence for any putative adaptive mismatch between ancestral environments and those of the present day, and they can provide insight into the selection pressures currently operating on contemporary populations. Having made this positive case, we then go on to discuss some challenges of fertility-related analyses among industrialized populations, particularly those that involve large-scale databases. These include "researcher degrees of freedom" (i.e., the choices made about which variables to analyze and how) and the different biases that may exist in such data. Despite these concerns, large datasets from multiple populations represent an excellent opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses in great detail, enriching the evolutionary understanding of human behavior.

  13. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pollution, particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all forms of man's activities that results in contamination of the surface water. Wastewater samples were collected from two (2) ...

  14. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharg...

  15. On-Demand Spare Parts for the Marine Industry with Directed Energy Deposition : Propeller Use Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Hamilton, Kelvin; Meboldt, Mirko; Klahn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing (AM) gains greater industrial exposure, there is a drive towards defining practical, high-value processes and products. Defining viable business cases is critical to ensure successful technology adoption. Given the marine industry’s slow uptake of AM, the potential of Wire

  16. Analytical evaluation of current starch methods used in the international sugar industry: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha; Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-08-01

    Several analytical starch methods exist in the international sugar industry to mitigate starch-related processing challenges and assess the quality of traded end-products. These methods use iodometric chemistry, mostly potato starch standards, and utilize similar solubilization strategies, but had not been comprehensively compared. In this study, industrial starch methods were compared to the USDA Starch Research method using simulated raw sugars. Type of starch standard, solubilization approach, iodometric reagents, and wavelength detection affected total starch determination in simulated raw sugars. Simulated sugars containing potato starch were more accurately detected by the industrial methods, whereas those containing corn starch, a better model for sugarcane starch, were only accurately measured by the USDA Starch Research method. Use of a potato starch standard curve over-estimated starch concentrations. Among the variables studied, starch standard, solubilization approach, and wavelength detection affected the sensitivity, accuracy/precision, and limited the detection/quantification of the current industry starch methods the most. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Thermo-mechanical process modelling of industrially pultruded parts having UD and CFM layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Numerical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow profile is presented. The product contains the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) roving layers made of glass/polyester. The distortion and stress evolutions together with the temperature and degree...

  18. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  19. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients referred to Razi hospital cosmetic clinic with complaints of cosmetic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang Ehsani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital were selected if they agreed to participate in the study. They were evaluated by Yale brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder (YBOCS-BDD as well as questionnaires containing demographic characteristics of patients including gender, educational status, marital status, history of reference to psychiatrist or psychologist, other medication, history of cosmetic surgery and rate of satisfaction of cosmetic surgery. YBOCS-BDD questionnaires then processed by educated specialist to determine BDD score of patie-nts. Demographic questionnaires, also analysed to evaluate epidemiologic properties of patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Results: The prevalence of BDD in current sample was 33.3%. 70.7% of BDD patients were female while 29.3% were male. The commonest age range was 21-50 years (82.8%. 65.5% were educated to level of diploma or lower, while 34.5% had academic degrees. 51.7% were married. 20.7% had history of reference to psychiatrist or psycholo-gist. 17/2% had history of cosmetic surgery with satisfaction ranging from unsatisfied (20% to relative satisfaction (80%. None were fully satisfied.Conclusion: BDD had high prevalence in patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi skin hospital. This high rate of prevalence show the necessity of diagnosis of BDD in skin patients and it is critical for them to refer to psychiatrists or psychologists.

  20. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  1. Exceptional cosmetic surgeries on homology spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelomanana, Huygens C.

    2016-01-01

    The cosmetic surgery conjecture is a longstanding conjecture in 3-manifold theory. We present a theorem about exceptional cosmetic surgery for homology spheres. Along the way we prove that if the surgery is not a small seifert $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$-homology sphere or a toroidal irreducible non-Seifert surgery then there is at most one pair of exceptional truly cosmetic slope. We also prove that toroidal truly cosmetic surgeries on integer homology spheres must be integer homology spheres.

  2. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact Sensitization to Allergens in Nail Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Margaret; Dhingra, Nikhil; Strugar, Tamara Lazic

    Ingredients found in the nail cosmetic industry, including but not limited to methacrylate and acrylate monomers, formaldehyde, and toluene sulfonamide-formaldehyde resin, can incite allergic contact dermatitis. An eczematous outbreak presents on areas surrounding the nail plate and may spread through contact transfer of the allergen, commonly to the face and neck. Even components that were originally deemed nonsensitizing, such as the ubiquitous cyanoacrylate adhesive family, have been found to be allergenic. They do not, however, cross-react with methacrylates and acrylates. Alternative options for individuals with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to these ingredients can be avoidance of these procedures or use of products that are "3, 4, 5 free" in which the common allergens dibutyl phthalate, toluene, and formaldehyde are absent. In cases where strengthening of the nail is the sole purpose, nail wraps or preformed nails can be applied for non-cyanoacrylate-sensitive individuals.

  4. Drugs and Cosmetics from the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anake Kijjoa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. This diversity has been the source of unique chemical compounds with the potential for industrial development as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, molecular probes, fine chemicals and agrochemicals. In recent years, a significant number of novel metabolites with potent pharmacological properties has been discovered from the marine organisms. Although there are only a few marine-derived products currently on the market, several robust new compounds derived from marine natural products are now in the clinical pipeline, with more clinical development. While the marine world offers an extremely rich resource for novel compounds, it also represents a great challenge that requires inputs from various scientific areas to bring the marine chemical diversity up to its therapeutic potential.

  5. Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierfrancesco MorgantiDepartment of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, delivery systems, chitin nanofibrils, TiO2, ZnO

  6. Consumer exposure to certain ingredients of cosmetic products: The case for tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Bernhard O

    2017-10-01

    Reliable exposure data are essential to evaluate the safety of ingredients in cosmetics. The study reported here was carried out on behalf of the Australian Tea Tree Industry Association in order to support safety assessment of TTO in consumer cosmetic products. Data regarding the use of TTO-containing cosmetic products were collected through a web-survey among 2535 qualified users of validated TTO-containing cosmetics in 5 European countries. Data regarding the percentage of TTO present in the individual products (TTO-inclusion) were collected from the suppliers of those products. Beyond TTO exposure-measures there were several significant findings: One is a special "TTO-effect" for several categories of TTO-containing cosmetic products showing a positive correlation between consumers' strength of TTO-orientation and frequency of product use, combined with a negative correlation between frequency of product use and amount of product used per application. Another is significant differences regarding the intensity of product use between TTO-containing cosmetics and respective types of products in general. Thus it seems not to be appropriate to evaluate the toxicological safety of certain ingredients of cosmetic products from exposure data on "generic" types of cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 510 - Nonmanufacturing Industries Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. B Appendix B to Part 510—Nonmanufacturing... Photographic studios, portrait. 7221 3 Photographic studios, portrait. 723 1 Beauty shops. 7231 1 Beauty shops...

  8. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  9. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  10. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  11. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  13. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  14. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  15. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  17. The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part II : The Association between Wealth and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Sear, Rebecca; Schaffnit, Susan B; Mills, Melinda C; Barrett, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the association between wealth and fertility in industrial populations have a rich history in the evolutionary literature, and they have been used to argue both for and against a behavioral ecological approach to explaining human variability. We consider that there are strong arguments in favor of measuring fertility (and proxies thereof) in industrial populations, not least because of the wide availability of large-scale secondary databases. Such data sources bring challenges as well as advantages, however. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these by examining the association between wealth and reproductive success in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979. We conduct a broad-based exploratory analysis of the relationship between wealth and fertility, employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, and multiple measures of both wealth (income and net worth) and fertility (lifetime reproductive success and transitions to first, second and third births). We highlight the kinds of decisions that have to be made regarding sample selection, along with the selection and construction of explanatory variables and control measures. Based on our analyses, we find a positive effect of both income and net worth on fertility for men, which is more pronounced for white men and for transitions to first and second births. Income tends to have a negative effect on fertility for women, while net worth is more likely to positively predict fertility. Different reproductive strategies among different groups within the same population highlight the complexity of the reproductive ecology of industrial societies. These results differ in a number of respects from other analyses using the same database. We suggest this reflects the impossibility of producing a definitive analysis, rather than a failure to identify the "correct" analytical strategy. Finally, we discuss how these findings inform us about (mal)adaptive decision-making.

  18. Removal of Vanadium from Molten Aluminum—Part III. Analysis of Industrial Boron Treatment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Akbar Rhamdhani, Muhammad; Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Grandfield, John

    2014-04-01

    Transition metal impurities (V, Ti, Zr, and Cr) reduce the electrical conductivity of smelter grade aluminum. These impurities are removed in the form of their borides by reacting with added Al-B master alloys i.e., boron treatment. Although, boron treatment is widely used for the production of high purity aluminum alloys in casthouse the fundamental understanding is lacking and published industrial data are limited. In the current study, industrial trials on the removal of impurities were conducted at one of the high purity aluminum alloys producers in Australasia. Kinetics analysis revealed that the rate of reaction is controlled by the mass transfer of impurities in the bulk melt. The measured mass transfer coefficient ( k m) of V and Ti were 1.1 × 10-4 and 2.6 × 10-4 m/s respectively, in the naturally stirred molten aluminum. The rate of V and Ti removal was faster compared to Zr and Cr during the boron treatment of smelter grade aluminum. Mass balance analysis revealed that 70 wt pct of V and Ti combined as borides in the first hour of the total 12 hours of boron treatment process. The calculated amount of un-reacted B was approximately 25.5 wt pct of initial amount added that remained in the final alloy. There was no evidence of boride rings formation, although partially dissolved AlB12 particles were observed under scanning electron microscope. Finally, implications for industrial practice are discussed for the improvement of current boron treatment process that include changing the source of boron, multiple stage addition of boron and better stirring of the molten aluminum.

  19. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.

    2003-01-01

    , organic content, heating value, etc. In particular some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel....... Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine...

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationships in fish toxicity studies. Part 1: relationship for 50 industrial pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenemann, H.

    1981-01-01

    LC50-experiments have been conducted using guppies subjected to 72 industrial pollutants. The correlation of the LC50 with several expressions of the hydrophobicity of these chemicals has been studied. Calculated log Poct-values appeared to satisfy more than HPLC retention indices, solubility data or molecular connectivity indices. One QSAR, with log Poct as the only variable, gave good estimations of the toxicity of most of the tested compounds with log Poct less than 6. No LC50 could be determined for solutions of compounds with log Poct greater than 6.

  1. Essential Oils and Herbal Extracts as Antimicrobial Agents in Cosmetic Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis,Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essenti...

  2. Risk Assessment at the Cosmetic Product Manufacturer by Expert Judgment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Larionova, E. V.; Mezenceva, I. L.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2017-05-01

    A case study was performed in a cosmetic product manufacturer. We have identified the main risk factors of occupational accidents and their causes. Risk of accidents is assessed by the expert judgment method. Event tree for the most probable accident is built and recommendations on improvement of occupational health and safety protection system at the cosmetic product manufacturer are developed. The results of this paper can be used to develop actions to improve the occupational safety and health system in the chemical industry.

  3. The impact of cosmetic surgery media portrayals on body image and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina

    2014-01-01

    The cosmetic surgery industry has rapidly expanded and Professional Associations for surgery in the UK and USA have expressed concern over the ways in which surgery is portrayed in the media. This thesis aimed to investigate how different portrayals of cosmetic surgery in the media impact women and adolescent girls’ body image and attitudes towards surgery. Moreover, it examined a number of moderating variables which may affect responses to such media.\\ud The first three studies examined the ...

  4. The Myth of White Skin: A Postcolonial Review of Cosmetics Ads in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and c...

  5. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  6. Universal Tool Grinder Operator Instructor's Guide. Part of Single-Tool Skills Program Machine Industries Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The document is an instructor's guide for a course on universal tool grinder operation. The course is designed to train people in making complicated machine setups and precision in the grinding operations and, although intended primarily for adult learners, it can be adapted for high school use. The guide is divided into three parts: (1) the…

  7. Cosmetic surgery in mid life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, G

    1984-05-01

    The aging of the skin and supportive tissues in mid-life causes a deterioration in appearance and/or accentuates preexisting deformities. This can adversely affect the patient's self image and self-respect. Cosmetic or esthetic surgery helps to rejuvenate the aging features to improve the patient's self-image and restore self-confidence. This article discusses the various corrective procedures, their indications, extent, morbidity, complications and cost.

  8. Cosmetic Surgery in Mid Life

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Gunter

    1984-01-01

    The aging of the skin and supportive tissues in mid-life causes a deterioration in appearance and/or accentuates preexisting deformities. This can adversely affect the patient's self image and self-respect. Cosmetic or esthetic surgery helps to rejuvenate the aging features to improve the patient's self-image and restore self-confidence. This article discusses the various corrective procedures, their indications, extent, morbidity, complications and cost.

  9. Testing of cosmetics and toiletries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1986-01-01

    Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining...... the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products....

  10. Testing of cosmetics and toiletries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1986-01-01

    Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining ...... the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products....

  11. Safety Assessment of Alumina and Aluminum Hydroxide as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    This is a safety assessment of alumina and aluminum hydroxide as used in cosmetics. Alumina functions as an abrasive, absorbent, anticaking agent, bulking agent, and opacifying agent. Aluminum hydroxide functions as a buffering agent, corrosion inhibitor, and pH adjuster. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluated the safe use of alumina in several medical devices and aluminum hydroxide in over-the-counter drugs, which included a review of human and animal safety data. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered the FDA evaluations as part of the basis for determining the safety of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Alumina used in cosmetics is essentially the same as that used in medical devices. This safety assessment does not include metallic or elemental aluminum as a cosmetic ingredient. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that alumina and aluminum hydroxide are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Revitalize the US silicon/ferrosilicon industry through energy-efficient technology. Part 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H.R.; Welborn, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    It is concluded that silicon metal and ferrosilicon can be very effectively produced in a DC submerged arc furnace. Specific energy consumption factors measured were favorable to the technology. Significant energy savings over conventional AC practice are likely. Hollow electrode feeding of the furnace does not appear feasible. Electrode consumption was 0.144 lbs/lb so silicon while making metal, much of which occurred above the burden pile. Silicon loss to fume averaged 19.5% of the silicon charge. In this furnace, 50% FeSi was more difficult to produce than silicon metal, and the furnace could not be run with full burden; it was operated successfully about 3/4 full. In the silicon metal portion, the furnace was operated in a fully submerged mode for several 3-day test campaigns. The industry must seriously consider the identified benefits of DC plasma arc technology for retrofit or new added silicon capacity.

  13. Microscopy of Common Nail Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Katelyn A; Clay, Tiffany; Vidal, Claudia I; Chaudhry, Sofia; Hurley, Maria Y

    2017-11-01

    Nail clipping specimens are commonly submitted for the microscopic evaluation of nail disease; however, there may be missing clinical history regarding nail polish or other adornments present on the nail at the time of specimen retrieval. For this study, 6 types of nail cosmetics were chosen and applied to the nail plate of a volunteer. After a period of at least 24 hours, the nail plates with adornments and a control nail plate were clipped and placed in formalin. Specimens were processed using a standard nail protocol. All of the specimens, except the sticker appliqué, survived the fixation process. The glitter nail polish was the only specimen found to be polarizable. None of the specimens that survived fixation were found to be PAS-positive. Cosmetic nail enhancements are easily differentiated from the nail plate microscopically; nail cosmetics appear as a distinct layer of inorganic material lying atop the nail plate. There were 2 main microscopic patterns noted on the specimens: those with 2 layers and those with 3 layers.

  14. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  15. Analysis of application of various materials for manufacturing parts of motor car bodies in automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Григорівна Гаврилова

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents an analysis of applying various steels for manufacturing motor-car bodies. There is a brief description of cold-rolled sheet steels RRST 1405 produced according to the standards DIN 1623 and DIN 1541; UST 1203, UST 1303 according to DIN 1624 and DIN 1606; ST 4, 08MnSiAlTi, 07MnNbAl and also a classification and a brief description of steels made according to USLAB: IF-steel with increased formability, thermo-strengthened BH-steel, dual phase (DP steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steels, martensitic (Mart steels, austenitic high-tensile steels – (TWIP steels, high strength steels of new generation of AHSS type (advanced high-strength steels and UHSS (ultra high-strength steels, high-strength steels and superplastic steels of new generation for lightweight constructions (TRIPLEX-steel, hot-rolled nano-structured steel NANOHITEN. It has been shown that the main tendency in modern approach to engineering and manufacturing sheet steel used in automotive industry is to increase strength while maintaining formability characteristics, reducing the coefficient of normal plastic anisotropy (Lankford value ratio, as well as increasing srengthening at deformation. The advantages and disadvantages of the materials used in the automotive industry have been shown, as well as ways of their improving. The work represents a compilation of several publications. The materials can be used for developing a training course «Materials to be used in transport» within the framework of the International Project on reforming curricula TEMPUS «MMATENG»: «Two-stage Training Program for Engineering Materials Curriculum Modernization»

  16. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  17. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  18. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reparatory and Manufacturing Hard-Facing of Working Parts Made of Stainless Steels in Confectionary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rakic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the sake of improving the reparatory hard-facing technology is especially analyzed reparatory hard-facing of tools for manufacturing compressed products in confectionary industry. Those products are being made of a mixture consisting of several powdery components, which is compressed under high pressure. In that way the connection between particles is realized, thus achieving certain hardness and strength of the confectionary product. The considered tool is made of high-alloyed stainless steel. The tool contains 30 identical working places. Besides the production process wear, on those tools, from time to time, appear mechanical damage on some of the products' shape punches, as cracks at the edges, where the products' final shapes are formed. Those damages are small, size wise, but they cause strong effect on the products' final shape. The aggravating circumstance is that the shape punch is extremely loaded in pressure, thus after the reparatory hard-facing, the additional heat treatment is necessary. Mechanical properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ are being leveled by annealing and what also partially reduces the residual internal stresses.

  20. VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods—Part 2: Factors affecting indoor and outdoor concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher

    Many microenvironmental and behavioral factors can affect concentrations of and exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Identifying these determinants is important to understand exposures and risks, and also to design policies and strategies that minimize concentrations. This study is aimed at determining factors associated with VOC concentrations found indoors in residences and outdoors in ambient air. It utilizes results from a comprehensive field study in which 98 VOCs were measured both inside and outside of 159 residences in three communities in southeast Michigan, USA. Additional measurements included indoor CO 2 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, building and neighborhood characteristics, and occupant activities, assessed using a questionnaire and comprehensive walkthrough investigation. Factors potentially affecting concentrations were identified using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Outdoors, seasonal and community effects were observed. Indoors, seasonal effects were limited to the urban and industrial communities, largely due to changes in ambient levels. Elevated indoor VOC concentrations were associated with eight sources or activities: the presence of an attached garage; recent renovations; older residences; indoor smoking; less frequent window or door opening; higher CO 2 concentrations; and lower ventilation rates. VOC levels were uninfluenced by building materials (wood vs. brick), flooring type (carpeting vs. wood), stove type (gas or electric), number of occupants, air freshener use, and hobbies involving arts and crafts. Factor analyses identified up to five factors for the ambient VOC measurements, and up to 10 factors for the indoor measurements, which further helped to explain the variability of concentrations and associations between VOCs.

  1. A Moral (Normative) Framework for the Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Omar J

    2017-12-01

    The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for moral judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The moral framework provides the basis of judging actions as "moral" or "immoral" based on three levels of moral accountability: personal, professional, and social. The social aspect of the proposed framework is developed primarily from the essential attributes of normative business decision-making models identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes related to professional and personal moral values. The normative decision-making models reviewed are based primarily on social attributes as related to moral theories (e.g., utilitarianism, duty, rights, virtue, etc.). The professional and moral attributes are established by identifying a set of common moral values recognized by professionals in the construction industry and required to prevent common construction breaches. The moral framework presented here is the complementary part of the ethical framework developed in Part I of this article and is based primarily on the personal behavior or the moral aspect of professional responsibility. The framework can be implemented as a form of preventive personal ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral implications in the first place

  2. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an interest for those specialists who are involved in solution of efficiency problems in light industry of Belarus as one of the significant industries that forms an economic situation in the Republic, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant for the Belarusian enterprises to reduce production costs in order to preserve and strengthen positions in the light industry market. Operating capacities for production of natural, synthetic textile and knit-wear materials and their subsequent treatment are in many respects unjustifiably energy intensive. Nowadays the only acceptable solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component. Such approach requires transition to creation of modern heat and power supply systems at heat technology enterprises.The most important sub-system of the enterprises is own combined production of energy flows of secondary electrical and heat energy, freeze. There is a complex of problems that arise during designing process of tri-generation unit. One of the most important problems presupposes determination of a base load demand and capacity of every energy flow generated by an energy source. The solution is directly related to production output, which in its turn is determined by the requirements of sales markets. Due to various reasons the markets have their own specificity for the enterprises under consideration. It is proposed to use statistical methods for searching requirements. In this connection it is necessary to take into account industry development rate (pre-determined by State Programs, Plans, Governmental solutions, including directive instructions, production volumes of competitive goods and actual goods situation on the sales market.The paper presents the first part of the executed complex investigations which are directed on the development of scientifically-substantiated proposals for higher energy efficiency of the

  3. Legislative Aspects of Cosmetic Safety in the European Union: The Case of Contact Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Basketter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the European Union (EU has amongst its many tenets and principles the aim, enshrined in an EU Directive, that cosmetic products should not cause harm to the consumer. To a great extent, this is been successful, although it is noteworthy that the frequency of contact allergy to a number of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics has remained stubbornly high. Perhaps because of this, but certainly because of the drive by the European Commission towards better, more streamlined, regulation, the Directive was recast into a Regulation, usually referred to as the EU Cosmetics Regulation ((EC No 1223/2009. As with the Directive, for each and every cosmetic product placed on the consumer market in the EU, a safety assessment is required. The Regulation requires that a dossier is prepared detailing the composition of the product, the safety of each of its ingredients, as well as an evaluation of overall product safety. This has to be completed by suitably trained and qualified assessors. Also relevant to cosmetic products are the general regulations pertaining to chemicals used in the EU where again many details of the toxicological profile must be ascertained and reviewed. On this basis, it should be possible to ensure that the extent of contact allergy attributed to cosmetic products declines. However, legislation is one thing, but it is also necessary to ensure that the cosmetic industry safety assessment process is completed in a rigourous manner (or even done at all and that demands enforcement of the legislation.

  4. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  5. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

    2009-08-01

    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant.

  6. The cosmetic results after oncoplastic breast surgery in Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviani A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The oncoplastic surgery has been revolutionized breast conservative surgery. The aim of our study was to represent the cosmetic outcome of oncoplastic breast surgery in Iran and to evaluate its determinants. "n"nMethods: Fifty eight patients with unilateral breast neoplasm operated with single surgeon in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Three view photographs were obtained pre and post operatively and were put in separate PowerPoint slides. The photographs were evaluated by six health related professionals. They scored the cosmetic outcome with modified questionnaire containing general and specific questions. Weighted kappa used for intra and inters rater reliability and ANOVA was used for analyzing cosmetic outcome determinants. "n"nResults: Generally, 72.2% of the photographs got the excellent or good score in a single breast evaluation part. Its items breast size, nipple deviation and scar quality scored 94.2, 67.9 and 88.8 respectively. "In comparison with contra-lateral breast" part shape asymmetry, need for surgery of contra lateral breast and size asymmetry scored 68.9, 75.8 and 69% respectively. Tumor size greater than two cm had poorer outcome (p=0.039 upper outer quadrant tumor had the worst and upper inner quadrant tumors had the best outcomes (p<0.0001. Patient with 50 to 60 years of age had the poorest outcomes (p<0.0001. Weighted kappa for inter and intra rater kappa was 0.12 and 0.58 respectively. "n"nConclusions: Acceptable cosmetic outcome is obtained in the first experience of oncoplastic breast surgery in Iran. Long term monitoring of oncologic and cosmetic outcomes in greater numbers of patients is recommended.

  7. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C.

    2011-01-01

    To run a successful medical practice and business, financial awareness is key. Cosmetic surgery is tied to the economy – as the economy improves, the demand for cosmetic surgery rises and vice versa. Surgeons must have a good understanding of financial decision making to optimize profitability. This article reviewed the financial records of a five-surgeon cosmetic surgery practice in Texas, USA, from 2003 to 2008, to investigate the methods of payment used for products, services and procedure...

  8. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A L; Kramer, R.S.S.; Ward, R

    2014-01-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown - how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned - often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer g...

  9. "We're Part of the Solution": Evolution of the Food and Beverage Industry's Framing of Obesity Concerns Between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Wilking, Cara; Dorfman, Lori; Daynard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be "part of the solution" to the public health crisis.

  10. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, I T; Estevinho, B N; Santos, L

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the consumers around the world are increasingly focused on health and beauty. The renewed consumer interest in natural cosmetic products creates the demand for new products and reformulated others with botanical and functional ingredients. In cosmetic products, essential oils (EOs) play a major role as fragrance ingredients. They can optimize its proprieties and preservation, as well as the marketing image of the final product. Microencapsulation of EOs can protect and prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients and improve the controlled release and stability of this core materials. The importance of EOs for cosmetic industry and its microencapsulation was reviewed in this study. Also a briefly introduction about the preparation of microparticles was presented. Some of the most important and usual microencapsulation techniques of EOs, as well as the conventional encapsulating agents, were discussed. Despite the fact that microencapsulation of EOs is a very promising and extremely attractive application area for cosmetic industry, further basic research needs to be carried out, for a better understanding of the biofunctional activities of microencapsulated EOs and its release modulation, as well as the effects of others cosmetic ingredients and the storage time in the microparticles properties. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Special aspects of cosmetic spray safety evaluations: principles on inhalation risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, H; Fautz, R; Gerber, E; Neumann, L; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Gronewold, C

    2011-08-28

    The consumer exposure to the vast majority of cosmetic products is limited to dermal contact. Even spray applications tend to be topically exposed to skin or hair. Besides this skin contact, spray products require additional considerations in regard to potential inhalation for building a robust and reliable safety assessment. Over the years, cosmetic industry developed prediction models for the best estimate of inhalation exposure combining data from computer simulation programs available in the market, individual real measured data and last but not least the experience from the market. Such attempt is driven by the toxicological profile of individual used ingredients. The focus of this review is on the determination of inhalation exposure, and the derivation of safe exposure levels for cosmetic spray products. Many of the methods employed to ensure product safety of cosmetic sprays in accordance with the general requirements of the EC Cosmetics Directive are based on industry experience which are not necessarily consistent across companies. This paper presents an approach to compile common principles for risk assessment and thus contribute to standardisation of safety assessment methodologies utilized for spray product evaluation without interfering with the flexibility of the individual safety assessor. It is based on the experience within the author's companies and may be useful as a support document as well for SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) companies safety assessors. In this respect it can be seen as one fundamental step in a tiered approach of cosmetic spray safety evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exceptional Cosmetic surgeries on $S^3$

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelomanana, Huygens C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the truly or purely cosmetic surgery conjecture. We give a survey on exceptional surgeries and cosmetic surgeries. We prove that the slope of an exceptional truly cosmetic surgery on a hyperbolic knot in $S^3$ must be $\\pm 1$ and the surgery must be toroidal but not Seifert fibred. As consequence we show that there are no exceptional truly cosmetic surgeries on certain types of hyperbolic knot in $S^3$. We also give some properties of Heegaard Floer correction terms and to...

  13. Does cosmetic surgery improve psychosocial wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, David J; Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2006-01-01

    Both men and women are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearance and are seeking cosmetic enhancement. Most studies report that people are generally happy with the outcome of cosmetic procedures, but little rigorous evaluation has been done. More extensive (“type change”) procedures (eg, rhinoplasty) appear to require greater psychological adjustment by the patient than “restorative” procedures (eg, face-lift). Patients who have unrealistic expectations of outcome are more likely to be dissatisfied with cosmetic procedures. Some people are never satisfied with cosmetic interventions, despite good procedural outcomes. Some of these have a psychiatric disorder called “body dysmorphic disorder”. PMID:12064961

  14. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients.

  15. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention are positively related to the consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products. By addressing the consumers’ traits that can predict halal cosmetics and personal care products necessity, marketers could generate proper marketing strategies to validate consumers’ demand which in turn will stimulate the growth of halal products industry in Indonesia.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.1867

  16. Final report of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients derived from Zea mays (corn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2011-05-01

    Many cosmetic ingredients are derived from Zea mays (corn). While safety test data were not available for most ingredients, similarities in preparation and the resulting similar composition allowed extrapolation of safety data to all listed ingredients. Animal studies included acute toxicity, ocular and dermal irritation studies, and dermal sensitization studies. Clinical studies included dermal irritation and sensitization. Case reports were available for the starch as used as a donning agent in medical gloves. Studies of many other endpoints, including reproductive and developmental toxicity, use corn oil as a vehicle control with no reported adverse effects at levels used in cosmetics. While industry should continue limiting ingredient impurities such as pesticide residues before blending into a cosmetic formulation, the CIR Expert Panel determined that corn-derived ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration described in the assessment.

  17. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  18. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains a...

  19. Cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership: relations with cosmetic surgery attitudes, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Steffanie; Thompson, J Kevin; Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2007), the number of cosmetic procedures has increased to over 10 million in 2006, representing a 48% increase from 2000. This increase in cosmetic surgery prevalence is paralleled by a surge in reality cosmetic surgery television programming. The current study examined the relationships among cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership, cosmetic surgery attitudes, body image, and disordered eating in a sample of 2057 college women. Viewership of reality cosmetic surgery shows was significantly related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, past attainment of a cosmetic procedure, a decreased fear of surgery, as well as overall body dissatisfaction, media internalization, and disordered eating. Although the current study is correlational, it provides a framework for future hypothesis testing and elucidates the link between contemporary media influences, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and cosmetic surgery attitudes. Additionally, the findings indicate that surgeons may want to assess the relevance of cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership for patients' attitudes towards and expectations about cosmetic surgery.

  20. Factor structure and correlates of the acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale among South Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hwang, Choon-Sup; Jung, Jaehee

    2012-02-01

    Research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery has focused on relatively affluent Western samples, to the exclusion of non-Western samples and any potential cross-cultural differences. While rates of cosmetic surgery in South Korea have risen sharply in the past decade, mirroring rates in other East Asian nations, little is known about attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in the Korean population. To examine the factor structure and correlates of a Korean adaptation of the previously-published Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS). South Korean university students (N = 267) completed the ACSS, as well as included Korean translations of measures for actual vs. ideal body weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and demographics. The Korean ACSS reduced to a two-factor solution, mirroring results among other non-Western samples, although a one-factor solution was deemed more plausible. Compared to men, women had significantly higher total scores, suggesting that they were more accepting of cosmetic surgery. A multiple regression showed that, after controlling for the effects of participant sex, the only significant predictor of acceptance of cosmetic surgery was general body appreciation, suggesting that some may view cosmetic surgery as a means of enhancing their body image. The results reveal important global information for plastic surgeons-not only on the treatment of non-Western patients but on the South Korean market, in which the cosmetic surgery industry remains unregulated. Given the popularity and acceptance of cosmetic surgery in South Korea, there is an urgent need for regulatory intervention to ensure patient safety and satisfaction.

  1. Kant and the cosmetic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J S

    1989-07-01

    Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.

  2. Nail cosmetics: allergies and irritations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent precise figures are not available for the number of adverse reactions related to the use of nail care products. Reactions to nail cosmetic procedures may be divided into reactions at the site of application to the nail itself and ectopic reactions, when the hand transfers a small amount of nail cosmetic to other areas of the skin. Fingernail coatings encompass two types: coatings that harden upon evaporation (nail enamel, base coat, top coat); and coatings that polymerize (sculptured nails, light-curing gels, preformed artificial nails, nail mending and nail wrapping). The test battery enables us to distinguish allergic reactions from irritant reactions. Interestingly, some reactions, such as distant allergic contact dermatitis, are more frequent with nail enamel than with coatings that polymerize. On the other hand, the latter are greater offenders in the nail area. Nail hardeners may just be modified nail enamels containing nylon fibers, acrylate resin and hydrolyzed proteins. Others may contain up to 5% formaldehyde tissue fixative (which can have adverse effects on the nail), but are designed in the US to be applied only to the free edge of the nail while the skin is shielded. Caution is necessary in interpreting formaldehyde patch testing reactions.

  3. [The dark face of cosmetics. A justified or excessive diatribe?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Hermanns, J-F; Hermanns-Lê, T

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the population and producers of consumer products became aware of deleterious effects of some substances on human health and environment. Cosmetic products are part of such concern. What are the risks currently involved? The so-called "natural", "bio" or "green" products, do they represent an ideal panacea? This topic has a complex issue because documents available for the general public are of unequal quality, and objective scientifc publications remain rare and prone to controversies.

  4. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Cosmetic innovations in the Guerlain patents deposited in the XIXth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Frédéric; Sirot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The XIXth century was the century of the development of hygiene, cosmetics industry, chemistry and modern pharmacy. After the French revolution, a new legislation establishes a law of recognition of the property of the inventors on their inventions. This paper describes the content of patents and certificates deposited in the XIXth century at the INPI, french national institute of the industrial property, by the creators of Guerlain, a luxury brand of perfumes and cosmetics. This paper allows to discover the variety of the inventions which recovers whitening lotion, soaps, ingenious devices and new perfume substances.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  7. An integrated approach of AHP and DEMATEL methods in evaluating the criteria of auto spare parts industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Hung; Tsai, Ya-Ning

    2012-11-01

    This study uses both analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods to evaluate the criteria in auto spare parts industry in Taiwan. Traditionally, AHP does not consider indirect effects for each criterion and assumes that criteria are independent without further addressing the interdependence between or among the criteria. Thus, the importance computed by AHP can be viewed as short-term improvement opportunity. On the contrary, DEMATEL method not only evaluates the importance of criteria but also depicts the causal relations of criteria. By observing the causal diagrams, the improvement based on cause-oriented criteria might improve the performance effectively and efficiently for the long-term perspective. As a result, the major advantage of integrating AHP and DEMATEL methods is that the decision maker can continuously improve suppliers' performance from both short-term and long-term viewpoints.

  8. Comparative analysis of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic environmental auditing: learning from the Japanese automotive industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper does a comparative analysis and assessment of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic ISO 14001 environmental management system auditing that using videoconferencing systems. The focus is on the Japanese automotive industry. The idea is to quantify the environmental impacts of auditing and resolve the important question on whether or not the use of information and communication technology (ICT in environmental auditing reduces environmental impacts in ISO 14001 environmental management systems. The main results show that there are no clear energy savings or environmental advantages associated with ICT use in environmental auditing for the set system boundary. However electronic auditing is shown to have clear advantages for stated variables within the model, for example when the distance travelled by the auditors by train and by car is less than 75 km and 17 km per day respectively. A comparison of modes of travel by auditors, shows that rail travel offers the most environmental and energy benefits. It is also noted that travel dominates in terms of energy consumption and environmental burdens compared to all other environmental aspects associated with auditing. The study contributes to knowledge in that among other things, it enables researchers to draw parallels from it applicable to other industrial sectors and other countries. Southern African countries can use this methodology in analysing auditing methods with little or no changes in the model used.

  9. "Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Beth F.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

  10. Cosmetics for the eye area after cosmetic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden-West, N

    1999-01-01

    Cosmetic enhancement of the eye area after esthetic surgery allows the patient to get back into the mainstream of life faster. It also improves their psychic state by blocking out discoloration, helping to disguise incision scars and artistically coloring the face to enhance the results of the surgery. The patients automatically feel better, when they look better. After a surgical procedure, there are temporary and permanent structural changes that appear with blepharoplasty and laser surgery. Although these surgeries will take away loose skin, puffy fat deposits and wrinkles, they do not change the bone structure or eye placement. Before starting a makeup application, analyzation of the eyes for their structural features help the artist know the value of colors to be used. The measuring points of the brow along with the importance of framing the eye will also be discussed. Once the brows and the eyes have been analyzed, the artist needs to take into consideration the personality of the patient. This helps the artist decide on the colors, value, intensity and design which will be applied to the patient. Before eye makeup can be applied, the use of primers, concealers and/or camouflage creams will be used to block out any discoloration in the eye area. We will look at concerns in formulation of products that will go around the eyes after surgery. The application of cosmetic products should be used as an accessory. Women have a variety of dress styles: casual, business or evening. The style of makeup application should work in conjunction with what they are wearing and how they are feeling at the time. Just as there are many facets to a woman, there are various styles of application to fit her personality.

  11. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers' blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P < 0.050 was considered statistically significant. The average age of workers in the case and control groups was 35.71 ± 8.10 and 33.40 ± 10.41 years, respectively. There was no difference between the average age of case and control groups (P = 0.436). The results of ANCOVA revealed the significant differences between the mean changes of heart rate F (1, 37) = 26.68, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 21.70, P < 0.001, and diastolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 26.20, P < 0.001 of workers in the case and control groups. Exposure to industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables.

  12. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting... entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The purpose of the public meeting is to provide stakeholders an opportunity to present information regarding cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest...

  13. Radiation hygenization of cosmetics; Radiacyjna higienizacja kosmetykow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The Polish regulations connected with trade turnover of cosmetics have been described and discussed. The contamination by microbial flora is very limited and regulated in suitable Polish norm. The possibility of application of radiation technique for pasteurization of different kinds of cosmetics has been discussed. 9 refs, 7 tabs.

  14. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  15. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  16. Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Theo K.; Mulkens, Sandra A.N.; van der Lei, Berend

    Background: Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic

  17. The benefits and hazards of cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D

    1989-06-01

    The benefits of cosmetic surgery are psychotherapeutic. Patients' symptoms of distress caused by self-consciousness of abnormal appearance are cured by an operation that normalizes the abnormality as the patient sees it. Cosmetic surgery is hazardous when insufficient attention is paid to patient selection, the choice of operation and surgical expertise.

  18. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing

  19. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  20. Bioadhesive hydrogels for cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, M E; Ochoa Andrade, A; Ares, G; Russo, F; Jiménez-Kairuz, Á

    2015-10-01

    The use of bioadhesive hydrogels for skin care presents important advantages such as long residence times on the application site and reduced product administration frequency. The aim of the present work was to develop bioadhesive hydrogels for skin application, using caffeine as a model active ingredient. Eight hydrogels were formulated using binary combinations of a primary polymer (carbomer homopolymer type C (Carbopol(®) 980) or kappa carrageenan potassium salt (Gelcarin(®) GP-812 NF)) and a secondary polymer (carbomer copolymer type B (Pemulen(™) TR-1), xanthan gum or guar gum). Hydrogels were characterized by means of physico-chemical (dynamic rheological measurements, spreadability and adhesion measurements) and sensory methods (projective mapping in combination with a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question). Caffeine hydrogels were formulated using two of the most promising formulations regarding adhesion properties and sensory characteristics. In vitro active ingredient release studies were carried out. Hydrogel formulations showed a prevalently elastic rheological behaviour. Complex viscosity of carbomer homopolymer type C hydrogels was higher than that of the kappa carrageenan hydrogels. Besides, complex viscosity values were dependent on the secondary polymer present in the formulation. Significant differences among hydrogels were found in detachment force, work of adhesion and spreading diameter results. Association of projective mapping with CATA allowed to determine similarities and dissimilarities among samples. Cluster analysis associated the samples in two groups. Two hydrogels were selected to study the release of caffeine. Both hydrogels presented similar release profiles which were well described by the Higuchi model. Caffeine release was exclusively controlled by a diffusive process. Physico-chemical and sensory techniques enabled the identification of bioadhesive hydrogel formulations with positive characteristics for cosmetic applications

  1. Acanthamoeba keratitis related to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Soo; Hahn, Tae Won; Choi, Si Hwan; Yu, Hak Sun; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2007-11-01

    We report a rare case of Acanthamoeba keratitis related to cosmetic contact lenses in both eyes. A 17-year-old girl with a history of wearing cosmetic contact lenses presented with keratitis. She purchased cosmetic contact lenses via the Internet, and followed a contact lens care system irregularly, occasionally using tap water. Cell culture was performed on samples collected from a corneal scraping, the contact lenses and the storage cases. The isolated organism was Acanthamoeba. The patient was treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide and chlorhexidine for 3 months, and recovered with normal visual acuity. Poor hygiene and insufficient disinfection may be major risk factors for Acanthameoba keratitis in cosmetic contact lens wearers. The cosmetic contact lens user should receive professional advice before accessing the lenses, and this must be communicated to the public.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  4. Contemporary cosmetic surgery: the potential risks and relevance for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2011-07-01

    To examine and critique the risks of cosmetic surgery and consider implications for practice. Cosmetic surgery is a growing industry with a significant global phenomenon. Feminists have been critical of aesthetic surgery practice, offering a range of representations in regard to 'identity', 'normality', 'cultural and social pressures', 'agency' and 'self-enhancement'. Discourses around minimising risk information acknowledge deficits in not supplying patients with full risk information. The results are usually devastating and lead to serious health complications that incisively diminish well-being for patients and increase health costs. Critical review. This paper represents a critical review of risks associated with cosmetic surgery. A Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (Medline) and British Nursing Index (BNI) search with relevant key words were undertaken and selected exemplary articles and research describing and/or evaluating cosmetic surgery risk. Only papers in the English language from 1982-2009 were reviewed. The papers examined were mainly empirical studies; some opinion papers, policy documents, textbooks and websites were examined too. The literature revealed that several factors influence consumer risks including regulation vagaries, medicalisation processes, fear of ageing discrimination, wanting to avoid ethnic prejudice and media pressure. Government strategies in the United Kingdom (UK) have attempted to improve clinical standards; however, little attempt has been made globally to raise institutional and professional awareness of the huge impact of cultural and social pressures on consumers. Avoiding shattering complications by improving the provision of risk information for patients is a worthwhile goal. Therefore, health professionals need to consider consumer rights and autonomy more carefully, facilitate rigorous screening and develop knowledge in regard to

  5. Influence of different cosmetic formulations on the human skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, K; Heinrich, U; Tronnier, H

    2014-01-01

    The human skin barrier is an important part of the skin's intactness and its functionality is a precondition for healthy skin. Ingredients in cosmetic formulations, especially penetration enhancers, can influence this barrier function as they transport active agents into deeper skin layers. In this study different cosmetic formulations were tested by 60 healthy female volunteers over a period of 4 weeks. The skin hydration and barrier function before and during the application were measured. Significant changes in both parameters were determined. A negative influence on the barrier function by penetration enhancers could be observed, but it was also found that lamellar lipid structures (DermaMembranSysteme®, DMS®) are able to enhance the skin barrier. Both penetration enhancers as well as DMS can increase skin hydration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  7. Fragrance allergens in 'specific' cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Andrea; Drieghe, Jacques; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Goossens, An

    2011-04-01

    Together with preservative agents, fragrance components are the most important sensitizing culprits in cosmetic products. To identify the nature of the fragrance ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from specific cosmetic products. Between 2000 and 2009, positive patch test reactions or positive usage tests with the patients' own cosmetic products, were recorded using a standardised form. Of the 806 cosmetic records, corresponding to 485 patient files, 344 concerned reactions to fragrance ingredients that according to the label were present ('Presence Confirmed' [PC n = 301]) or suspected to be present ('Presence Not Confirmed' [PNC n = 376]) in the causal cosmetic products used, which belonged to 15 different categories, toilet waters/fine perfumes being the most frequent. Geraniol in fragrance mix I (FM I) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in FM II were the most frequent PC, and together with hydroxycitronellal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) the most frequent PNC ingredients in the causal cosmetic products. Limonene was the most frequent PC confirmed fragrance allergen. This study not only underlines the usefulness of fragrance-ingredient labelling in order to identify the causal allergen(s) present in specific cosmetic products, but may also provide information on trends in the actual use of sensitizing fragrance ingredients in them. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Safety of Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeslev, Max; Gupta, Varun; Winocour, Julian; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2017-10-01

    Limited surgical literature currently exists that evaluates postoperative complications after cosmetic surgery in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of major postoperative complications in adolescent patients undergoing cosmetic surgery and compare their complication rates to older patients. A prospective cohort of patients undergoing cosmetic surgical procedures between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Demographics, clinical characteristics, surgical procedures, and major complications in adolescent patients (age 10-19 years) and older patients (≥20 years old) were compared. Risk factors analyzed included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, type of surgical facility, procedure by body region, and combined procedures. Overall, 3519 adolescents and 124,409 older patients underwent cosmetic surgical procedures. The adolescent cohort contained more men (20.0% vs 6.0%, P cosmetic procedures. Adolescent patients had lower complications rates after face, breast, and body procedures compared to the older cohort. The most common postoperative complications in adolescent patients were hematoma (0.34%) and infection (0.28%). Cosmetic surgical procedures in adolescent patients are safe with a lower rate of major postoperative complications compared to older patients. 2.

  9. Failures in risk assessment and risk management for cosmetic preservatives in Europe and the impact on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; White, Ian R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In view of the current and unprecedented increase in contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), we characterized and evaluated two recent epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives used in cosmetic products to address failures in risk assessment and risk management. OBJECTIVE...... the proportion of patients with current clinical disease attributable to methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy decreased significantly following the ban on its use in cosmetic products (p ....001). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of new preservatives in Europe with inadequate pre-market risk assessment has rapidly increased the overall burden of cutaneous disease caused by preservatives. We suggest that the cosmetic industry has a responsibility to react faster and replace troublesome preservatives when...

  10. Trends in the location of the European car industry from an analysis of trade in parts and components; Tendencias en la localizacion de la industria Europea de automocion. Un analisis a partir del comercio de partes y componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Gomez, L.; Diaz Mora, C.; Gandoy Juste, R.

    2010-07-01

    The object of this paper is to study the changes in location and specialization in the European automotive industry since the mid-nineties. The analysis is based on the examination of trade flows, distinguishing between final goods and parts and components, and on the delimitation of revealed comparative advantages for those countries leading the European industry. The results show the significance of the European production networks and the increasing new Eastern member countries role in them. Besides, they allow us to establish the main participant countries competitive position in those networks. As far as the Spanish industry is concerned, two aspects must be pointed out. On the one hand, the decrease in the advantages in cars assembly although the specialization in industrial motor vehicles maintains. And on the other hand, the competitive capacity showed by some auxiliary car industries. (Author) 22 refs.

  11. BOTOX cosmetic for lip and perioral enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert W

    2009-05-01

    BTX-A cosmetic injections around the lip and perioral area take approximately 20 minutes of clinical time to perform. The procedure is a minimally invasive way to provide substantial cosmetic improvement to the signs of aging around the lips and can provide an adjunct to lip augmentation. Incorporating this new treatment into your clinical practice requires additional training. It is best to attend training on both BTX-A injectable fillers for a complete education. (There a many more techniques and injection locations for different lip and perioral cosmetic effects). The above case and dosages demonstrated a conservative approach to achieve a superior lip and perioral result.

  12. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  13. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity-more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness.

  14. Facial cosmetics and attractiveness: comparing the effect sizes of professionally-applied cosmetics and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Alex L.; Robin S S Kramer

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identi...

  15. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identi...

  16. [Cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldès, P; Droupy, S; Cuzin, B

    2013-07-01

    This review studies rationale and outcome of vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery. Medline search of the existing literature utilizing terms labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, hymenoplasty, vaginoplasty, perineoplasty, female genital surgery, sexual satisfaction/body image, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy; references from bibliographies of papers found through the literature search and in the author's reading of available literature until January 2012. Clinicians who receive requests from patients for such procedures should discuss with the patient the reason for request and perform an evaluation for any physical signs or symptoms that may indicate the need for surgical intervention. A physical psychological and sexological evaluation is mandatory before a procedure of female cosmetic genital surgery. Perineoplasties in wide vagina sensations should be proposed after careful evaluation of patients, by trained surgeons, in part of a multidisciplinary approach especially sexologic, after attempt of conservative treatments (pelvic floor rehabilitation). Patients should be informed of results and complications. Female genital mutilation repair with surgery is possible and improve majority of patients. Improvement mechanism is complex and clinical trials are ongoing. Asking for this surgery, is more often result of a deep reflexion for patient who integrate his own story and those of her family. She should be listened to, respected and managed in a reference center. Sexotherapy should be systematically proposed. Concerning hymenoplasty, the procedure is considered as "legally" by medical doctors. Several techniques are available, few described, and there is no evidence-based publication. Labioplasty is a procedure whose patient expectations should be properly evaluated by surgeon and benefits risks should be informed. A preliminary discussion around "normality" and a psychotherapy should be tried, in order to not treat a dysmorphobia by surgery. Vaginal "rejuvenation

  17. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  18. Attitudes of adolescents about cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Anne; Weston, Jane

    2003-06-01

    Although the number of teenagers choosing to have cosmetic procedures is increasing at a rapid rate, few studies have been published describing their attitudes about aesthetic surgery. To understand better their beliefs about cosmetic surgery, voluntary, confidential surveys were sent to the entire junior class of a suburban high school. Although two thirds of the respondents knew someone who had undergone cosmetic surgery, only one third would choose it for themselves. Those who desired aesthetic surgery described people who have cosmetic procedures as "motivated," whereas those who would not choose this option believed individuals who do so are "vain." The most desired procedures were liposuction, rhinoplasty, and breast augmentation. The main reasons for not proceeding were health risks, cost, and fear of a bad result. The most common source of information about plastic surgery among the students was teen magazines and television.

  19. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were using when the infection occurred. Among other cosmetics that are likely to have an unusually short shelf life are certain "all natural" products that may contain plant-derived substances conducive ...

  20. Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokura, Satoshi; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2010-08-01

    Concern is continuously raised regarding the safety of preservatives, which are crucial in most cosmetic preparations. The antimicrobial effects of silver (Ag) are well recognized; however, Ag has some limitations as a preservative, such as its interference with salts. In this study, we investigated the effects of recently synthesized Ag nanoparticles on microorganisms, the permeability of Ag nanoparticles in human skin, and the cytotoxicity of Ag nanoparticles in human keratinocytes under ultraviolet B irradiation. Ag nanoparticles were found to be very stable, and they did not exhibit sedimentation for over 1 year. Ag nanoparticles showed sufficient preservation efficacy against mixed bacteria and mixed fungi, and did not penetrate normal human skin. At concentrations of 0.002-0.02 parts per million, Ag nanoparticles had no effect on HaCaT keratinocytes and did not enhance ultraviolet B-induced cell death. These results suggest that Ag nanoparticles may have potential for use as a preservative in cosmetics. From the clinical editor: In this study, the effects of recently synthesized Ag nanoparticles were investigated on microorganisms, along with the skin permeability and the cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes under UVB-irradiation. Ag nanoparticles were found to be very stable, showed sufficient preservation efficacy against mixed bacteria and mixed fungi, and did not penetrate normal human skin. Ag nanoparticles appear to be suitable for use as a preservative in cosmetics. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Young Russian Men as Cosmetics Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Lautamäki, Heini-Carita

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate Russian young men's attitudes towards cosmetics products and their current consumption behavior. The research aim was to find out which factors were behind young Russian male consumers' cosmetics purchasing decisions. The introduction sought to present a foundation for the thesis. The theoretical framework aimed to provide a relevant background on the topic. In this section a brief overview of the portrayal of men is given with the help of cultural e...

  2. CONSUMERS’ PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS NATURAL COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Matea Matić; Barbara Puh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...

  3. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dermatology, cosmetic and well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, C; Verschoore, M

    2011-01-01

    To the extent that they help improve our appearance, cosmetics can affect how we relate to ourselves and to others, and as such can improve quality of life. Such benefits may be objectively demonstrated using validated methods and quality-of-life scales. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of cosmetics on well-being in various situations based on studies using objective measurement methods. Literature review. In pathological settings, the use of cosmetics can significantly improve the quality of life and well-being of patients, resulting in better acceptance of their disease and better therapeutic compliance. The use of cosmetics has also been shown to exert positive effects on self-esteem and social relations. A growing body of studies also demonstrates the beneficial effects of cosmetics on well-being under normal physiological conditions. Today, the effects and benefits of cosmetics can be measured objectively using quality-of-life scales, allowing initiation of actions for the rediscovery of well-being and self-esteem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of friction and perceived skin feel after application of suspensions of various cosmetic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K; Myant, C; Nuguid, H; Spikes, H A; Grunze, M

    2012-10-01

    The perceived skin feel during and after application of skin care products is highly important to the consumer and therefore to cosmetic formulators. Powder particles are commonly incorporated in cosmetic formulations to improve their sensory properties. Although a large variety of cosmetic powders is available, it is presently uncertain how the particles' properties affect the perceived skin feel. Well-trained panellists usually assess the perceived skin feel; however, these tests are time-consuming and by nature subjective. To address this complexity, the authors have systematically investigated various suspensions of cosmetic powders with regard to the perceived skin feel after application. Furthermore, an in vitro friction measurement set-up was developed which features a tribological contact similar to the mechanical properties and the topography of the contact between finger tip and human skin. A correlation was found between the friction coefficients determined in vitro and the perceived skin feel after sample application (as assessed by a descriptive panel). The results indicate that cosmetic powder particles should be small with a rather irregular shape to better lubricate the tribological contact between finger tip and skin surface, which leads to a more 'powdery' skin feel. It is suggested to carry out further tests with different powder particles or other skin care formulations to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of skin feel improvement and to validate or even partly replace the results of panel testing. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls’ views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15 to 18 (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1)\\ud Dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) Acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) Feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery, and (4) Cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosm...

  9. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mullock, Alexandra; Griffiths, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes ...

  10. Beauty Made in China : Country of Origin Effect on Consumers’ Attitudes towards Chinese Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Kim-Hoa; Kudevičiūtė, Neringa

    2017-01-01

    Background: The emergence of global markets has created new hurdles for managers of international companies, yet provided with opportunities to take advantage of country of origin and transmit product information via “Made in” label. For many years China has been perceived negatively for a number of reason, though Chinese cosmetics is a new venture for the emerging economy.  Purpose: The purpose of this study is to widen the current knowledge of country of origin in the cosmetics industry. Th...

  11. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  12. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: In Vitro Opportunities for the Identification of Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Corsini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are undesired side effects in the development of drugs and cosmetics as well as after contact with environmental or industrial chemicals. Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. Driven by the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetic Directive, the EU policy on chemicals (the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH system, the update of the European legislation on the protection of animals used in research, and emerging visions and strategies for predicting toxicity, in vitro methods are likely to play a major role in the near future. On 12 December 2013, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM, part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre published its Recommendation on the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA for skin sensitization, capable of distinguishing sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Other assays (i.e., KeratinoSens™ assay will follow shortly. While a number of methods are at various stages of development and use, currently it is not possible to rank chemicals for their sensitizing potency, an issue that is important for a full safety assessment. It is expected that a predictive method to totally replace animal testing will be in the form of a test battery comprising molecular, cell-based, and/or computational methods, the so-called “Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment”. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of contact sensitizers.

  13. Estimating the economic effects of cystic echinococcosis. Part 2: an endemic region in the United Kingdom, a wealthy, industrialized economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, P R; Dowling, P M

    2001-03-01

    The economic costs of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Wales, which is part of one of the most highly developed, industrialized countries in the World, were evaluated. In this region, the disease in both sheep and humans causes financial losses. The sheep-related costs in the most highly endemic area, of southern and mid Wales, were estimated from recently published prevalences of the disease in local sheep. No relevant and recent data were available on the sheep in the rest of Wales but these animals were assumed to have lower prevalences, in line with historical data, and were ignored in the economic analysis. The costs of the disease in humans were based on published incidences of human cases treated surgically and the costs of surgery as estimated from hospital records and by costing out the procedures each patient received whilst undergoing treatment. The quality of life of patients treated for CE was also determined and compared with that of healthy, case-matched controls, using a standard health-survey questionnaire (SF-36). The results indicated that the treated patients suffered some long-term morbidity, caused by the disease itself, its treatment or both. Although accurate monetary values were not calculated for this decreased quality of life, the results indicate that the economic effects of human CE are greater than simply the cost of treatment. Assuming that the long-term morbidity demonstrated does have an economic effect, each year CE in Wales is probably costing the U.K. economy more than U.S.$1 million, and perhaps as much as U.S.$7.9 million.

  14. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  15. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  16. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between......The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...... on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated...

  17. Lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery systems for cosmetics and dermal pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are innovative carrier systems developed as an alternative to traditional vehicles such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the newest nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) show important advantages for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This article focuses on the main features of lipid nanoparticles, in terms of their preparation and recent advancements. A detailed review of the literature is presented, introducing the importance of these systems in the topical delivery of drugs and active substances. Lipid nanoparticles are able to enhance drug penetration into the skin, allowing increased targeting to the epidermis and consequently increasing treatment efficiency and reducing the systemic absorption of drugs and cosmetic actives. The complete biodegradation of lipid nanoparticles and their biocompatible chemical nature have secured them the title of 'nanosafe carriers.' SLN and NLC represent a new technological era, which has been taken over by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, which will open new channels for effective topical delivery of substances.

  18. Impact of medical tourism on cosmetic surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzblau, Lauren E; Chung, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States.

  19. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzblau, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States. PMID:25289258

  20. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Franzblau, BS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States.

  1. Sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics: consumer, products, efficacy, toxicological and regulatory considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fonseca-Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in sustainable products has increased along the years, since the choice of products, packaging and production processes have a great impact on the environment. These products are classified by regulatory agencies in different categories, aggregating advantages to the product and increasing the demand by consumers. However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment. Many cosmetic products have in their formulation natural products that perform a specific biological function, but these products should be evaluated on efficacy and toxicological aspects. The aim of this article is to approach sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics, considering the consumer and the efficacy, toxicological and regulatory aspects.

  2. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  4. Recent developments in the sensorial assessment of cosmetic products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetic development is not exclusively guided by notions of rational effectiveness but also by notions of sensoriality. Thus, the sensorial properties of a cosmetic product are studied using internationally recognized discriminating or descriptive methods. Descriptive sensory profiling is an essential tool in this process as it allows an experienced panel to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a product. The results obtained with this method enable to get a more accurate image of the product. However, given the new demands of the industrial world and the new innovation paths (shorter development times, complex products or willingness to include the consumers in the process) a need to access new methods has arisen. These 'alternative' methods that offer product positioning, ratings and attribute citation frequency, can be implemented with either a panel of experts or with consumers. The flash profile, the pivot® profile or the check all that apply (CATA) are just a few of the methods that the cosmetic professionals have started to test. This article reviews the methods used in the sensory assessment of cosmetic products. The analysis carried out shows that the complementarity application of sensory assessment is essential in the upstream innovation phase of a product. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Date, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Niacinamide is known to have effectiveness on sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing niacinamide. A randomized, placebo-controlled, split face study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas. The tested cosmetic containing 4% niacinamide was applied on wrinkles of one side for 8 weeks, and a control cosmetic without niacinamide on another site. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photographs based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (Ra value) using skin replica. This cosmetic showed marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site (P < 0.001). Wrinkle grades in the tested area significantly reduced more than pre-application (P < 0.001) and the control (P < 0.001). Reduction in Ra value on the tested area was more than pre-application (P < 0.01) and the control site (P < 0.05) with significant differences. Only one subject stopped the study with minimal irritation. These results indicated that the tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles in the eye areas.

  6. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  7. [Chemistry of cosmetics in antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucaris, G; Martinetto, P; Walter, P; Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Several texts, statues and paintings denote the importance of make up and eye medicines since the earliest periods of Egyptian history. We have investigated cosmetic powders that were preserved in original alabaster and reed containers. Quantitative crystallographic and chemical analysis of the mineral and organic components revealed surprising facts. In addition to the well known galena PbS and cerussite PbCO3, two unexpected constituents have been identified: laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2 (CO3) Cl2, which are rare halide minerals found in lead slag only in certain places where the sea water has weathered lead debris left over from silver mining operations in Antiquity. Alteration of natural lead minerals is also unlikely, given the excellent state of conservation of the reed vessels. This evidence indicates that laurionite and phosgenite were synthesised artificially. Support for this statement comes from recipes of medicinal products to be "used in ophthalmology" reported by Greco-Roman authors such as Dioscorides and Pline (1st Century B.C.): silver foam PbO is crushed and mixed with rock salt and sometimes with natron (Na2CO3). The reaction seems to be straightforward. However, our experiments in the laboratory have shown a major difficulty, arising from the concomitant production of alkali, which raises the pH and leads to different products. It follows that the Egyptians very early mastered this kind of chemical synthesis and technology, a fact of great importance in the History of Sciences. Fire-based technology had been mastered to manufacture Egyptian Blue pigments since the third millennium B.C. The present results now suggest that wet chemistry was already known 4000 years ago. This key finding provides a new insight into the chemical technology of far greater antiquity than has previously been believed. Yet, an important question remains relative to the ultimate motivation for these technological developments. If the Egyptians initially only

  8. Risk management in clinical practice. Part 5. Ethical considerations for dental enhancement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I

    2010-09-11

    After the demise of the Industrial Age, we currently live in an 'Information Age' fuelled mainly by the Internet, with an ever-increasing medically and dentally literate population. The media has played its role by reporting scientific advances, as well as securitising medical and dental practices. Reality television such as 'Extreme makeovers' has also raised public awareness of body enhancements, with a greater number of people seeking such procedures. To satiate this growing demand, the dental industry has flourished by introducing novel cosmetic products such as bleaching kits, tooth coloured filling materials and a variety of dental ceramics. In addition, one only has to browse through a dental journal to notice innumerable courses and lectures on techniques for providing cosmetic dentistry. The incessant public interest, combined with unrelenting marketing by companies is gradually shifting the balance of dental care from a healing to an enhancement profession. The purpose of this article is to endeavour to answer questions such as, What is aesthetic or cosmetic dentistry? Why do patients seek cosmetic dentistry? Are enhancement procedures a part of dental practice? What, if any, ethical guidelines and constraints apply to elective enhancement procedures? What is the role of the dentist in providing or encouraging this type of 'therapy'? What treatment modalities are available for aesthetic dental treatment?

  9. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  10. Emerging role of microemulsions in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Adnan; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khan, Zeenat I; Khar, Roop K; Aqil, Mohammed; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-01-01

    Microemulsions represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. They are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal care products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency, stability or appearance. They are well suited for the preparation of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also valuable for use in hair care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss. They have also found application in after shave formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products. These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair. This article highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic market.

  11. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Theo K; Mulkens, Sandra; van der Lei, Berend

    2017-02-01

    Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Members of Dutch professional associations for aesthetic plastic surgery, dermatology, and cosmetic medicine received an online survey by means of their association's digital mailing lists; the survey was completed by 173 respondents. Most participants indicated being more or less familiar with the diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. Approximately two-thirds of the participants reported that they had encountered between one and five of these patients in their practice over the past year, a percentage that is significantly lower than the estimated prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of professionals sometimes or often address body image problems during consultation, most of them collaborate with psychologists or psychiatrists when encountering a patient with body dysmorphic disorder, and approximately 70 percent had refused to perform a procedure in such a patient. Our results converge with those of previous studies, showing that most cosmetic professionals have some degree of awareness of body dysmorphic disorder, although the number they report encountering in clinical practice departs from prevalence figures. When a patient is identified as having body dysmorphic disorder, the professionals use this knowledge to guide their decision to perform a cosmetic procedure.

  13. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  14. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products - a market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Bossi, Rossana; Lundov, Michael D; Garvey, Lene H

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine may cause type I and type IV allergy. Some chlorhexidine-allergic individuals have been exposed in the healthcare setting as patients or healthcare workers, but for others the source of sensitization is unknown. Chlorhexidine may be used as a preservative or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. Between February 2013 and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet (UV) detector. Chlorhexidine was found in 80 of 2251 checked products (3.6%) in the following categories: hair products (57/760), creams (9/324), face washes (4/24), wet wipes (4/63), skin tonics (3/22), make-up removers (2/25), and mouth washes (1/17). Chlorhexidine concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  16. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  17. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  18. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Ethicolegal Analysis of Safety Assesor Aspect on the Application of Ministry of Health of Cosmetic Notification Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is a last country implemented Asean notification of cosmetic which was declared by Permenkes Nomor 1176/Menkes/Per/VIII/2010 about notification of cosmetic started at 1st January 2011. The consequance is every industry has to prepare a safety assessor that to be responsible for quality, beneficial and safety of cosmetic producted. The aims of this research are to analyse ethicolegal aspect of profesionalism of safety assessor, to investigate the willingness of producer in the utility of safety assessor, and to investigate the availability of the safety assessor in implementing notification of cosmetic. Method: Design of this research is cross sectional qualitative approach. Sampling is selected purposively in four provinces namely DKI Jakarta, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, and Bali. In every province 9 industries are choosen (clasified by 2 big industries, 3 middle industries, and 4 small industries. Collecting data was conducted by indepth interview, document analyze, and round table discussion. Result: Research results are firstly all producer confessed the notification registering system are easier and faster than the old registration system. Secondly the qualification and profesionalism or independency of safety assessor has not been mentioned clearly by goverment so it may create etico legal conflict in every side. Thirdly the ministry of health cq health regional offices side do not have roles in applying the Permenkes (exp.in capacity building and controlling. Conclusion: Notification cosmetic regulation has been implemented and the method iseasier compare to registration prosedure. Recommendation: The mechanism of controlling by BPOM and Balai POM have to be informed transparancy to the industries, and the role of Ministry of Health and Health Regional Offices in notificationof cosmetic should be arranged and implemented clearly.

  20. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter (i.e., by conducting a comprehensive performance test and... compliance with all applicable requirements of part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter), the requirements of...

  1. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers' purchasing behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yinuo

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...

  3. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  4. How Can Cosmetics Cause Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Thrasher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 157 million women in America many of which use cosmetic products daily for anti-aging treatments and overall charismatic improvement in physical appearance. Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among women in America slightly trailing behind skin cancer. The research scientists oncologists and dermatologists of today have neglected the possible correlation between these cytologic illnesses and the daily behaviors of American women. This research paper is designed to promote awareness among American women and physicians so that modern women are educated on the role of their daily routine in breast cancer development. The integrity of cosmetic products is founded by common ingredients such as parabens retinol and even soy. The daily exposure of these potentially toxic substances can result in hormone imbalances mitotic disruptions genotoxic influences and collagen overproduction. Due to these circumstances the prognosis for most cosmetic-consuming modern women is grim in terms of breast carcinogenesis.

  5. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  6. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

  7. Personality and Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshani, Sanobar; Mani, Arash; Toubaei, Shahin; Farnia, Vahid; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, cosmetic surgery in Iran, which is provided almost entirely by the private sector, has gained popularity despite evidence of its potential risks. In most cases, cosmetic surgeries are done to increase self-satisfaction and self-esteem, thus seeking cosmetic surgery potentially shows an individual's psychological profile. Current evidence needs studies on the psychological profile of Asian cosmetic surgery patients. The present study investigates psychological profile and personality traits of people seeking cosmetic surgery in Iran. The present prospective observational study was conducted with a sample of 274 randomly selected persons seeking cosmetic surgery (rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, face/jaw implant, mammoplasty, and liposuction). All participants completed the validated and reliable the Global Severity Index (GSI)-Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)-and the short Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The prevalence rate of psychiatric problems based on the GSI cut-off point (>63) of SCL-90-R was about 51 %, and interpersonal sensitivity and psychosis were the highest and lowest endorsed syndromes among the subjects, respectively. Openness had the lowest mean score; agreeableness and extroversion had the highest mean. The current study shows that understanding and psychological evaluation prior to surgery is necessary and screening can reduce the number of unnecessary surgeries and may enhance satisfaction with surgical results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  8. HPLC determination of selected incestisides in cosmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Kameníčková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Analytical Chemistry Candidate: Daniela Kameníčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Dalibor Šatínský, Ph.D. Title of Diploma Thesis: HPLC determination of selected incestisides in cosmetic Active ingredients fenoxycarb and permethrin were determined in cosmetic anti- parasitic product Arpalit® Neo shampoo against parasites with bamboo extract. Analysis was performed by HPLC using RP-Amide column 100 x 3 mm with a particl...

  9. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  11. Nanosystems for Skin Delivery: From Drugs to Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ana F; Pereira, Paula; Reis, Claudia; Rijo, Patrícia; Reis, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    Skin delivery is an exciting and challenging area. There are numerous skin delivery systems available on the market. However, this market still remains limited to a narrow range of substances. Thus, several strategies have been developed to improve the performance of those substances, including the development of nanosystems. The aim of this review is to elucidate the nanosystems applied to the skin. Thus, we undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature. In order to contextualize this subject, anatomy and physiology of the skin will be first briefly described and then general concepts and the various examples of these nanosystems, both cosmetic and pharmaceutical field, will be also accessed. As demonstrated, the use of nanosized carrier systems for drugs or active ingredients has gathered the attention of the most famous cosmetic and pharma industries. In fact, those nanosystems can easily establish a special interaction with skin structures, achieving deeper layers and obtaining a controlled release of the encapsulated substances. The findings of this review confirm the importance of skin delivery and the applications of nanotechnology in this area. Although those nanosystems have a high potential and applicability, there are still some limitations mainly because some of those studies are inconclusive in terms of risk of the nanomaterials and further toxicological investigations could address those issues in order to make these products more functional and attractive to consumers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  13. A conceptual framework to explore the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Barnard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a conceptual framework against which the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa could be explored. Three widely-used business frameworks – Balanced Score Card, South African Excellence Model and King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa – were theoretically integrated to produce a multi-dimensional framework to clarify roles and contributions in a discourse familiar to the business community. The framework was subsequently utilised in a follow-up study involving 23 registered industrial psychologists who were asked to clarify specific roles and contributions within each of the dimensions of the framework.

  14. Patient use of social media to evaluate cosmetic treatments and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichte, Megan J; Karimkhani, Chante; Jones, Trevor; Trikha, Ritika; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-04-16

    With a growing sphere of influence in the modern world, online social media serves as a readily accessible interface for communication of information. Aesthetic medicine is one of many industries increasingly influenced by social media, as evidenced by the popular website, "RealSelf," an online community founded in 2006 that compiles ratings, reviews, photographs, and expert physician commentary for nearly 300 cosmetic treatments. To investigate the current preferences of patients regarding cosmetic non-surgical, surgical, and dental treatments on RealSelf and in the documented medical literature. On a single day of data collection, all cosmetic treatments or procedures reviewed on the RealSelf website were tabulated, including name, percent "worth it" rating, total number of reviews, and average cost. Patient satisfaction rates documented in the current medical literature for each cosmetic treatment or procedure were also recorded. Statistical t-testingcomparing RealSelf ratings and satisfaction rates in the literature was performed for each category-non-surgical, surgical, and dental. The top ten most-commonly reviewed non-surgical treatments, top ten most-commonly reviewed surgical procedures, and top 5 most-commonly reviewed dental treatments, along with documented satisfaction rates in the medical literature for each treatment or procedure were recorded in table format and ranked by RealSelf "worth it" rating. Paired t-testing revealed that satisfaction rates documented in the literature were significantly higher than RealSelf "worth it" ratings for both non-surgical cosmetic treatments (p=0.00076) and surgical cosmetic procedures (p=0.00056), with no statistically significant difference for dental treatments. For prospective patients interested in cosmetic treatments or procedures, social media sites such as RealSelf may offer information helpful to decision-making as well enable cosmetic treatment providers to build reputations and expand practices. "Worth

  15. Strategic marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Laskina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is discusses the scientific and theoretical approaches to marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market in the strategic aspect. It is showing the development of the concept of strategic marketing innovation in the foreign and domestic scientific literature; the key concepts of marketing innovations is clarified; elements of the commercialization of innovative products is identified; the specificity of strategic marketing innovations in the cosmetic market in the Russian conditions is established; actual problems of innovative development and commercialization of innovations is identified; an assessment of the Russian market of innovations. The marketing of innovations – is a systematic methodological approach that combines the strategy and tactics of promotion goods (works, services, technologies, having substantially new properties, at the level of economic entities, it is proved. Under the innovative products offered to understand the implementation of the results of scientific and technological activities in the form of goods, works and services, which have an absolute or relative scientific and technological novelty and (or consumer value, going beyond the existing traditions. Innovative production is subdivided into two main categories: not commercialized and the commercialized production. Process of commercialization of innovative goods is considered as three-level system: the first level is the state innovation policy (macro-level; the second level – regional innovation policy (meso-level; the third level – commodity innovative policy of enterprise (micro-level. It was shown that the weak spots for Russian manufacturers of innovative products has been and remains insufficient elaboration of organizational and methodological approaches to strategic marketing of innovations in industry the as aspect, including in the sector of cosmetic goods. Recommendations for the development of marketing strategy of

  16. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  17. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 3. Disease and the Environment. Volume 2. Occupational Health. The Soldier and the Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    of leoipardi/.e their health if tile%- had, or were being its kind in American industry. This policy. i% hich treated for, syphilis ." (Because syphilis ...levels greater than 100 pg/ weeks gestational age, although the fetus remains dL classic lead colic may develop. Lead colic is char- somewhat sensitive

  18. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers...

  19. Group Urges Tougher Limits on Chemical in Shampoos, Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group Urges Tougher Limits on Chemical in Shampoos, Cosmetics Triclosan isn't proven safe or effective, coalition ... in thousands of products ranging from soap and cosmetics to toothpaste and common household items. But evidence ...

  20. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics...

  1. Bridging the generation gap-dilemmas of a cosmetic surgeon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    ... infections and drug addictions. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) statistics, 63,623 cosmetic surgical procedures and 155,941 cosmetic minimally invasive procedures were performed in the US among teenagers aged 13-19 years.

  2. Upper Moesian Bacchic worshippers as reflected in jewellery and cosmetic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the anepigraphic material such as jewellery and cosmetic objects recovered from the province of Upper Moesia. The quality of the material used in their manufacture, their findspots and iconography, serve as a basis in an attempt to shed light on the origin and social status of Bacchic worshippers in that part of the Roman Empire.

  3. Ethical marketing in 'aesthetic' ('esthetic') or 'cosmetic dentistry' part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Martin G D; Djemal, Serpil; Lewis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This is the second article in a series of three. It is essential to find out from patients what it is that they hope to achieve when requesting an improvement in their dental appearance. Their expectations, hopes and fears need to be explored in detail. The long-term biologic costs of some invasive procedures need to be explained to patients in advance so that they can make properly informed decisions. Failure to do so renders the practitioner vulnerable to a charge of behaving unethically. The differences between ethical marketing and selling are explained including the historic development of marketing. A practical approach, using a modification of the Edward de Bono Six Thinking Hats model is described to help ethical practitioners to develop sound treatment plans when dealing with complex aesthetic problems.

  4. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  5. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Jun; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bei; Gao, Yanli; Ma, Jiehua; Li, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular in China. However, reports on the predictive factors for cosmetic surgery in Chinese individuals are scarce in the literature. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 4550 cosmetic surgeries performed from January 2010 to December 2014 at a single center in China. Data collection included patient demographics and type of cosmetic surgery. Predictive factors were age, sex, marital status, occupational status, educational degree, and havi...

  6. spectrophotometric determination of heavy metals in cosmetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preparations used toenhance the beauty of the human body. (Faruruwa and Bartholomew, 2014). ... as cosmetics are colloquially known, does not necessarily make up beauty as asserted in the definition of the term ..... Hence, there is need for unification of standard worldwide and the strict enforcement by authorities and ...

  7. Cosmetic lengthening: what are the limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreschi, F; Tsibidakis, H

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller. From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patients with constitutional short stature (36 M, 27F; 126 legs) who underwent cosmetic bilateral leg lengthening using a hybrid advanced fixator according to the Ilizarov method, were reviewed, retrospectively. The mean age was 24.8 years, while the mean preoperative height was 152.6 cm. Paley's criteria were used to evaluate problems, obstacles, and complications from the time of surgery until 1 year after frame's removal. The mean lengthening achieved in all patients was 7.2 cm (range: 5-11 cm), with a mean duration of treatment of 9 months and 15 days (range: 7-18 months). The mean follow-up time was 6.14 years (range 1-10). The cosmetic leg lengthening was helpful to all patients, improving their social capabilities and self-confidence. All patients considered their stature as normal and they reported satisfaction and gratification with important changes in their professional and personal life. Cosmetic leg lengthening may raise some ethical objections and for that reason patients should be well informed about all the risks and complications related to this type of surgery.

  8. The effect of veneers on cosmetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, S; Millar, B J

    2009-07-25

    This clinical study was designed to compare the patient's opinion of the cosmetic improvement after the placement of direct composite and indirect porcelain veneers. This retrospective study involved a survey of 145 patients (96 responses) each treated with 10 direct composite (Vitalescence) or 10 porcelain (Fortress) veneers. Patients subjectively evaluated multiple aspects of their smile using visual analogue scales before and after treatment for colour, shape, size, smile line and overall facial appearance. There were no statistical differences between the cosmetic improvement achieved for porcelain and composite (p > or = 0.05). Cost factors were not significant. Significant factors were: tooth conservation (p veneers over the porcelain veneers. Correlation findings relating to what patients feel as the key components of the smile for overall cosmetic improvement showed medium to high correlations (0.301 resin vs porcelain) when constructing maxillary anterior veneers does not significantly affect the patient's perception of cosmetic improvement. However, there was a preference towards accepting the composite veneer option. Overall aesthetic satisfaction is multifactorial. The results support the opinion that the more conservative composite veneers are justified and that, given the choice and information, patients may prefer this option.

  9. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and…

  10. Cosmetic powder suspensions in compliant, fingerprintlike contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K; Myant, C; Spikes, H A; Schneider, M; Ladnorg, T; Grunze, M

    2011-09-01

    Cosmetic powders are regularly employed in skin creams and cosmetic formulations to improve performance and enhance skin feel. A previous study investigated the effect of particle concentration and size on the lubricating properties of powder suspensions in smooth, compliant contacts [Timm et al., Tribol. Int. (2011)]. In this paper the tribological properties of cosmetic powder suspensions are investigated in compliant contacts having model fingerprintlike surface topography. Friction coefficients were measured for a series of powder suspensions with varying particle size and concentration in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/PDMS contact. A commercial tribometer (MTM, PCS Instruments) was employed to measure friction as a function of rubbing time (20 min), under pure sliding (50 mm/s) and low load (0.5 N) conditions. Compared to results using smooth surfaces, it was clear that surface topography has a pronounced affect on the time-dependent tribological behavior of the cosmetic powder suspensions studied. A two-stage friction coefficient versus time curve was observed. By varying the particle size and concentration it was shown that the duration and magnitude of each stage can be controlled.

  11. [Dealing with the body through cosmetic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Jacques; Tournier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Plastic surgery is reconstructive or cosmetic. It alters the appearance of a body which a patient is unable to live with, an unconventional or badly perceived body, one of the causes of malaise. After the operation, the patient must be supported without judgement in coming to terms with his or her new body image.

  12. Cosmetic Surgery and the Practice of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    put it, the mediasation, for example, in magazines, TV, film, fashion, music, etc. of youth as ideal is bound to impact upon our individual ideas of ... will change over time, but which is not to trivialise them as moral ideals. Simply because, at this particular time and place, cosmetic surgery does not fit into the parameters of ...

  13. Actual consumption amount of personal care products reflecting Japanese cosmetic habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Araki, Daisuke; Kanamori, Takeshi; Okiyama, Yasuko; Seto, Hirokazu; Uda, Masaki; Usami, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Masunaga, Takuji; Sasa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Safety assessments of cosmetics are carried out by identifying possible harmful effects of substances in cosmetic products and assessing the exposure to products containing these substances. The present study provided data on the amounts of cosmetic products consumed in Japan to enhance and complement the existing data from Europe and the United States, i.e., the West. The outcomes of this study increase the accuracy of exposure assessments and enable more sophisticated risk assessment as a part of the safety assessment of cosmetic products. Actual amounts of products applied were calculated by determining the difference in the weight of products before and after use by approximately 300 subjects. The results of the study of skincare products revealed that in comparison with the West, large amounts of lotions and emulsions were applied, whereas lower amounts of cream and essence were applied in Japan. In the study of sunscreen products, actual measured values during outdoor leisure use were obtained, and these were lower than the values from the West. The study of the use of facial mask packs yielded data on typical Japanese sheet-type impregnated masks and revealed that high amounts were applied. Furthermore, data were obtained on cleansing foams, makeup removers and makeup products. The data from the present study enhance and complement existing information and will facilitate more sophisticated risk assessments. The present results should be extremely useful in safety assessments of newly developed cosmetic products and to regulatory authorities in Japan and around the world.

  14. THE ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN COSMETICS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Melo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest growing scientific fields. The products of this science have become part of our everyday lives. However, to date, regulatory agencies have not yet established a single definition for nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Therefore, each country has its own definitions and legislation to control products containing nanomaterials. Being relatively new materials, there are no long-term studies showing their impact on human health and the environment. Consequently, countries control the amount of nanomaterials present in cosmetics, allowing the end consumer to choose which cosmetic to use, by choosing products with or without nanomaterials. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to identify the most used nanomaterials in cosmetics and verify whether these formulations are in accordance with the laws in force in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, thereby determining if the cosmetics on the market are in line with the existing laws in these three economic powers. This study is unique and will contribute to furthering the discussion on existing laws pertinent to the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics.

  15. Phytosome: new cosmetic delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, E

    1991-12-01

    Modern cosmetology is increasingly alternating with dermatology as a discipline concerns the treatment of non pathological skin. One of the main problems is the transcutaneous absorption of active principles. The modern cosmetologist, is confronted with the need of findings means to facilitate the passage across skin of active products. Liposomes are artificial phospholipid membranes that can facility the passage of active principles across the stratum conneum. After the fortuitous observation that phospholipids exhibit a marked affinity for some classes of flavonoids, we have developed a new series of compounds denominate "phytosome", which we have obtained by complexation with very polar botanical derivatives. From the chemical viewpoint the PHYTOSOME are complexes between a pure phospholipid and a pure active principles. The authors realize at industrial level a certain number of that complexes. In the work are presents the chemico physical properties of complexes with catechin, quercetin, escin and glycyrrhetinic acid; some pharmacological data obtained are presented.

  16. Adverse reactions to cosmetic products and the Notification System in Health Surveillance: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Huf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper is part of a study that investigates the quality of cosmetic products and evaluates the cosmetic surveillance system. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the results of a research that aimed to describe the point of view of the population in terms of the prevalence of Adverse Reactions (AR and information about the surveillance system. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 200 people from the administrative staff of the Municipal Guard of Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: 38% of the participants declared AR to some cosmetic product used in the past two years. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is an unpublished study in Brazil, which presents results regarding the estimated prevalence of AR similarly to international studies.

  17. Illicit Cosmetic Silicone Injection: A Recent Reiteration of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicholas R; Compoginis, John M; Luce, Edward A

    2016-10-01

    The injection of liquid silicone for cosmetic augmentation has a history of both legal as well as illicit practice in the United States and worldwide. Recently, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has launched a public awareness campaign through patient stories and various statements in response to the rise in deaths related to this illicit practice. A articular segment of the population that has become a target is the transgender patient group. A brief review is provided of the history of industrial liquid silicone injection, including the pathophysiology to fully describe and review silicone injection injury. Three cases of soft tissue cellulitis and wound necrosis treated at our institution are summarized and a treatment algorithm proposed based on literature review of treatment options and our own experience.

  18. Cosmetic surgery consideration among male and female university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cosmetic surgeries are increasing in frequency, only few studies have investigated cosmetic surgery attitudes in Asia. The aim ... and having experienced childhood sexual abuse, and among women, being 18-19 years old, not being obese and binge drinking were associated with cosmetic surgery consideration.

  19. A Review of Psychosocial Outcomes for Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A.; David J. Castle

    2004-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on psychological and psychosocial outcomes for individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery, to address whether elective cosmetic procedures improve psychological well-being and psychosocial functioning and whether there are identifiable predictors of an unsatisfactory psychological outcome. They conducted a search of appropriate computerized databases for studies that evaluated psychological and psychosocial status both before and after elective cosmetic surger...

  20. Monitoring of Batch Industrial Crystallization with Growth, Nucleation, and Agglomeration. Part 1: Modeling with Method of Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, Marcella; Özkan, Leyla

    2017-05-24

    This paper develops a new simulation model for crystal size distribution dynamics in industrial batch crystallization. The work is motivated by the necessity of accurate prediction models for online monitoring purposes. The proposed numerical scheme is able to handle growth, nucleation, and agglomeration kinetics by means of the population balance equation and the method of characteristics. The former offers a detailed description of the solid phase evolution, while the latter provides an accurate and efficient numerical solution. In particular, the accuracy of the prediction of the agglomeration kinetics, which cannot be ignored in industrial crystallization, has been assessed by comparing it with solutions in the literature. The efficiency of the solution has been tested on a simulation of a seeded flash cooling batch process. Since the proposed numerical scheme can accurately simulate the system behavior more than hundred times faster than the batch duration, it is suitable for online applications such as process monitoring tools based on state estimators.

  1. The impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on Swiss women's body image and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2017-01-01

    International concern has been expressed about advertising for cosmetic surgery (British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons [BAAPS], 2005, 2008). A recent study showed that exposure to such advertising resulted in a more negative body image and attitudes toward surgery among women living in the UK (Ashikali, Dittmar, & Ayers, 2015). This study investigates the impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on women living in Switzerland, a country with relatively little advertising for cosmeti...

  2. Mutagenicity of cosmetic products containing Kathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, T H; Tee, P G; Afshar, M; Connor, K M

    1996-01-01

    A variety of shampoos, conditioners, skin-care lotions, and other cosmetic products contain the biocide Kathon CG, which is a mixture of two heterocyclic isothiazolinones: methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone. This mixture and the related biocide, Kathon 886, have been shown to be potent sensitizers and bacterial mutagens. Five cosmetic products that list the components of Kathon on their labels and two that do not were screened for mutagenicity with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without S-9. Five of these products and Kathon 886 were further evaluated in TA100 without and with S-9. Kathon 886, a cosmetic product that contained Kathon, and thin layer chromatography-separated components of Kathon 886 were identified by GC/MS analysis. Three of the five products that listed Kathon were direct acting mutagens with TA100. The remaining two products were considerably more toxic than the other products and could not be evaluated for mutagenicity. The addition of S-9 reduced toxicity but did not eliminate mutagenicity. The mutagenic evaluation of Kathon 886 resulted in a dose response similar to that seen with some cosmetic products but at a 1,000-fold lower concentration, and activity was also reduced by the addition of S-9 mix. S-9 reduced activity both with and without cofactors present. Thin layer chromatography separation of the components and subsequent identification by GC/MS indicated that methylisothiazolinone was nonmutagenic while methylchloroisothiazolinone was mutagenic. Additionally, a dichlorinated compound was identified which was also mutagenic. In light of these findings and the reported skin sensitization by Kathon CG in various cosmetics, we recommend that additional testing be done to assure the safety of products containing Kathon CG.

  3. COMPETITIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE ON THE COSMETICS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Ana - Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations are going through massive changes. Their customers are changing, their competition is changing, their customer’s needs are changing and their resources availability is changing - the cosmetics companies are no different. Organizational survival and success depends on the ability of the managers to detect and adapt to critical changes in the environment, which may impact the company. The paper has two main purposes. First to underline the importance performance measurement has in today’s business and second to present a few key elements regarding the performance of the cosmetics sector in Romania. For this we have tried to answer the following question: Are the cosmetics companies competitive? This paper is based on exploratory literature review of different approaches regarding organizational performances in organizations in general. Despite the global economic crisis and the general slowdown of many markets, the Romanian beauty and personal care market continued to grow in 2009. Consumer awareness and product knowledge is growing rapidly and the development of retailing chains and their widening product offer have also helped to further the development of the beauty and personal care market. The paper also presents the results of section three of an online survey conducted at 10 cosmetic companies from Romania. The results have shown that multinationals have both the economic and managerial power to succeed in obtaining their goals. Even though the sample of 72 respondents was rather small, we managed to conclude from the received answers that the majority of companies focus on economic and managerial performance rather than on social and ecological performance indicators. This paper aimed to contribute to the literature review development in the field of performance management. The results of this study can be of use for managers from the analyzed domain or for other researchers in the economic field. The authors have

  4. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  5. An Ethical (Descriptive) Framework for Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Omar J; Abdou, Alaa

    2017-03-20

    The construction industry is usually characterized as a fragmented system of multiple-organizational entities in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The greatest challenge in the construction process for the achievement of a successful practice is the development of an outstanding reputation, which is built on identifying and applying an ethical framework. This framework should reflect a common ethical ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for ethical judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The framework was primarily developed based on the essential attributes of business management identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes identified to prevent breaches in the construction industry and common ethical values related to professional engineering. The proposed judgment framework is based primarily on the ethical dimension of professional responsibility. The Ethical Judgment Framework consists of descriptive approaches involving technical, professional, administrative, and miscellaneous terms. The framework provides the basis for judging actions as either ethical or unethical. Furthermore, the framework can be implemented as a form of preventive ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral allegations. The framework can be considered a decision-making model to guide actions and improve the ethical reasoning process that would help individuals think through possible implications and consequences of ethical dilemmas in the construction industry.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 403 - Selected Industrial Subcategories Considered Dilute for Purposes of the Combined Wastestream Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electronic Devices Fixed Capacitors Fluorescent Lamps Fuel Cells Incandescent Lamps Magnetic Coatings Mica... Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Textile Mills (40 CFR part 410...

  7. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards.

  8. On the use of installed base information for spare parts logistics: a revieuw of ideas and industry practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, R.; Pinçe, C.; Zuidwijk, R.A.; Jalil, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDemand for spare parts is often difficult to forecast using historical data only. In this paper, we give an overview of installed based information and provide several ways in which installed base forecasting can be used. We discuss cases of installed based forecasting at four companies and list the issues involved. Moreover, we provide some models to assess the value of installed base information and conclude that forecasts of spare parts demand and return can be made considerabl...

  9. Efficacy testing of cosmetic products. A proposal to the European Community by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J

    2001-08-01

    Regulations for cosmetic products primarily address safety of the products that may be used by large populations of healthy consumers. Requirements for documentation of efficacy claims are only fragmentary. This synopsis aims to review and conclude a set of standards that may be acceptable to the European Community, and the cosmetic industry, as a legal standard for efficacy documentation in Europe in the future. Ethical, formal, experimental, statistical and other aspects of efficacy testing are described, including validation, quality control and assurance. The importance of user relevant clinical end points, a controlled randomized trial design and evidence-based cosmetic product documentation, validation of methods, statistical power estimation and proper data handling, reporting and archiving is emphasized. The main principles of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) good clinical practice (GCP) should be followed by the cosmetics industry in a spirit of good documentation standard and scientific soundness, but full GCP is not considered mandatory in the field of cosmetics. Documentation by validated bio-instrumental methods may be acceptable, but efficacy documentation based on information about raw materials, reference to literature and laboratory experiments are only acceptable in exceptional cases. Principles for efficacy substantiation of cosmetic products in Europe, as described in this synopsis, are officially proposed by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy to the European Community as a basis for an amendment to the Cosmetics Directive or otherwise implemented as a European Community regulation.

  10. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  11. LIPSTICK EFFECT IN ROMANIA: PROPENSITY TO BUY COSMETICS AND STOCK MARKET EVOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Murgea

    2012-01-01

    Usually, consumer spending declines during recession. Cosmetics seem to disobey thisrule; there are evidences to prove that women spending on beauty products increased during theeconomic turmoil. The scarcity of detailed data regarding this industry makes very hard to test thiseffect. The present paper tries to overcome the problem, proposing an alternative methodology toanalyze if the propensity to buy beauty products, especially lipstick, increased during the lasteconomic crisis. More exact...

  12. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the previous article of this series we presented a bio-ecological approach to studying history. It was shown that societies from the first civilizations to our days are techno-ecosystems (coenoses and do not differ much from the natural ecosystems of a lake or a forest, which are also restricted by their supplies of food. Historically, a succession of distinctive nestled geo-climatic zones was domesticated as the older ones were exhausted due to growing demographic pressure. In this context, evolution is not synonymous with competition. Cooperation of mutually dependent species is crucial for domesticating a new ecosystem, while at specific moments in its lifecycle, competition intensifies leading to speciation. In this article, we use this concept for analyzing a specific society. We show that the Industrial Revolution was England’s specific adaptation to the limitations of its geo-climatic zone. Timber, the main resource of the pre-industrial age, was essential for ship building and metal smelting. It was abundant in its main rival’s, France’s, geo-climatic habitat, but scarce in deforested England. Using its abundant local resource, coal, in an innovative way, this particular society, just like an emergent biological species, gained an evolutionary edge over its neighbors by opening access to new sources of food. The “workshop of the world” started with export-oriented textile production and ended as the major colonial power of its time. At the start of its rise to supremacy, during the 1805 battle at Trafalgar, Lord Nelson smashed the combined French-Spanish navies using short and light cast-iron cannons. They were much less precise than the long bronze ones favored by Napoleon, but, in the right hands, gave the first taste of industrial might to the England’s foes. Under Britain’s dominance, the 19th century’s Oikumene was completely remade and covered with smokestacks. We show subsequent stages of England

  13. The male cosmetic surgery patient: a matched sample gender analysis of elective cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Honigman, Roberta J; Jackson, Alun C

    2010-06-01

    Plastic surgeons have traditionally perceived male patients as more psychologically disturbed than female patients. This study employed a matched sample design to explore the psychosocial experiences of 50 male and 50 female elective cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients. It also aimed to compare male and female patients on preoperative psychosocial dysfunction on standardized measures (psychiatric disturbance, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, dysmorphic concern, and low body image) and postoperative dissatisfaction. The findings revealed that there were many similarities between the self-reported appearance concerns, motivations for surgery, and expectations of surgery between male and female patients. Although male patients did not report higher levels of preoperative psychosocial dysfunction than their female counterparts, they were more likely to report postoperative dissatisfaction. Preoperative screening is recommended to identify the minority of male patients who will report an unsatisfactory outcome despite a technically good result.

  14. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  15. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobek, A., E-mail: anna.sobek@itm.su.se; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  16. Assessing eco-innovations in green chemistry:Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a cosmetic product with a bio-based ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    SECCHI Michela; Castellani, Valentina; Collina, Elena; MIRABELLA Nadia; SALA SERENELLA

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in assessing the environmental impacts of cosmetic products, research and development activities try enhancing and promoting eco-innovation solutions in cosmetic industry. This study is aimed at comparing the environmental profile of eco-innovation options in green chemistry using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A case study in which synthetic ingredients are replaced by others derived from natural compounds is presented. A C16-18 triglycerides mixture (INCI name “pa...

  17. A study of social media’s effectiveness influencing consumer behavior in China: Generation Y’s purchasing behavior on cosmetic goods

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuanshu

    2014-01-01

    Social media is playing important to affect consumer behavior. People can share their knowledge, opinions, and experiences with one other due to the social media provided features, and it may impact on people’s behavior in terms of communication and purchasing. Cosmetic industry has developed rapidly in China. Chinese generation Y is a special consumer group for purchasing cosmetic goods. The purpose of this research is to study how does Chinese young consumers use social media to engage ...

  18. Cosmetic surgery on children - professional and legal obligations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitipornchai, Leon; Then, Shih-Ning

    2011-07-01

    Public awareness and concern about cosmetic surgery on children is increasing. Nationally and internationally questions have been raised by the media and government bodies about the appropriateness of children undergoing cosmetic surgery. Considering the rates of cosmetic surgery in comparable Western societies, it seems likely that the number of physicians in Australia who will deal with a request for cosmetic surgery for a child will continue to increase. This is a sensitive issue and it is essential that physicians understand the professional and legal obligations that arise when cosmetic surgery is proposed for a child. This article reviews the current professional and legal obligations that physicians have to competent and incompetent children for whom cosmetic surgery has been requested. A case study is used to highlight the factors that Australian primary care physicians must consider before referring and conducting cosmetic surgery on children.

  19. “Lving” and “probiotic” cosmetics: modern view and defenitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-12-01

    -looking skin. However, such parameters as the type of probiotic, the form in which it is added to the formulation (living bacteria, lysates, etc. and the recommended concentrations of these ingredients in cosmetic products that are safe and effective are still not defined. Due to currently widespread use of probiotic cosmetic products in the world beauty industry, the concept of "probiotic" in the cosmetic industry requires a clear definition.

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH....1045 1926.1147 1910.1047 1926.1148 1910.1048 Subject Index to Part 1926—Safety and Health Regulations...) Welding Standards .453(b)(5) Air Quality, underground construction .800(h), (j) Airborne Contaminant Mists...

  1. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  2. On the use of installed base information for spare parts logistics: a revieuw of ideas and industry practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Pinçe (Çerağ); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.N. Jalil (Muhammad)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDemand for spare parts is often difficult to forecast using historical data only. In this paper, we give an overview of installed based information and provide several ways in which installed base forecasting can be used. We discuss cases of installed based forecasting at four companies

  3. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety Assessment of Anthemis nobilis-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) flower extract, anthemis nobilis flower oil, anthemis nobilis flower powder, and anthemis nobilis flower water are ingredients that function as fragrance ingredients and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 10% (anthemis nobilis flower water) in cosmetic products. The available data indicate that these 4 ingredients are not irritating or sensitizing. Chemical composition data and the low use concentrations suggest that systemic toxicity would not be likely if percutaneous absorption of constituents were to occur. Formulations may contain more than 1 botanical ingredient; each may contribute to the final concentration of a single component. Manufacturers were cautioned to avoid reaching levels of plant constituents that may cause sensitization or other adverse effects. Industry should continue to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities in the ingredient before blending into cosmetic formulations. The Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonsensitizing.

  5. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. [Facial ageing and cosmetic facial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Jaspers, G W C; Vissink, A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of cosmetic facial surgery is to enhance facial beauty by reducing the effects of ageing or by beautifying certain aspects of the face. The face can be subdivided anatomically into the skin, the fat compartments, the ligaments (the links between the skin and the underlying facial skeleton), the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and the masticatory and mimic musculature. As a result of the influence of gravity and ageing, changes which progress according to a fixed pattern take place at all levels of the soft tissue of the face. The supporting facial skeleton also reduces in volume in a characteristic manner. A thorough knowledge of the facial anatomy and the ageing process is essential for safe, effective and predicable facial rejuvenating surgery. The dentist generally has a long-lasting relationship with his patients and therefore may play an important role in advising patients with respect to the (im)possibilities of cosmetic facial surgery.

  7. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

  8. [Cosmetics as source of xenoestrogens exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucińska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The estrogens play important role in the health and disease, therefore environmental contaminants interacting with estrogen receptors and exert similar effects may disrupt functions of endocrine system. Xenoestrogens are present as contaminants virtually everywhere: in water, soil, food and air, exposure to xenoestrogens occurs through household products, however also very often occupational exposures take place. Xenoestrogens exposure may cause problems with fertility; they are also known factors playing a role in estrogen dependent cancer development. Exposure to xenoestrogens is particularly dangerous during 'critical periods' of life, such as intrauterine, or puberty periods. One of the important source of xenoestrogen exposure are cosmetics. In the paper the main groups of xenoestrogenic compounds present in cosmetics such as phatalates, parabens and aluminium are described.

  9. Medical uses of cosmetic colored contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C J; Vogt, U

    2006-07-01

    To explore the clinical issues surrounding the use of hand-painted contact lenses for medical indications and to assess patient satisfaction with the use of these lenses for an unsightly eye. A questionnaire was sent to all patients visiting the contact lens department of Western Eye Hospital for a colored contact lens fitting during a 1-year period. The questionnaire related to patient satisfaction with the lenses and aspects of wear. Replies were received from 25 of a total of 33 patients. The average wearing time was 11.3 hours per day. Most (88%) patients wore lenses for cosmetic reasons, and 12% wore lenses for cosmetic and refractive purposes. Satisfaction was 76% regarding lens comfort and 88% regarding lens color. Provided lens care is satisfactory and the patient does not have unreasonable expectations, a tinted contact lens can be a useful device. In view of the cost implication, this is a valuable service provided by the hospital.

  10. Monitoring of Batch Industrial Crystallization with Growth, Nucleation, and Agglomeration. Part 2: Structure Design for State Estimation with Secondary Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, Marcella; Özkan, Leyla

    2017-08-30

    This work investigates the design of alternative monitoring tools based on state estimators for industrial crystallization systems with nucleation, growth, and agglomeration kinetics. The estimation problem is regarded as a structure design problem where the estimation model and the set of innovated states have to be chosen; the estimator is driven by the available measurements of secondary variables. On the basis of Robust Exponential estimability arguments, it is found that the concentration is distinguishable with temperature and solid fraction measurements while the crystal size distribution (CSD) is not. Accordingly, a state estimator structure is selected such that (i) the concentration (and other distinguishable states) are innovated by means of the secondary measurements processed with the geometric estimator (GE), and (ii) the CSD is estimated by means of a rigorous model in open loop mode. The proposed estimator has been tested through simulations showing good performance in the case of mismatch in the initial conditions, parametric plant-model mismatch, and noisy measurements.

  11. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 1: A MONETARY PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development and management of new technologies is fundamental to the manufacturing sector as a core operational initiative. Managers of a new technology are increasingly pressurised to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with the life cycle of the technology (and product during decision-making – i.e. the overall sustainability of the technology. At present, there is no consensus on a methodology to incorporate externalities – for example, environmental and social impacts at macro-level, for which a company is (typically not held financially liable – into management practices. This paper introduces the Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure, whereby externalities (burdens and benefits are translated into financial terms to assess the overall sustainability performance of a developed technology in the process industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Sentrale operasionele initiatief van die vervaardigings-industrie is die ontwikkeling en bestuur van nuwe tegnologieë. Bestuurders van nuwe tegnologieë word toenemend onder druk geplaas om die ekonomiese-, omgewings-, en sosiale impakte, wat verwant is aan die lewenssiklus van ‘n tegnologie (of produk, in ag te neem tydens besluitneming ten opsigte van die globale volhoudbaarheid van die tegnologie. Op hierdie stadium is daar geen konsensus oor die metodologie wat gevolg moet word om eksterne faktore – bv. omgewings- en sosiale impakte op makrovlak, waarvoor ‘n maatskappy tipies nie aanspreeklik gehou word nie – te inkorporeer in die bestuurpraktyk. Hierdie artikel stel die Volhoudbaarheid Kosterekeningkunde (VKR prosedure voor, waarvolgens die oorgrote volhoudbare prestasie, in terme van eksterne voor- en nadele van ‘n ontwikkelde tegnologie, in die prosesindustrie ge-assesseer kan word in finansiële terme.

  12. Green gas in the natural gas distribution system. Towards a zero-energy dairy industry. Part 1; Groen gas op het aardgasnet. Naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen. Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, B. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    This is the second report in a series on 'zero-energy dairy industry' in the Netherlands. In this first report options were explored. In the second report three concrete pilot projects were presented (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In the third report we focus on making the transport part zero-energy [Dutch] Dit rapport is het eerste rapport in de reeks 'naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen' waarin de mogelijkheden worden verkend. In het tweede apport worden drie concrete pilotprojecten gepresenteerd (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In het derde rapport zoomen we in op het energieneutraal maken van het onderdeel transport in de zuivelketen.

  13. Agro transport on green gas. Towards a zero-energy dairy industry. Part 3; Agrotransport op groen gas. Naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen. Deel 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, B. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Linnemans, F.; Greeve, J. [E-kwadraat, Leeuwarden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    This is the third report in a series on 'zero-energy dairy industry'. In the first report (2007) options were explored. In the second report (summer 2008) three concrete pilot projects were presented. In this report we focus on making the transport part zero-energy. [Dutch] Dit rapport is het derde rapport in de reeks 'naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen'. In het eerste rapport (2007) verkenden we de mogelijkheden. In het tweede rapport (zomer 2008) presenteerden we drie concrete pilotprojecten. En in dit rapport zoomen we in op het energieneutraal maken van het onderdeel transport in de zuivelketen.

  14. PCB and PAH contamination of soils in parts of Bavaria remote from industrial zones; PCB- und PAK-Belastung von Boeden in industriefernen Regionen Bayerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joneck, M. [Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt, Aussenstelle Bamberg (Germany); Prinz, R. [Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt, Aussenstelle Bamberg (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    In order to interpret and evaluate soil data, knowledge of current soil contamination levels for comparison is indispensable. The article reports corresponding investigations regarding levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural parts of Bavaria at a great distance from industrial sites by type of land use (farmland, pasture). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Interpretation und Beurteilung von Bodenuntersuchungen ist die Kenntnis der aktuellen Bodenbelastung als Vergleichsgrundlage notwendig. Entsprechende Untersuchungen hinsichtlich der Gehalte polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCBs) und polyaromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAKs) in industriefernen - d.h. laendlichen - Raeumen Bayerns werden, nach Standortnutzung differenziert (Acker, Gruenland), vorgestellt. (orig./SR)

  15. Cosmetic lengthening: what are the limits?

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreschi, F.; Tsibidakis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller. Materials and methods From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patie...

  16. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-01-01

    The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations sho...

  17. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoagi...

  18. Do deodorants/underarm cosmetics cause cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Öztürkcan; Fatmagül Keleş

    2016-01-01

    The effect of deodorant use on breast cancer development has generated considerable interest in both the scientific community and the mainstream media. Primary observational studies and numerous reviews investigating the effect of regular deodorant use on breast cancer development have been undertaken. There is no consensus in this regard. Some epidemiological studies have attempted to directly address the issue of underarm cosmetic use and breast cancer. On the other hand, many studies found...

  19. Bee products as natural compounds in cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, André; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Sousa, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, among the Greeks, the Egyptians and later the Romans, honey and other different bee products were considered essential for health and well-being. The ancient Greek society used them widely in medicine, and later associate them with the concept of wellness and feminine beauty, in what can be considered the embryo of modern day cosmetics. Most bee products can be consumed, or used in its original format, but there are many additional applications when these prod...

  20. Resident Cosmetic Clinic: Practice Patterns, Safety, and Outcomes at an Academic Plastic Surgery Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ali A; Parikh, Rajiv P; Myckatyn, Terence M; Tenenbaum, Marissa M

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive aesthetic surgery education is an integral part of plastic surgery residency training. Recently, the ACGME increased minimum requirements for aesthetic procedures in residency. To expand aesthetic education and prepare residents for independent practice, our institution has supported a resident cosmetic clinic for over 25 years. To evaluate the safety of procedures performed through a resident clinic by comparing outcomes to benchmarked national aesthetic surgery outcomes and to provide a model for resident clinics in academic plastic surgery institutions. We identified a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent procedures through our resident cosmetic clinic between 2010 and 2015. Major complications, as defined by CosmetAssure database, were recorded and compared to published aesthetic surgery complication rates from the CosmetAssure database for outcomes benchmarking. Fisher's exact test was used to compare sample proportions. Two hundred and seventy-one new patients were evaluated and 112 patients (41.3%) booked surgery for 175 different aesthetic procedures. There were 55 breast, 19 head and neck, and 101 trunk or extremity aesthetic procedures performed. The median number of preoperative and postoperative visits was 2 and 4 respectively with a mean follow-up time of 35 weeks. There were 3 major complications (2 hematomas and 1 infection requiring IV antibiotics) with an overall complication rate of 1.7% compared to 2.0% for patients in the CosmetAssure database (P = .45). Surgical outcomes for procedures performed through a resident cosmetic clinic are comparable to national outcomes for aesthetic surgery procedures, suggesting this experience can enhance comprehensive aesthetic surgery education without compromising patient safety or quality of care. 4 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Psychosocial changes after cosmetic surgery: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Kvalem, Ingela L; Skolleborg, Knut C; Roald, Helge E

    2011-09-01

    Most studies examining psychosocial changes after cosmetic surgery have short follow-up periods and therefore provide limited information about long-term effects of such surgery. Moreover, studies that identify whether preexisting patient characteristics are associated with poor psychosocial outcomes after cosmetic surgery are lacking. The current study provides information about both of these issues. Questionnaire data from 130 female Norwegian cosmetic surgery patients were obtained before and 5 years after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of measures on appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological problems, and patients' evaluation of the outcome of surgery. Data from a representative sample of 838 Norwegian women, aged 22 to 55 years, were used for comparison purposes. Analyses revealed an improvement in both general appearance satisfaction and satisfaction with the body part operated on 5 years after surgery. A small increase in self-esteem was observed as well. High rates of preoperative psychological problems and low self-esteem were related to more negative changes in some of the psychosocial measures after surgery compared with patients with better psychological health. Furthermore, factors associated with the actual decision to undergo surgery were related to changes in psychological health and patients' evaluation of the outcome of surgery. This study indicates that cosmetic surgery has positive long-term effects on appearance-related variables. However, surgeons should be particularly aware of patients with psychological problems, as these may compromise patient satisfaction with the effects of cosmetic surgery. Factors affecting the decision itself to undergo cosmetic surgery may also be relevant for subsequent psychosocial outcomes. Therapeutic, II.

  2. Delivery of cosmetic covers to persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputations in an outpatient prosthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Knight, Molly; Olk-Szost, Ayla; Boyd, Melinda; Miro, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Limb loss negatively impacts body image to the extent that functional activity and societal participation are affected. Scientific literature is lacking on the subject of cosmetic covering for prostheses and the rate of cosmetic cover utilization by cover type, gender, amputation level, and type of healthcare reimbursement. To describe the delivery of cosmetic covers in lower limb prostheses in a sample of people with lower extremity amputation. Cross-sectional design Patient records from an outpatient practice were reviewed for people who received a transtibial or transfemoral prosthesis within a selected 2-year period. A total of 294 records were reviewed. Regardless of the amputation level, females were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more likely to receive a cover. Type of insurance did not affect whether or not a cover was used, but Medicare reimbursed more pull-up skin covers. There were differences regarding cosmetic cover delivery based on gender, and Medicare reimbursed for more pull-up skin covers at the transtibial level than other reimbursors did. This analysis was conducted in a warm, tropical geographic region of the United States. Results may differ in other parts of the world based on many factors including climate and local views of body image and disability. Cosmetic covering rates are clinically relevant because they provide insight into which gender is utilizing more cosmetic covers. Furthermore, it can be determined which type of covers are being utilized with greater frequency and which insurance type is providing more coverage for them. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  3. Personality characteristics of patients seeking cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zojaji, Ramin; Arshadi, Hamid Reza; Keshavarz, Mozhdeh; Mazloum Farsibaf, Morteza; Golzari, Fatemeh; Khorashadizadeh, Mostafa

    2014-12-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most common cosmetic surgeries performed on the face. Cosmetic surgery is performed not only to change the appearance, level of satisfaction, and self-confidence of the patient, it may also reflect specific personality patterns. The goal of this study was to investigate the personality characteristics of individuals seeking cosmetic rhinoplasty. Thirty patients referred for rhinoplasty and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in this case-control study. All participants filled out the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory 3rd edition and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Twenty-four (80 %) females and 6 (20 %) males were evaluated. Dependent, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders were seen in 2, 3, and 8 patients in the case group, respectively. The number of individuals with narcissistic personality traits was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Narcissism is the most common psychological trait that motivates patients to seek a rhinoplasty. Personality disorders are not very common among individuals seeking rhinoplasty in Iran. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  4. Lateral minimal parathyroidectomy: safety and cosmetic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Morgenshtern, Sara; Shvero, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Surgery has been the cornerstone of treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism for almost three decades. The recent application of state-of-the art imaging technologies to localize hyperfunctioning adenomas preoperatively has enabled surgeons to minimize the surgical procedure, reduce total operation time and improve cosmetic results without compromising the cure rate. Twenty-one patients with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were selected for treatment with the lateral minimal parathyroidectomy approach following preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, Tc-sestamibi scan, or both. All patients were followed during hospitalization and for three months after for calcium levels and cosmetic results. The procedure was performed by the same surgical team for all 21 patients; under general anesthesia in 20 patients and under deep sedation in 1 patient at high surgical risk. In all cases, parathyroid adenoma was accurately localized by at least one of the imaging modalities before surgery: ultrasonography in 16 patients (76%), Tc-sestamibi scan in 15 (71%), and both in 10 (48%). Average total operative time for the lateral minimal invasive approach was 46 minutes (range 30-65 minutes). Blood calcium levels returned to normal in all patients, and cosmetic results were graded good to excellent. With accurate preoperative localization of unilateral parathyroid adenoma by any imaging modality and careful patient selection, lateral minimal parathyroidectomy performed by a skilled surgeon may serve as a safe, effective procedure with good clinical and aesthetic outcomes.

  5. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, R; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T; Lévêque, J-L; Pineau, P

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  8. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  9. Psychosocial factors predicting the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Kvalem, Ingela L; Skolleborg, Knut Chr; Roald, Helge E

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates psychological factors expected to predict the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery. It is hypothesized that body image, self-esteem, teasing history, acceptance of cosmetic surgery in the individual's environment, and self-monitoring relate to motivation to have cosmetic surgery. Questionnaire data were obtained from 907 participants who responded to a survey distributed to a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22 to 55 years. A second sample of 195 female prospective cosmetic surgery patients was recruited from a plastic surgery clinic. Measures of the hypothesized predictor variables were obtained from both samples. Surgery motivation was operationalized in two different ways. First, the women in the first sample were asked to indicate whether they wished to undergo cosmetic surgery, such that women who wished to have surgery could be compared with those who did not. Second, prospective patients were compared with women from the first sample who indicated that they did not wish to have cosmetic surgery. Analyses revealed all predictor variables but self-esteem to be related to either the wish or the decision to undergo surgery, or to both. Social acceptance of cosmetic surgery and body image were the strongest predictors of cosmetic surgery motivation. The study gives new insights into psychological factors predicting cosmetic surgery motivation. Furthermore, the influence of social factors on cosmetic surgery motivation is emphasized, and it is suggested that these factors be included in future research designs.

  10. Factors that affect the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Furnham, Adrian; Glanville, Louise; Swami, Viren

    2007-01-01

    With the rise in popularity of plastic surgery, it is useful to consider those factors that may increase the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery in a nonpatient population. A study was conducted to determine those factors that might motivate a nonclinical, nonpatient population to undergo cosmetic surgery. A sample of 119 women and 89 men, ages 18 to 59, was recruited from public spaces and asked to complete a questionnaire measuring how likely they were to consider undergoing the most common cosmetic procedures. Women reported greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery than men, older men expressed less desire to undergo cosmetic surgery than younger men, and lower self-ratings of physical attractiveness predicted higher likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. The vicarious experience of cosmetic surgery (via family and friends) increased the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery for women, but not for men. Media exposure did not influence likelihood for either sex. Factors that affect the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery vary with procedure; thus it would be valuable for future studies to use a scale that measures responses separately for different procedures. Lower self-ratings of physical attractiveness lead to consideration of cosmetic surgery; future studies may explore satisfaction levels of those who have undergone surgery.

  11. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  12. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  13. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 1 - single stage vapour compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment. Six heat pump systems were considered, corresponding to an upper limit of the sink temperature of 120 °C. For each set of heat sink and source temperatures the best available technology...... was determined. The results showed that four different heat pump systems propose the best available technology at different parts of the complete domain. Ammonia systems presented the best available technology at low sink outlet temperature. At high temperature difference between sink in- and outlet...

  14. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  15. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  17. Cosmetic surgery volume and its correlation with the major US stock market indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chad R; Pryor, Landon; Afifi, Ahmed M; Benedetto, Paul X; Langevin, C J; Papay, Francis; Yetman, Randall; Zins, James E

    2010-01-01

    As a consumer-driven industry, cosmetic plastic surgery is subject to ebbs and flows as the economy changes. There have been many predictions about the short, intermediate, and long-term impact on cosmetic plastic surgery as a result of difficulties in the current economic climate, but no studies published in the literature have quantified a direct correlation. The authors investigate a possible correlation between cosmetic surgery volume and the economic trends of the three major US stock market indices. A volume analysis for the time period from January 1992 to October 2008 was performed (n = 7360 patients, n = 8205 procedures). Four cosmetic procedures-forehead lift (FL), rhytidectomy (Rh), breast augmentation (BA), and liposuction (Li)-were chosen; breast reduction (BRd), breast reconstruction (BRc), and carpal tunnel release (CTR) were selected for comparison. Case volumes for each procedure and fiscal quarter were compared to the trends of the S&P 500, Dow Jones (DOW), and NASDAQ (NASD) indices. Pearson correlation statistics were used to evaluate a relationship between the market index trends and surgical volume. P values market indices. FL (n =312) only correlated to the NASD (P = .021) and did not reach significance with the S&P 500 (P = .077) or DOW (P = .14). BRd and BRc demonstrated a direct correlation to two of the three stock market indices, whereas CTR showed an inverse (ie, negative) correlation to two of the three indices. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to suggest a direct correlation of four cosmetic and two reconstructive plastic surgery procedures to the three major US stock market indices and further emphasizes the importance of a broad-based plastic surgery practice in times of economic recession.

  18. Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Jakubicz, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Grudlewska, Katarzyna; Reśliński, Adrian; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    Microbiological purity of cosmetics provides safety of users during their use, prevents physicochemical changes of a preparation, infections and diseases of the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by one person and by several people and cosmetics after their expiry date in relations to standards for marketed cosmetics, ensuring safety of their use. This study was conducted using 55 samples representing 19 types of cosmetics, divided into three groups: used by one person, used by several people and after the expiry date. In cosmetic samples the general numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were determined with the spread plate method on tryptic-soy agar. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were also checked. The number of aerobic mesophylic bacteria in the tested cosmetics ranged from the level below the method detectability to 1.3×107 cfu/g or ml. The presence of Staphylococcus spp. was found in 11 (20.0%) tested cosmetic samples and of P. aeruginosa in one tested preparation. Yeasts C. albicans were not detected, whereas contamination with fungi Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. ranging from 0.5×101 to 1.5×101 cfu/g or ml was recorded in four cosmetics. The level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by several people was higher than that of cosmetics used by one person. Cosmetics after the expiry date showed the highest microbiological contamination. The number of users of cosmetic and it expiry date exceeding influenced the level of microbial contamination of preparations.

  19. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  20. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    amount of available food supplies is restricted by a single factor only, namely, the price of oil. Below, using an example from the Industrial Revolution, we will show that the process of utilizing a newfound resource by building a society around it is essentially cyclical. Social organisms evolve in regular and recurring patterns, not unlike birth, youth, maturity and death of biological beings. Each of these steps has its own functionality and must be lived through, much like the fact that one can’t mother children until she reaches puberty. That is why this approach possesses significant predictive capabilities. 

  1. Characterization of karak clay from pakistan for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, L.A. [University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.; Sayeg, I.J.; Carvalho, F.M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Clay, the most important, plentiful, and low cost naturally occurring mineral, is widely used in variety of industrial application including Pharmaceutical and cosmetic. Clay is the fine grained aluminosilicate mineral which shows the property of plasticity at appropriate water content, and becomes hard upon drying. In Pakistan there are different types of clay but till now neither of them properly identified nor characterize for specific industrial application. The objective of this work is to characterize Karak clay for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications collected from deposit located at Shagai region, District Karak, Pakistan. The clay was characterized through Xray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), trace elemental Analysis, Microbiological analysis, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and swelling assays according to European, United States of America and Brazilian Pharmacopeias. Bulk Chemical analysis shows that the Aluminum oxide and silica oxide are present in large quantity which was confirmed by XRD that this sample has montmorillonite as a major while illite and kaolinite as minor clay minerals. Quartz of small quantity was also found as a non-clay mineral. After analyzing the results for sample it was concluded that the clay is a strong candidate for cosmetic purposes. (author)

  2. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of life before and after cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Jean-Charles; Bolton, Michael A; Pi, Sarah; Powell-Hicks, Allycin L; Postolova, Anna; Razani, Bahram; Reyes, Kevin; IsHak, Waguih William

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the impact of cosmetic surgery on health-related quality of life (QOL). Studies were identified through PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO searches from January 1960 to December 2011. Twenty-eight studies were included in this review, according to specific selection criteria. The procedures and tools employed in cosmetic surgery research studies were remarkably diverse, thus yielding difficulties with data analysis. However, data indicate that individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery began with lower values on aspects of QOL than control subjects, and experienced significant QOL improvement post-procedurally, an effect that appeared to plateau with time. Despite the complexity of measuring QOL in cosmetic surgery patients, most studies showed an improvement in QOL after cosmetic surgery procedures. However, this finding was clouded by measurement precision as well as heterogeneity of procedures and study populations. Future research needs to focus on refining measurement techniques, including developing cosmetic surgery-specific QOL measures.

  4. Mortality and suicide among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Poul Harboe; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indicate that women with cosmetic breast implants have a significantly increased risk of suicide. Our objectives were to examine mortality among Danish women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery and to evaluate the baseline prevalence of psychopathological...... disorders as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital among women seeking cosmetic surgery. METHODS: Cohort study of 2761 women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery or public hospitals, 7071 women who underwent breast reduction surgery at public...... hospitals, and 1736 women who attended private clinics for cosmetic surgery other than breast implantation, between 1973 and 1995. Causes of death through 1999 were identified through the Danish Mortality Files. Information on admission to psychiatric hospitals prior to cosmetic surgery was obtained from...

  5. Impact of industrial activities on heavy metal loading and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of water pollution include effluents from a brewery (high pH) and areas associated with tanning activities, sewage treatment plant and ... industry (Pb), operations involving Zn scrap (Cd), former Cu smelter (Cu, Pb, Ni and Co), tannery and pharmaceutical industry (Cr), and soap and cosmetics industry (Hg).

  6. Managing Motherhood in the Australian Construction Industry: Work-family Balance, Parental Leave and Part-time Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of women in the Australian construction industrywas undertaken to examine women's work experiencesin construction. Questionnaires were distributed to threehundred women in construction occupations and 109completed and usable questionnaires were returned.Women were found to be seriously under-represented insite-based roles. Site/project engineers worked longer hoursthan other occupational groups and expressed significantlygreater work-family conflict. Lack of flexibility and theinability to balance work and family were common themesin the qualitative comments made by many respondents.Even when women indicated that part time work options andmaternity entitlements were provided by their organizations,many expressed a reluctance to use them and perceivedcareer penalty associated with this usage. It is concludedthat more flexible work schedules and the implementationof family-friendly policies may encourage more women intosite-based roles in construction. The paper concludes thatthe rigid work practices presently in place act as a subtleform of discrimination. The provision of such policies willonly be effective if cultural and attitudinal change is alsoachieved.

  7. EVALUATION OF STANDARDS OF SOME SELECTED COSMETIC PREPARATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    T. AKELESH, R. SIVA KUMAR, R. JOTHI VIJAI RAJAN, P. ARULRAJ,R.VENKATNARAYANAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the standards of marketed cosmetic products which are largely consumed in day to day life of the people. The cosmeceutical should be tested for efficacy to ensure a proven skin benefit and also to substantiate marketing claims. The work was done by keeping the ideas of Bureau of Indian Standards to analyze the cosmetic products. The evaluation for the following cosmetics such as tooth pastes (Colgate, Closeup, Pepsodent, Vicco and Anchor) and face pow...

  8. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers? perspective toward cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Ain Ayob; Ammar Ihsan Awadh; Juliana Jafri; Shazia Jamshed; Hawa Mas Azmar Ahmad; Hazrina Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-...

  9. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Safety Assessment of Galactomannans as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Modern cosmetic products for skin care: Formulations and quality requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Vuleta Gordana; Milić-Aškrabić Jela; Cekić Nebojša

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of modern cosmetic products mostly involves multifunctionality. The denoted requirements impose on producers of cosmetic raw materials and preparations the continuous improvement of formulations of existing emulsion supports for cosmetically active substancs, the use of new raw materials and technologies for manufacturing preparations, as well as the development of completely new supports for active components and a large number of various sources and concepts for obtaining cos...

  12. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  13. BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...

  14. Knowledge and Behavior Regarding Cosmetics in Koreans Visiting Dermatology Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soyun; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Nack In; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Joung Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Dong Kun; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Cosmetics can affect the skin condition profoundly, and yet no survey has been performed in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Objective To assess knowledge and consumer behavior regarding cosmetics in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 43 questions concerning demographics and use/knowledge/selection/purchase of cosmetics was given to patients and accompanying persons who visited dermatologic clinics in university and private clinic setti...

  15. Perancangan Interior Sarana Kecantikan SEKAWAN Cosmetics Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Charisa, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Beautyis seenas one of thebasic needsof society at certain timesmust be met, namely the needtobe accepted. SEKAWAN Cosmeticsas ameans of presenting local cosmetic producers who workin the field of beauty services and sales. Facilities on offer are beauty shops, spas and salons, where the services provided by the products offered by SEKAWAN Cosmetics. The result ofthis designis expected tobe a placefor the public to appreciate beauty and to be fond of Indonesian cosmetics products.

  16. PARTICULARITIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE COSMETICS MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Harja; Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-01-01

    Based on some results of a research organized in the county of Bacau on consumers of cosmetics, using the questionnaire, this article analyses a number of issues with regard to consumer behavior, namely: cosmetics brand most commonly purchased by consumers, cosmetics category to which are allocated the largest sums of money, the amounts of money that consumers are willing to spend per month to purchase these types of products, the importance of some of the main criteria considered when buying...

  17. [Eye cosmetics--the beauty and the beast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Oren; Nathansohn, Nir; Yeshurun, Itamar; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2005-05-01

    The use of eye cosmetics is a popular practice in modern times that dates back to ancient civilizations. This practice, however, is not without hazards. The most common adverse effect of eye cosmetics is eyelid dermatitis, although an array of other adverse effects has been reported. This article reviews the different types of eye cosmetics in current use, their composition and the adverse effects of both commercial and traditional products.

  18. Analysis of the importance of drug packaging quality for end users and pharmaceutical industry as a part of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    's overall quality management system. For them, a big financial investment in the complete traceability chain was not feasible because of the inability to achieve competitive prices in the market. Since only three of surveyed companies were part of international chains, these findings open the path for new research that would include more multinational drug manufacturers from the region, in order to fully comprehend the importance of investing in the drug chain traceability and protection against counterfeiting, as a part of total quality management process in the pharmaceutical industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179001

  19. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  20. Women's attitudes to beauty, aging, and the place of cosmetic procedures: insights from the QUEST Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger-Martin, Agnès; Cohen-Letessier, Anny; Taïeb, Maryna; Azoulay, Elisabeth; du Crest, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The quest for beauty has been a constant theme in human history since the earliest civilizations. The QUEST Observatory, an online observational study, investigated how women continue the pursuit of beauty in the 21st century by examining women's perceptions of facial attractiveness and the strategies they adopt to combat the effects of time on their faces. To investigate women's attitudes toward beauty, aging, and the place of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and anti-aging skincare. An in-depth questionnaire was developed by experts in dermatology, esthetic medicine, and social anthropology as the basis for this online, observational study. A nationally representative sample of 1000 French women aged between 25 and 70 years took part in the study. The main criteria for beauty were identified as a natural look, self-confidence, and attractive skin. A woman is considered to be at the peak of beauty in her mid-thirties just before early signs of facial aging begin to appear. Approximately 50% of women contemplate cosmetic procedures, but less than 10% go ahead. Confidence in the practitioner and good postprocedure follow-up are as influential as efficacy, safety, and cost in decisions about cosmetic procedures. The QUEST Observatory sheds valuable light on factors that affect women's choices regarding strategies for anti-aging and cosmetic procedures. These findings will help esthetic practitioners to better understand their patients and to meet their expectations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Coffee silverskin: a possible valuable cosmetic ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe(2+)/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. RESULTS seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.

  2. Facial Erosive Pustular Dermatosis After Cosmetic Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervak, Julie E; Gan, Stephanie D; Smith, Emily H; Wang, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis (EPD) is a rare condition that typically affects actinically damaged skin of the scalp. Characterized by sterile pustules, erosions, and crusts, EPD is difficult to treat and heals slowly. The exact cause of EPD is unknown, although trauma is an inciting factor. To describe 3 women who presented with prolonged facial erosions after cosmetic resurfacing procedures, specifically fully ablative carbon dioxide laser or medium-depth chemical peel. This case series describes the clinical features, histopathological findings, laboratory results, and treatment of 3 patients with an ultimate diagnosis most consistent with facial EPD. Patients were evaluated between September 10, 2010, and May 6, 2016, in a dermatology clinic in an academic medical center. The patients were 3 women seeking diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options for nonhealing facial erosions occurring after ablative procedures (carbon dioxide laser resurfacing or Jessner solution/trichloroacetic acid chemical peel). Histologic examination and wound culture from initial presentation as well as clinical follow-up documenting improvement with therapeutic interventions. All 3 patients were women in their 50s or 60s for whom EPD was deemed to be the best diagnosis, after infection, immunobullous disorders, and other pustular dermatoses were considered. Histologic features were nonspecific. Treatment included a combination of topical and systemic therapies, such as corticosteroids, dapsone, isotretinoin, and/or antibiotics. Watchful waiting (tincture of time) appeared to be central to the healing process. After cosmetic resurfacing, patients may develop EPD isolated to the face. As a diagnosis of exclusion that should be considered in patients who have nonhealing wounds following ablative procedures, EPD is challenging to treat and may require the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Recognizing this condition is important, especially as cosmetic procedures become more widespread.

  3. Mass Spectrometry in Cosmetic Science: Advanced Ionization Techniques for Detecting Trace Molecules in or on Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Akira; Kihara, Keishi

    2017-01-01

    To provide safe and effective products to customers in the cosmetic industry, mass spectrometry (MS) is an indispensable analytical tool. In addition to its outstanding sensitivity and specificity, the method is applicable to a wide variety of compounds, which makes it irreplaceable for the development of cosmetics, which requires the analysis of complex systems. Because most cosmetic products are applied directly to the skin and function as they are designed, monitoring the molecular compositions of endogenous or exogenous compounds in or on the skin is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of a cosmetic product. Recent advancements in MS and ionization techniques, such as MS imaging and ambient ionization, now provide access to richer and deeper molecular information with less time and effort. This brief review discusses advanced ionization techniques that are currently used in the field of cosmetic science using two examples, namely, the use of desorption electrospray ionization and zero-volt paperspray ionization to detect trace molecules in or on human skin. PMID:28959516

  4. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  5. AN ANALYSIS ON INSIGHT OF WOMEN CONSUMER'S TOWARDS COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Kajapriya; R Surya

    2015-01-01

    .... This study is attempted to reveal the women consumers preference, satisfaction and Attitude towards the cosmetic products, Factors influencing and Impact of media which permit the women consumers...

  6. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  7. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  8. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  10. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Rekha Paulose

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common alle...

  11. Safety Assessment of PEGylated oils as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Topical anesthetics for cosmetic and laser dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Snehal P; Goldberg, David J

    2005-01-01

    Many effective and simple topical anesthetic products are available today and commonly used in medical and non-medical settings. The increased use of topical anesthetics, especially by non-physicians in the medical and non-medical settings, has resulted in increased rates of complications including ineffective anesthesia, allergy, and even potential fatalities. This review focuses on various techniques and formulations for topical anesthesia and their appropriate applications in cosmetic and laser dermatology. In addition, the history, pharmacology, and clinical complications of topical anesthetics are discussed.

  13. Cosmetic procedures in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Alexis, A F

    2011-08-01

    An increasing proportion of patients undergoing aesthetic procedures are individuals with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI). Racial or ethnic differences exist in perceptions of beauty, the prevalence of specific cosmetic concerns, as well as optimal approaches to treatment. Most important, is the need to avoid treatment-associated pigmentary alterations and keloid scarring, of which there is a greater risk in patients with skin of color. Here we review leading esthetic concerns in the darker skinned patient and discuss approaches to treatment.

  14. Aqueous dispersions of organogel nanoparticles - potential systems for cosmetic and dermo-cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilov, P; Rum, S; Gilbert, E; Roussel, L; Salmon, D; Abdayem, R; Serre, C; Villa, C; Haftek, M; Falson, F; Pirot, F

    2014-08-01

    The preparation and physicochemical characterization of organogel nanoparticles dispersed in water have been developed. These systems could be employed as nanocarrier for cosmetic applications or as hydrophobic reservoirs for drug delivery. Gelled particles of organic liquid and 12-hydroxystearic acid (organogelator) were obtained by hot emulsification (T>Tgel), with a surfactant (acetylated glycol stearate) and polymers (sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol) as stabilizing agents, and cooling at room temperature (Tformulation study was carried out in order to determine the optimal experimental conditions to obtain stable nanoparticle dispersions. Gelled nanoparticles contained the sunscreen model molecule, with mean size of 450 nm, polydispersity index of 0.18 and zeta-potential value above -30 mV, were obtained by ultrasound probe homogenization method. A comparative study of their dispersion ageing showed a greatly enhanced stability after gelation. According to the UVB absorption evaluation, gelled particles improved the photoprotective ability and the photostability of immobilized UVB blocker. They showed a high water resistance (~83%) even after 40 min of immersion. The obtained results demonstrate the interest of these gelled nanoparticles and their aqueous dispersion for the preparation of new formulations for cosmetic and dermo-cosmetic applications. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. (a)(1) The label of a cosmetic packaged in a self-pressurized container and intended...

  16. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  17. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...

  18. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part I: Information flow, new drug development, and federal regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part I of this series provides a background for the discussion of drug safety by defining the basic terms and showing the flow of safety information through a pharmaceutical company. The customers for adverse drug event data are identified to provide a basis for providing quality service. The development of a drug product is briefly reviewed to show the evolution of safety data. Drug development and safety are defined by federal regulations. These regulations are developed by the FDA with information from pharmaceutical manufacturers. The intent of the regulations and the accompanying guidelines is described. An illustration from the news media is cited to show an alternative, positive approach to handling an adverse event report. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text and additional readings are presented in an appendix. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction ;of the components

  19. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry: a baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurssen, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka; Spaan, Suzanne; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Meijster, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. This article describes a baseline exposure study that is part of a multidimensional intervention program aiming to reduce quartz exposure among construction workers. In this study, personal respirable dust and quartz exposure was assessed among 116 construction workers (bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers). Possible determinants of exposure, like job, tasks, and work practices, use of control measures, and organizational and psychosocial factors, were explored using exposure models for respirable dust and quartz separately. Stratified analyses by job title were performed to evaluate the effect of control measures on exposure and to explore the association between control measures and psychosocial factors. Overall, 62% of all measurements exceeded the Dutch occupational exposure limit for quartz and 11% for respirable dust. Concrete drillers and tuck pointers had the highest exposures for quartz and respirable dust (0.20 and 3.43mg m(-3), respectively). Significant predictors of elevated quartz exposure were abrasive tasks and type of material worked on. Surprisingly, in a univariate model, an increased knowledge level was associated with an increase in exposure. Although control measures were used infrequently, if used they resulted in approximately 40% reduction in quartz exposure among concrete drillers and tuck pointers. Only among concrete drillers, the use of control measures was associated with a higher score for social influence (factor 1.6); knowledge showed an inverse association with use of control measures for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. In conclusion, the detailed information on determinants of exposure, use of control measures, and constraints to

  20. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. OBJECTIVE: To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. RESULTS: More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. CONCLUSIONS: In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check. PMID:22942656