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Sample records for corynebacterium infections

  1. A Spontaneous Joint Infection with Corynebacterium striatum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scholle, David

    2006-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a ubiquitous saprophyte with the potential to cause bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Until now, spontaneous infection of a natural joint has not been reported. When phenotyping failed, gene sequencing was used to identify the species. The isolate demonstrated high-level resistance to most antibiotics.

  2. Corynebacterium minutissimum vascular graft infection: case report and review of 281 cases of prosthetic device-related Corynebacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Rebecca M; Cunha, Cheston B; Rich, Josiah D

    2014-09-01

    Corynebacterium spp. have proven their pathogenic potential in causing infections, particularly in the setting of immunosuppression and prosthetic devices. We conducted a PubMed literature review of all cases of Corynebacterium prosthetic device infections published in the English language through December 2013. The majority of cases involved peritoneal dialysis and central venous catheters, but prosthetic joints and central nervous system shunts/drains were also involved. The management of these cases in terms of retention or removal of the device was not uniform; however, the overall mortality remained the same among both groups. All of these prosthetic device infections pose potential problems in management when the device cannot be removed safely for the patient, especially with the lack of data on the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium species. However with better identification of species and sensitivities, successful treatment is possible even with retention of the device.

  3. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

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    Fatma Mutlu Sariguzel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%. In 24 of the patients (19.8% Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered.

  4. [Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Corynebacterium ulcerans - Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Christian; Schwede, Ilona; Neumann, Volker; Pietsch, Cristine; Handrick, Werner

    2017-10-01

    History and clinical findings  We report on three patients suffering from skin and soft tissue infections of the legs due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. In all three patients, there was a predisposition due to chronic diseases. Three patients had domestic animals (cat, dog) in their households. Investigations and diagnosis  A mixed bacterial flora including Corynebacterium ulcerans was found in wound swab samples. Diphtheric toxin was produced by the Corynebacterium ulcerans strains in all three cases. Treatment and course  In all three patients, successful handling of the skin and soft tissue infections was possible by combining local treatment with antibiotics. Diphtheria antitoxin was not administered in any case. Conclusion  Based on a review of the recent literature pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and signs, diagnostics and therapy of skin and soft tissue infections due to Corynebacterium ulcerans are discussed. Corynebacterium ulcerans should be considered as a potential cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections. Occupational or domestic animal contacts should be evaluated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Brain and lung cryptococcoma and concurrent corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in a goat: a case report

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    MCR Luvizotto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-year-old male goat with a history of neurological disorder was euthanized. It presented uncommon nodules in the brain and lungs associated with multiple abscesses, predominantly in the spleen and liver. Histological examination of brain and lung sections revealed yeast forms confirmed to be Cryptococcus gattii after a combination of isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures. Moreover, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed by PCR of samples from the lung, spleen and liver. The present report highlights the rare concurrent infection of C. gatti and C. pseudotuberculosis in an adult goat from São Paulo state, Brazil, and indicates the necessity of surveillance in the treatment of goats with atypical pulmonary infections associated with neurological disorders.

  6. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wagner, K S

    2011-04-01

    Diphtheria is now rare in most European countries but, when cases do arise, the case fatality rate is high (5-10%). Because few countries continue to routinely screen for the causative organisms of diphtheria, the extent to which they are circulating amongst different European populations is largely unknown. During 2007-2008, ten European countries each screened between 968 and 8551 throat swabs from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported incidence of diphtheria in the European Union) and four from Lithuania (two cases, two carriers); the last reported case of diphtheria in Lithuania was in 2002. Carriage rates of non-toxigenic organisms ranged from 0 (Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy) to 4.0 per 1000 (95% CI 2.0-7.1) in Turkey. A total of 28 non-toxigenic strains were identified during the study (26 C. diphtheriae, one Corynebacterium ulcerans, one Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis). The non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strain was isolated from the UK, the country with the highest reported incidence of cases due to C. ulcerans. Of the eleven ribotypes detected, Cluj was seen most frequently in the non-toxigenic isolates and, amongst toxigenic isolates, the major epidemic clone, Sankt-Petersburg, is still in circulation. Isolation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in highly-vaccinated populations highlights the need to maintain microbiological surveillance, laboratory expertise and an awareness of these organisms amongst public health specialists, microbiologists and clinicians.

  7. Surgical Site Infection by Corynebacterium macginleyi in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

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    Bruno Cacopardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium (C. macginleyi is a gram positive, lipophilic rod, usually considered a colonizer of skin and mucosal surfaces. Several reports have associated C. macginleyi with ocular infections, such as conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis. However, even if rare, extraocular infections from C. macginleyi may occur, especially among immunocompromised patients and patients with indwelling medical devices. We report herein the first case of surgical site infection by C. macginleyi after orthopaedic surgery for the correction of kyphoscoliosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Our patient developed a nodular granulomatous lesion of about two centimetres along the surgical scar, at the level of C4-C5, with purulent discharge and formation of a fistulous tract. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a two-centimetre fluid pocket in the subcutaneous tissue. Several swabs were collected from the borders of the lesion as well as from the exudate, with isolation of C. macginleyi. The isolate was susceptible to beta-lactams, cotrimoxazole, linezolid, and glycopeptides but resistant to quinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, and erythromycin. Two 30-day courses of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanate (1 g three times/day and cotrimoxazole (800/160 mg twice a day were administered, obtaining a complete healing of the lesion.

  8. Cystic Neutrophilic Granulomatous Mastitis: Further Characterization of a Distinctive Histopathologic Entity Not Always Demonstrably Attributable to Corynebacterium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Moo, Tracy-Ann; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Cheng, Esther; Antonio, Lilian B; Hoda, Syed A

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is an uncommon condition that typically occurs in parous, reproductive-aged women and can simulate malignancy on the basis of clinical and imaging features. A distinctive histologic pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM) is seen in some cases of GLM and has been associated with Corynebacterium infection. We sought to further characterize the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of CNGM by studying 12 cases and attempted to establish the relationship of this disease with Corynebacterium infection. Patients were women ranging in age from 25 to 49 years (median: 34 y), and all presented with a palpable mass that was painful in half of the cases. In 2 of 9 cases, imaging was highly suspicious for malignancy (BI-RADS 5). CNGM was characterized by lobulocentric granulomas with mixed inflammation and clear vacuoles lined by neutrophils within granulomas. Gram-positive bacilli were identified in 5/12 cases. In 4 patients, the disease process worsened after the diagnostic core biopsy, with the development of a draining sinus in 2 cases. No growth of bacteria was seen in any microbial cultures. No bacterial DNA was identified by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction for 1 case that showed gram-positive bacilli on histology. Patients were treated with variable combinations of surgery, antibiotics, and steroids. The time to significant resolution of symptoms ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Similar to other forms of GLM, CNGM can mimic malignancy clinically and on imaging. When encountered in a needle core biopsy sample, recognition of the characteristic histologic pattern and its possible association with Corynebacterium infection can help guide treatment.

  9. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

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    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  10. Corynebacterium propinquum associated with acute, nongonococcal urethritis.

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    Abdolrasouli, Alireza; Roushan, Azita

    2013-10-01

    Corynebacterium propinquum is usually considered part of the normal human oropharyngeal flora and is rarely responsible for clinical infection. We report here what seems to be the first case of acute purulent urethral discharge in a young Iranian man with urethritis acquired after orogenital contact. Attention should be devoted to less common nondiphtheriae Corynebacterium species for differential diagnosis.

  11. Corynebacterium macginleyi isolated from a corneal ulcer

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    Kathryn Ruoff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of Corynebacterium macginleyi from the corneal ulcer culture of a patient, later enrolled in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcer Trial (SCUT. To our knowledge this is the first published report from North America of the recovery of C. macginleyi from a serious ocular infection.

  12. Outbreak investigation for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae wound infections in refugees from Northeast Africa and Syria in Switzerland and Germany by whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, D M; Kuehl, R; Zbinden, R; Boskova, V; Garzoni, C; Fadini, D; Dolina, M; Blümel, B; Weibel, T; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Widmer, A F; Bielicki, J A; Dierig, A; Heininger, U; Konrad, R; Berger, A; Hinic, V; Goldenberger, D; Blaich, A; Stadler, T; Battegay, M; Sing, A; Egli, A

    2016-12-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is an important and potentially fatal threat to patients and public health. During the current dramatic influx of refugees into Europe, our objective was to use whole genome sequencing for the characterization of a suspected outbreak of C. diphtheriae wound infections among refugees. After conventional culture, we identified C. diphtheriae using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and investigated toxigenicity by PCR. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a MiSeq Illumina with >70×coverage, 2×250 bp read length, and mapping against a reference genome. Twenty cases of cutaneous C. diphtheriae in refugees from East African countries and Syria identified between April and August 2015 were included. Patients presented with wound infections shortly after arrival in Switzerland and Germany. Toxin production was detected in 9/20 (45%) isolates. Whole genome sequencing-based typing revealed relatedness between isolates using neighbour-joining algorithms. We detected three separate clusters among epidemiologically related refugees. Although the isolates within a cluster showed strong relatedness, isolates differed by >50 nucleotide polymorphisms. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae associated wound infections are currently observed more frequently in Europe, due to refugees travelling under poor hygienic conditions. Close genetic relatedness of C. diphtheriae isolates from 20 refugees with wound infections indicates likely transmission between patients. However, the diversity within each cluster and phylogenetic time-tree analysis suggest that transmissions happened several months ago, most likely outside Europe. Whole genome sequencing offers the potential to describe outbreaks at very high resolution and is a helpful tool in infection tracking and identification of transmission routes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Corynebacterium ulcerans cutaneous diphtheria.

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    Moore, Luke S P; Leslie, Asuka; Meltzer, Margie; Sandison, Ann; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient with cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans who developed a right hand flexor sheath infection and symptoms of sepsis such as fever, tachycardia, and elevated C-reactive protein, after contact with domestic cats and dogs, and a fox. We summarise the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, diagnosis, therapy, and public health aspects of this disease, with emphasis on improving recognition. In many European countries, C ulcerans has become the organism commonly associated with cutaneous diphtheria, usually seen as an imported tropical disease or resulting from contact with domestic and agricultural animals. Diagnosis relies on bacterial culture and confirmation of toxin production, with management requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prompt administration of antitoxin, if necessary. Early diagnosis is essential for implementation of control measures and clear guidelines are needed to assist clinicians in managing clinical diphtheria. This case was a catalyst to the redrafting of the 2014 national UK interim guidelines for the public health management of diphtheria, released as final guidelines in March, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis associated with Corynebacterium including Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Kate J; Robson, Jennifer; Cherian, Sarah G; Wan Sai Cheong, Jenny; Kerr, Kris; Bligh, Judith F

    2017-06-01

    Granulomatous (lobular) mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease affecting parous reproductive-aged women. Once considered idiopathic, there is growing evidence of an association with corynebacteria infection, especially in the setting of a distinct histological pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM). We describe 15 cases with histological features either confirming (n = 12) or suggesting (n = 3) CNGM, and concurrent microbiological evidence of Corynebacterium species. The organism was detected by culture or 16S rRNA gene sequencing of specimens obtained at surgery or fine needle aspiration. In seven cases, Gram-positive organisms were seen within vacuolated spaces. Speciation was performed in nine cases, with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii subsequently identified. These cases provide further evidence in support of this association and in doing so highlight the importance of recognising these histological clues as well as the limitations of Gram stain and microbiological culture in detecting this previously under-recognised disease process. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify and determine the toxigenicity of Corynebacterium spp with zoonotic potential and an overview of human and animal infections

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    Luciene de Fátima Costa Torres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis constitute a group of potentially toxigenic microorganisms that are related to different infectious processes in animal and human hosts. Currently, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of disease caused by these pathogens, which is partially due to a reduction in the frequency of routine laboratory testing. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR assay that can simultaneously identify and determine the toxigenicity of these corynebacterial species with zoonotic potential was developed. This assay uses five primer pairs targeting the following genes: rpoB (Corynebacterium spp, 16S rRNA (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis, pld (C. pseudotuberculosis, dtxR (C. diphtheriae and tox [diphtheria toxin (DT ]. In addition to describing this assay, we review the literature regarding the diseases caused by these pathogens. Of the 213 coryneform strains tested, the mPCR results for all toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C . diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were in 100% agreement with the results of standard biochemical tests and PCR-DT. As an alternative to conventional methods, due to its advantages of specificity and speed, the mPCR assay used in this study may successfully be applied for the diagnosis of human and/or animal diseases caused by potentially toxigenic corynebacterial species.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

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    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  17. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

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    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  18. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

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    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Essig, Andreas; Herrmann, Manuel; Liebold, Andreas; Quader, Mohamed Abo

    2015-12-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) kroppenstedtii is a rarely detected agent of bacterial infections in humans. Here, we describe the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. kroppenstedtii. Application of molecular methods using surgically excised valve tissue was a cornerstone for the establishment of the microbiological diagnosis, which is crucial for targeted antimicrobial treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Urethritis due to corynebacterium striatum: An emerging germ.

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    Frikh, Mohammed; El Yaagoubi, Imad; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Corynedbacterium striatum (CS) is a Gram-positive coryneform bacillus that is part of mucous and skin flora. It has been considered as a causative agent of many infections in intensive care, neurology, traumatology and urology, but was never implicated in non-gonococcal urethritis. We report the case of a nosocomial urethritis due to Corynebacterium striatum following resection of an intrameatus condyloma.

  20. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

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    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  1. Corynebacterium species: an uncommon agent of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and a challenging treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joel; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Ramos, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Corynebacterium is a component of normal skin flora and it is responsible for an increasing incidence of nosocomial infections in the last decades. Peritonitis and exit-site infections caused by this microorganism are uncommon but have a significant clinical impact due to their high relapsing rate. The ideal therapeutic approach in these situations is not yet clearly defined. Methods: Retrospective analysis of Corynebacterium spp peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis unit between...

  2. Corynebacterium species isolated from patients with mastitis.

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    Paviour, Sue; Musaad, Sahar; Roberts, Sally; Taylor, Graeme; Taylor, Susan; Shore, Keith; Lang, Selwyn; Holland, David

    2002-12-01

    Corynebacteria were isolated from breast tissue, pus, or deep wound swabs of 24 women; the most common species isolated was the newly described Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, followed by Corynebacterium amycolatum and Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Gram-positive bacilli were seen in samples sent for culture or in histological specimens for 12 women, and 9 of the 12 women from whom adequate histological specimens were obtained had conditions that met the criteria for granulomatous lobular mastitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology.

  3. An unusual etiological agent of implantable cardioverter device endocarditis: Corynebacterium mucifaciens

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    Adnan Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pacing devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD are becoming the mainstay of therapy in cardiology and infective endocarditis (IE and pocket infection; however, these devices require careful monitoring. Here, we describe a case of a 68-year-old female with an ICD presenting with a previously unknown etiological agent of IE, Corynebacterium mucifaciens.

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods.

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    Weiss, K; Laverdière, M; Rivest, R

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly being implicated in foreign-body infections and in immunocompromised-host infections. However, there are no specific recommendations on the method or the criteria to use in order to determine the in vitro activities of the antibiotics commonly used to treat Corynebacterium infections. The first aim of our study was to compare the susceptibilities of various species of Corynebacterium to vancomycin, erythromycin, and penicillin by using a broth microdilution method and a disk diffusion method. Second, the activity of penicillin against our isolates was assessed by using the interpretative criteria recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for the determination of the susceptibility of streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes to penicillin. Overall, 100% of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, while considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin were noted for the different species tested, including the non-Corynebacterium jeikeium species. A good correlation in the susceptibilities of vancomycin and erythromycin between the disk diffusion and the microdilution methods was observed. However, a 5% rate of major or very major errors was detected with the Listeria criteria, while a high rate of minor errors (18%) was noted when the streptococcus criteria were used. Our findings indicate considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin against the various species of Corynebacterium. Because of the absence of definite recommendations, important discrepancies were observed between the methods and the interpretations of the penicillin activity. PMID:8849254

  5. SIALIDASE (NEURAMINIDASE) OF CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WARREN, L; SPEARING, C W

    1963-11-01

    Warren, Leonard (National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Md.) and C. W. Spearing. Sialidase (neuraminidase) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J. Bacteriol. 86:950-955. 1963.-The characteristics of a sialidase produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae were studied. The enzyme was partially purified from preparations of diphtheria toxin on a column of Sephadex G-75. By this means the lethal factor of diphtheria toxin was separated, in part, from the sialidase activity. There appeared to be a close immunological relationship between the sialidases of C. diphtheriae and clostridia, since a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin was as effective an inhibitor of diphtheria sialidase as of the sialidase of three species of clostridia. Conversely, antitoxin to clostridia inhibited diphtheria sialidase. Diphtheria antitoxin was essentially inactive toward influenza virus sialidase, and was completely inactive against purified sialidase of Vibrio cholerae. Removal of sialic acid from the proteins in a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin did not alter the inhibitory activity of the antitoxin against diphtheria sialidase. The enzyme operated optimally at pH 5.5 and did not require calcium ions for activity. The substrate specificity of diphtheria sialidase appears to be the same as that of other previously described sialidases.

  6. Fatal case of bacteremia caused by an atypical strain of Corynebacterium mucifaciens

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    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium species have often been considered normal skin flora or contaminants; however, in recent years they have been increasingly implicated in serious infections. Moreover, many new species have been discovered and old species renamed, especially after molecular biology techniques were introduced. Corynebacterium mucifaciens is mainly isolated from blood and from other normally-sterile body fluids; it forms slightly yellow, mucoid colonies on blood agar. We report a fatal case of bacteremia due to an atypical strain of C. mucifaciens. This strain had atypical colony morphology; analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used to define the species.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir.

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    Blasche, Sonja; Kim, Yongkyu; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-14

    The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive species with a high G+C content. We report here a novel species, Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. Its draft genome sequence was remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identity, 76.54%) to those of other Corynebacterium spp., confirming that this is a unique novel species. Copyright © 2017 Blasche et al.

  8. Corynebacterium species causing breast abscesses among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, South India.

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    Poojary, Indira; Kurian, Ann; V A, Jayalekshmi; Devapriya J, Debora; M A, Thirunarayan

    2017-07-01

    Corynebacterium species other than Corynebacterium diphtheriae were mostly considered contaminants in the past, but there are reports of their association with wide variety of human infections lately. In this study, we look into Corynebacterium species isolated from breast abscess patients and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and treatment outcomes. Pus samples from suspected breast abscess cases were examined from October 2014 to September 2015. Growth of Gram-positive bacilli morphologically resembling Corynebacterium species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry identifications generated by the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux, France) (MALDI-TOF Vitek MS system) and antimicrobial susceptibility was done. Corynebacterium species were isolated from 10 female breast abscess patients with median age of 36 years (range 25-59 years). Out of the 10 isolates four isolates were identified as C. kroppenstedtii; one isolate as C. striatum and five isolates were identified as C. amycolatum/C.xerosis. Out of four isolates of C .kroppenstedtii, two isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole and one C. striatum isolate was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin. Of the five isolates identified as C amycolatum/C xerosis, all were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid but resistant to clindamycin. All the patients were treated with incision, drainage and antibiotics based on the sensitivity pattern; eight were cured and two patients did not come for follow-up. Corynebacterium species should be considered one of the causative agents of breast abscess and a varied susceptibility profile amongst the different species makes susceptibility testing important. Identification by MALDI-TOF Vitek MS system may not differentiate between C. amycolatum and C. xerosis.

  9. An unusual case of chronic nonhealing periorbital ulceration due to a new species of Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557

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    Bipasa Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondiphtherial Corynebacterium (diphtheroids has been related to blood and wound infections but are an uncommon cause for soft tissue infection. We report a case of periorbital soft tissue infection with ulceration caused by multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium spp. in a 9-year-old girl who is apparently immunocompetant. Computed tomography scan showed soft tissue involvement of right periorbital region with no bony destructions or focal calcifications. Vision remained unaffected. Patient was treated by debridement and skin grafting, but condition did not improve. Pus collected from the periorbital ulcerated area was cultured in blood agar and Corynebacterium spp. was isolated from the pure culture, which was identified as a new species Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557 using 16S rDNA- based molecular technique based on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis. Antibiogram showed multiresistance pattern with sensitivity to ceftriaxone-sulbactum vancomycin and linezolid. After initiation of treatment with vancomycin infusion and oral linezolid, the patient responded well and lesion started to heal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of periorbital ulceration by new species of Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557.

  10. Sigma factors and promoters in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 154, 2-3 (2011), s. 101-113 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC204/09/J015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * Sigma factors * Promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2011

  11. Corynebacterium pilbarense sp. nov., a non-lipophilic corynebacterium isolated from a human ankle aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena-Roman, M; Spröer, C; Sträubler, B; Inglis, T; Yassin, A F

    2010-07-01

    A non-lipophilic coryneform bacterium isolated from an anaerobic Bactec bottle inoculated with an ankle aspirate from a male patient was characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of short-chain mycolic acids in the cell wall of the bacterium, a feature consistent with members of the genus Corynebacterium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolate displayed 92.0-99.0 % gene sequence similarity with members of the genus Corynebacterium, with Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans as the most closely related phylogenetic species (99.0 % gene sequence similarity). However, the isolate could be genomically separated from C. ureicelerivorans on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization studies (39.5 % relatedness). Furthermore, the isolate could also be differentiated from C. ureicelerivorans and other species of the genus Corynebacterium on the basis of biochemical properties. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that this isolate be classified as representing a novel species, Corynebacterium pilbarense sp. nov. (type strain IMMIB WACC 658(T)=DSM 45350(T)=CCUG 57942(T)).

  12. Isolamento de Corynebacterium aquaticum em leite bubalino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se 548 quartos mamários de búfalas, realizando-se exame clínico, CMT para detecção de mastite e coleta de amostras para isolamento bacteriano. Houve crescimento em duas amostras de Corynebacterium aquaticum caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Relata-se a participação do agente como colonizador do úbere e possível causador de mastites em bubalinos.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dionei J; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Spier, Sharon J; Carroll, Scott P; Edman, Judy; Azevedo, Vasco A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-04-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi is an important pathogen of horses. It is increasing in frequency in the United States, and is responsible for various clinical forms of infection, including external abscesses, internal abscesses of the abdominal or thoracic cavities, and ulcerative lymphangitis. The host/pathogen factors dictating the form or severity of infection are currently unknown. Our recent investigations have shown that genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR is useful for understanding the evolutionary genetics of the species as well for molecular epidemiology studies. The aims of the present study were to assess (i) the genetic diversity of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from horses in California, United States and (ii) the epidemiologic relationships among isolates. One hundred and seven C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi isolates from ninety-five horses, and two C. pseudotuberculosis biovar Ovis strains, C. pseudotuberculosis ATCC 19410 T type strain and C. pseudotuberculosis 1002 vaccine strain, were fingerprinted using the ERIC 1+2-PCR. C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from horses showed a high genetic diversity, clustering in twenty-seven genotypes with a diversity index of 0.91. Minimal spanning tree showed four major clonal complexes with a pattern of temporal clustering. Strains isolated from the same horse showed identical ERIC 1+2-PCR genotype, with the exception of two strains isolated from the same animal that showed distinct genotypes, suggesting a co-infection. We found no strong genetic signals related to clinical form (including internal versus external infections). However, temporal clustering of genotypes was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis... 名詞 一般 * * * * Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D016925 200906025325177003 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

  15. Optimization of lysine metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang

    ,000,000 tons. The aim of this project is to optimize the yield of lysine in C. glutamicum using metabolic engineering strategies. According to a genome scale model of C. glutamicum, theoretically there is much room for increasing the lysine yield (Kjeldsen and Nielsen 2009). Lysine synthesis requires NADPH......Commercial pig and poultry production use the essential amino acid lysine as a feed additive with the purpose of optimizing the feed utilization. Lysine is produced by a fermentation process involving either Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli. The global annual production is around 1...... the project intends to eliminate. PGI catalyzes the conversion of alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate just downstream of the branch in the glycolysis, but it also catalyzes the reverse reaction. It is unknown whether up- or down-regulation of the pgi is required to increase the flux through...

  16. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva

    2013-01-01

    , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic...

  17. Patchoulol Production with Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Henke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism. In this study, systematic metabolic engineering enabled construction of a patchoulol producing C. glutamicum strain by applying the following strategies: (i construction of a farnesyl pyrophosphate-producing platform strain by combining genomic deletions with heterologous expression of ispA from Escherichia coli; (ii prevention of carotenoid-like byproduct formation; (iii overproduction of limiting enzymes from the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP-pathway to increase precursor supply; and (iv heterologous expression of the plant patchoulol synthase gene PcPS from Pogostemon cablin. Additionally, a proof of principle liter-scale fermentation with a two-phase organic overlay-culture medium system for terpenoid capture was performed. To the best of our knowledge, the patchoulol titers demonstrated here are the highest reported to date with up to 60 mg L−1 and volumetric productivities of up to 18 mg L−1 d−1.

  18. Synthetic promoter libraries for Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang; Helmark, Søren; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The ability to modulate gene expression is an important genetic tool in systems biology and biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that a previously published easy and fast PCR-based method for modulating gene expression in lactic acid bacteria is also applicable to Corynebacterium glutamicum. We co...... promoter library (SPL) technology is convenient for modulating gene expression in C. glutamicum and should have many future applications, within basic research as well as for optimizing industrial production organisms....... constructed constitutive promoter libraries based on various combinations of a previously reported C. glutamicum -10 consensus sequence (gngnTA(c/t)aaTgg) and the Escherichia coli -35 consensus, either with or without an AT-rich region upstream. A promoter library based on consensus sequences frequently found...... in low-GC Gram-positive microorganisms was also included. The strongest promoters were found in the library with a -35 region and a C. glutamicum -10 consensus, and this library also represents the largest activity span. Using the alternative -10 consensus TATAAT, which can be found in many other...

  19. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  20. Tools for genetic manipulations in Corynebacterium glutamicum and their applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešvera, Jan; Pátek, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2011), s. 1641-1654 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC204/09/J015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * Plasmid vectors * Promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.425, year: 2011

  1. Over-expression of NAD kinase in Corynebacterium crenatum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA5-5 and to study its impact in presence of high (HOS) ... Results: In HOS condition, NAD+ kinase activity increased by 116 %, while ... (NADPH), an important co-enzyme during ... Polymerase, TaKaRa) using C. crenatum .... were washed with cold 100 mM PBS (pH 7.5) ..... Catalase and.

  2. Native valve endocarditis due to Corynebacterium group JK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, B G; Veenendaal, R A; Thompson, J

    1990-12-01

    We report a case of a 32-yr-old woman on chronic intermittent haemodialysis, who developed endocarditis due to a Corynebacterium group JK, involving both the native aortic and mitral valves. Despite a four-week treatment with vancomycin, an aortic root abscess developed. The diagnosis was confirmed on autopsy.

  3. Pathogenicity and genetic variation of 3 strains of Corynebacterium bovis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Vandana S; Henderson, Kenneth S; Fister, Richard D; Pietrowski, Michael T; Maldonado, Geomaris; Clifford, Charles B

    2013-07-01

    Corynebacterium bovis has been associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis and acanthosis in mice. We studied 3 different strains of C. bovis: one previously described to cause hyperkeratotic dermatitis (HAC), one that infected athymic nude mice without leading to the classic clinical signs, and one of bovine origin (ATCC 7715). The 3 strains showed a few biochemical and genetic differences. Immunodeficient nude mice were housed in 3 independent isolators and inoculated with pure cultures of the 3 strains. We studied the transmission of these C. bovis studies to isolator-bedding and contact sentinels housed for 5 to 12 wk in filter-top or wire-top cages in the respective isolators. Using a 16S rRNA-based qPCR assay, we did not find consistent differences in growth and transmission among the 3 C. bovis strains, and neither the incidence nor severity of hyperkeratosis or acanthosis differed between strains. Housing in filter-top compared with wire-top cages did not alter the morbidity associated with any of the strains. Our findings confirmed the variability in the gross and histologic changes associated with C. bovis infection of mice. Although bacteriology was a sensitive method for the detection of Corynebacterium spp., standard algorithms occasionally misidentified C. bovis and several related species. Our study demonstrates that PCR of skin swabs or feces is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of C. bovis infection in mice. An rpoB-based screen of samples from North American vivaria revealed that HAC is the predominant C. bovis strain in laboratory mice.

  4. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 constitutes for the 40 amino acid long PorACj, which forms a homooligomeric and anion-selective cell wall channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Abdali

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed.

  5. In silico identification of essential proteins in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis based on protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folador, Edson Luiz; de Carvalho, Paulo Vinícius Sanches Daltro; Silva, Wanderson Marques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) is a gram-positive bacterium that is classified into equi and ovis serovars. The serovar ovis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a chronic infection affecting sheep and goats, causing economic losses due to carcass condemnation...... of the potential Cp interactome and to identify potentially essential proteins serving as putative drug targets. On average, we predict 16,669 interactions for each of the nine strains (with 15,495 interactions shared among all strains). An in silico sanity check suggests that the potential networks were...... not formed by spurious interactions but have a strong biological bias. With the inferred Cp networks we identify 181 essential proteins, among which 41 are non-host homologous. CONCLUSIONS: The list of candidate interactions of the Cp strains lay the basis for developing novel hypotheses and designing...

  6. Mastitis in dairy cattle caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and the feasibility of transmission by houseflies. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Shpigel, N Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Saran, A; Winkler, M

    1996-09-01

    Morbidity due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection occurred in 29 dairy herds. The disease appeared basically in three clinical forms: cutaneous, mastitic, and visceral. The appearance of the disease showed a marked seasonality: in 23 herds it occurred during the spring and summer months (dry season) (March-October). The mastitic form occurred in only 10 herds and the causative bacterium was isolated from 33 cows (5.8%). All the strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from the milk samples were found not to be nitrate reducers. The bacterium was excreted in the milk of six cows from herd B during a period of 11 months. In the mastitic cows, a decrease in milk production and considerable increases in the somatic cell count were noted. C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from houseflies collected over a cow lesion. Laboratory-reared houseflies were successfully infected with C. pseudotuberculosis-contaminated milk, broth and sugar cubes. Flies infected with the bacterium from contaminated milk excreted the bacterium in their droppings for up to 4 h and from their saliva for up to 3 h post infection. The bacterium survived on the external organs of houseflies for no longer than 10 min post infection, after the flies had been dipped in contaminated broth.

  7. Corynebacterium tapiri sp. nov. and Corynebacterium nasicanis sp. nov., isolated from a tapir and a dog, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Sandra; Loncaric, Igor; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive bacterial isolates, strain 2385/12T and strain 2673/12T were isolated from a tapir and a dog's nose, respectively. The two strains were rod to coccoid-shaped, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity identified Corynebacterium singulare CCUG 37330T (96.3% similarity) as the nearest relative of strain 2385/12T and suggested the isolate represented a novel species. Corynebacterium humireducens DSM 45392T (98.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) was identified as the nearest relative of strain 2673/12T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of C. humireducens demonstrated that strain 2673/12T also represented a novel species. Strain 2385/12T showed a quinone system consisting predominantly of menaquinones MK-8(H2) and MK-9(H2) whereas strain 2673/12T contained only MK-8(H2) as predominant quinone. The polar lipid profiles of the two strains showed the major compounds phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. Phosphatidylinositol was identified as another major lipid in 2673/12T whereas it was only found in moderate amounts in strain 2385/12T. Furthermore, moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, β-gentiobiosyl diacylglycerol and variable counts of several unidentified lipids were detected in the two strains. Both strains contained corynemycolic acids. The polyamine patterns were characterized by the major compound putrescine in strain 2385/12T and spermidine in strain 2673/12T. In the fatty acid profiles, predominantly C18:1ω9c and C16:0 were detected. The two strains are distinguishable from each other and the nearest related established species of the genus Corynebacterium phylogenetically and phenotypically. In conclusion, two novel species of the genus Corynebacterium are proposed, namely Corynebacterium tapiri sp. nov. (type strain, 2385/12T = CCUG 65456T = LMG 28165T) and Corynebacterium nasicanis sp. nov. (type

  8. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection.

  9. Mural endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium mustelae in a dog with a VSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Randolph L; Gordon, Sonya G; Zhang, Shuping; Hariu, Crystal D; Miller, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    A 6 yr old female spayed large Munsterlander was evaluated following a 3 wk history of lethargy, inappetence, intermittent fever, and a recent change to the timing of her previously diagnosed heart murmur. Physical examination revealed marked dehydration, lethargy, and a grade 5/6 to-and-fro heart murmur that was auscultated best at the right sternal border. The dog was febrile, and echocardiography revealed a large, mobile, vegetative lesion in the right ventricular outflow tract associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Mild aortic insufficiency was present. Corynebacterium mustelae (C. mustelae) was isolated from a pooled blood culture. Treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) was initiated along with supportive care, and the patient was discharged 9 days later. The dog remained without clinical signs 132 days after discharge. VSD is rarely mentioned as a predisposing factor for development of IE in veterinary literature; however, this report highlights that dogs with a VSD may be at risk for IE. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a canine infection with C. mustelae. Infection with C. mustelae in this case represents a novel agent for IE in the dog.

  10. Aggregative adherent strains of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum enter and survive within HEp-2 epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a well-known human pathogen that mainly causes respiratory disease and is associated with high mortality in compromised hosts. Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of C. pseudodiphtheriticum. In this study, cultured human epithelial (HEp-2 cells were used to analyse the adherence pattern, internalisation and intracellular survival of the ATCC 10700 type strain and two additional clinical isolates. These microorganisms exhibited an aggregative adherence-like pattern to HEp-2 cells characterised by clumps of bacteria with a "stacked-brick" appearance. The differences in the ability of these microorganisms to invade and survive within HEp-2 cells and replicate in the extracellular environment up to 24 h post infection were evaluated. The fluorescent actin staining test demonstrated that actin polymerisation is involved in the internalisation of the C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains. The depolymerisation of microfilaments by cytochalasin E significantly reduced the internalisation of C. pseudodiphtheriticum by HEp-2 cells. Bacterial internalisation and cytoskeletal rearrangement seemed to be partially triggered by the activation of tyrosine kinase activity. Although C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains did not demonstrate an ability to replicate intracellularly, HEp-2 cells were unable to fully clear the pathogen within 24 h. These characteristics may explain how some C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains cause severe infection in human patients.

  11. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tauch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G + C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories.

  12. Functional characterization of a vanillin dehydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhang, Yaoling; Chen, Can; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Shaolin; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the degradation of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Herein, the VDH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was characterized. The relative molecular mass (Mr) determined by SDS-PAGE was ~51kDa, whereas the apparent native Mr values revealed by gel filtration chromatography were 49.5, 92.3, 159.0 and 199.2kDa, indicating the presence of dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric forms. Moreover, the enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 7.0 and 30C, and interestingly, it could utilize NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes with similar efficiency and showed no obvious difference toward NAD+ and NADP+. In addition to vanillin, this enzyme exhibited catalytic activity toward a broad range of substrates, including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, o-phthaldialdehyde, cinnamaldehyde, syringaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Conserved catalytic residues or putative cofactor interactive sites were identified based on sequence alignment and comparison with previous studies, and the function of selected residues were verified by site-directed mutagenesis analysis. Finally, the vdh deletion mutant partially lost its ability to grow on vanillin, indicating the presence of alternative VDH(s) in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Taken together, this study contributes to understanding the VDH diversity from bacteria and the aromatic metabolism pathways in C. glutamicum. PMID:25622822

  13. Insight of Genus Corynebacterium: Ascertaining the Role of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alberto; Oliveira, Leticia C; Aburjaile, Flavia; Benevides, Leandro; Tiwari, Sandeep; Jamal, Syed B; Silva, Arthur; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Ghosh, Preetam; Portela, Ricardo W; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A; Wattam, Alice R

    2017-01-01

    This review gathers recent information about genomic and transcriptomic studies in the Corynebacterium genus, exploring, for example, prediction of pathogenicity islands and stress response in different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. In addition, is described several phylogeny studies to Corynebacterium , exploring since the identification of species until biological speciation in one species belonging to the genus Corynebacterium . Important concepts associated with virulence highlighting the role of Pld protein and Tox gene. The adhesion, characteristic of virulence factor, was described using the sortase mechanism that is associated to anchorage to the cell wall. In addition, survival inside the host cell and some diseases, were too addressed for pathogenic corynebacteria, while important biochemical pathways and biotechnological applications retain the focus of this review for non-pathogenic corynebacteria. Concluding, this review broadly explores characteristics in genus Corynebacterium showing to have strong relevance inside the medical, veterinary, and biotechnology field.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Cp31, isolated from an Egyptian buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is of major veterinary importance because it affects many animal species, causing economically significant livestock diseases and losses. Therefore, the genomic sequencing of various lines of this organism, isolated from different hosts, will aid in the developm...

  15. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Toshio; Monna, L.; Saiki, Yuko; Kodama, Tohru

    1992-01-01

    Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CS 2 , FeS 2 , and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide, DBT sulfone, and 2-hydroxybiphenyl, which was subsequently nitrated to produce at least two different hydroxynitrobiphenyls during cultivation. These metabolites were separated by silica gel column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, UV, and mass spectral techniques. Resting cells of SY1 desulfurized toluenesulfonic acid and released sulfite anion. On the basis of these results, a new DBT degradation pathway is proposed

  16. Production of L-valine from metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Quinn, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production. Metabolic engineering based on the metabolic biosynthesis and regulation of L-valine provides an effective alternative to the traditional breeding for strain development. Industrially competitive L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strains have been constructed by genetically defined metabolic engineering. This article reviews the global metabolic and regulatory networks responsible for L-valine biosynthesis, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, and the strategies employed in C. glutamicum strain engineering.

  17. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  18. Identification and characterization of smallest pore-forming protein in the cell wall of pathogenic Corynebacterium urealyticum DSM 7109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Narges; Younas, Farhan; Mafakheri, Samaneh; Pothula, Karunakar R; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2018-05-09

    Corynebacterium urealyticum, a pathogenic, multidrug resistant member of the mycolata, is known as causative agent of urinary tract infections although it is a bacterium of the skin flora. This pathogenic bacterium shares with the mycolata the property of having an unusual cell envelope composition and architecture, typical for the genus Corynebacterium. The cell wall of members of the mycolata contains channel-forming proteins for the uptake of solutes. In this study, we provide novel information on the identification and characterization of a pore-forming protein in the cell wall of C. urealyticum DSM 7109. Detergent extracts of whole C. urealyticum cultures formed in lipid bilayer membranes slightly cation-selective pores with a single-channel conductance of 1.75 nS in 1 M KCl. Experiments with different salts and non-electrolytes suggested that the cell wall pore of C. urealyticum is wide and water-filled and has a diameter of about 1.8 nm. Molecular modelling and dynamics has been performed to obtain a model of the pore. For the search of the gene coding for the cell wall pore of C. urealyticum we looked in the known genome of C. urealyticum for a similar chromosomal localization of the porin gene to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. Three genes are located between the genes coding for GroEL2 and polyphosphate kinase (PKK2). Two of the genes (cur_1714 and cur_1715) were expressed in different constructs in C. glutamicum ΔporAΔporH and in porin-deficient BL21 DE3 Omp8 E. coli strains. The results suggested that the gene cur_1714 codes alone for the cell wall channel. The cell wall porin of C. urealyticum termed PorACur was purified to homogeneity using different biochemical methods and had an apparent molecular mass of about 4 kDa on tricine-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biophysical characterization of the purified protein (PorACur) suggested indeed that cur_1714 is the gene

  19. A Novel Corynebacterium glutamicum l-Glutamate Exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Guoqiang; Xu, Deyu; Fan, Liwen; Wu, Xinyang; Ni, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Shuxin; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2018-03-15

    Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyperproduction of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. The identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for the understanding and engineering of transport reactions. Herein, a novel l-glutamate exporter, MscCG2, which exists extensively in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains but is distinct from the only known l-glutamate exporter, MscCG, was discovered in an industrial l-glutamate-producing C. glutamicum strain. MscCG2 was predicted to possess three transmembrane helices in the N-terminal region and located in the cytoplasmic membrane, which are typical structural characteristics of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance. MscCG2 has a low amino acid sequence identity (23%) to MscCG and evolved separately from MscCG with four transmembrane helices. Despite the considerable differences between MscCG2 and MscCG in sequence and structure, gene deletion and complementation confirmed that MscCG2 also functioned as an l-glutamate exporter and an osmotic safety valve in C. glutamicum Besides, transcriptional analysis showed that MscCG2 and MscCG genes were transcribed in similar patterns and not induced by l-glutamate-producing conditions. It was also demonstrated that MscCG2-mediated l-glutamate excretion was activated by biotin limitation or penicillin treatment and that constitutive l-glutamate excretion was triggered by a gain-of-function mutation of MscCG2 (A151V). Discovery of MscCG2 will enrich the understanding of bacterial amino acid transport and provide additional targets for exporter engineering. IMPORTANCE The exchange of matter, energy, and information with surroundings is fundamental for cellular metabolism. Therefore, studying transport systems that are essential for these processes is of great significance. Besides, transport systems of bacterial cells are usually related to

  20. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of one antibiotic-sensitive and one multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii strain isolated from patients with granulomatous mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fernández-Natal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human infections associated with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii are rarely reported, and this organism is usually described as antibiotic sensitive. Almost all published cases of C. kroppenstedtii infections have been associated with breast pathology in women and have been described in New Zealand, France, Canada, India and Japan. Here we describe the microbiologic characteristics of two strains isolated from two women diagnosed of granulomatous mastitis in Spain. One C. kroppenstedtii isolate was antibiotic sensitive while the other was multidrug resistant. Biochemical identification was possible using a wide battery of methods including API Coryne V2.0, API Strep, API NH, API NE, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 28 antibiotics as determined by Etest showed one isolate being sensitive to benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, vancomycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, linezolid and rifampin. The second isolate showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline and rifampin. The multidrug-resistant isolate contained the erm(X, tet(W, cmx, aphA1-IAB, strAB and sul1 resistance genes known from the R plasmid pJA144188 of Corynebacterium resistens. These genes were absent in the genome of the antibiotic-sensitive isolate. This report confirms the tropism of this microorganism for women's breasts and presents the first description of a multidrug-resistant C. kroppenstedtii strain.

  1. Comparative evolutionary genomics of Corynebacterium with special reference to codon and amino acid usage diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shilpee; Sarkar, Indrani; Roy, Ayan; Mohapatra, Pradeep K Das; Mondal, Keshab C; Sen, Arnab

    2018-02-01

    The present study has been aimed to the comparative analysis of high GC composition containing Corynebacterium genomes and their evolutionary study by exploring codon and amino acid usage patterns. Phylogenetic study by MLSA approach, indel analysis and BLAST matrix differentiated Corynebacterium species in pathogenic and non-pathogenic clusters. Correspondence analysis on synonymous codon usage reveals that, gene length, optimal codon frequencies and tRNA abundance affect the gene expression of Corynebacterium. Most of the optimal codons as well as translationally optimal codons are C ending i.e. RNY (R-purine, N-any nucleotide base, and Y-pyrimidine) and reveal translational selection pressure on codon bias of Corynebacterium. Amino acid usage is affected by hydrophobicity, aromaticity, protein energy cost, etc. Highly expressed genes followed the cost minimization hypothesis and are less diverged at their synonymous positions of codons. Functional analysis of core genes shows significant difference in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Corynebacterium. The study reveals close relationship between non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic Corynebaterium as well as between molecular evolution and survival niches of the organism.

  2. An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Babar Jamal

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target identification, a set of 23 proteins was selected as essential for the bacteria. Considering human as a host, eight of these proteins (glpX, nusB, rpsH, hisE, smpB, bioB, DIP1084, and DIP0983 were considered as essential and non-host homologs, and have been subjected to virtual screening using four different compound libraries (extracted from the ZINC database, plant-derived natural compounds and Di-terpenoid Iso-steviol derivatives. The proposed ligand molecules showed favorable interactions, lowered energy values and high complementarity with the predicted targets. Our proposed approach expedites the selection of C. diphtheriae putative proteins for broad-spectrum development of novel drugs and vaccines, owing to the fact that some of these targets have already been identified and validated in other organisms.

  3. Tips and tricks for the assembly of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome using a semiconductor sequencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Soares, Siomar de Castro

    2013-01-01

    that enable reference-based assembly, such as the one used in the present study, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi, which causes high economic losses in the US equine industry. The quality treatment strategy incorporated into the assembly pipeline enabled a 16-fold greater use of the sequencing...... was validated by comparative genomics with other species of the genus Corynebacterium. The present study presents a modus operandi that enables a greater and better use of data obtained from semiconductor sequencing for obtaining the complete genome from a prokaryotic microorganism, C. pseudotuberculosis, which...

  4. Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Methanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Schmitz, Katja; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is already an important carbon feedstock in the chemical industry, but it has found only limited application in biotechnological production processes. This can be mostly attributed to the inability of most microbial platform organisms to utilize methanol as a carbon and energy source. With the aim to turn methanol into a suitable feedstock for microbial production processes, we engineered the industrially important but nonmethylotrophic bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum toward the utilization of methanol as an auxiliary carbon source in a sugar-based medium. Initial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was achieved by heterologous expression of a methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus, whereas assimilation of formaldehyde was realized by implementing the two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway of Bacillus subtilis: 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase. The recombinant C. glutamicum strain showed an average methanol consumption rate of 1.7 ± 0.3 mM/h (mean ± standard deviation) in a glucose-methanol medium, and the culture grew to a higher cell density than in medium without methanol. In addition, [13C]methanol-labeling experiments revealed labeling fractions of 3 to 10% in the m + 1 mass isotopomers of various intracellular metabolites. In the background of a C. glutamicum Δald ΔadhE mutant being strongly impaired in its ability to oxidize formaldehyde to CO2, the m + 1 labeling of these intermediates was increased (8 to 25%), pointing toward higher formaldehyde assimilation capabilities of this strain. The engineered C. glutamicum strains represent a promising starting point for the development of sugar-based biotechnological production processes using methanol as an auxiliary substrate. PMID:25595770

  5. Rapid detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in clinical samples from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jyoti; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Sonawane, Ganesh Gangaram; Dixit, Shivendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-positive bacterium is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease of sheep, goats and other warm blooded animals. In the present study, a total of 1,080 sheep reared under semi-intensive system on organized farms situated in the semi arid tropical region of Rajasthan, India, was clinically examined. Pus samples from superficial lymph nodes of 25 (2.31%) adult sheep showing clinical lesions similar to CLA were collected for laboratory analyses. On the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics 12 (48%) bacterial isolates from pus identified it as C. pseudotuberculosis. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting Putative oligopeptide/dipeptide ABC transporter, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) oxidoreductase coenzyme F420-dependent and proline iminopeptidase (PIP) genes of C. pseudotuberculosis was developed that showed 14 pus samples as positive. All C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were also found positive for these genes in the PCR. The specificity of the PCR products was confirmed by sequencing of the amplified products that showed 98-100% homology with published sequences available in the NCBI database. The present study shows the incidence of CLA as 2.31%, 1.1% and 1.29% based on clinical, bacterial culture and direct pus PCR assay, respectively. The PCR assay was rapid, specific and as significant as bacterial culture in detecting bacteria directly in the clinical pus samples. The PCR assay developed in the study can be applied for the diagnosis and control of CLA. Furthermore, the assay can also be applied to detect C. pseudotuberculosis in various clinical samples.

  6. Activity of disinfectants and biofilm production of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da C.A. Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats on farms of Pernambuco, Brazil, and in animals slaughtered in two Brazilian cities (Petrolina/PE and Juazeiro/BA, and to characterize the susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to disinfectants and antimicrobials, and its relationship with biofilm production were the objectives of this study. 398 samples were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, disinfectants, and biofilm production. Among the 108 samples collected on the properties, 75% were positive for C. pseudotuberculosis. Slaughterhouse samples indicated an occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in 15.66% and 6.31% for animals slaughtered in Petrolina and Juazeiro respectively. With respect to antimicrobials, the sensitivity obtained was 100% for florfenicol and tetracycline; 99.25% for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and lincomycin; 98.99% for cephalothin; 98.74% for norfloxacin and sulfazotrim; 97.74% for gentamicin; 94.22% for ampicillin; 91.71% for amoxicillin; 91.21% for penicillin G; 89.19% for neomycin and 0% for novobiocin. In analyzes with disinfectants, the efficiency for chlorhexidine was 100%, 97.20% for quaternary ammonium, 87.40% for chlorine and 84.40% for iodine. 75% of the isolates were weak or non-biofilm producers. For the consolidated biofilm, found that iodine decreased biofilm formation in 13 isolates and quaternary ammonia in 11 isolates. The reduction of the biofilm formation was observed for iodine and quaternary ammonium in consolidated biofilm formation in 33% and 28% of the isolates, respectively. The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing measures to prevent and control the disease.

  7. The uptake, distribution and translocation of 86Rb in alfalfa plants susceptible and resistant to the bacterial wilt and the effect of Corynebacterium insidiosum upon these processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.; Kudelova, A.

    1981-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to bacterial wilt were fed via roots with a nutrient solution labelled with 86 Rb + , at different times after inoculation with Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCull.) H.L. Jens. The infection did not affect 86 Rb + uptake per plant in the course of a 14-day-period following inoculation; however, it affected its distribution differently in the S- and the R-plants. 86 Rb + uptake significantly decreased due to the infection in the S-plants on the day 49 after inoculation (a 4-h-exposure to 86 Rb + ), with the ions more slowly translocated to the shoots in diseased S-plants than in diseased R-plants. Likely factors causing these effects and their relationship to alfalfa resistance to bacterial wilt are discussed. (author)

  8. Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a free-roaming red fox: case report and historical review on diphtheria in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Andreas; Konrad, Regina; Meinel, Dominik M; Mauder, Norman; Schwabe, Ingo; Sting, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the classical causative agent of diphtheria, is considered to be nearly restricted to humans. Here we report the first finding of a non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar belfanti strain in a free-roaming wild animal. The strain obtained from the subcutis and mammary gland of a dead red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was characterized by biochemical and molecular methods including MALDI-TOF and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Since C. diphtheriae infections of animals, usually with close contact to humans, are reported only very rarely, an intense review comprising also scientific literature from the beginning of the 20th century was performed. Besides the present case, only 11 previously reported C. diphtheriae animal infections could be verified using current scientific criteria. Our report is the first on the isolation of C. diphtheriae from a wildlife animal without any previous human contact. In contrast, the very few unambiguous publications on C. diphtheriae in animals referred to livestock or pet animals with close human contact. C. diphtheriae carriage in animals has to be considered as an exceptionally rare event.

  9. Identification of membrane-associated proteins with pathogenic potential expressed by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis grown in animal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Bastos, Bruno Lopes; Vilas-Boas, Priscilla Carolinne Bagano; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Costa-Silva, Marcos; de Sá, Maria da Conceição Aquino; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Moura-Costa, Lília Ferreira; Azevedo, Vasco; Meyer, Roberto

    2018-01-25

    Previous works defining antigens that might be used as vaccine targets against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of sheep and goat caseous lymphadenitis, have focused on secreted proteins produced in a chemically defined culture media. Considering that such antigens might not reflect the repertoire of proteins expressed during infection conditions, this experiment aimed to investigate the membrane-associated proteins with pathogenic potential expressed by C. pseudotuberculosis grown directly in animal serum. Its membrane-associated proteins have been extracted using an organic solvent enrichment methodology, followed by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis for protein identification and classification. The results revealed 22 membrane-associated proteins characterized as potentially pathogenic. An interaction network analysis indicated that the four potentially pathogenic proteins ciuA, fagA, OppA4 and OppCD were biologically connected within two distinct network pathways, which were both associated with the ABC Transporters KEGG pathway. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenesis might be associated with the transport and uptake of nutrients; other seven identified potentially pathogenic membrane proteins also suggest that pathogenesis might involve events of bacterial resistance and adhesion. The proteins herein reported potentially reflect part of the protein repertoire expressed during real infection conditions and might be tested as vaccine antigens.

  10. Corynebacterium renale as a cause of reactions to the complement fixation test for Johne's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilmour, N.J.L.; Goudswaard, J.

    Complement fixation (C.F.) tests and fluorescent antibody (F.A.) tests were carried out on sera from rabbits inoculated with Corynebacterium renale and Mycobacterium johnei, and on sera from cattle with C. renale pyelonephritis and with Johne's disease. Cross-reactions were a feature of the C.F.

  11. Function of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters in Eschrichia coli, Streptomyces lividans, and Baccillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Muth, G.; Wohlleben, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2003), s. 325-334 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA525/01/0916 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * escherichia coli * promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2003

  12. Metabolic engineering of the L-valine biosynthesis pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum using promoter activity modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holátko, Jiří; Elišáková, Veronika; Prouza, Marek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan; Pátek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 3 (2009), s. 203-210 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/0330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * valine production * promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.881, year: 2009

  13. Physiological roles of sigma factor SigD in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taniguchi, H.; Busche, T.; Patschkowski, T.; Niehaus, K.; Pátek, Miroslav; Kalinowski, J.; Wendisch, V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 158 (2017), s. 158 ISSN 1471-2180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06991S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * Sigma factor * SigD Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2016

  14. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  15. Assignment of sigma factors of RNA polymerase to promoters in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, Hana; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, T.; Rucká, Lenka; Rapoport, Andrey; Halada, Petr; Nešvera, Jan; Kalinowski, J.; Pátek, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUN 23 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 133. ISSN 2191-0855 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06991S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * Promoter * Sigma factor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2016

  16. Plasmid Vectors for Testing In Vivo Promoter Activities in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Rhodococcus erythropolis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knoppová, Monika; Phensaijai, M.; Veselý, Martin; Zemanová, Martina; Nešvera, Jan; Pátek, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2007), s. 234-239 ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0542; GA ČR GA204/06/0330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacterium * rhodoccoccus * promoter-probe vectors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2007

  17. Development of Biotin-Prototrophic and -Hyperauxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Aya; Mutoh, Sumire; Kitano, Yuko; Tajima, Mei; Shirakura, Daisuke; Takasaki, Manami; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Takeno, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    To develop the infrastructure for biotin production through naturally biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, we attempted to engineer the organism into a biotin prototroph and a biotin hyperauxotroph. To confer biotin prototrophy on the organism, the cotranscribed bioBF genes of Escherichia coli were introduced into the C. glutamicum genome, which originally lacked the bioF gene. The resulting strain still required biotin for growth, but it could be replaced by exogenous pimelic acid, a source of the biotin precursor pimelate thioester linked to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). To bridge the gap between the pimelate thioester and its dedicated precursor acyl-CoA (or -ACP), the bioI gene of Bacillus subtilis, which encoded a P450 protein that cleaves a carbon-carbon bond of an acyl-ACP to generate pimeloyl-ACP, was further expressed in the engineered strain by using a plasmid system. This resulted in a biotin prototroph that is capable of the de novo synthesis of biotin. On the other hand, the bioY gene responsible for biotin uptake was disrupted in wild-type C. glutamicum. Whereas the wild-type strain required approximately 1 μg of biotin per liter for normal growth, the bioY disruptant (ΔbioY) required approximately 1 mg of biotin per liter, almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than the wild-type level. The ΔbioY strain showed a similar high requirement for the precursor dethiobiotin, a substrate for bioB-encoded biotin synthase. To eliminate the dependency on dethiobiotin, the bioB gene was further disrupted in both the wild-type strain and the ΔbioY strain. By selectively using the resulting two strains (ΔbioB and ΔbioBY) as indicator strains, we developed a practical biotin bioassay system that can quantify biotin in the seven-digit range, from approximately 0.1 μg to 1 g per liter. This bioassay proved that the engineered biotin prototroph of C. glutamicum produced biotin directly from glucose, albeit at a marginally

  18. Development of biotin-prototrophic and -hyperauxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Miyamoto, Aya; Mutoh, Sumire; Kitano, Yuko; Tajima, Mei; Shirakura, Daisuke; Takasaki, Manami; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Takeno, Seiki

    2013-08-01

    To develop the infrastructure for biotin production through naturally biotin-auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, we attempted to engineer the organism into a biotin prototroph and a biotin hyperauxotroph. To confer biotin prototrophy on the organism, the cotranscribed bioBF genes of Escherichia coli were introduced into the C. glutamicum genome, which originally lacked the bioF gene. The resulting strain still required biotin for growth, but it could be replaced by exogenous pimelic acid, a source of the biotin precursor pimelate thioester linked to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). To bridge the gap between the pimelate thioester and its dedicated precursor acyl-CoA (or -ACP), the bioI gene of Bacillus subtilis, which encoded a P450 protein that cleaves a carbon-carbon bond of an acyl-ACP to generate pimeloyl-ACP, was further expressed in the engineered strain by using a plasmid system. This resulted in a biotin prototroph that is capable of the de novo synthesis of biotin. On the other hand, the bioY gene responsible for biotin uptake was disrupted in wild-type C. glutamicum. Whereas the wild-type strain required approximately 1 μg of biotin per liter for normal growth, the bioY disruptant (ΔbioY) required approximately 1 mg of biotin per liter, almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than the wild-type level. The ΔbioY strain showed a similar high requirement for the precursor dethiobiotin, a substrate for bioB-encoded biotin synthase. To eliminate the dependency on dethiobiotin, the bioB gene was further disrupted in both the wild-type strain and the ΔbioY strain. By selectively using the resulting two strains (ΔbioB and ΔbioBY) as indicator strains, we developed a practical biotin bioassay system that can quantify biotin in the seven-digit range, from approximately 0.1 μg to 1 g per liter. This bioassay proved that the engineered biotin prototroph of C. glutamicum produced biotin directly from glucose, albeit at a marginally

  19. Phenotypic, molecular characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility and draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium argentoratense strains isolated from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fernández-Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a 12-year period we isolated five Corynebacterium argentoratense strains identified by phenotypic methods, including the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was determined, and genome sequencing for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes was performed. The organisms were isolated from blood and throat cultures and could be identified by all methods used. All strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole, and resistance to β-lactams was partly present. Two strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. The draft genome sequences of theses isolates revealed the presence of the erm(X resistance gene that is embedded in the genetic structure of the transposable element Tn5423. Although rarely reported as a human pathogen, C. argentoratense can be involved in bacteraemia and probably in other infections. Our results also show that horizontal transfer of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance is occurring in this species.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, a major pilin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G.; Baker, Edward N.

    2009-01-01

    SpaA, one of the major pilins of C. diphtheriae, has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution. Bacterial pili are cell-surface organelles that are critically involved in adhesion to host cells, leading to the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of infections. Whereas the pili of Gram-negative bacteria have been extensively studied, those of Gram-positive bacteria came to light only recently after the discovery and characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae pili. These newly discovered pili are formed by the covalent polymerization of pilin subunits catalyzed by sortase enzymes, making them fundamentally different from the noncovalent pilin assemblies of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, the expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpaA, which forms the shaft of one of the three types of pili expressed by C. diphtheriae, are reported. SpaA 53–486 crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 34.9, b = 64.1, c = 198.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  1. POTENSI GEN dtx DAN dtxR SEBAGAI MARKER UNTUK DETEKSI DAN PEMERIKSAAN TOKSIGENISITAS Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.   Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria. The main virulence determinant of the bacteria is diphtheria toxin, the cause of the systemic complication seen with diphtheria. Production of diphtheria toxin by toxigenic strain encoded by dtx/tox gene and repressed by dtxR gene. Gold standard for bacterial toxigenicity test carried out by conventional methods (Elek test, Guinea pig and vero cell cytotoxicity. However, Elek test have variety result, time consume and problem of the reagent availability. On the other hand, the animal (Guinea pig testing was opposed by many animal lovers and the vero cell cytotoxicity test require high cost. The study purposed to evaluate the using of dtx and dtxR genes as a detection marker of C.diphtheriae and bacterial toxigenicity test simultaneusly by Multiplex PCR. The study examined 44 bacterial and fungal isolates, included 22 C.diphtheriae (4 reference strains and 18 clinical isolates, 5 other specieses of Corynebacterium  (reference strains and 17 non-Corynebacterium (10 reference strains and 7 stock cultures . All of sample were examined by Multiplex PCR for 2 primer pairs targeted dtx and dtxR genes. The study showed that the Multiplex PCR for dtx and dtxR as target genes able to detect all of sample correctly thus concluded that dtx and dtxR genes could be used as a marker for alternative detection and toxigenicity test of C.diphtheriae by Multiplex PCR rapidly and accuratelly. Key words: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, dtx, dan dtxR Abstrak. Corynebacterium diphtheriae merupakan agen penyebab penyakit difteri.. Faktor virulensi utama  C. diphtheriae adalah toksigenisitas (kemampuan memproduksi toksin bakteri toxin. Produksi toksin diatur seperangkat gen yang disebut gen tox/dtx dan diregulasi oleh gen dtxR. Gold standard untuk pemeriksaan toksigenisitas C.diphtheriae adalah dengan metode konvensional (Elek test, Guinea pig dan vero cell cytotoxigenicity,namun  Elek test

  2. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  3. Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum causing genitourinary tract infection: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gherardi

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a urethritis case caused by C. glucuronolyticum in a 37-year-old, apparently healthy male, who complained mild pain in the lower abdomen, with several urinary symptoms. While urethral and semen specimens did not yield positive results for microbiological evaluation, cultures of urine samples revealed the monomicrobial growth on blood-containing media of tiny colonies after 24 h of incubation, clearly evident only after 48 h of incubation under CO2-enriched atmosphere. Colonies were identified as C. glucuronolyticum both by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral ciprofloxacin gradually led to clinical improvement and, finally, to a complete recovery, in accordance with microbiological findings. In spite of its infrequent detection, C. glucuronolyticum might be a potential urogenital pathogen in males more commonly that what believed, perhaps due to slow growth leading to underrecognition; we suggest therefore to consider the organism in the differential diagnostics of bacterial diseases of the urinary tract.

  4. Microbe Profile: Corynebacterium diphtheriae - an old foe always ready to seize opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskisson, Paul A

    2018-02-21

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a globally important Gram-positive aerobic Actinobacterium capable of causing the toxin-mediated disease, diphtheria. Diphtheria was a major cause of childhood mortality prior to the introduction of the toxoid vaccine, yet it is capable of rapid resurgence following the breakdown of healthcare provision, vaccination or displacement of people. The mechanism and treatment of toxin-mediated disease is well understood, however there are key gaps in our knowledge on the basic biology of C. diphtheriae particularly relating to host colonisation, the nature of asymptomatic carriage, population genomics and host adaptation.

  5. A RecET-assisted CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Hu, Qitiao; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Ruilin; Chai, Xin; Liu, Zhe; Shang, Xiuling; Zhang, Yun; Wen, Tingyi

    2018-04-23

    Extensive modification of genome is an efficient manner to regulate the metabolic network for producing target metabolites or non-native products using Corynebacterium glutamicum as a cell factory. Genome editing approaches by means of homologous recombination and counter-selection markers are laborious and time consuming due to multiple round manipulations and low editing efficiencies. The current two-plasmid-based CRISPR-Cas9 editing methods generate false positives due to the potential instability of Cas9 on the plasmid, and require a high transformation efficiency for co-occurrence of two plasmids transformation. Here, we developed a RecET-assisted CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method using a chromosome-borne Cas9-RecET and a single plasmid harboring sgRNA and repair templates. The inducible expression of chromosomal RecET promoted the frequencies of homologous recombination, and increased the efficiency for gene deletion. Due to the high transformation efficiency of a single plasmid, this method enabled 10- and 20-kb region deletion, 2.5-, 5.7- and 7.5-kb expression cassette insertion and precise site-specific mutation, suggesting a versatility of this method. Deletion of argR and farR regulators as well as site-directed mutation of argB and pgi genes generated the mutant capable of accumulating L-arginine, indicating the stability of chromosome-borne Cas9 for iterative genome editing. Using this method, the model-predicted target genes were modified to redirect metabolic flux towards 1,2-propanediol biosynthetic pathway. The final engineered strain produced 6.75 ± 0.46 g/L of 1,2-propanediol that is the highest titer reported in C. glutamicum. Furthermore, this method is available for Corynebacterium pekinense 1.563, suggesting its universal applicability in other Corynebacterium species. The RecET-assisted CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method will facilitate engineering of metabolic networks for the synthesis of interested bio-based products from renewable

  6. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a free-roaming red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Ketterer-Pintur, Sandra; Contzen, Matthias; Mauder, Norman; Süss-Dombrowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) ulcerans could be isolated from the spleen of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that had been found dead in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Pathohistological examination suggested that the fox had died of distemper, as was confirmed by PCR. The isolate was identified biochemically, by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR and by partial 16S rRNA, rpoB and tox gene sequencing. Using the Elek test the C. ulcerans isolate demonstrated diphtheria toxin production. FT-IR and sequencing data obtained from the C. ulcerans isolate from the red fox showed higher similarity to isolates from humans than to those from wild game.

  7. APLICACION DE TECNICAS DE INGENIERIA METABOLICA AL MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCION DE TREHALOSA POR CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM.

    OpenAIRE

    PADILLA IGLESIAS, LEANDRO MAURICIO

    2004-01-01

    La Trehalosa es un disacárido con tremendas aplicaciones en la industria biotecnológica y alimenticia. Este compuesto se encuentra en muchos organismos, a causa de su capacidad de proteger las células contra el calor y la deshidratación. Un ejemplo, es la bacteria Gram-positiva Corynebacterium glutamicum, la cual sintetiza trehalosa a través de dos rutas principales, TreYZ y OtsBA, usando ADP-glucosa (especulativamente) y UDP-glucosa, respectivamente, como dadores de unidades de ...

  8. Structural Basis of a Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase in the Hedgehog-Forming Actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Tirgar, Reyhaneh; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-05-01

    The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in nucleation of oral microbial consortia leading to biofilm formation. Due to the lack of genetic tools, little is known about basic cellular processes, including protein secretion and folding, in this organism. We report here a survey of the C. matruchotii genome, which encodes a large number of exported proteins containing paired cysteine residues, and identified an oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA (MdbA Cd ). Crystallization studies uncovered that the 1.2-Å resolution structure of C. matruchotii MdbA (MdbA Cm ) possesses two conserved features found in actinobacterial MdbA enzymes, a thioredoxin-like fold and an extended α-helical domain. By reconstituting the disulfide bond-forming machine in vitro , we demonstrated that MdbA Cm catalyzes disulfide bond formation within the actinobacterial pilin FimA. A new gene deletion method supported that mdbA is essential in C. matruchotii Remarkably, heterologous expression of MdbA Cm in the C. diphtheriae Δ mdbA mutant rescued its known defects in cell growth and morphology, toxin production, and pilus assembly, and this thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity required the catalytic motif CXXC. Altogether, the results suggest that MdbA Cm is a major thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, which likely mediates posttranslocational protein folding in C. matruchotii by a mechanism that is conserved in Actinobacteria IMPORTANCE The actinobacterium Corynebacterium matruchotii has been implicated in the development of oral biofilms or dental plaque; however, little is known about the basic cellular processes in this organism. We report here a high-resolution structure of a C. matruchotii oxidoreductase that is highly homologous to the Corynebacterium diphtheriae thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase MdbA. By biochemical analysis, we demonstrated that C. matruchotii MdbA catalyzes disulfide

  9. Corynebacterium glutamicum for Sustainable Bioproduction: From Metabolic Physiology to Systems Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Gießelmann, Gideon; Hoffmann, Sarah Lisa; Wittmann, Christoph

    Since its discovery 60 years ago, Corynebacterium glutamicum has evolved into a workhorse for industrial biotechnology. Traditionally well known for its remarkable capacity to produce amino acids, this Gram-positive soil bacterium, has become a flexible, efficient production platform for various bulk and fine chemicals, materials, and biofuels. The central turnstile of all these achievements is our excellent understanding of its metabolism and physiology. This knowledge base, together with innovative systems metabolic engineering concepts, which integrate systems and synthetic biology into strain engineering, has upgraded C. glutamicum into one of the most successful industrial microorganisms in the world.

  10. Dual production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and glutamate using variable biotin concentrations in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Jin; Leong, Chean Ring; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2009-04-01

    We previously synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum, a prominent producer of amino acids. In this study, a two-step cultivation was established for the dual production of glutamate and P(3HB) due to the differences in the optimal concentration of biotin. Glutamate was extracellularly produced first under the biotin-limited condition of 0.3 microg/L. Production was then shifted to P(3HB) by addition of biotin to a total concentration of 9 microg/L. The final products obtained were 18 g/L glutamate and 36 wt% of P(3HB).

  11. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  12. Immobilazation of aerobic microorganisms on glassy sintered material, illustrated by the example of the production of L leucine using Corynebacterium glutamicum. Immobilisierung von aeroben Mikroorganismen an Glassintermaterial am Beispiel der L-Leucin-Produktion mit Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechs, J.

    1988-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the carrier fixation of aerobic microorganisms on open-pore sintered glass material. The fermentative production of L-leucine from {alpha} cetonic isocaproic acid with Corynebacterium glutamicum was chosen as an example of a microbial process with a high demand of oxygen. (orig.).

  13. Flux through the tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase pathway is dispensable for L-lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Reid, C A; McCormick, M M; Sinskey, A J; Stephanopoulos, G

    1999-03-01

    The N-succinyl-LL-diaminopimelate desuccinylase gene (dapE) in the four-step succinylase branch of the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum was disrupted via marker-exchange mutagenesis to create a mutant strain that uses only the one-step meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase branch to overproduce lysine. This mutant strain grew and utilized glucose from minimal medium at the same rate as the parental strain. In addition, the dapE- strain produced lysine at the same rate as its parent strain. Transformation of the parental and dapE- strains with the amplified meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase gene (ddh) on a plasmid did not affect lysine production in either strain, despite an eightfold amplification of the activity of the enzyme. These results indicate that the four-step succinylase pathway is dispensable for lysine overproduction in shake-flask culture. In addition, the one-step meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase pathway does not limit lysine flux in Corynebacterium under these conditions.

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium clusters in the human axillary region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Callewaert

    Full Text Available The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n = 17, whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n = 36. The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome.

  15. Improved L-ornithine production in Corynebacterium crenatum by introducing an artificial linear transacetylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qunfeng; Xu, Meijuan; Li, Jing; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhenghong; Rao, Zhiming

    2018-05-04

    L-Ornithine is a non-protein amino acid with extensive applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we performed metabolic pathway engineering of an L-arginine hyper-producing strain of Corynebacterium crenatum for L-ornithine production. First, we amplified the L-ornithine biosynthetic pathway flux by blocking the competing branch of the pathway. To enhance L-ornithine synthesis, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the ornithine-binding sites to solve the problem of L-ornithine feedback inhibition for ornithine acetyltransferase. Alternatively, the genes argA from Escherichia coli and argE from Serratia marcescens, encoding the enzymes N-acetyl glutamate synthase and N-acetyl-L-ornithine deacetylase, respectively, were introduced into Corynebacterium crenatum to mimic the linear pathway of L-ornithine biosynthesis. Fermentation of the resulting strain in a 5-L bioreactor allowed a dramatically increased production of L-ornithine, 40.4 g/L, with an overall productivity of 0.673 g/L/h over 60 h. This demonstrates that an increased level of transacetylation is beneficial for L-ornithine biosynthesis.

  16. Pyruvate:Quinone Oxidoreductase in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Molecular Analysis of the pqo Gene, Significance of the Enzyme, and Phylogenetic Aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreiner, M. E.; Riedel, Ch.; Holátko, Jiří; Pátek, Miroslav; Eikmanns, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 4 (2006), s. 1341-1350 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/04/0548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * pqo * molecular analysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.993, year: 2006

  17. Genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi strain 258 and prediction of antigenic targets to improve biotechnological vaccine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Trost, Eva; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of several veterinary diseases in a broad range of economically important hosts, which can vary from caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats (biovar ovis) to ulcerative lymphangitis in cattle and horses (biovar equi). Existing vaccines ag...

  18. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Fernandez, Helen T

    2004-06-01

    Telavancin is a new semisynthetic glycopeptide anti-infective with multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of bacterial membrane phospholipid synthesis and inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We determined the in vitro activities of telavancin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca(2+) to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium difficile (n = 14), 0.25 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium ramosum (n = 16), 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium innocuum (n = 15), 4 and 16 microg/ml, respectively; Clostridium clostridioforme (n = 15), 8 and 1 microg/ml, respectively; Eubacterium group (n = 33), 0.25 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Lactobacillus spp. (n = 26), 0.5 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Propionibacterium spp. (n = 34), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Linezolid showed decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against C. ramosum, two strains of C. difficile, and 15 strains of Lactobacillus spp. Imipenem and piperacillin

  19. In Silico Genome-Scale Reconstruction and Validation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum Metabolic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kjeld Raunkjær; Nielsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A genome-scale metabolic model of the Gram-positive bacteria Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was constructed comprising 446 reactions and 411 metabolite, based on the annotated genome and available biochemical information. The network was analyzed using constraint based methods. The model...... was extensively validated against published flux data, and flux distribution values were found to correlate well between simulations and experiments. The split pathway of the lysine synthesis pathway of C. glutamicum was investigated, and it was found that the direct dehydrogenase variant gave a higher lysine...... yield than the alternative succinyl pathway at high lysine production rates. The NADPH demand of the network was not found to be critical for lysine production until lysine yields exceeded 55% (mmol lysine (mmol glucose)(-1)). The model was validated during growth on the organic acids acetate...

  20. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of the Response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to Vanillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Chen

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope. Moreover, deletion of the sigH or msrA gene in C. glutamicum resulted in a decrease in cell viability under vanillin stress. These insights will promote further engineering of model industrial strains, with enhanced tolerance or degradation ability to vanillin to enable suitable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of the Response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can; Pan, Junfeng; Yang, Xiaobing; Guo, Chenghao; Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope. Moreover, deletion of the sigH or msrA gene in C. glutamicum resulted in a decrease in cell viability under vanillin stress. These insights will promote further engineering of model industrial strains, with enhanced tolerance or degradation ability to vanillin to enable suitable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  3. Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses into glutamic acid by gamma irradiated corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum (ATCC 13058) was used for glutamic acid production from sugar cane molasses which contain sufficient. The addition of 5 units ml 4 of penicillin G was superior in glutamic acid production (11.5 g L 4 ). Tweens and their saturated fatty acids were effective on the accumulation of glutamic acid in the culture medium and the maximum yield (16.6 g L 4 ) was the addition of 5 mg ml 4 Tween 40. Gamma irradiation prior to Tween-40 treatment of bacterial cells resulted in an obvious increase in glutamic acid production and it was maximum (23.72 g L 4 ) at 0.1 k Gy exposure dose of inocula. 5 tabs

  4. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CreD OF Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tausif Chaudhry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CreD characterized as Mg2+-dependent phosphohydrolase with conserved HD domain was involved in 4-cresol metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Native molecular mass of 54 kDa suggested that the biological unit is a dimer. No deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase activity was detected for CreD. The apparent Km and Vmax values for 4-nitrophenyl phosphate were 0.35 mM and 16.23 M min-1 mg-1, respectively, while calculated values for kcat and kcat/Km were 0.4 s-1 and 1.14103 M-1 s-1, respectively. Among thiol group inhibitors, iodoacetic acid significantly inhibited phosphohydrolase activity. Sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis suggested universal existence of CreD homologues. Involvement of HD-domain hydrolase in aromatic degradation has not been reported before.

  5. Influence of Corynebacterium parvum on the phagocytosis of /sup 198/Au colloids in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Bianchin, A.M.; Caro, R.A.; Ihlo, J.E.; Rivera, E.S. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1982-07-01

    The kinetics of the phagocytosis of gelatin-protected /sup 198/Au colloids in Wistar rats treated with Corynebacterium Parvum (CBP), was studied in order to explain its mechanism of immunomodulation. A previously developed extracorporeal blood circulation technique was used. The changes in the rate of phagocytosis, v, after the administration of CBP, for a dose of the /sup 198/Au colloid smaller or higher than the substratum constant, were studied. In the first case, no significant changes of v were observed; in the second case, significant increases of v were determined, which reached a maximum 6 days after the CBP administration. The kinetic analysis of the obtained data indicates that the action of CBP is exerted on the stage of the entrance of the colloidal particle into the reticuloendothelial cell.

  6. Influence of Corynebacterium parvum on the phagocytosis of 198Au colloids in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Bianchin, A.M.; Caro, R.A.; Ihlo, J.E.; Rivera, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of the phagocytosis of gelatin-protected 198 Au colloids in Wistar rats treated with Corynebacterium Parvum (CBP), was studied in order to explain its mechanism of immunomodulation. A previously developed extracorporeal blood circulation technique was used. The changes in the rate of phagocytosis, v, after the administration of CBP, for a dose of the 198 Au colloid smaller or higher than the substratum constant, were studied. In the first case, no significant changes of v were observed; in the second case, significant increases of v were determined, which reached a maximum 6 days after the CBP administration. The kinetic analysis of the obtained data indicates that the action of CBP is exerted on the stage of the entrance of the colloidal particle into the reticuloendothelial cell. (author) [es

  7. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. Results The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. Conclusions The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized

  8. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  9. Mutations of the Corynebacterium glutamicum NCgl1221 Gene, Encoding a Mechanosensitive Channel Homolog, Induce l-Glutamic Acid Production▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Jun; Hirano, Seiko; Ito, Hisao; Wachi, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes l-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial l-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce l-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of l-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. It was recently reported that disruption of odhA, encoding a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, resulted in l-gluta...

  10. Determination of the Presence of crpgenes in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Corynebacterium veraSuş

    OpenAIRE

    BELDÜZ, Ali Osman; DEMİRBAĞ, Zihni; DÜLGER, Sabriye

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the presence of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CPR) in a number of diverse organisms. In PCR, two primers specific to the crp gene of Escherichia coli were used. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Corynebacterium veraSuş all showed the same size of PCR frağments (708 bp) and same restriction frağment length polymorphizm (RFLP).

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-coupled recombineering for metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Sung; Choi, Kyeong Rok; Prabowo, Cindy Pricilia Surya; Shin, Jae Ho; Yang, Dongsoo; Jang, Jaedong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-07-01

    Genome engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum, an important industrial microorganism for amino acids production, currently relies on random mutagenesis and inefficient double crossover events. Here we report a rapid genome engineering strategy to scarlessly knock out one or more genes in C. glutamicum in sequential and iterative manner. Recombinase RecT is used to incorporate synthetic single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides into the genome and CRISPR/Cas9 to counter-select negative mutants. We completed the system by engineering the respective plasmids harboring CRISPR/Cas9 and RecT for efficient curing such that multiple gene targets can be done iteratively and final strains will be free of plasmids. To demonstrate the system, seven different mutants were constructed within two weeks to study the combinatorial deletion effects of three different genes on the production of γ-aminobutyric acid, an industrially relevant chemical of much interest. This genome engineering strategy will expedite metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for fermentative production of chemicals in biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritugo, Kei-Anne; Kim, Hee Taek; David, Yokimiko; Choi, Jong-Il; Hong, Soon Ho; Jeong, Ki Jun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, Jeong Chan; Park, Si Jae

    2018-05-01

    Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals provides an eco-friendly alternative to current petrochemical-based processes. Because of the limited supply of fossil fuel reserves, various technologies utilizing microbial host strains for the sustainable production of platform chemicals from renewable biomass have been developed. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic industrial microbial species traditionally used for L-glutamate and L-lysine production. It is a promising species for industrial production of bio-based chemicals because of its flexible metabolism that allows the utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources and the production of various amino acids. Classical breeding, systems, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering approaches have been used to improve its applications, ranging from traditional amino-acid production to modern biorefinery systems for production of value-added platform chemicals. This review describes recent advances in the development of genetic engineering tools and techniques for the establishment and optimization of metabolic pathways for bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals using recombinant C. glutamicum.

  13. Difteria pelo Corynebacterium ulcerans: uma zoonose emergente no Brasil e no mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo revisa a literatura sobre a emergência de infecções humanas causadas por Corynebacterium ulcerans em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil. Foi realizada análise de artigos publicados entre 1926 e 2011 nas bases Medline/PubMed e SciELO, bem como artigos e informes do Ministério da Saúde. Apresenta-se um esquema de triagem, rápido, econômico e de fácil execução, capaz de permitir a realização do diagnóstico presuntivo de C. ulcerans e C. diphtheriae na maioria dos laboratórios brasileiros públicos e privados. A circulação de C. ulcerans em vários países, aliada aos recentes casos de isolamento do patógeno no Rio de Janeiro, é um alerta a clínicos, veterinários e microbiologistas sobre a ocorrência de difteria zoonótica e a circulação do C. ulcerans em regiões urbanas e rurais do território nacional e/ou da América Latina.

  14. Physico-chemical parameter for production of lactic acid or ethanol of (corynebacterium glutamicum) bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, Angelica; Garcia, Lina Marcela; Astudillo, Myriam; Lopez Galan, Jorge Enrique; Florez Pardo, Luz Marina.

    2011-01-01

    The interest to obtain products for the bio-fuel industry from renewable resources has directed research to find resistant and costs-effective biotechnological systems. Corynebacterium glutamicum, is a microorganism used to produce amino acids, that grows in wide variety of substrates and its resistance during fermentation to pH, temperature, osmotic pressure variations and alcohol aggregate, renders this organism a suitable candidate to improve by genetic modifications lactic acid and ethanol synthesis. However, some aspects of its physiology remain unknown, such us increase lactic acid and ethanol production from C5 and C6 sugars. For this reason, the main aim in our work was to identify the most important variables with impact on culture and the best culture conditions to produce lactic acid or ethanol in batch culture. To achieve this objective, eight variables were tested in culture using a statistical model. The best culture conditions were obtained and tested in a bacth bioreactor system. Temperature, biotin and glucose concentration were the variables with most impact (p - 1 , 16 g/l of lactic acid was obtained after 15 h of culture with an efficiency of 32%. High glucose consumption was observed during bacterial growth, which leads to low concentration of substrate for the production process; this suggests a culture feeding at the end of exponential growth phase, which can increase the production yield.

  15. Detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hori, Yoshimi; Kudou, Motonori; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates raise serious problems for the microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Furfural is considered to be one of the most toxic compounds among these inhibitors. Here, we describe the detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic culture conditions, furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid were produced as detoxification products of furfural. The ratio of the products varied depending on the initial furfural concentration. Neither furfuryl alcohol nor 2-furoic acid showed any toxic effect on cell growth, and both compounds were determined to be the end products of furfural degradation. Interestingly, unlike under aerobic conditions, most of the furfural was converted to furfuryl alcohol under anaerobic conditions, without affecting the glucose consumption rate. Both the NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio decreased in the accordance with furfural concentration under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results indicate the presence of a single or multiple endogenous enzymes with broad and high affinity for furfural and co-factors in C. glutamicum ATCC13032.

  16. FudC, a protein primarily responsible for furfural detoxification in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Kudou, Motonori; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation, thereby decreasing the productivity of biofuel and biochemical production. In particular, the heterocyclic aldehyde furfural is one of the most toxic compounds found in these hydrolysates. We previously demonstrated that Corynebacterium glutamicum converts furfural into the less toxic compounds furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid. To date, however, the genes involved in these oxidation and reduction reactions have not been identified in the C. glutamicum genome. Here, we show that Cgl0331 (designated FudC) is mainly responsible for the reduction of furfural into furfuryl alcohol in C. glutamicum. Deletion of the gene encoding FudC markedly diminished the in vivo reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. Purified His-tagged FudC protein from Escherichia coli was also shown to convert furfural into furfuryl alcohol in an in vitro reaction utilizing NADPH, but not NADH, as a cofactor. Kinetic measurements demonstrated that FudC has a high affinity for furfural but has a narrow substrate range for other aldehydes compared to the protein responsible for furfural reduction in E. coli.

  17. Evaluation of three methods for DNA fingerprinting of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from goats in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ilona; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Binek, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic approaches based on metabolic and biological characteristics of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis have been limited due to insufficient discrimination between closely related isolates. In this paper we present performance and convenience of three molecular typing methods: BOX-PCR, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction site (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) in genome analysis of these bacteria. Among examined 61 strains there were distinguished four, eight and 10 different genotypes by BOX-PCR, RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting, respectively. The value of discrimination index was the lowest for BOX-PCR (D = 0.265), much bigger for RAPD (D = 0.539) and the highest for ADSRRS-fingerprinting (D = 0.604). The good discriminatory ability and reproducibility of RAPD and ADSRRS-fingerprinting indicates that those techniques may be particularly applied for epidemiological studies of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates. We found that ADSRRS-fingerprinting is a rapid method offering good discrimination power, excellent reproducibility and may be applied for epidemiological studies of intraspecific genetic relatedness of C. pseudotuberculosis strains.

  18. Heterologous expression of the Halothiobacillus neapolitanus carboxysomal gene cluster in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Meike; Huber, Isabel; Abdollahzadeh, Iman; Gensch, Thomas; Frunzke, Julia

    2017-09-20

    Compartmentalization represents a ubiquitous principle used by living organisms to optimize metabolic flux and to avoid detrimental interactions within the cytoplasm. Proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) have therefore created strong interest for the encapsulation of heterologous pathways in microbial model organisms. However, attempts were so far mostly restricted to Escherichia coli. Here, we introduced the carboxysomal gene cluster of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus into the biotechnological platform species Corynebacterium gluta-micum. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and single molecule localization microscopy suggested the formation of BMC-like structures in cells expressing the complete carboxysome operon or only the shell proteins. Purified carboxysomes consisted of the expected protein components as verified by mass spectrometry. Enzymatic assays revealed the functional production of RuBisCO in C. glutamicum both in the presence and absence of carboxysomal shell proteins. Furthermore, we could show that eYFP is targeted to the carboxysomes by fusion to the large RuBisCO subunit. Overall, this study represents the first transfer of an α-carboxysomal gene cluster into a Gram-positive model species supporting the modularity and orthogonality of these microcompartments, but also identified important challenges which need to be addressed on the way towards biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of two biochemical methods for identifying Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Belén; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Casamayor, Almudena; Tarradas, Carmen; Maldonado, Alfonso

    2013-06-01

    The biochemical pattern of Cowan and Steel (BPCS) was compared with a commercial biochemical strip for the identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from small ruminants. On 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 40/78 coryneform isolates from the lymph nodes of sheep and goats with lesions resembling caseous lymphadenitis were identified as C. pseudotuberculosis. The sensitivities of the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip relative to 16S rRNA sequencing were 80% and 85%, and their specificities were 92.1% and 94.7%, respectively; the level of agreement between the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip was high (κ=0.82). Likelihood ratios for positive and negative results were 10.0 and 0.22 for the BPCS, and 16.0 and 0.16 for the commercial biochemical strip, respectively. These results indicate that the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip are both useful for identifying C. pseudotuberculosis in veterinary microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of GluB from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qingbo; Li, Defeng; Hu, Yonglin; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    GluB, a substrate-binding protein from C. glutamicum, was expressed, purified and crystallized, followed by X-ray diffraction data collection and preliminary crystallographic analysis. GluB is a substrate-binding protein (SBP) which participates in the uptake of glutamic acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium. It is part of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system. Together with the transmembrane proteins GluC and GluD and the cytoplasmic protein GluA, which couples the hydrolysis of ATP to the translocation of glutamate, they form a highly active glutamate-uptake system. As part of efforts to study the amino-acid metabolism, especially the metabolism of glutamic acid by C. glutamicum, a bacterium that is widely used in the industrial production of glutamic acid, the GluB protein was expressed, purified and crystallized, an X-ray diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å and preliminary crystallographic analysis was performed. The crystal belonged to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 82.50, c = 72.69 Å

  1. Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Putrescine Production in Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine is widely used in industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Although engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum has been successfully used to produce high levels of putrescine, the overall cellular physiological and metabolic changes caused by overproduction of putrescine remains unclear. To reveal the transcriptional changes that occur in response to putrescine production in an engineered C. glutamicum strain, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out. Overproduction of putrescine resulted in transcriptional downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis; the TCA cycle, pyruvate degradation, biosynthesis of some amino acids, oxidative phosphorylation; vitamin biosynthesis (thiamine and vitamin 6, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine and sulfur, and ATP-, NAD-, and NADPH-consuming enzymes. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in ornithine biosynthesis and NADPH-forming related enzymes were significantly upregulated in the putrescine producing C. glutamicum strain PUT-ALE. Comparative transcriptomic analysis provided some genetic modification strategies to further improve putrescine production. Repressing ATP- and NADPH-consuming enzyme coding gene expression via CRISPRi enhanced putrescine production.

  2. Analysis of different DNA fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum complementing dapE of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, A; Eggeling, L; Sahm, H

    1994-12-01

    In Corynebacterium glutamicum L-lysine is synthesized simultaneously via the succinylase and dehydrogenase variant of the diaminopimelate pathway. Starting from a strain with a disrupted dehydrogenase gene, three different-sized DNA fragments were isolated which complemented defective Escherichia coli mutants in the succinylase pathway. Enzyme studies revealed that in one case the dehydrogenase gene had apparently been reconstituted in the heterologous host. The two other fragments resulted in desuccinylase activity; one of them additionally in succinylase activity. However, the physical analysis showed that structural changes had taken place in all fragments. Using a probe derived from one of the fragments we isolated a 3.4 kb BamHI DNA fragment without selective pressure (by colony hybridization). This was structurally intact and proved functionally to result in tenfold desuccinylase overexpression. The nucleotide sequence of a 1966 bp fragment revealed the presence of one truncated open reading frame of unknown function and that of dapE encoding N-succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase (EC 3.5.1.18). The deduced amino acid sequence of the dapE gene product shares 23% identical residues with that from E. coli. The C. glutamicum gene now available is the first gene from the succinylase branch of lysine synthesis of this biotechnologically important organism.

  3. Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Putrescine Production in Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Putrescine is widely used in industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Although engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum has been successfully used to produce high levels of putrescine, the overall cellular physiological and metabolic changes caused by overproduction of putrescine remains unclear. To reveal the transcriptional changes that occur in response to putrescine production in an engineered C. glutamicum strain, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out. Overproduction of putrescine resulted in transcriptional downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis; the TCA cycle, pyruvate degradation, biosynthesis of some amino acids, oxidative phosphorylation; vitamin biosynthesis (thiamine and vitamin 6), metabolism of purine, pyrimidine and sulfur, and ATP-, NAD-, and NADPH-consuming enzymes. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in ornithine biosynthesis and NADPH-forming related enzymes were significantly upregulated in the putrescine producing C. glutamicum strain PUT-ALE. Comparative transcriptomic analysis provided some genetic modification strategies to further improve putrescine production. Repressing ATP- and NADPH-consuming enzyme coding gene expression via CRISPRi enhanced putrescine production. PMID:29089930

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herguedas, Beatriz; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Frago, Susana; Medina, Milagros; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    Native and selenomethionine-labelled FAD synthetase from C. ammoniagenes have been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A MAD data set for SeMet-labelled FAD synthetase was collected to 2.42 Å resolution, while data sets were collected to 1.95 Å resolution for the native crystals. FAD synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes (CaFADS), a prokaryotic bifunctional enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of riboflavin as well as the adenylylation of FMN, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K. Diffraction-quality cubic crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled (SeMet-CaFADS) protein belonged to the cubic space group P2 1 3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 133.47 Å and a = b = c = 133.40 Å, respectively. Data sets for native and SeMet-containing crystals were collected to 1.95 and 2.42 Å resolution, respectively

  5. Engineering biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strains for amino acid, diamine and carotenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Götker, S; Heider, S A E; Komati Reddy, G; Nguyen, A Q; Stansen, K C; Wendisch, V F

    2014-12-20

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin. Besides the biotin uptake system BioYMN and the transcriptional regulator BioQ, this bacterium possesses functional enzymes for the last three reactions of biotin synthesis starting from pimeloyl-CoA. Heterologous expression of bioF from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli enabled biotin synthesis from pimelic acid added to the medium, but expression of bioF together with bioC and bioH from E. coli did not entail biotin prototrophy. Heterologous expression of bioWAFDBI from Bacillus subtilis encoding another biotin synthesis pathway in C. glutamicum allowed for growth in biotin-depleted media. Stable growth of the recombinant was observed without biotin addition for eight transfers to biotin-depleted medium while the empty vector control stopped growth after the first transfer. Expression of bioWAFDBI from B. subtilis in C. glutamicum strains overproducing the amino acids l-lysine and l-arginine, the diamine putrescine, and the carotenoid lycopene, respectively, enabled formation of these products under biotin-depleted conditions. Thus, biotin-prototrophic growth and production by recombinant C. glutamicum were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Fritz Wendisch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources, and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  7. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Improvement of succinate production by release of end-product inhibition in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon-Chun; Park, Joon-Song; Yun, Jiae; Park, Jin Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Succinate is a renewable-based platform chemical that may be used to produce a wide range of chemicals including 1,4-butanediol, tetrahydrofurane, and γ-butyrolactone. However, industrial fermentation of organic acids is often subject to end-product inhibition, which significantly retards cell growth and limits metabolic activities and final productivity. In this study, we report the development of metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum for high production of succinate by release of end-product inhibition coupled with an increase of key metabolic flux. It was found that the rates of glucose consumption and succinate production were significantly reduced by extracellular succinate in an engineered strain, S003. To understand the mechanism underlying the inhibition by succinate, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed. Among the downregulated genes, overexpression of the NCgl0275 gene was found to suppress the inhibition of glucose consumption and succinate production, resulting in a 37.7% increase in succinate production up to 55.4g/L in fed-batch fermentation. Further improvement was achieved by increasing the metabolic flux from PEP to OAA. The final engineered strain was able to produce 152.2g/L succinate, the highest production reported to date, with a yield of 1.1g/g glucose under anaerobic condition. These results suggest that the release of end-product inhibition coupled with an increase in key metabolic flux is a promising strategy for enhancing production of succinate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Raj Bhatta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods: Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 1 02 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results: Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%, Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9% and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%. Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73% and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%. Conclusions: Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

  10. PcaO Positively Regulates pcaHG of the β-Ketoadipate Pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ke-Xin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Nan-Xi; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We identified a new regulator, PcaO, which is involved in regulation of the protocatechuate (PCA) branch of the β-ketoadipate pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. PcaO is an atypical large ATP-binding LuxR family (LAL)-type regulator and does not have a Walker A motif. A mutant of C. glutamicum in which pcaO was disrupted (RES167ΔpcaO) was unable to grow on PCA, and growth on PCA was restored by complementation with pcaO. Both an enzymatic assay of PCA 3,4-dioxygenase activity (encoded by p...

  11. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the chemical chaperone ectoine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Schäfer, Rudolf; Kohlstedt, Michael; Harder, Björn J; Borchert, Nicole S; Stöveken, Nadine; Bremer, Erhard; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-11-15

    The stabilizing and function-preserving effects of ectoines have attracted considerable biotechnological interest up to industrial scale processes for their production. These rely on the release of ectoines from high-salinity-cultivated microbial producer cells upon an osmotic down-shock in rather complex processor configurations. There is growing interest in uncoupling the production of ectoines from the typical conditions required for their synthesis, and instead design strains that naturally release ectoines into the medium without the need for osmotic changes, since the use of high-salinity media in the fermentation process imposes notable constraints on the costs, design, and durability of fermenter systems. Here, we used a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain as a cellular chassis to establish a microbial cell factory for the biotechnological production of ectoines. The implementation of a mutant aspartokinase enzyme ensured efficient supply of L-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde, the precursor for ectoine biosynthesis. We further engineered the genome of the basic C. glutamicum strain by integrating a codon-optimized synthetic ectABCD gene cluster under expressional control of the strong and constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter. The resulting recombinant strain produced ectoine and excreted it into the medium; however, lysine was still found as a by-product. Subsequent inactivation of the L-lysine exporter prevented the undesired excretion of lysine while ectoine was still exported. Using the streamlined cell factory, a fed-batch process was established that allowed the production of ectoine with an overall productivity of 6.7 g L(-1) day(-1) under growth conditions that did not rely on the use of high-salinity media. The present study describes the construction of a stable microbial cell factory for recombinant production of ectoine. We successfully applied metabolic engineering strategies to optimize its synthetic production in the industrial workhorse C

  12. Development of a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing toolbox for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Yujiao; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Ma, Yanhe

    2017-11-16

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C. glutamicum. Herein, we developed a versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing toolbox for C. glutamicum. Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes were reconstituted to combat Cas9 toxicity and facilitate effective termination of gRNA transcription. Co-transformation of Cas9 and gRNA expression plasmids was exploited to overcome high-frequency mutation of cas9, allowing not only highly efficient gene deletion and insertion with plasmid-borne editing templates (efficiencies up to 60.0 and 62.5%, respectively) but also simple and time-saving operation. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ssDNA recombineering was developed to precisely introduce small modifications and single-nucleotide changes into the genome of C. glutamicum with efficiencies over 80.0%. Notably, double-locus editing was also achieved in C. glutamicum. This toolbox works well in several C. glutamicum strains including the widely-used strains ATCC 13032 and ATCC 13869. In this study, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox that could facilitate markerless gene deletion, gene insertion, precise base editing, and double-locus editing in C. glutamicum. The CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox holds promise for accelerating the engineering of C. glutamicum and advancing its application in the production of biochemicals and biofuels.

  13. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23 g/L) and its productivity (0.27 g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87 % (from 9.80 to 1.23 g/L) and 60 % (from 6.54 to 2.63 g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2 g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72 %) and the L-serine productivity (67 %). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62 g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44 g/L/h and yield of 0.21 g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity.

  14. Promoter library-based module combination (PLMC) technology for optimization of threonine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Xu, Ning; Wang, Yiran; Zhou, Wei; Han, Guoqiang; Ma, Yanhe; Liu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the lack of efficient control elements and tools, the fine-tuning of gene expression in the multi-gene metabolic pathways is still a great challenge for engineering microbial cell factories, especially for the important industrial microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, the promoter library-based module combination (PLMC) technology was developed to efficiently optimize the expression of genes in C. glutamicum. A random promoter library was designed to contain the putative - 10 (NNTANANT) and - 35 (NNGNCN) consensus motifs, and refined through a three-step screening procedure to achieve numerous genetic control elements with different strength levels, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) screening, agar plate screening, and 96-well plate screening. Multiple conventional strategies were employed for further precise characterizations of the promoter library, such as real-time quantitative PCR, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, FACS analysis, and the lacZ reporter system. These results suggested that the established promoter elements effectively regulated gene expression and showed varying strengths over a wide range. Subsequently, a multi-module combination technology was created based on the efficient promoter elements for combination and optimization of modules in the multi-gene pathways. Using this technology, the threonine biosynthesis pathway was reconstructed and optimized by predictable tuning expression of five modules in C. glutamicum. The threonine titer of the optimized strain was significantly improved to 12.8 g/L, an approximate 6.1-fold higher than that of the control strain. Overall, the PLMC technology presented in this study provides a rapid and effective method for combination and optimization of multi-gene pathways in C. glutamicum.

  15. Biosynthesis of rare ketoses through constructing a recombination pathway in an engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangang; Zhu, Yueming; Li, Jitao; Men, Yan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Rare sugars have various known biological functions and potential for applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. Here we designed and constructed a recombination pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum, in which dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), an intermediate of the glycolytic pathway, and a variety of aldehydes were condensed to synthesize rare ketoses sequentially by rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhaD) and fructose-1-phosphatase (YqaB) obtained from Escherichia coli. A wild-type strain harboring this artificial pathway had the ability to produce D-sorbose and D-psicose using D-glyceraldehyde and glucose as the substrates. The tpi gene, encoding triose phosphate isomerase was further deleted, and the concentration of DHAP increased to nearly 20-fold relative to that of the wild-type. After additional optimization of expression levels from rhaD and yqaB genes and of the fermentation conditions, the engineered strain SY6(pVRTY) exhibited preferable performance for rare ketoses production. Its yield increased to 0.59 mol/mol D-glyceraldehyde from 0.33 mol/mol D-glyceraldehyde and productivity to 2.35 g/L h from 0.58 g/L h. Moreover, this strain accumulated 19.5 g/L of D-sorbose and 13.4 g/L of D-psicose using a fed-batch culture mode under the optimal conditions. In addition, it was verified that the strain SY6(pVRTY) meanwhile had the ability to synthesize C4, C5, C6, and C7 rare ketoses when a range of representative achiral and homochiral aldehydes were applied as the substrates. Therefore, the platform strain exhibited the potential for microbial production of rare ketoses and deoxysugars. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. C1 Metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum: an Endogenous Pathway for Oxidation of Methanol to Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Mühlroth, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Methanol is considered an interesting carbon source in “bio-based” microbial production processes. Since Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important host in industrial biotechnology, in particular for amino acid production, we performed studies of the response of this organism to methanol. The C. glutamicum wild type was able to convert 13C-labeled methanol to 13CO2. Analysis of global gene expression in the presence of methanol revealed several genes of ethanol catabolism to be upregulated, indicating that some of the corresponding enzymes are involved in methanol oxidation. Indeed, a mutant lacking the alcohol dehydrogenase gene adhA showed a 62% reduced methanol consumption rate, indicating that AdhA is mainly responsible for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. Further studies revealed that oxidation of formaldehyde to formate is catalyzed predominantly by two enzymes, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald and the mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE. The Δald ΔadhE and Δald ΔmshC deletion mutants were severely impaired in their ability to oxidize formaldehyde, but residual methanol oxidation to CO2 was still possible. The oxidation of formate to CO2 is catalyzed by the formate dehydrogenase FdhF, recently identified by us. Similar to the case with ethanol, methanol catabolism is subject to carbon catabolite repression in the presence of glucose and is dependent on the transcriptional regulator RamA, which was previously shown to be essential for expression of adhA and ald. In conclusion, we were able to show that C. glutamicum possesses an endogenous pathway for methanol oxidation to CO2 and to identify the enzymes and a transcriptional regulator involved in this pathway. PMID:24014532

  17. Utilization of fermentation waste (Corynebacterium glutamicum) for biosorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2007-01-01

    A fermentation waste, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was successfully employed as a biosorbent for Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solution. This paper initially studied the effect of pretreatment on the biosorption capacity of C. glutamicum toward RB5, using several chemical agents, such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 CO 3 , CaCl 2 and NaCl. Among these reagents, 0.1 M HNO 3 gave the maximum enhancement of the RB5 uptake, exhibiting 195 mg/g at pH 1 with an initial RB5 concentration of 500 mg/l. The solution pH and temperature were found to affect the biosorption capacity, and the biosorption isotherms derived at different pHs and temperatures revealed that a low pH (pH 1) and high temperature (35 deg. C) favored biosorption. The biosorption isotherm was well represented using three-parameter models (Redlich-Peterson and Sips) compared to two-parameter models (Langmuir and Freundlich models). As a result, high correlation coefficients and low average percentage error values were observed for three-parameter models. A maximum RB5 uptake of 419 mg/g was obtained at pH 1 and a temperature of 35 deg. C, according to the Langmuir model. The kinetics of the biosorption process with different initial concentrations (500-2000 mg/l) was also monitored, and the data were analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, with the latter describing the data well. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o , were calculated, indicating that the present system was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The use of a 0.1 M NaOH solution successfully desorbed almost all the dye molecules from dye-loaded C. glutamicum biomass at different solid-to-liquid ratios examined

  18. Transcriptome and Multivariable Data Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum under Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions in Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Fen; Peng, Feng; Yang, Yankun; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiuxia; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor in the fermentation process of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a widely used aerobic microbe in bio-industry. Herein, we described RNA-seq for C. glutamicum under different DO levels (50%, 30% and 0%) in 5 L bioreactors. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) models were used to analyze the RNA-seq and metabolism data to investigate the global effect of DO on the transcriptional distinction of the substance and energy metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results showed that there were 39 and 236 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under the 50% and 0% DO conditions, respectively, compared to the 30% DO condition. Key genes and pathways affected by DO were analyzed, and the result of the MVDA and RNA-seq revealed that different DO levels in the fermenter had large effects on the substance and energy metabolism and cellular redox balance of C. glutamicum. At low DO, the glycolysis pathway was up-regulated, and TCA was shunted by the up-regulation of the glyoxylate pathway and over-production of amino acids, including valine, cysteine and arginine. Due to the lack of electron-acceptor oxygen, 7 genes related to the electron transfer chain were changed, causing changes in the intracellular ATP content at 0% and 30% DO. The metabolic flux was changed to rebalance the cellular redox. This study applied deep sequencing to identify a wealth of genes and pathways that changed under different DO conditions and provided an overall comprehensive view of the metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results provide potential ways to improve the oxygen tolerance of C. glutamicum and to modify the metabolic flux for amino acid production and heterologous protein expression. PMID:27907077

  19. The Druggable Pocketome of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A New Approach for in silico Putative Druggable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed S.; Jamal, Syed B.; Radusky, Leandro G.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Ullah, Asad; Ali, Javed; Behramand; de Carvalho, Paulo V. S. D.; Shams, Rida; Khan, Sabir; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Barh, Debmalya; Ghosh, Preetam; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard; Turjanski, Adrián G.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Diphtheria is an acute and highly infectious disease, previously regarded as endemic in nature but vaccine-preventable, is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd). In this work, we used an in silico approach along the 13 complete genome sequences of C. diphtheriae followed by a computational assessment of structural information of the binding sites to characterize the “pocketome druggability.” To this end, we first computed the “modelome” (3D structures of a complete genome) of a randomly selected reference strain Cd NCTC13129; that had 13,763 open reading frames (ORFs) and resulted in 1,253 (∼9%) structure models. The amino acid sequences of these modeled structures were compared with the remaining 12 genomes and consequently, 438 conserved protein sequences were obtained. The RCSB-PDB database was consulted to check the template structures for these conserved proteins and as a result, 401 adequate 3D models were obtained. We subsequently predicted the protein pockets for the obtained set of models and kept only the conserved pockets that had highly druggable (HD) values (137 across all strains). Later, an off-target host homology analyses was performed considering the human proteome using NCBI database. Furthermore, the gene essentiality analysis was carried out that gave a final set of 10-conserved targets possessing highly druggable protein pockets. To check the target identification robustness of the pipeline used in this work, we crosschecked the final target list with another in-house target identification approach for C. diphtheriae thereby obtaining three common targets, these were; hisE-phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphatase, glpX-fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase II, and rpsH-30S ribosomal protein S8. Our predicted results suggest that the in silico approach used could potentially aid in experimental polypharmacological target determination in C. diphtheriae and other pathogens, thereby, might complement the existing and new drug-discovery pipelines

  20. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of 99m Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by 99m Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl 2 bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl 2 > 110 μg/ml. Adherence levels of 99m Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 μg/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% ± 1.2). Therefore, bacterial 99m Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  1. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins with Corynebacterium glutamicum by deletion of insertion sequences (IS elements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Yim, Sung Sun; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2015-12-29

    In most bacteria, various jumping genetic elements including insertion sequences elements (IS elements) cause a variety of genetic rearrangements resulting in harmful effects such as genome and recombinant plasmid instability. The genetic stability of a plasmid in a host is critical for high-level production of recombinant proteins, and in this regard, the development of an IS element-free strain could be a useful strategy for the enhanced production of recombinant proteins. Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse in the industrial-scale production of various biomolecules including recombinant proteins, also has several IS elements, and it is necessary to identify the critical IS elements and to develop IS element deleted strain. From the cultivation of C. glutamicum harboring a plasmid for green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression, non-fluorescent clones were isolated by FACS (fluorescent activated cell sorting). All the isolated clones had insertions of IS elements in the GFP coding region, and two major IS elements (ISCg1 and ISCg2 families) were identified. By co-cultivating cells harboring either the isolated IS element-inserted plasmid or intact plasmid, it was clearly confirmed that cells harboring the IS element-inserted plasmids became dominant during the cultivation due to their growth advantage over cells containing intact plasmids, which can cause a significant reduction in recombinant protein production during cultivation. To minimize the harmful effects of IS elements on the expression of heterologous genes in C. glutamicum, two IS element free C. glutamicum strains were developed in which each major IS element was deleted, and enhanced productivity in the engineered C. glutamicum strain was successfully demonstrated with three models: GFP, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Our findings clearly indicate that the hopping of IS elements could be detrimental to the production of recombinant proteins in C

  3. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce GDP-L-fucose from glucose and mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum was metabolically engineered to convert glucose and mannose into guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose, a precursor of fucosyl-oligosaccharides, which are involved in various biological and pathological functions. This was done by introducing the gmd and wcaG genes of Escherichia coli encoding GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, respectively, which are known as key enzymes in the production of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. Coexpression of the genes allowed the recombinant C. glutamicum cells to produce GDP-L-fucose in a minimal medium containing glucose and mannose as carbon sources. The specific product formation rate was much higher during growth on mannose than on glucose. In addition, the specific product formation rate was further increased by coexpressing the endogenous phosphomanno-mutase gene (manB) and GTP-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyl-transferase gene (manC), which are involved in the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into GDP-D-mannose. However, the overexpression of manA encoding mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, catalyzing interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate showed a negative effect on formation of the target product. Overall, coexpression of gmd, wcaG, manB and manC in C. glutamicum enabled production of GDP-L-fucose at the specific rate of 0.11 mg g cell(-1) h(-1). The specific GDP-L-fucose content reached 5.5 mg g cell(-1), which is a 2.4-fold higher than that of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing gmd, wcaG, manB and manC under comparable conditions. Well-established metabolic engineering tools may permit optimization of the carbon and cofactor metabolisms of C. glutamicum to further improve their production capacity.

  4. Selection and Characterization of a Lysine Yielding Mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum - a Soil Isolate from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib-ur-Rehman§٭, Abdul Hameed and Safia Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-lysine is the second limiting amino acid for poultry and supplemented in broiler feed for optimal performance. Lysine can be produced by inducing mutation in glutamate producing bacteria. The study was conducted to enhance lysine production from a local strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The bacterium was mutated by exposure to UV. Mutants resistant to s-2-aminoethyle L-cystein (AEC and showing auxotrophy for L-homoserine were screened for lysine production qualitatively and quantitatively. A mutant showing highest production of lysine (8.2 mg/mL was selected for optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum production of lysine in shake flask. An initial pH 7.6, 30˚C temperature, 300 rpm and 60 h incubation time were the optimized values of physical requirements. Cane molasses and corn starch hydrolysate were required at 15% (w/v in the fermentation media which provided around 9% total sugars to produce maximum lysine (17 to 18 mg/mL. When amonium sulphate was used at 3.5% (w/v level in molasses or corn starch hydrolysate based fermentation media, production of lysine slightly increased above 18 mg/mL. It is concluded that industrial by products like cane molasses, corn steep liquor, and corn starch hydrolysate can be used as carbon and organic nitrogen sources in fermentation medium for scale up process of lysine production and this lysine enriched broth may be used in broiler feed later. However, more potent lysine producing mutant and additional in vivo trials would be required to commercialize this product.

  5. Metabolic evolution and a comparative omics analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum for putrescine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Shen, Yu-Ping; Jiang, Xuan-Long; Feng, Li-Shen; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Putrescine is widely used in the industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Because the highest titer of putrescine is much lower than that of its precursor L-ornithine reported in microorganisms to date, further work is needed to increase putrescine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We first compared 7 ornithine decarboxylase genes and found that the Enterobacter cloacae ornithine decarboxylase gene speC1 was most suitable for putrescine production in C. glutamicum. Increasing NADPH availability and blocking putrescine oxidation and acetylation were chosen as targets for metabolic engineering. The putrescine producer C. glutamicum PUT4 was first constructed by deleting puo, butA and snaA genes, and replacing the fabG gene with E. cloacae speC1. After adaptive evolution with C. glutamicum PUT4, the evolved strain C. glutamicum PUT-ALE, which produced an 96% higher amount of putrescine compared to the parent strain, was obtained. The whole genome resequencing indicates that the SNPs located in the odhA coding region may be associated with putrescine production. The comparative proteomic analysis reveals that the pentose phosphate and anaplerotic pathway, the glyoxylate cycle, and the ornithine biosynthetic pathway were upregulated in the evolved strain C. glutamicum PUT-ALE. The aspartate family, aromatic, and branched chain amino acid and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways were also observed to be downregulated in C. glutamicum PUT-ALE. Reducing OdhA activity by replacing the odhA native start codon GTG with TTG and overexpression of cgmA or pyc458 further improved putrescine production. Repressing the carB, ilvH, ilvB and aroE expression via CRISPRi also increased putrescine production by 5, 9, 16 and 19%, respectively.

  6. Systems-wide metabolic pathway engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum for bio-based production of diaminopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Jeong, Weol Kyu; Schröder, Hartwig; Wittmann, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered into an efficient, tailor-made production strain for diaminopentane (cadaverine), a highly attractive building block for bio-based polyamides. The engineering comprised expression of lysine decarboxylase (ldcC) from Escherichia coli, catalyzing the conversion of lysine into diaminopentane, and systems-wide metabolic engineering of central supporting pathways. Substantially re-designing the metabolism yielded superior strains with desirable properties such as (i) the release from unwanted feedback regulation at the level of aspartokinase and pyruvate carboxylase by introducing the point mutations lysC311 and pycA458, (ii) an optimized supply of the key precursor oxaloacetate by amplifying the anaplerotic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, and deleting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which otherwise removes oxaloacetate, (iii) enhanced biosynthetic flux via combined amplification of aspartokinase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate dehydrogenase and diaminopimelate decarboxylase, and (iv) attenuated flux into the threonine pathway competing with production by the leaky mutation hom59 in the homoserine dehydrogenase gene. Lysine decarboxylase proved to be a bottleneck for efficient production, since its in vitro activity and in vivo flux were closely correlated. To achieve an optimal strain having only stable genomic modifications, the combination of the strong constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter and optimized codon usage allowed efficient genome-based ldcC expression and resulted in a high diaminopentane yield of 200 mmol mol(-1). By supplementing the medium with 1 mgL(-1) pyridoxal, the cofactor of lysine decarboxylase, the yield was increased to 300 mmol mol(-1). In the production strain obtained, lysine secretion was almost completely abolished. Metabolic analysis, however, revealed substantial formation of an as yet unknown by-product. It was identified as an

  7. Distinct roles of two anaplerotic pathways in glutamate production induced by biotin limitation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Orishimo, Keita; Shirai, Tomokazu; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Wachi, Masaaki

    2008-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic bacterium in which glutamate production is induced under biotin-limited conditions. During glutamate production, anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and a biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) are believed to play an important role in supplying oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To understand the distinct roles of PEPC and PC on glutamate production by C. glutamicum, we observed glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions in the disruptants of the genes encoding PEPC (ppc) and PC (pyc), respectively. The pyc disruptant retained the ability to produce high amounts of glutamate, and lactate was simultaneously produced probably due to the increased intracellular pyruvate levels. On the other hand, the ppc knockout mutant could not produce glutamate. Additionally, glutamate production in the pyc disruptant was enhanced by overexpression of ppc rather than disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh), which is involved in lactate production. Metabolic flux analysis based on the 13C-labeling experiment and measurement of 13C-enrichment in glutamate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the flux for anaplerotic reactions in the pyc disruptant was lower than that in the wild type, concomitantly increasing the flux for lactate formation. Moreover, overexpression of ppc increased this flux in both the pyc disruptant and the wild type. Our results suggest that the PEPC-catalyzed anaplerotic reaction is necessary for glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions, because PC is not active during glutamate production, and overexpression of ppc effectively enhances glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions.

  8. Biotin protein ligase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: role for growth and L: -lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Stansen, K C; Götker, S; Wendisch, V F

    2012-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic Gram-positive bacterium that is used for large-scale production of amino acids, especially of L-glutamate and L-lysine. It is known that biotin limitation triggers L-glutamate production and that L-lysine production can be increased by enhancing the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, one of two biotin-dependent proteins of C. glutamicum. The gene cg0814 (accession number YP_225000) has been annotated to code for putative biotin protein ligase BirA, but the protein has not yet been characterized. A discontinuous enzyme assay of biotin protein ligase activity was established using a 105aa peptide corresponding to the carboxyterminus of the biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit AccBC of the acetyl CoA carboxylase from C. glutamicum as acceptor substrate. Biotinylation of this biotin acceptor peptide was revealed with crude extracts of a strain overexpressing the birA gene and was shown to be ATP dependent. Thus, birA from C. glutamicum codes for a functional biotin protein ligase (EC 6.3.4.15). The gene birA from C. glutamicum was overexpressed and the transcriptome was compared with the control strain revealing no significant gene expression changes of the bio-genes. However, biotin protein ligase overproduction increased the level of the biotin-containing protein pyruvate carboxylase and entailed a significant growth advantage in glucose minimal medium. Moreover, birA overexpression resulted in a twofold higher L-lysine yield on glucose as compared with the control strain.

  9. Isoprenoid Pyrophosphate-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of Carotenogenesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum

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    Petra Peters-Wendisch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum is a natural producer of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin. The crtEcg0722crtBIYEb operon comprises most of its genes for terpenoid biosynthesis. The MarR-type regulator encoded upstream and in divergent orientation of the carotenoid biosynthesis operon has not yet been characterized. This regulator, named CrtR in this study, is encoded in many actinobacterial genomes co-occurring with terpenoid biosynthesis genes. CrtR was shown to repress the crt operon of C. glutamicum since DNA microarray experiments revealed that transcript levels of crt operon genes were increased 10 to 70-fold in its absence. Transcriptional fusions of a promoter-less gfp gene with the crt operon and crtR promoters confirmed that CrtR represses its own gene and the crt operon. Gel mobility shift assays with purified His-tagged CrtR showed that CrtR binds to a region overlapping with the −10 and −35 promoter sequences of the crt operon. Isoprenoid pyrophosphates interfered with binding of CrtR to its target DNA, a so far unknown mechanism for regulation of carotenogenesis. The molecular details of protein-ligand interactions remain to be studied. Decaprenoxanthin synthesis by C. glutamicum wild type was enhanced 10 to 30-fold upon deletion of crtR and was decreased 5 to 6-fold as result of crtR overexpression. Moreover, deletion of crtR was shown as metabolic engineering strategy to improve production of native and non-native carotenoids including lycopene, β-carotene, C.p. 450 and sarcinaxanthin.

  10. Identification of clinically relevant Corynebacterium strains by Api Coryne, MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibi, S; Ferjani, A; Gaillot, O; Marzouk, M; Courcol, R; Boukadida, J

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of 97 Corynebacterium clinical in comparison to identification strains by Api Coryne and MALDI-TOF-MS using 16S rRNA gene and hypervariable region of rpoB genes sequencing as a reference method. C. striatum was the predominant species isolated followed by C. amycolatum. There was an agreement between Api Coryne strips and MALDI-TOF-MS identification in 88.65% of cases. MALDI-TOF-MS was unable to differentiate C. aurimucosum from C. minutissimum and C. minutissimum from C. singulare but reliably identify 92 of 97 (94.84%) strains. Two strains remained incompletely identified to the species level by MALDI-TOF-MS and molecular approaches. They belonged to Cellulomonas and Pseudoclavibacter genus. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid and reliable method for the identification of Corynebacterium species. However, some limits have been noted and have to be resolved by the application of molecular methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Functional analysis of sequences adjacent to dapE of Corynebacterium glutamicum reveals the presence of aroP, which encodes the aromatic amino acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, A; Morakkabati, S; Krämer, R; Sahm, H; Eggeling, L

    1995-10-01

    An initially nonclonable DNA locus close to a gene of L-lysine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum was analyzed in detail. Its stepwise cloning and its functional identification by monitoring the amino acid uptakes of defined mutants, together with mechanistic studies, identified the corresponding structure as aroP, the general aromatic amino acid uptake system.

  12. Corynebacterium fournierii,’ a new bacterial species isolated from the vaginal sample of a patient with bacterial vaginosis

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    K. Diop

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe briefly ‘Corynebacterium fournierii’ strain Marseille P2948 (= CSUR P2948 = DSM103271, a new bacterium that was isolated from the vaginal sample of a 21-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis.

  13. Rational Design of a Corynebacterium glutamicum Pantothenate Production Strain and Ins Characterization by Metabolic Flux Analysis and Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hüser, A.T.; Chassagnole, Ch.; Lindley, N.D.; Merkamm, M.; Guyonvarch, A.; Elišáková, Veronika; Pátek, Miroslav; Kalinowski, J.; Brune, I.; Pühler, A.; Tauch, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2005), s. 3255-3268 ISSN 0099-2240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * metabolic flux Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  14. Metabolic responses to pyruvate kinase deletion in lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum

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    Wittmann Christoph

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate kinase is an important element in flux control of the intermediate metabolism. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and is under allosteric control. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enzyme was regarded as promising target for improved production of lysine, one of the major amino acids in animal nutrition. In pyruvate kinase deficient strains the required equimolar ratio of the two lysine precursors oxaloacetate and pyruvate can be achieved through concerted action of the phosphotransferase system (PTS and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, whereby a reduced amount of carbon may be lost as CO2 due to reduced flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In previous studies, deletion of pyruvate kinase in lysine-producing C. glutamicum, however, did not yield a clear picture and the exact metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Results In this work, deletion of the pyk gene, encoding pyruvate kinase, was carried out in the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr, expressing a feedback resistant aspartokinase, to investigate the cellular response to deletion of this central glycolytic enzyme. Pyk deletion was achieved by allelic replacement, verified by PCR analysis and the lack of in vitro enzyme activity. The deletion mutant showed an overall growth behavior (specific growth rate, glucose uptake rate, biomass yield which was very similar to that of the parent strain, but differed in slightly reduced lysine formation, increased formation of the overflow metabolites dihydroxyacetone and glycerol and in metabolic fluxes around the pyruvate node. The latter involved a flux shift from pyruvate carboxylase (PC to PEPC, by which the cell maintained anaplerotic supply of the TCA cycle. This created a metabolic by-pass from PEP to pyruvate via malic enzyme demonstrating its contribution to metabolic flexibility of C. glutamicum on glucose. Conclusion The metabolic

  15. Prediction of DtxR regulon: Identification of binding sites and operons controlled by Diphtheria toxin repressor in Corynebacterium diphtheriae

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    Hasnain Seyed

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR, of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been shown to be an iron-activated transcription regulator that controls not only the expression of diphtheria toxin but also of iron uptake genes. This study aims to identify putative binding sites and operons controlled by DtxR to understand the role of DtxR in patho-physiology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Result Positional Shannon relative entropy method was used to build the DtxR-binding site recognition profile and the later was used to identify putative regulatory sites of DtxR within C. diphtheriae genome. In addition, DtxR-regulated operons were also identified taking into account the predicted DtxR regulatory sites and genome annotation. Few of the predicted motifs were experimentally validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The analysis identifies motifs upstream to the novel iron-regulated genes that code for Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FpG, an enzyme involved in DNA-repair and starvation inducible DNA-binding protein (Dps which is involved in iron storage and oxidative stress defense. In addition, we have found the DtxR motifs upstream to the genes that code for sortase which catalyzes anchoring of host-interacting proteins to the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and the proteins of secretory system which could be involved in translocation of various iron-regulated virulence factors including diphtheria toxin. Conclusions We have used an in silico approach to identify the putative binding sites and genes controlled by DtxR in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Our analysis shows that DtxR could provide a molecular link between Fe+2-induced Fenton's reaction and protection of DNA from oxidative damage. DtxR-regulated Dps prevents lethal combination of Fe+2 and H2O2 and also protects DNA by nonspecific DNA-binding. In addition DtxR could play an important role in host interaction and virulence by regulating the levels of sortase

  16. Molecular and Epidemiological Review of Toxigenic Diphtheria Infections in England between 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Collins, Sarah; de Zoysa, Aruni; White, Joanne; Mandal, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Human infections caused by toxigenic corynebacteria occur sporadically across Europe. In this report, we undertook the epidemiological and molecular characterization of all toxigenic corynebacterium strains isolated in England between January 2007 and December 2013. Epidemiological aspects include case demographics, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome. Molecular characterization was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alongside traditional phenotypic methods. In total, there were 20 cases of toxigenic corynebacteria; 12 (60.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans, where animal contact was the predominant risk factor. The remaining eight (40.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains; six were biovar mitis, which were associated with recent travel abroad. Adults 45 years and older were particularly affected (55.0%; 11/20), and typical symptoms included sore throat and fever. Respiratory diphtheria with the absence of a pharyngeal membrane was the most common presentation (50.0%; 10/20). None of the eight C. diphtheriae cases were fully immunized. Diphtheria antitoxin was issued in two (9.5%) cases; both survived. Two (9.5%) cases died, one due to a C. diphtheriae infection and one due to C. ulcerans. MLST demonstrated that the majority (87.5%; 7/8) of C. diphtheriae strains represented new sequence types (STs). By adapting several primer sequences, the MLST genes in C. ulcerans were also amplified, thereby providing the basis for extension of the MLST scheme, which is currently restricted to C. diphtheriae. Despite high population immunity, occasional toxigenic corynebacterium strains are identified in England and continued surveillance is required. PMID:25502525

  17. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  18. Lactate production as representative of the fermentation potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 in a one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuat, Hoang Bao Truc; Kaboré, Abdoul Karim; Olmos, Eric; Fick, Michel; Boudrant, Joseph; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane; Guedon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fermentative properties of thermo-sensitive strain Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 were investigated in processes coupling aerobic cell growth and the anaerobic fermentation phase. In particular, the influence of two modes of fermentation on the production of lactate, the fermentation product model, was studied. In both processes, lactate was produced in significant amount, 27 g/L in batch culture, and up to 55.8 g/L in fed-batch culture, but the specific production rate in the fed-batch culture was four times lower than that in the batch culture. Compared to other investigated fermentation processes, our strategy resulted in the highest yield of lactic acid from biomass. Lactate production by C. glutamicum 2262 thus revealed the capability of the strain to produce various fermentation products from pyruvate.

  19. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, a major amino acid-producing microorganism in biotechnology, is equipped with several osmoregulated uptake systems for compatible solutes, which is relevant for the physiological response to osmotic stress. The most significant carrier......P activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using...... quantitative multiple precursor ion scanning. The molecular composition of glycerophospholipids was strongly affected by the growth temperature. The modulating influence of membrane lipid composition on BetP function was further corroborated by studying the influence of artificial modulation of membrane...

  20. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  1. High-resolution detection of DNA binding sites of the global transcriptional regulator GlxR in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungwirth, Britta; Sala, Claudia; Kohl, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    of the 6C non-coding RNA gene and to non-canonical DNA binding sites within protein-coding regions. The present study underlines the dynamics within the GlxR regulon by identifying in vivo targets during growth on glucose and contributes to the expansion of knowledge of this important transcriptional......The transcriptional regulator GlxR has been characterized as a global hub within the gene-regulatory network of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with a specific anti-GlxR antibody and subsequent high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was applied to C. glutamicum to get new...... mapping of these data on the genome sequence of C. glutamicum, 107 enriched DNA fragments were detected from cells grown with glucose as carbon source. GlxR binding sites were identified in the sequence of 79 enriched DNA fragments, of which 21 sites were not previously reported. Electrophoretic mobility...

  2. Rich biotin content in lignocellulose biomass plays the key role in determining cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jingbai; Xiao, Yanqiu; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most promising alternative feedstocks for glutamic acid production as commodity building block chemical, but the efforts by the dominant industrial fermentation strain Corynebacterium glutamicum failed for accumulating glutamic acid using lignocellulose feedstock. We identified the existence of surprisingly high biotin concentration in corn stover hydrolysate as the determining factor for the failure of glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum . Under excessive biotin content, induction by penicillin resulted in 41.7 ± 0.1 g/L of glutamic acid with the yield of 0.50 g glutamic acid/g glucose. Our further investigation revealed that corn stover contained 353 ± 16 μg of biotin per kg dry solids, approximately one order of magnitude greater than the biotin in corn grain. Most of the biotin remained stable during the biorefining chain and the rich biotin content in corn stover hydrolysate almost completely blocked the glutamic acid accumulation. This rich biotin existence was found to be a common phenomenon in the wide range of lignocellulose biomass and this may be the key reason why the previous studies failed in cellulosic glutamic acid fermentation from lignocellulose biomass. The extended recording of the complete members of all eight vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass further reveals that the major vitamin B members were also under the high concentration levels even after harsh pretreatment. The high content of biotin in wide range of lignocellulose biomass feedstocks and the corresponding hydrolysates was discovered and it was found to be the key factor in determining the cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation. The highly reserved biotin and the high content of their other vitamin B compounds in biorefining process might act as the potential nutrients to biorefining fermentations. This study creates a new insight that lignocellulose biorefining not only generates inhibitors, but also keeps nutrients

  3. Hematologic interactions of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1, and adrenal hormones and the hematologic effects of TNF alpha in Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, T R; del Castillo, J; Ni, R X; Bikhazi, N

    1989-06-01

    Endotoxin reduces the release among other cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) and causes peripheral lymphopenia and a dose-response-dependent initial neutropenia followed by a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF alone induces lymphopenia and an initial neutropenia followed by a biphasic neutrophilia. IL-1 alone induces lymphopenia and a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF-plus-IL-1 caused a greater lymphopenia than either monokine alone, suggesting that both monokines contribute to LPS-induced lymphopenia. TNF-plus-IL-1 induced neutropenia similar in magnitude to that induced by TNF alone and induced a neutrophilia significantly greater than that induced by either monokine alone, suggesting that LPS-induced neutropenia is caused by TNF, while LPS-induced neutrophilia is due to the combined effects of TNF and II-1. TNF and IL-1 were administered together with LPS to simulate the in vivo condition of endogenous monokine release during gram-negative bacteremia. TNF combined with LPS increased both the duration and magnitude of LPS-induced lymphopenia, LPS-induced neutropenia, and LPS-induced neutrophilia. TNF-plus-LPS treated rats at 2 hours after injection exhibited a striking 93% decrease in bone marrow neutrophils even though no peripheral neutrophilia was yet apparent, suggesting that the subsequent neutrophilia was due to demargination and recirculation of neutrophils sequestered in the peripheral vasculature immediately after their release from the bone marrow. Epinephrine, which causes neutrophilia by demargination but not by release of marrow neutrophils, reversed the initial neutropenia in TNF-plus-LPS-treated rats and increased the neutrophilia. IL-1 combined with LPS increased LPS-induced neutrophilia, suggesting that endogenous IL-1 also contributed to LPS-induced neutrophilia. Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats with hyperplasia of the monocyte-macrophage system and treated with TNF differed from naive rats treated with TNF in that the

  4. Comprehensive update of dalbavancin activity when tested against uncommonly isolated streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus spp. (1357 strains).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-06-01

    Dalbavancin is an investigational lipoglycopeptide having an extended serum elimination half-life allowing once-weekly dosing. Data from testing 1357 strains of uncommonly isolated species expand the dalbavancin spectrum details as follows (MIC50/90): β-haemolytic streptococcal serogroups C, F, and G (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL), 7 viridans group of streptococci (≤0.03/≤0.03-0.06 μg/mL), 5 Corynebacterium spp. (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), and Micrococcus spp. (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL). Among all reported isolates, 99.8% of tested strains were inhibited at dalbavancin MIC values at ≤0.12 μg/mL. Dalbavancin remains very potent against rarer Gram-positive pathogens, using in vitro test experience with organisms cultured through 2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel Polyoxyethylene-Containing Glycolipids Are Synthesized in Corynebacterium matruchotii and Mycobacterium smegmatis Cultured in the Presence of Tween 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80 to a culture of mycobacteria greatly influences cell permeability and sensitivity to antibiotics but very little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Here we show that Corynebacterium matruchotii (surrogate of mycobacteria converts Tween 80 to a structural series of polyoxyethylenic acids which are then used to form novel series-2A and series-2B glycolipids. Minor series-3 glycolipids were also synthesized. The polyoxyethylenic acids replaced corynomycolic acids in the cell wall. Correspondingly the trehalose dicorynomycolate content was reduced. MALDI mass spectrometry, MS-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR were used to characterize the series-2 glycolipids. Series-2A glycolipid is trehalose 6-C36:2-corynomycolate-6′-polyoxyethylenate and series-2B glycolipid is trehalose 6-C36:2-corynomycolate-6′-furan ring-containing polyoxyethylenate. Mycobacterium smegmatis grown in the presence of Tween 80 also synthesizes series-2 type glycolipids. The synthesis of these novel glycolipids in corynebacteria and mycobacteria should result in gross changes in the cell wall permeability and drug sensitivity.

  6. Different modes of diaminopimelate synthesis and their role in cell wall integrity: a study with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, A; Phillipp, B; Sahm, H; Eggeling, L

    1998-06-01

    In eubacteria, there are three slightly different pathways for the synthesis of m-diaminopimelate (m-DAP), which is one of the key linking units of peptidoglycan. Surprisingly, for unknown reasons, some bacteria use two of these pathways together. An example is Corynebacterium glutamicum, which uses both the succinylase and dehydrogenase pathways for m-DAP synthesis. In this study, we clone dapD and prove by enzyme experiments that this gene encodes the succinylase (M(r) = 24082), initiating the succinylase pathway of m-DAP synthesis. By using gene-directed mutation, dapD, as well as dapE encoding the desuccinylase, was inactivated, thereby forcing C. glutamicum to use only the dehydrogenase pathway of m-DAP synthesis. The mutants are unable to grow on organic nitrogen sources. When supplied with low ammonium concentrations but excess carbon, their morphology is radically altered and they are less resistant to mechanical stress than the wild type. Since the succinylase has a high affinity toward its substrate and uses glutamate as the nitrogen donor, while the dehydrogenase has a low affinity and incorporates ammonium directly, the m-DAP synthesis is another example of twin activities present in bacteria for access to important metabolites such as the well-known twin activities for the synthesis of glutamate or for the uptake of potassium.

  7. Production of carbon-13-labeled cadaverine by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum using carbon-13-labeled methanol as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leßmeier, Lennart; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Carnicer, Marc; Heux, Stephanie; Portais, Jean-Charles; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-12-01

    Methanol, a one-carbon compound, can be utilized by a variety of bacteria and other organisms as carbon and energy source and is regarded as a promising substrate for biotechnological production. In this study, a strain of non-methylotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, which was able to produce the polyamide building block cadaverine as non-native product, was engineered for co-utilization of methanol. Expression of the gene encoding NAD+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh) from the natural methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus increased methanol oxidation. Deletion of the endogenous aldehyde dehydrogenase genes ald and fadH prevented methanol oxidation to carbon dioxide and formaldehyde detoxification via the linear formaldehyde dissimilation pathway. Heterologous expression of genes for the key enzymes hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway in this strain restored growth in the presence of methanol or formaldehyde, which suggested efficient formaldehyde detoxification involving RuMP key enzymes. While growth with methanol as sole carbon source was not observed, the fate of 13C-methanol added as co-substrate to sugars was followed and the isotopologue distribution indicated incorporation into central metabolites and in vivo activity of the RuMP pathway. In addition, 13C-label from methanol was traced to the secreted product cadaverine. Thus, this synthetic biology approach led to a C. glutamicum strain that converted the non-natural carbon substrate methanol at least partially to the non-native product cadaverine.

  8. Construction of in vitro transcription system for Corynebacterium glutamicum and its use in the recognition of promoters of different classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holátko, Jiří; Silar, Radoslav; Rabatinová, Alžbeta; Sanderová, Hana; Halada, Petr; Nešvera, Jan; Krásný, Libor; Pátek, Miroslav

    2012-10-01

    To facilitate transcription studies in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we have developed an in vitro transcription system for this bacterium used as an industrial producer of amino acids and a model organism for actinobacteria. This system consists of C. glutamicum RNA polymerase (RNAP) core (α2, β, β'), a sigma factor and a promoter-carrying DNA template, that is specifically recognized by the RNAP holoenzyme formed. The RNAP core was purified from the C. glutamicum strain with the modified rpoC gene, which produced His-tagged β' subunit. The C. glutamicum sigA and sigH genes were cloned and overexpressed using the Escherichia coli plasmid vector, and the sigma subunits σ(A) and σ(H) were purified by affinity chromatography. Using the reconstituted C. glutamicum holo-RNAPs, recognition of the σ(A)- and σ(H)-dependent promoters and synthesis of the specific transcripts was demonstrated. The developed in vitro transcription system is a novel tool that can be used to directly prove the specific recognition of a promoter by the particular σ factor(s) and to analyze transcriptional control by various regulatory proteins in C. glutamicum.

  9. Metabolic Design of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Production of l-Cysteine with Consideration of Sulfur-Supplemented Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Chul; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-06-14

    l-Cysteine is a valuable sulfur-containing amino acid widely used as a nutrition supplement in industrial food production, agriculture, and animal feed. However, this amino acid is mostly produced by acid hydrolysis and extraction from human or animal hairs. In this study, we constructed recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strains that overexpress combinatorial genes for l-cysteine production. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of the combined overexpression of serine acetyltransferase (CysE), O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysK), and the transcriptional regulator CysR on l-cysteine production. The CysR-overexpressing strain accumulated approximately 2.7-fold more intracellular sulfide than the control strain (empty pMT-tac vector). Moreover, in the resulting CysEKR recombinant strain, combinatorial overexpression of genes involved in l-cysteine production successfully enhanced its production by approximately 3.0-fold relative to that in the control strain. This study demonstrates a biotechnological model for the production of animal feed supplements such as l-cysteine using metabolically engineered C. glutamicum.

  10. Mutational analysis to identify the residues essential for the inhibition of N-acetyl glutamate kinase of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Hongming; Li, Cheng; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2015-09-01

    N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of L-arginine that is inhibited by its end product L-arginine in Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum). In this study, the potential binding sites of arginine and the residues essential for its inhibition were identified by homology modeling, inhibitor docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. The allosteric inhibition of NAGK was successfully alleviated by a mutation, as determined through analysis of mutant enzymes, which were overexpressed in vivo in C. glutamicum ATCC14067. Analysis of the mutant enzymes and docking analysis demonstrated that residue W23 positions an arginine molecule, and the interaction between arginine and residues L282, L283, and T284 may play an important role in the remote inhibitory process. Based on the results of the docking analysis of the effective mutants, we propose a linkage mechanism for the remote allosteric regulation of NAGK activity, in which residue R209 may play an essential role. In this study, the structure of the arginine-binding site of C. glutamicum NAGK (CgNAGK) was successfully predicted and the roles of the relevant residues were identified, providing new insight into the allosteric regulation of CgNAGK activity and a solid platform for the future construction of an optimized L-arginine producing strain.

  11. Disruption of pknG enhances production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing glutamate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Naoko; Takahashi, Chihiro; Hatada, Kazuki; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a building block of the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4, is synthesized from glucose by Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) B encoded by gadB. This strain was engineered to produce GABA more efficiently from biomass-derived sugars. To enhance GABA production further by increasing the intracellular concentration of its precursor glutamate, we focused on engineering pknG (encoding serine/threonine protein kinase G), which controls the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Odh) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle branch point leading to glutamate synthesis. We succeeded in expressing GadB in a C. glutamicum strain harboring a deletion of pknG. C. glutamicum strains GAD and GAD ∆pknG were cultured in GP2 medium containing 100 g L(-1) glucose and 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Strain GAD∆pknG produced 31.1 ± 0.41 g L(-1) (0.259 g L(-1) h(-1)) of GABA in 120 hours, representing a 2.29-fold higher level compared with GAD. The production yield of GABA from glucose by GAD∆pknG reached 0.893 mol mol(-1).

  12. Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: Use of Molecular Typing Techniques for Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Kekelidze, Merab; Gomelauri, Tsaro; Deng, Yingkang; Khetsuriani, Nino; Kobaidze, Ketino; De Zoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla; Morris, J. Glenn; Imnadze, Paata

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C. diphtheriae strains (10 Russian and 3 reference isolates) were characterized by (i) biotyping, (ii) toxigenicity testing with the Elek assay and PCR, (iii) the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen selected strains were ribotyped. Six RAPD types and 15 PFGE patterns were identified among all strains examined, and 12 ribotypes were found among the 15 strains that were ribotyped. The Georgian epidemic apparently was caused by one major clonal group of C. diphtheriae (PFGE type A, ribotype R1), which was identical to the predominant epidemic strain(s) isolated during the concurrent diphtheria epidemic in Russia. A dendrogram based on the PFGE patterns revealed profound differences between the minor (nonpredominant) epidemic strains found in Georgia and Russia. The methodologies for RAPD typing, ribotyping, and PFGE typing of C. diphtheriae strains were improved to enable rapid and convenient molecular typing of the strains. The RAPD technique was adequate for biotype differentiation; however, PFGE and ribotyping were better (and equal to each other) at discriminating between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. PMID:10488190

  13. Characterization and chromosomal organization of the murD-murC-ftsQ region of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13869.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Angelina; Honrubia, Maria P; Vega, Daniel; Ayala, Juan A; Bouhss, Ahmed; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Gil, José A

    2004-04-01

    The sequence of a 4.6-kb region of DNA from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13869 lying upstream from the ftsQ-ftsZ region has been determined. The region contains four genes with high similarity to the murD, ftsW, murG, and murC genes from different microorganisms. The products of these mur genes probably catalyse several steps in the formation of the precursors for peptidoglycan synthesis in C. glutamicum, whereas ftsW might play also a role in the stabilisation of the FtsZ ring during cell division. The murC gene product was purified to near homogeneity and its UDP-N-acetylmuramate: L-alanine adding activity was demonstrated. Northern analysis indicated that ftsW, murG and ftsQ are poorly expressed in C. glutamicum whereas murC and ftsZ are expressed at higher levels at the beginning of the exponential phase. Dicistronic (ftsQ-ftsZ) and monocistronic (murC and ftsZ) transcripts can be detected using specific probes and are in agreement with the lack of transcriptional terminators in the partially analysed dcw cluster. Disruption experiments performed in C. glutamicum using internal fragments of the ftsW, murG and murC genes allowed us to conclude that FtsW, MurG, and MurC are essential gene products in C. glutamicum.

  14. Reprogramming One-Carbon Metabolic Pathways To Decouple l-Serine Catabolism from Cell Growth in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Shang, Xiuling; Lai, Shujuan; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Qitiao; Chai, Xin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Shuwen; Wen, Tingyi

    2018-02-16

    l-Serine, the principal one-carbon source for DNA biosynthesis, is difficult for microorganisms to accumulate due to the coupling of l-serine catabolism and microbial growth. Here, we reprogrammed the one-carbon unit metabolic pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum to decouple l-serine catabolism from cell growth. In silico model-based simulation showed a negative influence on glyA-encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase flux with l-serine productivity. Attenuation of glyA transcription resulted in increased l-serine accumulation, and a decrease in purine pools, poor growth and longer cell shapes. The gcvTHP-encoded glycine cleavage (Gcv) system from Escherichia coli was introduced into C. glutamicum, allowing glycine-derived 13 CH 2 to be assimilated into intracellular purine synthesis, which resulted in an increased amount of one-carbon units. Gcv introduction not only restored cell viability and morphology but also increased l-serine accumulation. Moreover, comparative proteomic analysis indicated that abundance changes of the enzymes involved in one-carbon unit cycles might be responsible for maintaining one-carbon unit homeostasis. Reprogramming of the one-carbon metabolic pathways allowed cells to reach a comparable growth rate to accumulate 13.21 g/L l-serine by fed-batch fermentation in minimal medium. This novel strategy provides new insights into the regulation of cellular properties and essential metabolite accumulation by introducing an extrinsic pathway.

  15. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts.

  16. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  17. [Clinical evaluations of flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikasa, K; Sawaki, M; Ako, H; Narita, N

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new antibacterial drug, was administered to 9 cases with respiratory tract infections for a duration of 8 approximately 16 days at a daily dose of 2 g. Diagnosis of these patients were bronchopneumonia 5 cases, chronic bronchitis 3 cases and acute bronchitis 1 case. From transtracheal aspiration several organisms were isolated; Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 3 cases, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 3 cases, H. influenzae plus Branhamella catarrhalis in 1 case, Streptococcus dysgalactiae plus Neisseria meningitidis in 1 case and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in 1 case. The clinical efficacy was good in all 9 cases, the efficacy rate was 100%. All the bacteria were eliminated. Side effects were not observed. From these results, it appears that FMOX is a valuable drug in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  18. [Corynebacterium imitans isolated from blood culture in a patient with suspected bacteremia - the first isolation from human clinical material in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    JeŽek, Petr; Zavadilová, Jana; Kolínská, Renáta; Švec, Pavel; Guttwirth, Jiří; Petráš, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The current view of the clinical importance of nondiphtherial corynebacteria recovered from human clinical material has changed considerably in recent decades; in many cases, a direct etiological role is assumed or has already been demonstrated. Presented is a case of suspected bacteremia in a hospitalized elderly woman with isolation of the very rare species Corynebacterium imitans from blood culture. However, the etiological significance of the isolated microorganism remains unclear. The aim was not to demonstrate the etiological significance of the isolated C. imitans strain but to report the occurrence of this very rare species which is considered to be the first isolation from humans in the Czech Republic.

  19. The two-component signal transduction system CopRS of Corynebacterium glutamicum is required for adaptation to copper-excess stress

    OpenAIRE

    Schelder, S.; Zaade, D.; Litsanov, B.; Bott, M.; Brocker, M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper is an essential cofactor for many enzymes but at high concentrations it is toxic for the cell. Copper ion concentrations ≥50 µM inhibited growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The transcriptional response to 20 µM Cu(2+) was studied using DNA microarrays and revealed 20 genes that showed a ≥ 3-fold increased mRNA level, including cg3281-cg3289. Several genes in this genomic region code for proteins presumably involved in the adaption to copper-induced stress, e. g. a multicopper oxidas...

  20. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  1. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...

  2. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  3. From zero to hero - production of bio-based nylon from renewable resources using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Neubauer, Steffi; Becker, Judith; Yamamoto, Motonori; Völkert, Martin; Abendroth, Gregory von; Zelder, Oskar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Polyamides are important industrial polymers. Currently, they are produced exclusively from petrochemical monomers. Herein, we report the production of a novel bio-nylon, PA5.10 through an integration of biological and chemical approaches. First, systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum was used to create an effective microbial cell factory for the production of diaminopentane as the polymer building block. In this way, a hyper-producer, with a high diaminopentane yield of 41% in shake flask culture, was generated. Subsequent fed-batch production of C. glutamicum DAP-16 allowed a molar yield of 50%, a productivity of 2.2gL(-1)h(-1), and a final titer of 88gL(-1). The streamlined producer accumulated diaminopentane without generating any by-products. Solvent extraction from alkalized broth and two-step distillation provided highly pure diaminopentane (99.8%), which was then directly accessible for poly-condensation. Chemical polymerization with sebacic acid, a ten-carbon dicarboxylic acid derived from castor plant oil, yielded the bio-nylon, PA5.10. In pure form and reinforced with glass fibers, the novel 100% bio-polyamide achieved an excellent melting temperature and the mechanical strength of the well-established petrochemical polymers, PA6 and PA6.6. It even outperformed the oil-based products in terms of having a 6% lower density. It thus holds high promise for applications in energy-friendly transportation. The demonstration of a novel route for generation of bio-based nylon from renewable sources opens the way to production of sustainable bio-polymers with enhanced material properties and represents a milestone in industrial production. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  5. Analysis of SOS-Induced Spontaneous Prophage Induction in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the Single-Cell Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arun M.; Heyer, Antonia; Krämer, Christina; Grünberger, Alexander; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 contains three integrated prophage elements (CGP1 to -3). Recently, it was shown that the large lysogenic prophage CGP3 (∼187 kbp) is excised spontaneously in a small number of cells. In this study, we provide evidence that a spontaneously induced SOS response is partly responsible for the observed spontaneous CGP3 induction. Whereas previous studies focused mainly on the induction of prophages at the population level, we analyzed the spontaneous CGP3 induction at the single-cell level using promoters of phage genes (Pint2 and Plysin) fused to reporter genes encoding fluorescent proteins. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed a spontaneous CGP3 activity in about 0.01 to 0.08% of the cells grown in standard minimal medium, which displayed a significantly reduced viability. A PrecA-eyfp promoter fusion revealed that a small fraction of C. glutamicum cells (∼0.2%) exhibited a spontaneous induction of the SOS response. Correlation of PrecA to the activity of downstream SOS genes (PdivS and PrecN) confirmed a bona fide induction of this stress response rather than stochastic gene expression. Interestingly, the reporter output of PrecA and CGP3 promoter fusions displayed a positive correlation at the single-cell level (ρ = 0.44 to 0.77). Furthermore, analysis of the PrecA-eyfp/Pint2-e2-crimson strain during growth revealed the highest percentage of spontaneous PrecA and Pint2 activity in the early exponential phase, when fast replication occurs. Based on these studies, we postulate that spontaneously occurring DNA damage induces the SOS response, which in turn triggers the induction of lysogenic prophages. PMID:24163339

  6. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and hexavalent chromium reducing potential of Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 isolated from chromite mine seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kanti Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730, a heavy metal tolerant and chromate reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine seepage of Odisha, India has been evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture. The isolate was found to tolerate metals like Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Mn(II, Zn(II, Fe(III and Hg(II along with Cr(VI and was resistant to different antibiotics as evaluated by disc-diffusion method. The isolate, SKPD 1204 was found to reduce 62.5% of 2 mM Cr(VI in Vogel Bonner broth within 8 days of incubation. Chromate reduction capability of SKPD 1204 decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration, but increased with increase in cell density and attained its maximum at 1010 cells/mL. Chromate reducing efficiency of SKPD 1204 was promoted in the presence of glycerol and glucose, while the highest reduction was recorded at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Zn(II, Cd(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, but not by Mn(II. Anions like nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sulphite was found to be inhibitory to the process of Cr(VI reduction. Similarly, sodium fluoride, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium azide and N, N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while 2,4-dinitrophenol appeared to be neither promotive nor inhibitory to the process.

  7. Integrated Analysis of the Transcriptome and Metabolome of Corynebacterium glutamicum during Penicillin-Induced Glutamic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Saito, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Furusawa, Chikara; Shmizu, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is known for its ability to produce glutamic acid and has been utilized for the fermentative production of various amino acids. Glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum is induced by penicillin. In this study, the transcriptome and metabolome of C. glutamicum is analyzed to understand the mechanism of penicillin-induced glutamic acid production. Transcriptomic analysis with DNA microarray revealed that expression of some glycolysis- and TCA cycle-related genes, which include those encoding the enzymes involved in conversion of glucose to 2-oxoglutaric acid, is upregulated after penicillin addition. Meanwhile, expression of some TCA cycle-related genes, encoding the enzymes for conversion of 2-oxoglutaric acid to oxaloacetic acid, and the anaplerotic reactions decreased. In addition, expression of NCgl1221 and odhI, encoding proteins involved in glutamic acid excretion and inhibition of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, is upregulated. Functional category enrichment analysis of genes upregulated and downregulated after penicillin addition revealed that genes for signal transduction systems are enriched among upregulated genes, whereas those for energy production and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms are enriched among the downregulated genes. As for the metabolomic analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the intracellular content of most metabolites of the glycolysis and the TCA cycle decreased dramatically after penicillin addition. Overall, these results indicate that the cellular metabolism and glutamic acid excretion are mainly optimized at the transcription level during penicillin-induced glutamic acid production by C. glutamicum. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Formation of xylitol and xylitol-5-phosphate and its impact on growth of d-xylose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radek, Andreas; Müller, Moritz-Fabian; Gätgens, Jochem; Eggeling, Lothar; Krumbach, Karin; Marienhagen, Jan; Noack, Stephan

    2016-08-10

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum has no endogenous metabolic activity for utilizing the lignocellulosic pentose d-xylose for cell growth. Therefore, two different engineering approaches have been pursued resulting in platform strains harbouring a functional version of either the Isomerase (ISO) or the Weimberg (WMB) pathway for d-xylose assimilation. In a previous study we found for C. glutamicum WMB by-product formation of xylitol during growth on d-xylose and speculated that the observed lower growth rates are due to the growth inhibiting effect of this compound. Based on a detailed phenotyping of the ISO, WMB and the wild-type strain of C. glutamicum, we here show that this organism has a natural capability to synthesize xylitol from d-xylose under aerobic cultivation conditions. We furthermore observed the intracellular accumulation of xylitol-5-phosphate as a result of the intracellular phosphorylation of xylitol, which was particularly pronounced in the C. glutamicum ISO strain. Interestingly, low amounts of supplemented xylitol strongly inhibit growth of this strain on d-xylose, d-glucose and d-arabitol. These findings demonstrate that xylitol is a suitable substrate of the endogenous xylulokinase (XK, encoded by xylB) and its overexpression in the ISO strain leads to a significant phosphorylation of xylitol in C. glutamicum. Therefore, in order to circumvent cytotoxicity by xylitol-5-phosphate, the WMB pathway represents an interesting alternative route for engineering C. glutamicum towards efficient d-xylose utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  10. Overexpression of Genes Encoding Glycolytic Enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum Enhances Glucose Metabolism and Alanine Production under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159–165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses. PMID

  11. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. Results By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. Conclusions The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation. PMID:22243621

  12. Optimization of the IPP Precursor Supply for the Production of Lycopene, Decaprenoxanthin and Astaxanthin by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider, Sabine A. E.; Wolf, Natalie; Hofemeier, Arne; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnologically relevant bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, currently used for the million ton-scale production of amino acids for the food and feed industries, is pigmented due to synthesis of the rare cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. The precursors of carotenoid biosynthesis, isopenthenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, are synthesized in this organism via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or non-mevalonate pathway. Terminal pathway engineering in recombinant C. glutamicum permitted the production of various non-native C50 and C40 carotenoids. Here, the role of engineering isoprenoid precursor supply for lycopene production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of dxs encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the MEP-pathway by chromosomal promoter exchange in a prophage-cured, genome-reduced C. glutamicum strain improved lycopene formation. Similarly, an increased IPP supply was achieved by chromosomal integration of two artificial operons comprising MEP pathway genes under the control of a constitutive promoter. Combined overexpression of dxs and the other six MEP pathways genes in C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP was not synergistic with respect to improving lycopene accumulation. Based on C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP, astaxanthin could be produced in the milligrams per gram cell dry weight range when the endogenous genes crtE, crtB, and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were coexpressed with the genes for lycopene cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase from Pantoea ananatis and carotene C(4) oxygenase from Brevundimonas aurantiaca.

  13. Effect of biotin on transcription levels of key enzymes and glutamate efflux in glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Duan, Zuoying; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-02-01

    Biotin is an important factor affecting the performance of glutamate fermentation by biotin auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum and glutamate is over-produced only when initial biotin content is controlled at suitable levels or initial biotin is excessive but with Tween 40 addition during fermentation. The transcription levels of key enzymes at pyruvate, isocitrate and α-ketoglutarate metabolic nodes, as well as transport protein (TP) of glutamate were investigated under the conditions of varied biotin contents and Tween 40 supplementation. When biotin was insufficient, the genes encoding key enzymes and TP were down-regulated in the early production phase, in particular, the transcription level of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which was only 2% of that of control. Although the cells' morphology transformation and TP level were not affected, low transcription level of ICDH led to lower final glutamate concentration (64 g/L). When biotin was excessive, the transcription levels of key enzymes were at comparable levels as those of control with ICDH as an exception, which was only 3-22% of control level throughout production phase. In this case, little intracellular glutamate accumulation (1.5 mg/g DCW) and impermeable membrane resulted in non glutamate secretion into broth, even though the quantity of TP was more than 10-folds of control level. Addition of Tween 40 when biotin was excessive stimulated the expression of all key enzymes and TP, intracellular glutamate content was much higher (10-12 mg/g DCW), and final glutamate concentration reached control level (75-80 g/L). Hence, the membrane alteration and TP were indispensable in glutamate secretion. Biotin and Tween 40 influenced the expression level of ICDH and glutamate efflux, thereby influencing glutamate production.

  14. Characterization of the biotin uptake system encoded by the biotin-inducible bioYMN operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jens; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Stansen, K Corinna; Götker, Susanne; Maximow, Stanislav; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-13

    The amino acid-producing Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin although biotin ring assembly starting from the precursor pimeloyl-CoA is still functional. It possesses AccBC, the α-subunit of the acyl-carboxylases involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid synthesis, and pyruvate carboxylase as the only biotin-containing proteins. Comparative genome analyses suggested that the putative transport system BioYMN encoded by cg2147, cg2148 and cg2149 might be involved in biotin uptake by C. glutamicum. By comparison of global gene expression patterns of cells grown with limiting or excess supply of biotin or with dethiobiotin as supplement replacing biotin revealed that expression of genes coding for enzymes of biotin ring assembly and for the putative uptake system was regulated according to biotin availability. RT-PCR and 5'-RACE experiments demonstrated that the genes bioY, bioM, and bioN are transcribed from one promoter as a single transcript. Biochemical analyses revealed that BioYMN catalyzes the effective uptake of biotin with a concentration of 60 nM biotin supporting a half-maximal transport rate. Maximal biotin uptake rates were at least five fold higher in biotin-limited cells as compared to cells grown with excess biotin. Overexpression of bioYMN led to an at least 50 fold higher biotin uptake rate as compared to the empty vector control. Overproduction of BioYMN alleviated biotin limitation and interfered with triggering L-glutamate production by biotin limitation. The operon bioYMN from C. glutamicum was shown to be induced by biotin limitation. Transport assays with radio-labeled biotin revealed that BioYMN functions as a biotin uptake system. Overexpression of bioYMN affected L-glutamate production triggered by biotin limitation.

  15. Chassis organism from Corynebacterium glutamicum--a top-down approach to identify and delete irrelevant gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Simon; Baumgart, Meike; Radek, Andreas; Herbst, Marius; Siebert, Daniel; Brühl, Natalie; Bartsch, Anna; Bott, Michael; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Marin, Kay; Hans, Stephan; Krämer, Reinhard; Seibold, Gerd; Frunzke, Julia; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F; Noack, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    For synthetic biology applications, a robust structural basis is required, which can be constructed either from scratch or in a top-down approach starting from any existing organism. In this study, we initiated the top-down construction of a chassis organism from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, aiming for the relevant gene set to maintain its fast growth on defined medium. We evaluated each native gene for its essentiality considering expression levels, phylogenetic conservation, and knockout data. Based on this classification, we determined 41 gene clusters ranging from 3.7 to 49.7 kbp as target sites for deletion. 36 deletions were successful and 10 genome-reduced strains showed impaired growth rates, indicating that genes were hit, which are relevant to maintain biological fitness at wild-type level. In contrast, 26 deleted clusters were found to include exclusively irrelevant genes for growth on defined medium. A combinatory deletion of all irrelevant gene clusters would, in a prophage-free strain, decrease the size of the native genome by about 722 kbp (22%) to 2561 kbp. Finally, five combinatory deletions of irrelevant gene clusters were investigated. The study introduces the novel concept of relevant genes and demonstrates general strategies to construct a chassis suitable for biotechnological application. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non- commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  16. Immune mechanisms in Babesia-infected animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The course of a Babesia infection depends on the species of host and parasite involved. Animals infected with virulent babesias may need chemotherapy before acquired immunity develops. Maintenance of immunity is not dependent on the presence of the parasite. Babesia infections are characteristically of long duration. The immune response to babesias includes both humoral and cellular components. Antibody levels detected in serodiagnostic tests do not relate to levels of resistance to the parasite. Some antibodies, however, appear to be protective. Antiparasitic antibodies may damage parasites in or outside the red cell and act as opsonins. T-cell-deficient and anti-lymphocyte-serum-treated rodents are more susceptible to rodent piroplasms indicating a role for T-cells as either helper cells and/or as mediators of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). There is indirect evidence of CMI, but the cell-mediated mechanisms involved in parasite killing are not known. In domestic animals immunity is largely species- and strain-specific. Antigenic variation by babesias occurs. In rodents, however, there is cross-immunity between different species of rodent piroplasms and between rodent piroplasms and some malaria parasites. Prior infection with agents such as BCG, and Corynebacterium parvum, gives mice non-specific resistance to rodent piroplasms possibly mediated through a soluble non-antibody factor. This factor may also be liberated during piroplasm infections and by being toxic to malaria parasites account for heterologous immunity. Active immunization against babesias has been achieved with avirulent strains, irradiated parasites and dead parasites in adjuvant. During Babesia infections the primary and, to a lesser degree, the secondary immune response to heterologous antigens can be depressed. Maximum depression coincides with peak parasitaemia when antigen priming may be abolished completely. Immunosuppression during Babesia infections can prolong or exacerbate concurrent

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DE FONTES DE CARBONO PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE INIBIDOR DE CRESCIMENTO DE Aspergillus fumigatus USP2 por Corynebacterium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Fernanda Zimmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O aumento significativo na incidência de infecções fúngicas invasivas e a resistência natural de agentes etiológicos a antifúngicos existentes têm motivado a constante pesquisa por novos agentes antifúngicos nos ultimos anos. Neste sentido, foi selcionada uma cepa de Corynebacterium sp. com potencial antagonista frente à Aspergilus fumigatus USP2. A cepa foi cultivada em fase submersa e em fase sólida, avaliando-se a variação das fontes de glicose, sacarose e glicerol em presença de peptona, bem como o meio sintético Czapek. Os caldos de cultivo submerso foram utilizados para o ensaio de antagonismo microbiano com o fungo Aspergillus fumigatus USP2. Os resultados apontam que o cultivo em fase sólida utilizando glicose como fonte de carbono apresenta maior potencial inibitório da cepa de Corynebacterium sp. sobre o fungo Aspergillus fumigatus USP2.

  18. Transcriptional Analysis of the groES-groEL1, groEL2, and dnaK genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Characterization of Heat Shock-Induced Promoters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barreiro, C.; González-Lavado, E.; Pátek, Miroslav; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 14 (2004), s. 4813-4817 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * mrna Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2004

  19. Transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding stress-responsive ECF sigma factor SigH and its anti-sigma factor RshA, and control of its regulatory network in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busche, T.; Šilar, Radoslav; Pičmanová, Martina; Pátek, Miroslav; Kalinowski, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 445 (2012), s. 445-464 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC204/09/J015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Corynebacterium glutamicum * ECF sigma factor * Anti-sigma factor Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.397, year: 2012

  20. Enhancing poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by introducing the glutamate synthesis features from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Liu, Fenghong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Shen, Haosheng; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-05-22

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a valuable polymer with glutamate as its sole precursor. Enhancement of the intracellular glutamate synthesis is a very important strategy for the improvement of γ-PGA production, especially for those glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing strains. Corynebacterium glutamicum has long been used for industrial glutamate production and it exhibits some unique features for glutamate synthesis; therefore introduction of these metabolic characters into the γ-PGA producing strain might lead to increased intracellular glutamate availability, and thus ultimate γ-PGA production. In this study, the unique glutamate synthesis features from C. glutamicum was introduced into the glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. After introducing the energy-saving NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) pathway, the NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain showed slightly increase (by 9.1%) in γ-PGA production. Moreover, an optimized metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ɑ-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was introduced into the NK-1 strain, because it was previously shown that the ODHC in C. glutamicum was completely inhibited when glutamate was actively produced. The obtained NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain showed 66.2% higher γ-PGA production than the NK-1 strain. However, the further combination of these two strategies (introducing both NADPH-GDH pathway and the metabolic toggle switch) did not lead to further increase of γ-PGA production but rather the resultant γ-PGA production was even lower than that in the NK-1 strain. We proposed new metabolic engineering strategies to improve the γ-PGA production in B. amyloliquefaciens. The NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain with the introduction of NADPH-GDH pathway showed 9.1% improvement in γ-PGA production. The NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain with the introduction of a metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ODHC showed 66.2% higher

  1. Effect of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage on L-arginine production in recombinant Corynebacterium crenatum using coenzyme regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meijuan; Qin, Jingru; Rao, Zhiming; You, Hengyi; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Taowei; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-01-19

    Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA 5 is the industrial strain for L-arginine production. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a kind of biopolymer stored as bacterial reserve materials for carbon and energy. The introduction of the PHB synthesis pathway into several strains can regulate the global metabolic pathway. In addition, both the pathways of PHB and L-arginine biosynthesis in the cells are NADPH-dependent. NAD kinase could upregulate the NADPH concentration in the bacteria. Thus, it is interesting to investigate how both PHB and NAD kinase affect the L-arginine biosynthesis in C. crenatum SYPA 5. C. crenatum P1 containing PHB synthesis pathway was constructed and cultivated in batch fermentation for 96 h. The enzyme activities of the key enzymes were enhanced comparing to the control strain C. crenatum SYPA 5. More PHB was found in C. crenatum P1, up to 12.7 % of the dry cell weight. Higher growth level and enhanced glucose consumptions were also observed in C. crenatum P1. With respect to the yield of L-arginine, it was 38.54 ± 0.81 g/L, increasing by 20.6 %, comparing to the control under the influence of PHB accumulation. For more NADPH supply, C. crenatum P2 was constructed with overexpression of NAD kinase based on C. crenatum P1. The NADPH concentration was increased in C. crenatum P2 comparing to the control. PHB content reached 15.7 % and 41.11 ± 1.21 g/L L-arginine was obtained in C. crenatum P2, increased by 28.6 %. The transcription levels of key L-arginine synthesis genes, argB, argC, argD and argJ in recombinant C. crenatum increased 1.9-3.0 times compared with the parent strain. Accumulation of PHB by introducing PHB synthesis pathway, together with up-regulation of coenzyme level by overexpressing NAD kinase, enables the recombinant C. crenatum to serve as high-efficiency cell factories in the long-time L-arginine fermentation. Furthermore, batch cultivation of the engineered C. crenatum revealed that it could accumulate both extracellular L

  2. Rational modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate reductase to switch the nucleotide-cofactor specificity for increasing l-lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Han-Kun; Liu, Li-Ming; Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-25

    l-lysine is an important amino acid in animals and humans and NADPH is a vital cofactor for maximizing the efficiency of l-lysine fermentation. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR), an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme, shows a variance in nucleotide-cofactor affinity in bacteria. In this study, we rationally engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum DHDPR (CgDHDPR) to switch its nucleotide-cofactor specificity resulting in an increase in final titer (from 82.6 to 117.3 g L -1 ), carbon yield (from 0.35 to 0.44 g [g glucose] -1 ) and productivity (from 2.07 to 2.93 g L -1  hr -1 ) of l-lysine in JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C in fed-batch fermentation. To do this, we comparatively analyzed the characteristics of CgDHDPR and Escherichia coli DHDPR (EcDHDPR), indicating that hetero-expression of NADH-dependent EcDHDPR increased l-lysine production. Subsequently, we rationally modified the conserved structure of cofactor-binding motif, and results indicated that introducing the mutation K11A or R13A in CgDHDPR and introducing the mutation R16A or R39A in EcDHDPR modifies the nucleotide-cofactor affinity of DHDPR. Lastly, the effects of these mutated DHDPRs on l-lysine production were investigated. The highest increase (26.2%) in l-lysine production was observed for JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C , followed by JL-6 Cg-dapB C37G,G38C (21.4%) and JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C46G,G47C (15.2%). This is the first report of a rational modification of DHDPR that enhances the l-lysine production and yield through the modulation of nucleotide-cofactor specificity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Viability of acid-fast bacilli from γ- and UV-irradiated lepromatous armadillo tissues infected with mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastidar, S.G.; Chakraborty, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    γ-irradiated splenic homogenates of armadillos infected with M. leprae proved sterile by conventional tests and media. However, on media for chemoautotrophy, these could repeatedly grow as a single type of acid-fast nocardioform bacterium like the unirradiated specimens, although with a much reduced count. In the slide culture, transition from the initial acid-fast bacilli (AFB)/coccoid bodies, to sporulating mycelia and granules in the final stage, could be observed sequentially. The γ-irradiated tissue specimens failed to yield any other mycobacterium/corynebacterium tested according to standard protocols. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Isolation of Corynebacterium Xerosis from Jordanian Soil and a Study on its Antimicrobial Activity against a Range of Bacteria and Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, Nasser

    2004-01-01

    A bacterial strain which has been identified as Corneybacterium Xerosis NB-2 was isolated from a soil sample from Jerash Private University, Jerash, Jordan. This isolate was found to produce an antimicrobial substance active only against filamentous fungi and yeasts (Aspergillus niger SQ 40, Fusarium oxysporium SQ11, Verticillium dahliae SQ 42, Saccharomyces SQ 46 and Candida albicans SQ 47). However, all tested gram-positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria (Bacillus megaterium SQ5, Bacillus cereus SQ6, Staphylococcus aureus SQ9, Streptococcus pyogens SQ10, Eschericshia coli SQ 22, Klepsiella spp SQ33 and SQ33 and Pseudonomas mallei SQ 34) were found to be resistant. In batch culture, the isolated NB-2 produced the antimicrobial substance late in the growth phase and antimicrobial activity of Corynebacterium Xerosis against filamentous fungi and yeasts which was not previously described. (author)

  5. The role of lipids and salts in two-dimensional crystallization of the glycine-betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence...... crystal morphology and crystallinity of a C-terminally truncated BetP. The salt type and concentration during crystallization determined whether crystals grew in the form of planar-tubes, sheets or vesicles, while the lipid type influenced crystal packing and order. Three different lipid preparations...... for 2D crystallization were compared. Only the use of lipids extracted from C. glutamicum cells led to the formation of large, well-ordered crystalline areas. To understand the lipid-derived influence on crystallinity, lipid extracts from different stages of the crystallization process were analyzed...

  6. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027 is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  7. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase

  8. The first Danish family reported with an AQP5 mutation presenting diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, hyperhidrosis and frequent Corynebacterium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Hetland, Liv Eline; Clemmensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles along with palmoplantar keratoderma. He reported a very distinctive feature of the disorder, aquagenic wrinkling, as he developed pronounced maceration of the skin with translucent white papules and a spongy appearance following exposure to water. The patient presented...

  9. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  10. Polynucleotide Phosphorylase, RNase E/G, and YbeY Are Involved in the Maturation of 4.5S RNA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tomoya; Tanaka, Yuya; Wachi, Masaaki; Inui, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum has been applied for the industrial production of various metabolites, such as amino acids. To understand the biosynthesis of the membrane protein in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP is found in all three domains of life and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. SRP RNA is initially transcribed as precursor molecules; however, relatively little is known about its maturation. In C. glutamicum , SRP consists of the Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA lacking an Alu domain. In this study, we found that 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and two endo-type RNases, RNase E/G and YbeY, are involved in the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA in C. glutamicum The mature form of 4.5S RNA was inefficiently formed in Δ rneG Δ pnp mutant cells, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway for the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA. Primer extension analysis also revealed that the 5' mature end of 4.5S RNA corresponds to that of the transcriptional start site. Immunoprecipitated Ffh protein contained immature 4.5S RNA in Δ pnp , Δ rneG , and Δ ybeY mutants, suggesting that 4.5S RNA precursors can interact with Ffh. These results imply that the maturation of 4.5S RNA can be performed in the 4.5S RNA-Ffh complex. IMPORTANCE Overproduction of a membrane protein, such as a transporter, is useful for engineering of strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum , which is a workhorse of amino acid production. To understand membrane protein biogenesis in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP contains the Ffh protein and SRP RNA and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. Although SRP RNA is highly conserved among the three domains of life, relatively little is known about its maturation. We show that PNPase, RNase E/G, and YbeY are involved in the 3' maturation of the SRP RNA (4.5S RNA) in

  11. Metabolic engineering of an ATP-neutral Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum: growth restoration by an adaptive point mutation in NADH dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komati Reddy, Gajendar; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis and gains 2 mol of ATP per mol of glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). To engineer glycolysis without net ATP formation by SLP, endogenous phosphorylating NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was replaced by nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which irreversibly converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) without generating ATP. As shown recently (S. Takeno, R. Murata, R. Kobayashi, S. Mitsuhashi, and M. Ikeda, Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7154-7160, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01464-10), this ATP-neutral, NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway did not allow for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with glucose as the sole carbon source unless hitherto unknown suppressor mutations occurred; however, these mutations were not disclosed. In the present study, a suppressor mutation was identified, and it was shown that heterologous expression of udhA encoding soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli partly restored growth, suggesting that growth was inhibited by NADPH accumulation. Moreover, genome sequence analysis of second-site suppressor mutants that were able to grow faster with glucose revealed a single point mutation in the gene of non-proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-II) leading to the amino acid change D213G, which was shared by these suppressor mutants. Since related NDH-II enzymes accepting NADPH as the substrate possess asparagine or glutamine residues at this position, D213G, D213N, and D213Q variants of C. glutamicum NDH-II were constructed and were shown to oxidize NADPH in addition to NADH. Taking these findings together, ATP-neutral glycolysis by the replacement of endogenous NAD-dependent GAPDH with NADP-dependent GapN became possible via oxidation of NADPH formed in this pathway by mutant NADPH

  12. [Construction of Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 δ argR and analysis of transcriptional levels of the related genes of arginine biosynthetic pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelan; Tang, Li; Jiao, Haitao; Xu, Feng; Xiong, Yonghua

    2013-01-04

    ArgR, coded by the argR gene from Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542, acts as a negative regulator in arginine biosynthetic pathway. However, the effect of argR on transcriptional levels of the related biosynthetic genes has not been reported. Here, we constructed a deletion mutant of argR gene: C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR using marker-less knockout technology, and compared the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes between the mutant strain and the wild-type strain. We used marker-less knockout technology to construct C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR and analyzed the changes of the relate genes at the transcriptional level using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR was successfully obtained and the transcriptional level of arginine biosynthetic genes in this mutant increased significantly with an average of about 162.1 folds. The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR. However, the deletion of this regulator does not result in a clear change in arginine production in the bacteria.

  13. Effect of biosurfactant and fertilizer on biodegradation of crude oil by marine isolates of Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilizers and biosurfactants on biodegradation of crude oil by three marine bacterial isolates; Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five sets of experiments were carried out in shake flask and microcosm conditions with crude oil as follows: Set 1-only bacterial cells added (no fertilizer and biosurfactant), Set 2-with additional fertilizer only, Set 3-with additional biosurfactant only, Set 4-with added biosurfactant+fertilizer, Set 5-with no bacterial cells added (control), all the above experimental sets were incubated for 168 h. The biosurfactant+fertilizer added Set 4, resulted in maximum crude oil degradation within shake flask and microcosm conditions. Among the three bacterial isolates, P. aeruginosa and biosurfactant produced by this strain resulted in maximum crude oil degradation compared to the other two bacterial strains investigated. Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (Set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in Set 4 with added fertilizer+biosurfactant were only 4-5% higher degradation level in shake flask and 3.2-7% in microcosm experiments for all three bacterial strains used. It is concluded that, biosurfactants alone capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers, which will reduce the cost of bioremediation process and minimizes the dilution or wash away problems encountered when water soluble fertilizers used during bioremediation of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is essential for viability, pilus assembly, toxin production and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jooya, Neda; Chang, Chungyu; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-12-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae exports through the Sec apparatus many extracellular proteins that include the key virulence factors diphtheria toxin and the adhesive pili. How these proteins attain their native conformations after translocation as unfolded precursors remains elusive. The fact that the majority of these exported proteins contain multiple cysteine residues and that several membrane-bound oxidoreductases are encoded in the corynebacterial genome suggests the existence of an oxidative protein-folding pathway in this organism. Here we show that the shaft pilin SpaA harbors a disulfide bond in vivo and alanine substitution of these cysteines abrogates SpaA polymerization and leads to the secretion of degraded SpaA peptides. We then identified a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (MdbA), whose structure exhibits a conserved thioredoxin-like domain with a CPHC active site. Remarkably, deletion of mdbA results in a severe temperature-sensitive cell division phenotype. This mutant also fails to assemble pilus structures and is greatly defective in toxin production. Consistent with these defects, the ΔmdbA mutant is attenuated in a guinea pig model of diphtheritic toxemia. Given its diverse cellular functions in cell division, pilus assembly and toxin production, we propose that MdbA is a component of the general oxidative folding machine in C. diphtheriae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A de novo NADPH generation pathway for improving lysine production of Corynebacterium glutamicum by rational design of the coenzyme specificity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Chen, Zhen; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Engineering the cofactor availability is a common strategy of metabolic engineering to improve the production of many industrially important compounds. In this work, a de novo NADPH generation pathway is proposed by altering the coenzyme specificity of a native NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) to NADP, which consequently has the potential to produce additional NADPH in the glycolytic pathway. Specifically, the coenzyme specificity of GAPDH of Corynebacterium glutamicum is systematically manipulated by rational protein design and the effect of the manipulation for cellular metabolism and lysine production is evaluated. By a combinatorial modification of four key residues within the coenzyme binding sites, different GAPDH mutants with varied coenzyme specificity were constructed. While increasing the catalytic efficiency of GAPDH towards NADP enhanced lysine production in all of the tested mutants, the most significant improvement of lysine production (~60%) was achieved with the mutant showing similar preference towards both NAD and NADP. Metabolic flux analysis with (13)C isotope studies confirmed that there was no significant change of flux towards the pentose phosphate pathway and the increased lysine yield was mainly attributed to the NADPH generated by the mutated GAPDH. The present study highlights the importance of protein engineering as a key strategy in de novo pathway design and overproduction of desired products. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of L-glutamic Acid with Corynebacterium glutamicum (NCIM 2168) and Pseudomonas reptilivora (NCIM 2598): A Study on Immobilization and Reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamkumar, Rajaram; Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Baskar, Rajoo

    2014-07-01

    L-glutamic acid is one of the major amino acids that is present in a wide variety of foods. It is mainly used as a food additive and flavor enhancer in the form of sodium salt. Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) is one of the major organisms widely used for glutamic acid production. The study was dealing with immobilization of C. glutamicum and mixed culture of C. glutamicum and Pseudomonas reptilivora (P. reptilivora) for L-glutamic acid production using submerged fermentation. 2, 3 and 5% sodium alginate concentrations were used for production and reusability of immobilized cells for 5 more trials. The results revealed that 2% sodium alginate concentration produced the highest yield (13.026±0.247 g/l by C. glutamicum and 16.026±0.475 g/l by mixed immobilized culture). Moreover, reusability of immobilized cells was evaluated in 2% concentration with 5 more trials. However, when the number of cycles increased, the production of L-glutamic acid decreased. Production of glutamic acid using optimized medium minimizes the time needed for designing the medium composition. It also minimizes external contamination. Glutamic acid production gradually decreased due to multiple uses of beads and consequently it reduces the shelf life.

  17. Metabolic flux distributions in Corynebacterium glutamicum during growth and lysine overproduction. Reprinted from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 41, Pp 633-646 (1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallino, J J; Stephanopoulos, G

    2000-03-20

    The two main contributions of this article are the solidification of Corynebacterium glutamicum biochemistry guided by bioreaction network analysis, and the determination of basal metabolic flux distributions during growth and lysine synthesis. Employed methodology makes use of stoichiometrically based mass balances to determine flux distributions in the C. glutamicum metabolic network. Presented are a brief description of the methodology, a thorough literature review of glutamic acid bacteria biochemistry, and specific results obtained through a combination of fermentation studies and analysis-directed intracellular assays. The latter include the findings of the lack of activity of glyoxylate shunt, and that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) is the only anaplerotic reaction expressed in C. glutamicum cultivated on glucose minimal media. Network simplifications afforded by the above findings facilitated the determination of metabolic flux distributions under a variety of culture conditions and led to the following conclusions. Both the pentose phosphate pathway and PPC support significant fluxes during growth and lysine overproduction, and that flux partitioning at the glucosa-6-phosphate branch point does not appear to limit lysine synthesis. Copyright 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Selective oxidation of trimethylolpropane to 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mahmoud; Dishisha, Tarek; Sayed, Waiel F; Salem, Wesam M; Temerk, Hanan A; Pyo, Sang-Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Multifunctional chemicals including hydroxycarboxylic acids are gaining increasing interest due to their growing applications in the polymer industry. One approach for their production is a biological selective oxidation of polyols, which is difficult to achieve by conventional chemical catalysis. In the present study, trimethylolpropane (TMP), a trihydric alcohol, was subjected to selective oxidation using growing cells of Corynebacterium sp. ATCC 21245 as a biocatalyst and yielding the dihydroxy-monocarboxylic acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)butyric acid (BHMB). The study revealed that co-substrates are crucial for this reaction. Among the different evaluated co-substrates, a mixture of glucose, xylose and acetate at a ratio of 5:5:2 was found optimum. The optimal conditions for biotransformation were pH 8, 1v/v/m airflow and 500rpm stirring speed. In batch mode of operation, 70.6% of 5g/l TMP was converted to BHMB in 10 days. For recovery of the product the adsorption pattern of BHMB to the anion exchange resin, Ambersep(®) 900 (OH(-)), was investigated in batch and column experiments giving maximum static and dynamic binding capacities of 135 and 144mg/g resin, respectively. BHMB was separated with 89.7% of recovery yield from the fermentation broth. The approach is applicable for selective oxidation of other highly branched polyols by biotransformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment Analysis Reveals Genes Involved in Biotin Metabolism That Affect L-Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used for amino acid production. In the present study, 543 genes showed a significant change in their mRNA expression levels in L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum ATCC21300 than that in the wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032. Among these 543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 28 genes were up- or downregulated. In addition, 454 DEGs were functionally enriched and categorized based on BLAST sequence homologies and gene ontology (GO) annotations using the Blast2GO software. Interestingly, NCgl0071 (bioB, encoding biotin synthase) was expressed at levels ~20-fold higher in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain. Five other genes involved in biotin metabolism or transport--NCgl2515 (bioA, encoding adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase), NCgl2516 (bioD, encoding dithiobiotin synthetase), NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885--were also expressed at significantly higher levels in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain, which we determined using both next-generation RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. When we disrupted the bioB gene in C. glutamicum ATCC21300, L-lysine production decreased by approximately 76%, and the three genes involved in biotin transport (NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885) were significantly downregulated. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of C. glutamicum for industrial amino acid production.

  20. Efficient production of α-ketoglutarate in the gdh deleted Corynebacterium glutamicum by novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Sun, Lanchao; Feng, Jia; Wu, Ruifang; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Chen, Ning; Xie, Xixian

    2016-06-01

    Production of L-glutamate using a biotin-deficient strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long history. The process is achieved by controlling biotin at suboptimal dose in the initial fermentation medium, meanwhile feeding NH4OH to adjust pH so that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) can be converted to L-glutamate. In this study, we deleted glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1 and gdh2) of C. glutamicum GKG-047, an L-glutamate overproducing strain, to produce α-KG that is the direct precursor of L-glutamate. Based on the method of L-glutamate fermentation, we developed a novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy for α-KG production. Specifically, NH4OH was added to adjust the pH at the bacterial growth stage and NaOH was used when the cells began to produce acid; besides adding an appropriate amount of biotin in the initial medium, certain amount of additional biotin was supplemented at the middle stage of fermentation to maintain a high cell viability and promote the carbon fixation to the flux of α-KG production. Under this control strategy, 45.6 g/L α-KG accumulated after 30-h fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor and the productivity and yield achieved were 1.52 g/L/h and 0.42 g/g, respectively.

  1. Conservación por congelación de Bordetella pertussis y Corynebacterium diphtheriae, empleados en la producción de vacunas para uso humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilian Plasencia,

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el método de congelación a –70ºC para la preservación de Bordetella pertussis y Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Para verificar el sustento de los cultivos se realizó un adecuado control de calidad, que incluyó comprobación de pureza, viabilidad y estabilidad de las propiedades de interés. En este trabajo se probaron diferentes formulaciones. Se seleccionó la que arrojó los mejores resultados y se realizó un estudio de mantenimiento de las características evaluadas durante el tiempo. Para medir determinados parámetros se realizaron procesos a escala industrial, empleándose para esto un biorreactor Chemap de 35 L. Se tomaron como referencia los valores obtenidos por las cepas conservadas por liofilización. De esta forma se buscaron alternativas y soluciones a problemas presentados en su conservación. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la posible inclusión en el Programa de Mantenimiento establecido.

  2. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4 °C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status.

  3. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...

  4. MRSA Infection

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    ... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...

  5. Campylobacter Infections

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    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  6. Staph Infections

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    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...

  7. Rotavirus Infections

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    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  8. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  9. Double mutation of cell wall proteins CspB and PBP1a increases secretion of the antibody Fab fragment from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Among other advantages, recombinant antibody-binding fragments (Fabs) hold great clinical and commercial potential, owing to their efficient tissue penetration compared to that of full-length IgGs. Although production of recombinant Fab using microbial expression systems has been reported, yields of active Fab have not been satisfactory. We recently developed the Corynebacterium glutamicum protein expression system (CORYNEX®) and demonstrated improved yield and purity for some applications, although the system has not been applied to Fab production. Results The Fab fragment of human anti-HER2 was successfully secreted by the CORYNEX® system using the conventional C. glutamicum strain YDK010, but the productivity was very low. To improve the secretion efficiency, we investigated the effects of deleting cell wall-related genes. Fab secretion was increased 5.2 times by deletion of pbp1a, encoding one of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBP1a), mediating cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis. However, this Δpbp1a mutation did not improve Fab secretion in the wild-type ATCC13869 strain. Because YDK010 carries a mutation in the cspB gene encoding a surface (S)-layer protein, we evaluated the effect of ΔcspB mutation on Fab secretion from ATCC13869. The Δpbp1a mutation showed a positive effect on Fab secretion only in combination with the ΔcspB mutation. The ΔcspBΔpbp1a double mutant showed much greater sensitivity to lysozyme than either single mutant or the wild-type strain, suggesting that these mutations reduced cell wall resistance to protein secretion. Conclusion There are at least two crucial permeability barriers to Fab secretion in the cell surface structure of C. glutamicum, the PG layer, and the S-layer. The ΔcspBΔpbp1a double mutant allows efficient Fab production using the CORYNEX® system. PMID:24731213

  10. Restoration of prostaglandin E2-producing splenic macrophages in 89Sr-treated mice with bone marrow from Corynebacterium parvum primed donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Administration of Corynebacterium parvum (CP), 56 mg/kg ip to CBA/J mice effected the induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) producing macrophages (M phi) in the bone marrow and the spleen. Maximal release of PGE2 from M phi cultured in vitro with calcium ionophore A23187 for 2 h was reached by marrow M phi removed on 5 days after CP (450 ng/mg cell protein), and by splenic M phi 9 days after CP (400 ng/mg). Neither M phi population, however, yielded more than 6.0 ng/mg leukotriene C4. To assess ontogenic relationships mice were depleted of bone marrow and blood monocytes by iv injection of the bone-seeking isotope, 89Sr. CP was given at several points before or after bone marrow cell depletion. PGE2 production by splenic M phi harvested on day 9 after CP was profoundly impaired when CP was administered either concurrently with or 3 days after 89Sr. When CP was administered 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before 89Sr, however, the induction of PGE2-producing M phi in the spleen was unaffected. To determine whether bone marrow cells from CP-injected donors can restore PGE2-producing splenic M phi (PGSM) in 89Sr-mice, recipient mice which had and had not received CP 3 days after 89Sr were transfused with 5 x 10(6) syngeneic bone marrow cells from donor mice prepared at varying intervals after CP administration. The results clearly indicate the capacity of bone marrow cells harvested on either day 1 or 2 following CP to restore PGSM in CP-primed, but not unprimed, recipients

  11. Rapid hybrid de novo assembly of a microbial genome using only short reads: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis I19 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; D'Afonseca, Vivian; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Baumbach, Jan; Tauch, Andreas; McCulloch, John Anthony; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston Carvalho; Silva, Artur

    2011-08-01

    Due to the advent of the so-called Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies the amount of monetary and temporal resources for whole-genome sequencing has been reduced by several orders of magnitude. Sequence reads can be assembled either by anchoring them directly onto an available reference genome (classical reference assembly), or can be concatenated by overlap (de novo assembly). The latter strategy is preferable because it tends to maintain the architecture of the genome sequence the however, depending on the NGS platform used, the shortness of read lengths cause tremendous problems the in the subsequent genome assembly phase, impeding closing of the entire genome sequence. To address the problem, we developed a multi-pronged hybrid de novo strategy combining De Bruijn graph and Overlap-Layout-Consensus methods, which was used to assemble from short reads the entire genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain I19, a bacterium with immense importance in veterinary medicine that causes Caseous Lymphadenitis in ruminants, principally ovines and caprines. Briefly, contigs were assembled de novo from the short reads and were only oriented using a reference genome by anchoring. Remaining gaps were closed using iterative anchoring of short reads by craning to gap flanks. Finally, we compare the genome sequence assembled using our hybrid strategy to a classical reference assembly using the same data as input and show that with the availability of a reference genome, it pays off to use the hybrid de novo strategy, rather than a classical reference assembly, because more genome sequences are preserved using the former. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The transcriptional regulatory network of Corynebacterium jeikeium K411 and its interaction with metabolic routes contributing to human body odor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzantny, Helena; Schröder, Jasmin; Strotmeier, Jasmin; Fredrich, Eugenie; Brune, Iris; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-06-15

    Lipophilic corynebacteria are involved in the generation of volatile odorous products in the process of human body odor formation by degrading skin lipids and specific odor precursors. Therefore, these bacteria represent appropriate model systems for the cosmetic industry to examine axillary malodor formation on the molecular level. To understand the transcriptional control of metabolic pathways involved in this process, the transcriptional regulatory network of the lipophilic axilla isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium K411 was reconstructed from the complete genome sequence. This bioinformatic approach detected a gene-regulatory repertoire of 83 candidate proteins, including 56 DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, nine two-component systems, nine sigma factors, and nine regulators with diverse physiological functions. Furthermore, a cross-genome comparison among selected corynebacterial species of the taxonomic cluster 3 revealed a common gene-regulatory repertoire of 44 transcriptional regulators, including the MarR-like regulator Jk0257, which is exclusively encoded in the genomes of this taxonomical subline. The current network reconstruction comprises 48 transcriptional regulators and 674 gene-regulatory interactions that were assigned to five interconnected functional modules. Most genes involved in lipid degradation are under the combined control of the global cAMP-sensing transcriptional regulator GlxR and the LuxR-family regulator RamA, probably reflecting the essential role of lipid degradation in C. jeikeium. This study provides the first genome-scale in silico analysis of the transcriptional regulation of metabolism in a lipophilic bacterium involved in the formation of human body odor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Boosting Anaplerotic Reactions by Pyruvate Kinase Gene Deletion and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Desensitization for Glutamic Acid and Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Atsushi; Sawada, Kazunori; Wada, Masaru

    In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS L ), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC R ), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC R (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production. Similar effects were also found for glutamic acid production. CS L (S252C in gltA) further increased lysine yield. Thus, using molecular techniques, the combination of these three phenotypes was reconfirmed to be effective for lysine production. However, a simple CS L mutant showed instabilities in growth and lysine yield.Surprisingly, the pyk deletion was found to increase biomass production in wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032 under biotin-sufficient conditions. The mutant showed a 37% increase in growth (based on OD 660 ) compared with the ATCC13032 strain in a complex medium containing 100 g/L glucose. Metabolome analysis revealed the intracellular accumulation of excess precursor metabolites. Thus, their conversion into biomass was considered to relieve the metabolic distortion in the pyk-deleted mutant. Detailed physiological studies of various pyk-deleted mutants also suggested that malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) is important to control both the intracellular oxaloacetic acid (OAA) level and respiration rate. These findings may facilitate the rational use of C. glutamicum in fermentation industries.

  14. Elucidation of the regulatory role of the fructose operon reveals a novel target for enhancing the NADPH supply in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihao; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Sudarsan, Suresh; Blank, Lars M; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Solem, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The performance of Corynebacterium glutamicum cell factories producing compounds which rely heavily on NADPH has been reported to depend on the sugar being metabolized. While some aspects of this phenomenon have been elucidated, there are still many unresolved questions as to how sugar metabolism is linked to redox and to the general metabolism. We here provide new insights into the regulation of the metabolism of this important platform organism by systematically characterizing mutants carrying various lesions in the fructose operon. Initially, we found that a strain where the dedicated fructose uptake system had been inactivated (KO-ptsF) was hampered in growth on sucrose minimal medium, and suppressor mutants appeared readily. Comparative genomic analysis in conjunction with enzymatic assays revealed that suppression was linked to inactivation of the pfkB gene, encoding a fructose-1-phosphate kinase. Detailed characterization of KO-ptsF, KO-pfkB and double knock-out (DKO) derivatives revealed a strong role for sugar-phosphates, especially fructose-1-phosphate (F1P), in governing sugar as well as redox metabolism due to effects on transcriptional regulation of key genes. These findings allowed us to propose a simple model explaining the correlation between sugar phosphate concentration, gene expression and ultimately the observed phenotype. To guide us in our analysis and help us identify bottlenecks in metabolism we debugged an existing genome-scale model onto which we overlaid the transcriptome data. Based on the results obtained we managed to enhance the NADPH supply and transform the wild-type strain into delivering the highest yield of lysine ever obtained on sucrose and fructose, thus providing a good example of how regulatory mechanisms can be harnessed for bioproduction. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid production in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum by co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase genes from Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Jiang, Junjun; Li, Yongfu; Li, Youxin; Xie, Yilong

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, is a bioactive component in the food, feed and pharmaceutical fields. To establish an effective single-step production system for GABA, a recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) genes (gadB1 and gadB2) derived from Lactobacillus brevis Lb85 was constructed. Compared with the GABA production of the gadB1 or gadB2 single-expressing strains, GABA production by the gadB1-gadB2 co-expressing strain increased more than twofold. By optimising urea supplementation, the total production of L-glutamate and GABA increased from 22.57 ± 1.24 to 30.18 ± 1.33 g L⁻¹, and GABA production increased from 4.02 ± 0.95 to 18.66 ± 2.11 g L⁻¹ after 84-h cultivation. Under optimal urea supplementation, L-glutamate continued to be consumed, GABA continued to accumulate after 36 h of fermentation, and the pH level fluctuated. GABA production increased to a maximum level of 27.13 ± 0.54 g L⁻¹ after 120-h flask cultivation and 26.32 g L⁻¹ after 60-h fed-batch fermentation. The conversion ratio of L-glutamate to GABA reached 0.60-0.74 mol mol⁻¹. By co-expressing gadB1 and gadB2 and optimising the urea addition method, C. glutamicum was genetically improved for de novo biosynthesis of GABA from its own accumulated L-glutamate.

  16. Immunoregulation of antitumor response; differential secretion of arachidonic acid metabolites by macrophages during stimulation ''in vitro'' with BCG and ''Corynebacterium parvum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomecki, Jaroslaw; Sukiennik, Jadwiga; Kordowiak, Anna

    1993-01-01

    The level of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in the supernatants of cultures peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) were studied under various conditions using BCG and ''Corynebacterium parvum'' as stimulators. The metabolite levels were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The degree of macrophage cytotoxic/cytostatic activity was dependent on the dose and character of stimulators used and the source of macrophages. The application of micro cytotoxicity assay for the evaluation of tumor cell lysis (lung sarcoma SaL-1) ''in vitro'' revealed that peritoneal macrophages from healthy and tumor bearing BALB/c mice may affect the degree of antitumor response. In the supernatants of cultured PEC from tumor bearing mice AA level increased (by 10-fold) in comparison with PEC from healthy mice. Stimulation with BCG induced over a double level of AA in PEC isolated from tumor bearing mice non-stimulated or stimulated with ''C.parvum''. A lower level of prostaglandins (PGs) was found in the supernatants of cultured PEC isolated from healthy mice (stimulated and non-stimulated), but the highest level of PGs was observed in the supernatants of cultured PEC isolated from tumor bearing mice stimulated with BCG. The unique metabolite of AA was found only in the supernatants form non-stimulated PEC from tumor bearing mice. PEC from tumor bearing mice produced metabolites of AA which were not detected in control group. These results suggest that macrophages also play a regulatory role by secretion of AA. This process can be modified by bacterial antigens. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs

  17. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G. [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Kim, Chae Un [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Middleditch, Martin [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Baker, Edward N., E-mail: ted.baker@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  18. The MurC ligase essential for peptidoglycan biosynthesis is regulated by the serine/threonine protein kinase PknA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Maria; Canova, Marc J; Patin, Delphine; Letek, Michal; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Mateos, Luís M; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Molle, Virginie; Gil, José A

    2008-12-26

    The Mur ligases play an essential role in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan and thus represent attractive targets for the design of novel antibacterials. These enzymes catalyze the stepwise formation of the peptide moiety of the peptidoglycan disaccharide peptide monomer unit. MurC is responsible of the addition of the first residue (L-alanine) onto the nucleotide precursor UDP-MurNAc. Phosphorylation of proteins by Ser/Thr protein kinases has recently emerged as a major physiological mechanism of regulation in prokaryotes. Herein, the hypothesis of a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism of regulation of the MurC activity was investigated in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We showed that MurC was phosphorylated in vitro by the PknA protein kinase. An analysis of the phosphoamino acid content indicated that phosphorylation exclusively occurred on threonine residues. Six phosphoacceptor residues were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, and we confirmed that mutagenesis to alanine residues totally abolished PknA-dependent phosphorylation of MurC. In vitro and in vivo ligase activity assays showed that the catalytic activity of MurC was impaired following mutation of these threonine residues. Further in vitro assays revealed that the activity of the MurC-phosphorylated isoform was severely decreased compared with the non-phosphorylated protein. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a MurC ligase phosphorylation in vitro. The finding that phosphorylation is correlated with a decrease in MurC enzymatic activity could have significant consequences in the regulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  19. The MurC Ligase Essential for Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Is Regulated by the Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PknA in Corynebacterium glutamicum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Maria; Canova, Marc J.; Patin, Delphine; Letek, Michal; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Mateos, Luís M.; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Molle, Virginie; Gil, José A.

    2008-01-01

    The Mur ligases play an essential role in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan and thus represent attractive targets for the design of novel antibacterials. These enzymes catalyze the stepwise formation of the peptide moiety of the peptidoglycan disaccharide peptide monomer unit. MurC is responsible of the addition of the first residue (l-alanine) onto the nucleotide precursor UDP-MurNAc. Phosphorylation of proteins by Ser/Thr protein kinases has recently emerged as a major physiological mechanism of regulation in prokaryotes. Herein, the hypothesis of a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism of regulation of the MurC activity was investigated in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We showed that MurC was phosphorylated in vitro by the PknA protein kinase. An analysis of the phosphoamino acid content indicated that phosphorylation exclusively occurred on threonine residues. Six phosphoacceptor residues were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, and we confirmed that mutagenesis to alanine residues totally abolished PknA-dependent phosphorylation of MurC. In vitro and in vivo ligase activity assays showed that the catalytic activity of MurC was impaired following mutation of these threonine residues. Further in vitro assays revealed that the activity of the MurC-phosphorylated isoform was severely decreased compared with the non-phosphorylated protein. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a MurC ligase phosphorylation in vitro. The finding that phosphorylation is correlated with a decrease in MurC enzymatic activity could have significant consequences in the regulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. PMID:18974047

  20. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trost Eva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex

  1. Functional architecture and global properties of the Corynebacterium glutamicum regulatory network: Novel insights from a dataset with a high genomic coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Tauch, Andreas

    2017-09-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as l-glutamic acid and l-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture. Our analyses show the tremendous power of Abasy Atlas to study the functional organization of regulatory networks. We created two models of the C. glutamicum regulatory network: all-evidences (containing both weak and strong supported interactions, genomic coverage=73%) and strongly-supported (only accounting for strongly supported evidences, genomic coverage=71%). Using state-of-the-art methodologies, we prove that power-law behaviors truly govern the connectivity and clustering coefficient distributions. We found a non-previously reported circuit motif that we named complex feed-forward motif. We highlighted the importance of feedback loops for the functional architecture, beyond whether they are statistically over-represented or not in the network. We show that the previously reported top-down approach is inadequate to infer the hierarchy governing a regulatory network because feedback bridges different hierarchical layers, and the top-down approach disregards the presence of intermodular genes shaping the integration layer. Our findings all together further support a diamond-shaped, three-layered hierarchy exhibiting some feedback between processing and coordination layers, which is shaped by four classes of systems-level elements: global regulators, locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A role of the transcriptional regulator LldR (NCgl2814) in glutamate metabolism under biotin-limited conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supkulsutra, Tanyanut; Maeda, Tomoya; Kumagai, Kosuke; Wachi, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium used for the fermentative production of L-glutamate. LldR (NCgl2814) is known as a repressor for ldhA and lldD encoding lactate dehydrogenases. LdhA is responsible for production of L-lactate, while LldD is for its assimilation. Since L-lactate production was observed as a by-product of glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions, LldR might play a regulatory role in the glutamate metabolism. Here for the first time, we investigated effects of overproduction or deletion of LldR on the glutamate metabolism under biotin-limited conditions in C. glutamicum. It was found that glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions was decreased by overproduction of LldR. In the wild-type cells, L-lactate was produced in the first 24 h and it was re-consumed thereafter. On the other hand, in the overproduced cells, L-lactate was produced like the wild type, but it was not re-consumed. This means that L-lactate assimilation, which is catalyzed by LldD, was suppressed by the overproduction of LldR, but L-lactate production, which is catalyzed by LdhA, was not affected, indicating that LldR mainly controls the expression of lldD but not of ldhA under biotin-limited conditions. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. From these results, it is suggested that L-lactate metabolism, which is controlled by LldR, has a buffering function of the pyruvate pool for glutamate production.

  3. Integration of ARTP mutagenesis with biosensor-mediated high-throughput screening to improve L-serine yield in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2018-05-03

    L-Serine is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. Although direct fermentative production of L-serine from sugar in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been achieved, the L-serine yield remains relatively low. In this study, atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis was used to improve the L-serine yield based on engineered C. glutamicum ΔSSAAI strain. Subsequently, we developed a novel high-throughput screening method using a biosensor constructed based on NCgl0581, a transcriptional factor specifically responsive to L-serine, so that L-serine concentration within single cell of C. glutamicum can be monitored via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Novel L-serine-producing mutants were isolated from a large library of mutagenized cells. The mutant strain A36-pDser was screened from 1.2 × 10 5 cells, and the magnesium ion concentration in the medium was optimized specifically for this mutant. C. glutamicum A36-pDser accumulated 34.78 g/L L-serine with a yield of 0.35 g/g sucrose, which were 35.9 and 66.7% higher than those of the parent C. glutamicum ΔSSAAI-pDser strain, respectively. The L-serine yield achieved in this mutant was the highest of all reported L-serine-producing strains of C. glutamicum. Moreover, the whole-genome sequencing identified 11 non-synonymous mutations of genes associated with metabolic and transport pathways, which might be responsible for the higher L-serine production and better cell growth in C. glutamicum A36-pDser. This study explored an effective mutagenesis strategy and reported a novel high-throughput screening method for the development of L-serine-producing strains.

  4. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  5. Random mutagenesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 using an IS6100-based transposon vector identified the last unknown gene in the histidine biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigalat Lars

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium of the class Actinobacteria, is an industrially relevant producer of amino acids. Several methods for the targeted genetic manipulation of this organism and rational strain improvement have been developed. An efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the completely sequenced type strain ATCC 13032 would significantly advance functional genome analysis in this bacterium. Results A comprehensive transposon mutant library comprising 10,080 independent clones was constructed by electrotransformation of the restriction-deficient derivative of strain ATCC 13032, C. glutamicum RES167, with an IS6100-containing non-replicative plasmid. Transposon mutants had stable cointegrates between the transposon vector and the chromosome. Altogether 172 transposon integration sites have been determined by sequencing of the chromosomal inserts, revealing that each integration occurred at a different locus. Statistical target site analyses revealed an apparent absence of a target site preference. From the library, auxotrophic mutants were obtained with a frequency of 2.9%. By auxanography analyses nearly two thirds of the auxotrophs were further characterized, including mutants with single, double and alternative nutritional requirements. In most cases the nutritional requirement observed could be correlated to the annotation of the mutated gene involved in the biosynthesis of an amino acid, a nucleotide or a vitamin. One notable exception was a clone mutagenized by transposition into the gene cg0910, which exhibited an auxotrophy for histidine. The protein sequence deduced from cg0910 showed high sequence similarities to inositol-1(or 4-monophosphatases (EC 3.1.3.25. Subsequent genetic deletion of cg0910 delivered the same histidine-auxotrophic phenotype. Genetic complementation of the mutants as well as supplementation by histidinol suggests that cg0910 encodes the hitherto unknown

  6. Association of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis recombinant proteins rCP09720 or rCP01850 with rPLD as immunogens in caseous lymphadenitis immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mara Thais de Oliveira; Bezerra, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante; de Pinho, Rodrigo Barros; Begnini, Karine Rech; Seixas, Fabiana Kommling; Collares, Tiago; Portela, Ricardo Dias; Azevedo, Vasco; Dellagostin, Odir; Borsuk, Sibele

    2018-01-02

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease responsible for significant economic losses in sheep and goat breeding worldwide. The treatment for this disease is not effective, and an intense vaccination schedule would be the best control strategy. In this study, we evaluated the associations of rCP09720 or rCP01850 proteins from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with recombinant exotoxin phospholipase D (rPLD) as subunit vaccines in mice. Four experimental groups (10 animals each) were immunized with a sterile 0.9% saline solution (G1), rPLD (G2), rPLD + rCP09720 (G3), and rPLD + rCP01850 (G4). The mice received two doses of each vaccine at a 21-day interval and were challenged 21 days after the last immunization. The animals were evaluated daily for 40 days after the challenge, and mortality rate was recorded. The total IgG production level increased significantly in the experimental groups on day 42 after the first vaccination. Similarly, higher levels of specific IgG2a were observed in experimental groups G2, G3, and G4 compared to the IgG1 levels on day 42. G4 showed a significant (p < .05) humoral response against both antigens of the antigenic formulations. The cellular immune response induced by immunization was characterized by a significant (p < .05) production of interferon-γ compared to that in the control, while the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 were not significant in any group. A significant increase of tumor necrosis factor was observed only in G4. The survival rates after the challenge were 30% (rPLD), 40% (rPLD + rCP09720), and 50% (rPLD + rCP01850). Thus, the association of rCP01850 with rPLD resulted in the best protection against the challenge with C. pseudotuberculosis and induced a more intense type 1 T-helper cell immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolome analysis-based design and engineering of a metabolic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum to match rates of simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2018-05-17

    L-Arabinose is the second most abundant component of hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass, next to D-xylose. However, few microorganisms are capable of utilizing pentoses, and catabolic genes and operons enabling bacterial utilization of pentoses are typically subject to carbon catabolite repression by more-preferred carbon sources, such as D-glucose, leading to a preferential utilization of D-glucose over pentoses. In order to simultaneously utilize both D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate, a modified metabolic pathway was rationally designed based on metabolome analysis. Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831 utilized D-glucose and L-arabinose simultaneously at a low concentration (3.6 g/L each) but preferentially utilized D-glucose over L-arabinose at a high concentration (15 g/L each), although L-arabinose and D-glucose were consumed at comparable rates in the absence of the second carbon source. Metabolome analysis revealed that phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were major bottlenecks for D-glucose and L-arabinose metabolism, respectively. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, a metabolic pathway was engineered by overexpressing pyruvate kinase in combination with deletion of araR, which encodes a repressor of L-arabinose uptake and catabolism. The recombinant strain utilized high concentrations of D-glucose and L-arabinose (15 g/L each) at the same consumption rate. During simultaneous utilization of both carbon sources at high concentrations, intracellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate declined and acetyl-CoA levels increased significantly as compared with the wild-type strain that preferentially utilized D-glucose. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate kinase in the araR deletion strain increased the specific consumption rate of L-arabinose and that citrate synthase activity becomes a new bottleneck in the engineered pathway during the simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose. Metabolome analysis

  8. Micrococcus-associated central venous catheter infection in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudiz, Ronald J; Widlitz, Allison; Beckmann, X Joy; Camanga, Daisy; Alfie, Jose; Brundage, Bruce H; Barst, Robyn J

    2004-07-01

    To determine the incidence of catheter-related infection in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) receiving epoprostenol (EPO), and to note an etiologic role for Micrococcus spp, which is rarely reported as a pathogen in the medical literature. Observational study. Two PAH specialty treatment centers, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (Torrance, CA), and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University (New York, NY). A total of 192 patients with PAH receiving continuous therapy with IV EPO. From 1987 to 2000, 192 patients with PAH received infusions of EPO via central venous catheter. Catheter care included regular dressing changes with dry gauze using a sterile procedure, without the use of flushes. Patients were asked to report on known infections and treatments, and symptoms. All infections were verified by a telephone call to the patient, care provider, and microbiology laboratory whenever possible. There were 335,285 catheter days (mean +/- SD, 1,325 +/- 974 catheter days). There were 88 clinical catheter infections with 51 blood culture-positive infections, necessitating catheter removal in 38 instances. The following pathogens were isolated: Staphylococcus aureus (25); Micrococcus spp (14); mixed flora (3); coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (2); Corynebacterium spp (2); Serratia marcessens (1); Enterobacter spp (1); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1); enterococci (1); and unidentified Gram-positive cocci (1). The catheter infection rate was 0.26 per 1,000 catheter days. The use of long-term therapy with continuous EPO appears to be associated with a low incidence of catheter-related infections. Micrococcus spp were the second most common etiologic agent. Caregivers managing patients with PAH must be aware of the risk of catheter infection, as it may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with the use of EPO. When isolated, Micrococcus spp should not be viewed as a contaminant, but rather as a true pathogen that may require

  9. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  10. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  11. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  12. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  13. Spinal Infections

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    ... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...

  14. Neonatal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...

  15. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  16. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...

  17. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...

  18. Puerperal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P

    1980-12-01

    This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis

  19. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of minor pathogen intramammary infection, susceptibility parameters, and somatic cell counts on the development of new intramammary infections with major mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyher, K K; Dohoo, I R; Scholl, D T; Keefe, G P

    2012-07-01

    Major mastitis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and coliforms are usually considered more virulent and damaging to the udder than minor mastitis pathogens such as Corynebacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The current literature comprises several studies (n=38) detailing analyses with conflicting results as to whether intramammary infections (IMI) with the minor pathogens decrease, increase, or have no effect on the risk of a quarter acquiring a new IMI (NIMI) with a major pathogen. The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has a large mastitis database derived from a 2-yr data collection on a national cohort of dairy farms, and data from this initiative were used to further investigate the effect of IMI with minor pathogens on the acquisition of new major pathogen infections (defined as a culture-positive quarter sample in a quarter that had been free of that major pathogen in previous samples in the sampling period). Longitudinal milk samplings of clinically normal udders taken over several 6-wk periods as well as samples from cows pre-dry-off and postcalving were used to this end (n=80,397 quarter milk samples). The effects of CNS and Corynebacterium spp. on the major mastitis pathogens Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.) were investigated using risk ratio analyses and multilevel logistic regression models. Quarter-, cow- and herd-level susceptibility parameters were also evaluated and were able to account for the increased susceptibility that exists within herds, cows and quarters, removing it from estimates for the effects of the minor pathogens. Increased quarter-level susceptibility was associated with increased risk of major pathogen NIMI for all pathogens except the coliforms. Increased somatic cell count was consistently associated with elevated risk of new major pathogen infections, but this was

  1. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  2. The semen microbiome and its relationship with local immunology and viral load in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM, including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024, TNF-α (p = 0.009, and IL-1b (p = 0.002. IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r(2  = 0.18, p = 0.02. Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r(2 = 0.15, p = 0.02. HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission.

  3. Estudo da difteria na cidade do Recife. I. Nota sôbre levantamento de portadores de Corynebacterium diphtheriae no bairro dos Coelhos Survey on diphtheriae carriers in "Bairro dos Coelhos" Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available De uma amostra probabilística do bairro dos Coelhos da cidade do Recife, 410 indivíduos foram examinados para verificação de portadores de difteria. Sòmente duas amostras de C. diphtheriae foram isoladas de duas crianças de 8 a 9 anos, as quais não apresentaram sintomatologia compatível com o quadro diftérico.From a limited population living around the University Hospital in Recife, Brazil a randomic sample was examined in order to identify diphtheria carriers. Swabs were made from 410 persons in a house-to-house survey. Two strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were isolated from healthy 8 and 9-year old children.

  4. Sequence-based identification of inositol monophosphatase-like histidinol-phosphate phosphatases (HisN) in Corynebacterium glutamicum, Actinobacteria, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis-Horn, Robert Kasimir; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Persicke, Marcus

    2017-07-18

    The eighth step of L-histidine biosynthesis is carried out by an enzyme called histidinol-phosphate phosphatase (HolPase). Three unrelated HolPase families are known so far. Two of them are well studied: HAD-type HolPases known from Gammaproteobacteria like Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica and PHP-type HolPases known from yeast and Firmicutes like Bacillus subtilis. However, the third family of HolPases, the inositol monophosphatase (IMPase)-like HolPases, present in Actinobacteria like Corynebacterium glutamicum (HisN) and plants, are poorly characterized. Moreover, there exist several IMPase-like proteins in bacteria (e.g. CysQ, ImpA, and SuhB) which are very similar to HisN but most likely do not participate in L-histidine biosynthesis. Deletion of hisN, the gene encoding the IMPase-like HolPase in C. glutamicum, does not result in complete L-histidine auxotrophy. Out of four hisN homologs present in the genome of C. glutamicum (impA, suhB, cysQ, and cg0911), only cg0911 encodes an enzyme with HolPase activity. The enzymatic properties of HisN and Cg0911 were determined, delivering the first available kinetic data for IMPase-like HolPases. Additionally, we analyzed the amino acid sequences of potential HisN, ImpA, SuhB, CysQ and Cg0911 orthologs from bacteria and identified six conserved sequence motifs for each group of orthologs. Mutational studies confirmed the importance of a highly conserved aspartate residue accompanied by several aromatic amino acid residues present in motif 5 for HolPase activity. Several bacterial proteins containing all identified HolPase motifs, but showing only moderate sequence similarity to HisN from C. glutamicum, were experimentally confirmed as IMPase-like HolPases, demonstrating the value of the identified motifs. Based on the confirmed IMPase-like HolPases two profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were build using an iterative approach. These HMMs allow the fast, reliable detection and differentiation of the two

  5. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  6. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  8. diphtheriae in a child Corynebacterium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolated from blood cultures in suspected cases of. lE. Hpwever, his .... dextrin -, maltose +, sucrose -, catalase +,glucose +, mannitol-, trehalose -, nitrate ... by Abbott.9 Whether in acquired or congenital heart disease, the bacteraemia of lE is ...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  10. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  11. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  12. Metapneumovirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...

  13. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  14. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; Gradillas, G.; Fernandez-Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez-Bermudez, R.; Lopez-Alonso, M.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC) observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic). The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen) in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70%) compared with those that did (27%) was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis); the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations) not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes. (Author)

  15. Dynamics of mammary infections in organic dairy farms in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the microbiological state and the dynamics of the mammary infections of organic farms in North Spain to discover if the high somatic cell count (SCC observed in these farms is associated to a high incidence of mastitis. Microbiological cultures and SCC were performed in 8,496 foremilk samples collected from 160 cows in five representative organic farms from February 2006 to January 2008. Even though 79.3% of cultures were positive, only 21.2% of the total fit our diagnosis of mastitis (clinical, subclinical and chronic. The great prevalence of Corynebacterium bovis (teat canal-region pathogen in the positive cultures that did not fit the mastitis diagnosis criteria (nearly 70% compared with those that did (27% was found to be related to lack of post-milking teat disinfection. The study prevalence of mastitis was 69.2% (66.7% subclinical mastitis, 27.8% clinical mastitis; the mean monthly prevalence was 47.4%; the mean monthly incidence was 12.9% and the mean duration of infection was 3.84 ± 3.98 months The high SCC in foremilk samples from old cows (three or more lactations not diagnosed as mastitis compared to the heifers, reflects a worsening health status of the animals over time. When compared with the conventional sector in Northern Spain, these parameters indicate a poorer udder health in the studied organic herds with a high presence of chronic subclinical processes.

  16. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1 isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartemann Karl-Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1 was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in

  17. Genetic relationships of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from a diphtheria case and carriers by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes Relação genética de cepas de Corynebacterium diphtheriae isoladas de caso e seus contatos por RLFP de rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on ribotyping of Corynebacterium diphtheriae intermedius strains isolated from a 9 years old child with clinical diphtheria and his 5 contacts. Quantitative analysis of RFLPs of rRNA was used to determine relatedness of these 7 C.diphtheriae strains providing support data in the diphtheria epidemiology. We have also tested those strains for toxigenicity in vitro by using the Elek's gel diffusion method and in vivo by using cell culture method on cultured monkey kidney cell (VERO cells. The hybridization results revealed that the 5 C.diphtheriae strains isolated from contacts and one isolated from the clinical case (nose case strain had identical RFLP patterns with all 4 restriction endonucleases used, ribotype B. The genetic distance from this ribotype and ribotype A (throat case strain, that we initially assumed to be responsible for the illness of the patient, was of 0.450 showing poor genetic correlation among these two ribotypes. We found no significant differences concerned to the toxin production by using the cell culture method. In conclusion, the use of RFLPs of rRNA gene was successful in detecting minor differences in closely related toxigenic C.diphtheriae intermedius strains and providing information about genetic relationships among them.No presente estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de uma análise, baseada na ribotipagem de cepas de C. diphtheriae intermedius isoladas de uma criança de 9 anos com difteria e seus 5 contatos. Análise quantitativa por RFLP de rRNA foi usada para determinar a relação destas 7 cepas de C. diphtheriae fornecendo dados de interesse epidemiológico. Nós também testamos estas cepas para toxicidade in vitro usando método de difusão de Elek e in vivo usando método de cultura celular com células VERO. Os resultados de hibridização revelaram que as 5 cepas de C. diphtheriae isoladas dos contatos e uma isolada do caso (cepa isolada

  18. Infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénior, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.

  19. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  20. Increased Production of Food-Grade d-Tagatose from d-Galactose by Permeabilized and Immobilized Cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a GRAS Host, Expressing d-Galactose Isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Sim, Dong-Hyun; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-02

    The generally recognized as safe microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing Geobacillus thermodenitrificans d-galactose isomerase (d-GaI) was an efficient host for the production of d-tagatose, a functional sweetener. The d-tagatose production at 500 g/L d-galactose by the host was 1.4-fold higher than that by Escherichia coli expressing d-GaI. The d-tagatose-producing activity of permeabilized C. glutamicum (PCG) cells treated with 1% (w/v) Triton X-100 was 2.1-fold higher than that of untreated cells. Permeabilized and immobilized C. glutamicum (PICG) cells in 3% (w/v) alginate showed a 3.1-fold longer half-life at 50 °C and 3.1-fold higher total d-tagatose concentration in repeated batch reactions than PCG cells. PICG cells, which produced 165 g/L d-tagatose after 3 h, with a conversion of 55% (w/w) and a productivity of 55 g/L/h, showed significantly higher d-tagatose productivity than that reported for other cells. Thus, d-tagatose production by PICG cells may be an economical process to produce food-grade d-tagatose.

  1. Application of DEN refinement and automated model building to a difficult case of molecular-replacement phasing: the structure of a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Axel T; Das, Debanu; Deacon, Ashley M; Grant, Joanna; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Read, Randy J; Adams, Paul D; Levitt, Michael; Schröder, Gunnar F

    2012-04-01

    Phasing by molecular replacement remains difficult for targets that are far from the search model or in situations where the crystal diffracts only weakly or to low resolution. Here, the process of determining and refining the structure of Cgl1109, a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, at ∼3 Å resolution is described using a combination of homology modeling with MODELLER, molecular-replacement phasing with Phaser, deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement and automated model building using AutoBuild in a semi-automated fashion, followed by final refinement cycles with phenix.refine and Coot. This difficult molecular-replacement case illustrates the power of including DEN restraints derived from a starting model to guide the movements of the model during refinement. The resulting improved model phases provide better starting points for automated model building and produce more significant difference peaks in anomalous difference Fourier maps to locate anomalous scatterers than does standard refinement. This example also illustrates a current limitation of automated procedures that require manual adjustment of local sequence misalignments between the homology model and the target sequence.

  2. Corynebacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 immobilized on granular activated carbon/MnFe2O4 composite: A novel biosorbent for removal of As(III) and As(V) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, M S; Majumder, C B

    2016-11-05

    The optimization of biosorption/bioaccumulation process of both As(III) and As(V) has been investigated by using the biosorbent; biofilm of Corynebacterium glutamicum MTCC 2745 supported on granular activated carbon/MnFe2O4 composite (MGAC). The presence of functional groups on the cell wall surface of the biomass that may interact with the metal ions was proved by FT-IR. To determine the most appropriate correlation for the equilibrium curves employing the procedure of the non-linear regression for curve fitting analysis, isotherm studies were performed for As(III) and As(V) using 30 isotherm models. The pattern of biosorption/bioaccumulation fitted well with Vieth-Sladek isotherm model for As(III) and Brouers-Sotolongo and Fritz-Schlunder-V isotherm models for As(V). The maximum biosorption/bioaccumulation capacity estimated using Langmuir model were 2584.668mg/g for As(III) and 2651.675mg/g for As(V) at 30°C temperature and 220min contact time. The results showed that As(III) and As(V) removal was strongly pH-dependent with an optimum pH value of 7.0. D-R isotherm studies specified that ion exchange might play a prominent role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  4. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  5. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  6. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  7. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  8. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...

  9. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Julia J; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Nelson, David E; Dong, Qunfeng; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-09-15

    The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of "resolvers" and "pustule formers" whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. Human skin is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, collectively known as the skin microbiome. Some resident

  10. The crystal structures of apo and cAMP-bound GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum reveal structural and dynamic changes upon cAMP binding in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Townsend

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional regulator GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the super-family of CRP/FNR (cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator transcriptional regulators that play central roles in bacterial metabolic regulatory networks. In C. glutamicum, which is widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and serves as a non-pathogenic model organism for members of the Corynebacteriales including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the GlxR homodimer controls the transcription of a large number of genes involved in carbon metabolism. GlxR therefore represents a key target for understanding the regulation and coordination of C. glutamicum metabolism. Here we investigate cylic AMP and DNA binding of GlxR from C. glutamicum and describe the crystal structures of apo GlxR determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and two crystal forms of holo GlxR at resolutions of 2.38 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The detailed structural analysis and comparison of GlxR with CRP reveals that the protein undergoes a distinctive conformational change upon cyclic AMP binding leading to a dimer structure more compatible to DNA-binding. As the two binding sites in the GlxR homodimer are structurally identical dynamic changes upon binding of the first ligand are responsible for the allosteric behavior. The results presented here show how dynamic and structural changes in GlxR lead to optimization of orientation and distance of its two DNA-binding helices for optimal DNA recognition.

  11. Solution 1H NMR investigation of the active site molecular and electronic structures of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited HmuO, a bacterial heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Syvitski, Ray T; Chu, Grace C; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Mar, Gerd N La

    2003-02-28

    The molecular structure and dynamic properties of the active site environment of HmuO, a heme oxygenase (HO) from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, have been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the human HO (hHO) complex as a homology model. It is demonstrated that not only the spatial contacts among residues and between residues and heme, but the magnetic axes that can be related to the direction and magnitude of the steric tilt of the FeCN unit are strongly conserved in the two HO complexes. The results indicate that very similar contributions of steric blockage of several meso positions and steric tilt of the attacking ligand are operative. A distal H-bond network that involves numerous very strong H-bonds and immobilized water molecules is identified in HmuO that is analogous to that previously identified in hHO (Li, Y., Syvitski, R. T., Auclair, K., Wilks, A., Ortiz de Montellano, P. R., and La Mar, G. N. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33018-33031). The NMR results are completely consistent with the very recent crystal structure of the HmuO.substrate complex. The H-bond network/ordered water molecules are proposed to orient the distal water molecule near the catalytically key Asp(136) (Asp(140) in hHO) that stabilizes the hydroperoxy intermediate. The dynamic stability of this H-bond network in HmuO is significantly greater than in hHO and may account for the slower catalytic rate in bacterial HO compared with mammalian HO.

  12. What Is Infective Endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Infective Endocarditis? Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (IE) is an infection of either the heart’s inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. Infective endocarditis is a serious — and sometimes fatal — illness. Two ...

  13. Gonococcal Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Pseudomonal breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastall, S; Catchpole, C; Bright-Thomas, R; Thrush, S

    2010-01-01

    Breast infection and breast sepsis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon. We report two cases of pseudomonal breast infection leading to septic shock and abscess formation in women with non-responding breast infection. The management of breast infection is broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultrasound with aspiration of any collection. To treat breast infection effectively, the causative organism must be isolated to enable appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:20412664

  15. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  16. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  17. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  18. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  19. [Trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria at Toyama University Hospital over the past six years--from the standpoint of laboratory examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tomomi; Hayashi, Shirou; Niimi, Hideki; Kitajima, Isao

    2012-07-01

    Specimens of bacterial ocular infections are frequently received in the clinical laboratory. However, a comprehensive trend survey of ocular infections with bacteria is very rare. Our objective is to understand the current tendency of ocular infections with bacteria in patients at Toyama University Hospital from the standpoint of laboratory examination. We studied 263 cases of ocular infection with bacteria diagnosed at Toyama University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011. 123 were male and 140 were female, with a mean age of 61.2(0-98) years. Specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Cultures were positive in 174(66.2%) patients. The most common bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus (28.1%), followed by Corynebacterium (19.3%), Streptococcus (9.3%), and Propionibacterium (8.6%). MRSA accounted for 18.8% of all S. aureus isolates, and has increased in recent years. The number of bacteria detected was larger in March, June, July, August, and October. Age distribution indicated that around 70% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients over 60 years old. The most common specimen of ocular infections with bacteria was eye discharge (detection rate; 87.8%), followed by corneal scraping(41%), aqueous humor (19%), and vitreous body (27%). Nearly 80% of bacterial isolates were detected from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, dacryocystitis, and conjunctivitis. As for the disease specific detection rate, endophthalmitis was very low (38.3%). The detection rate by years indicated that the way doctors pick up the specimens greatly affects the detection rate. Based on this survey, we need close cooperation with medical doctors concerning laboratory examination in ocular infection with bacteria, and we must improve the detection sensitivity of specimens from patients with endophthalmitis.

  20. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...

  1. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  2. Blastocytosis hominis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases in places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Risk factors Blastocystis is common, and anyone can ... you have blastocystis or another gastrointestinal infection, good personal hygiene can help keep you from spreading the infection ...

  3. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  4. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  5. Infection After Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Hemsell

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.

  6. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  7. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / C. Difficile Infection C. Difficile Infection Basics Overview Diarrhea is a frequent ... that change the normal colon bacteria allowing the C. difficile bacteria to grow and produce its toxins. ...

  8. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  9. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...

  10. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI.

  11. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  12. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  13. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  14. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding stress-responsive ECF sigma factor SigH and its anti-sigma factor RshA, and control of its regulatory network in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Tobias; Silar, Radoslav; Pičmanová, Martina; Pátek, Miroslav; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2012-09-03

    The expression of genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium used mainly for the industrial production of amino acids, is regulated by seven different sigma factors of RNA polymerase, including the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. The sigH gene is located in a gene cluster together with the rshA gene, putatively encoding an anti-sigma factor. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of the sigH and rshA gene cluster and the effects of RshA on the SigH regulon, in order to refine the model describing the role of SigH and RshA during stress response. Transcription analyses revealed that the sigH gene and rshA gene are cotranscribed from four sigH housekeeping promoters in C. glutamicum. In addition, a SigH-controlled rshA promoter was found to only drive the transcription of the rshA gene. To test the role of the putative anti-sigma factor gene rshA under normal growth conditions, a C. glutamicum rshA deletion strain was constructed and used for genome-wide transcription profiling with DNA microarrays. In total, 83 genes organized in 61 putative transcriptional units, including those previously detected using sigH mutant strains, exhibited increased transcript levels in the rshA deletion mutant compared to its parental strain. The genes encoding proteins related to disulphide stress response, heat stress proteins, components of the SOS-response to DNA damage and proteasome components were the most markedly upregulated gene groups. Altogether six SigH-dependent promoters upstream of the identified genes were determined by primer extension and a refined consensus promoter consisting of 45 original promoter sequences was constructed. The rshA gene codes for an anti-sigma factor controlling the function of the stress-responsive sigma factor SigH in C. glutamicum. Transcription of rshA from a SigH-dependent promoter may serve to quickly shutdown the SigH-dependent stress response after the cells have

  16. Transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding stress-responsive ECF sigma factor SigH and its anti-sigma factor RshA, and control of its regulatory network in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busche Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium used mainly for the industrial production of amino acids, is regulated by seven different sigma factors of RNA polymerase, including the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. The sigH gene is located in a gene cluster together with the rshA gene, putatively encoding an anti-sigma factor. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of the sigH and rshA gene cluster and the effects of RshA on the SigH regulon, in order to refine the model describing the role of SigH and RshA during stress response. Results Transcription analyses revealed that the sigH gene and rshA gene are cotranscribed from four sigH housekeeping promoters in C. glutamicum. In addition, a SigH-controlled rshA promoter was found to only drive the transcription of the rshA gene. To test the role of the putative anti-sigma factor gene rshA under normal growth conditions, a C. glutamicum rshA deletion strain was constructed and used for genome-wide transcription profiling with DNA microarrays. In total, 83 genes organized in 61 putative transcriptional units, including those previously detected using sigH mutant strains, exhibited increased transcript levels in the rshA deletion mutant compared to its parental strain. The genes encoding proteins related to disulphide stress response, heat stress proteins, components of the SOS-response to DNA damage and proteasome components were the most markedly upregulated gene groups. Altogether six SigH-dependent promoters upstream of the identified genes were determined by primer extension and a refined consensus promoter consisting of 45 original promoter sequences was constructed. Conclusions The rshA gene codes for an anti-sigma factor controlling the function of the stress-responsive sigma factor SigH in C. glutamicum. Transcription of rshA from a SigH-dependent promoter may serve to quickly

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.

  18. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot E Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic extremity ulcers are associated with chronic infections. Such ulcer infections are too often followed by amputation because there is little or no understanding of the ecology of such infections or how to control or eliminate this type of chronic infection. A primary impediment to the healing of chronic wounds is biofilm phenotype infections. Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common, disabling, and costly complications of diabetes. Here we seek to derive a better understanding of the polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic extremity ulcer infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a new bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP approach we have evaluated the bacterial diversity of 40 chronic diabetic foot ulcers from different patients. The most prevalent bacterial genus associated with diabetic chronic wounds was Corynebacterium spp. Findings also show that obligate anaerobes including Bacteroides, Peptoniphilus, Fingoldia, Anaerococcus, and Peptostreptococcus spp. are ubiquitous in diabetic ulcers, comprising a significant portion of the wound biofilm communities. Other major components of the bacterial communities included commonly cultured genera such as Streptococcus, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we highlight the patterns of population diversity observed in the samples and introduce preliminary evidence to support the concept of functional equivalent pathogroups (FEP. Here we introduce FEP as consortia of genotypically distinct bacteria that symbiotically produce a pathogenic community. According to this hypothesis, individual members of these communities when they occur alone may not cause disease but when they coaggregate or consort together into a FEP the synergistic effect provides the functional equivalence of well-known pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, giving the biofilm community the factors necessary to maintain chronic biofilm infections

  19. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  20. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  1. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke

    2016-01-01

    The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...

  2. Paediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G

    1996-09-28

    By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.

  3. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  4. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  5. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Rednak-Paradiž

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: CMV is the most common agent that causes congenital virus infection. Only 10 % of infected children have symptomatic infection immediately after birth. Signs of central nervous system damage, neurosensory deafness and delayed psychomotor development may manifest as a result of asimptomatic congenital infection later in childhood. In the article we present basic properties of CMV; we describe clinical picture of the congenital infection and possibilities of diagnose and its treatment. We present five children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection that were hospitalized for the period 1992–2002 at the Neonatal department in the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana.Conclusions: Identification of infected neonates, especially those with asimptomatic congenital CMV infection, is difficult. Latest incidence of infection in Slovenia is unknown. With new investigations the efficiency of antiviral therapy was discovered but exact indications for therapy are not yet known. CMV vaccine, once available, may ultimately be the best control strategy for this important public health problem. Proper educating women in childbearing age about the risks of CMV and how to avoid disease transmission during pregnancy (hand washing, avoiding mouth-to-mouth contact with preschool children, usage of gloves especially when handling dipers or respiratory secretions are the only control strategies available.

  6. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...

  7. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  8. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  9. Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters: a practical approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, T.; Kalinowski, J.; Nešvera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2013), s. 103-117 ISSN 1751-7907 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/12/P633 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Key words : VITRO TRANSCRIPTION SYSTEM * L-LYSINE PRODUCTION * SIGMA -FACTOR SIGB Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.023, year: 2013

  10. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  11. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  12. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.

  13. Nocardia infection following phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhale Nikhil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of a self-sealing tunnel incision is a rare but vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. We describe two cases of side port infection following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Nocardia was isolated in one case. Both the cases were worsening on medical treatment and were successfully treated by therapeutic keratoplasty.

  14. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  15. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  16. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  17. Examining the effect of intramammary infections with minor mastitis pathogens on the acquisition of new intramammary infections with major mastitis pathogens--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyher, K K; Haine, D; Dohoo, I R; Revie, C W

    2012-11-01

    Major mastitis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and the coliforms are usually considered more virulent and damaging to the udder than minor mastitis pathogens such as Corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The current literature contains several studies detailing analyses with conflicting results as to whether intramammary infection (IMI) with the minor pathogens decreases, increases, or has no effect on the risk of a quarter acquiring a new intramammary infection (NIMI) with a major pathogen. To investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the effect of IMI with minor pathogens on the acquisition of NIMI with major pathogens, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The total extant English- and French-language literature in electronic databases was searched and all publications cited by relevant papers were investigated. Results from 68 studies were extracted from 38 relevant papers. Random-effects models were used to investigate the effects of CNS and C. bovis on acquisition of new IMI with any of the major pathogens, as well as individually for the minor pathogens and Staph. aureus. Significant heterogeneity among studies exists, some of which could be accounted for by using meta-regression. Overall, observational studies showed no effect, whereas challenge studies showed strong and significant protective effects, specifically when major pathogens were introduced into the mammary gland via methods bypassing the teat end. Underlying risk can account for several unmeasured factors, and studies with higher underlying risk found more protective effects of minor pathogens. Larger doses of challenge organisms reduced the protective effect of minor pathogens, and studies with more stringent diagnostic criteria for pathogen IMI identified less protection. Smaller studies (those utilizing fewer than 40 cows) also showed a greater

  18. COMPARISON OF CULTURE OF SYNOVIAL FLUID, PERIPROSTHETIC TISSUE AND PROSTHESIS SONICATE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF KNEE PROSTHESIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Trampuž

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens are the standard specimens cultured for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. We hypothesize that ultrasonication of the explanted prosthesis may improve diagnosis of PJI by dislodging biofilm bacteria from the prosthesis surface and improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of PJI.Methods. Included were patients undergoing knee prosthesis exchange for septic or biomechanical failure and have not received antimicrobial therapy in the last 2 weeks prior specimen collection. Cultures of synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens were performed per the usual clinical practice. Additionally, explanted joint components were sonicated for 5 minutes at frequency 40 kHz in sterile Ringer’s solution; aliquots of 0.5 ml sonicate were plated onto five aerobic and five anaerobic blood agar plates, and incubated at 37 °C and examined for the next seven days. The number and identity of each colony morphology was recorded.Results. 35 patients undergoing knee replacement have been studied (24 for aseptic biomechanical failure and 11 for suspected PJI. In patients with PJI, coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 cases, Corynebacterium spp. (2 cases, Staphylococcus aureus (1 case, and viridans group streptococcus (1 case were recovered. Culture sensitivity and specificity were for synovial fluid 88% and 100%, for periprosthetic tissue 83% and 81%, and for explant sonicate 91% and 100%, respectively. In sonicate cultures higher numbers of microorganisms than in periprosthetic tissue cultures were consistently detected.Conclusions. Using synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, and explant sonicate cultures, 12%, 17% and 9% of PJI were missed, respectively. Explant sonicate cultures were the most sensitive with respect to the diagnosis of PJI, indicating that explant ultrasonication may improve bacterial recovery. In sonicate cultures, infecting organisms were detected in

  19. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  20. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  1. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  2. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  3. Imaging infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, John

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  5. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital, including: viral meningitis , an infection of the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) ... and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In newborns, symptoms can develop within 2 weeks ...

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  7. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.

  8. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...

  9. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  10. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  11. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007715.htm Helicobacter pylori infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ) is a type of bacteria that ...

  13. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat ordinary staph germs. What are Risk Factors for Staph Infection? Many healthy people normally have ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  15. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: MODERN COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.

  16. SURGICAL SITE INFECTION: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. M. Bonai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.

  17. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  18. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  20. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  1. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  2. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  3. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  4. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  5. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  6. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  7. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasite, Cryptosporidium , is a common culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in childcare centers and other public places. Cryptosporidium ... take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body. What Can I Do to ...

  8. [Transplantation-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzner, R

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  10. NOROVIRUS INFECTION (SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Khokhlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of norovirus infection is 17–20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the world. The dominant II genogroup of noroviruses is characterized by rapid variability. The new recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in the incidence of gastroenteritis in Asian and European countries during the winter season 2016–2017. The epidemiological features of norovirus infection are long-term excretion of the pathogen from the body of patients and carriers of viruses, especially in persons with immunosuppression; the implementation of various transmission routes (food, water, contact, aerosol, high contagiosity, winter seasonality in the countries of the northern hemisphere. In recent years, two human systems for the cultivation of noroviruses in vitro have been created, a double tropism of noroviruses has been established for immune cells and epithelial cells of the intestine, and the life cycle of noroviruses has been studied. The microbiota and its members can be either protective or stimulating for norovirus infection. Lactobacillus may play a protective role against norovirus infection. The existence of chronic norovirus infection lasting from several months to several years is proved, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Severe form of norovirus infection and deaths are more often recorded in young children, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and immunocompromised individuals. The clinical picture of norovirus gastroenteritis is similar in many respects to other viral gastroenteritis, which determines the need for laboratory verification of the diagnosis. The polymerase chain reaction method with reverse transcription is the most widely used in the world for diagnosing infection in patients and for detecting the virus in food and environmental objects. There are still no approved vaccines and antiviral drugs against this infection. Recommended therapeutic interventions include, along with rehydration with

  11. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  12. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunotherapy of Cryptococcus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J

    2012-02-01

    Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  15. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  16. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  17. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  18. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  19. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  1. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  2. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  3. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  4. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  5. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  6. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  8. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  9. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  10. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  11. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  12. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  13. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  14. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact. Giardia ...

  15. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  16. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  17. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  18. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  19. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  20. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  1. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  2. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IV) to kill the germs. If you take antibiotics while you’re in labor, the chances are very good that your baby won’t get this infection. What if my baby has group B strep? If your baby gets group B strep, he or she will be treated with IV antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Your baby will stay ...

  3. Healing stone ... by infection

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/

  4. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  6. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...

  7. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  8. Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouli, K A; Lazarus, M; Schoenbaum, S C; Gottlieb, M N; Lowrie, E G; Shocair, M

    1979-11-01

    This is a retrospective study of 133 episodes of bacteremic infection in 112 hemodialysis patients. The frequency of bacteremic infection was 9.5% in patients with chronic renal failure and 10.9% in patients with acute renal failure. In patients with acute renal failure, pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess were the most frequent sources of septicemia. Sepsis was usually due to Gram-negative organisms and mortality was high. In patients with chronic renal failure, infection of the shunt or fistula was the most common cause, was frequently due to Staphylococcus organism, and had a more favorable survival rate. Gram-negative septicemia from a nonaccess source in patients with chronic renal failure was associated with a higher mortality. Bacterial endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli occurred in 3.6% of septic episodes and 0.35% of patients at risk and had very low mortality. A low threshold for obtaining blood cultures and early antibiotic treatment are believed to be important in the treatment of bacteremic infections in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  10. Infections and endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  12. Challenges in Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2017-01-24

    Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  14. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.

  15. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.

  16. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  17. Screening for chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H D; Helfand, M

    2001-04-01

    To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  19. Infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection caused by Globicatella sanguinis

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Saeko; Xu, Chieko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Fujii, Kotaro; Nakamura, Morio

    2017-01-01

    We report the first case of infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Globicatella sanguinis in an 87-year-old Japanese woman with recurrent episodes of UTI. We identified the pathogen using the Rapid ID32 Strep system. Accurate identification of this infection is important and essential for the effective antimicrobial coverage to this pathogen.

  20. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder ...

  9. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protect: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection Neutropenia and Risk for Infection Health Care Providers Educational Materials Cancer and Flu How to Prevent Flu from Spreading Flu Symptoms Information for Families and Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and ...

  10. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni INFECTIONS AMONGST SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    5.00%) of 140 examined at the secondary school category were infected. There were more infections among the secondary school students than their primary school counterparts, though the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Full Length R.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...

  13. Infective endocarditis, 1984 through 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  17. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  18. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  19. CNS infections in immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents reasonable for CNS infections in immunocompetent patients as well as their localisation and imaging specifications. MRI scanning is the gold standard to detect inflammatory conditions in the CNS. Imaging can be normal or nonspecifically altered although the infection is culturally or bioptically proven. There are no pathognomonic, pathogen-specific imaging criteria. The localization and dimension of the inflammation depends on the infection pathway. (orig.) [de

  20. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED......-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....

  1. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  2. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  4. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  5. Prophylactic Antibiotics and Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.

  6. Infection (urease) stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A

    1987-01-01

    Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.

  7. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  8. Acute pulmonary infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acute pulmonary infection may be caused by a variety of organisms. In some instances they produce a reasonably characteristic, gross pathologic pattern and, therefore, a recognizable roentgenographic pattern. In the subsequent discussions the most common gross anatomic findings in the pneumonias of various causes as reflected in chest roentgenograms will be described. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary infections are so varied that the pattern observed often gives us little information regarding the causative organism. Therefore, in each instance it should be remembered that roentgenographic findings must be correlated with clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory data to ascertain the correct etiologic diagnosis upon which treatment is based. The role of the radiologist is to locate and define the extent of the disease and any complicating findings such as lung abscess and pleural effusion or empyema

  9. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  10. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  11. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  12. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  13. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  14. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  15. Infections and vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Konstantinos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    To review recent evidence for infection rates in patients with systemic vasculitides, the role of specific infectious agents in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and recent breakthroughs in the treatment of virus-associated vasculitides. In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Infections continue to be one of the main causes of mortality in patients with systemic vasculitides, emphasizing the need for safer immunosuppressive therapies and appropriate prophylaxis.

  16. Pet-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-11-15

    Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

  17. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  18. Interferon in lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Martina; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis still claiming more than 50 000 human deaths per year. Typically, human cases are due to infection with rabies virus, the prototype of the Lyssavirus genus, but sporadic cases of rabies-like encephalitis caused by other lyssaviruses have been reported. In contrast to rabies virus, which has an extremely broad host range including many terrestrial warm-blooded animals, rabies-related viruses are associated predominantly with bats and rarely infect terrestrial species. In spite of a very close genetic relationship of rabies and rabies-related viruses, the factors determining the limited host range of rabies-related viruses are not clear. In the past years the importance of viral countermeasures against the host type I interferon system for establishment of an infection became evident. The rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) has emerged as a critical factor required for paralysing the signalling cascades leading to transcriptional activation of interferon genes as well as interferon signalling pathways, thereby limiting expression of antiviral and immune stimulatory genes. Comparative studies would be of interest in order to determine whether differential abilities of the lyssavirus P proteins contribute to the restricted host range of lyssaviruses.

  19. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  20. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Infection Control updates ... infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS MRSA National Institutes of Health ...

  1. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  2. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  3. SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN: NOSOCOMIAL VERSUS COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Bayram

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.

  4. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  5. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  6. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  7. Pulmonary infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20

  8. Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leena

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissencephaly is a malformation of the brain in which the brain surface is smooth, rather than convoluted. Among the various causes of lissencephaly, infection by a virus during pregnancy plays an important role. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an important pathogen causing this anomaly. We present this case of a young female with 24-week-gestation diagnosed on ultrasound as carrying an anomalous fetus with lissencephalic features. At autopsy, there were multiple intra-nuclear CMV inclusions in the brain and the kidneys. This case is presented for its rarity and for the documentation of the tissue localization of CMV inclusions at autopsy.

  9. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  10. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesadenitis and herpetic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Fatkullina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variants of the course of chronic herpesvirus infection in children with the involvement of several mesenteric lymph nodes in the process and the formation of inflammatory conglomerates – mesenterite (mesadenite are considered. Possible etiological factors of mesenteritis, morphological changes in affected lymph nodes: nonspecific hyperplasia, in some cases – necrosis and suppuration, are given. Clinical cases of mesenteritis against chronic herpesvirus infections in preschool children are described with a detailed description of clinical manifestations in the form of prolonged fever, chronic intoxication, attacks of abdominal pain accompanied by an unstable stool. Dynamics of the main laboratory markers of herpesvirus activity is given, changes in the indices of instrumental methods of investigation are tracked. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the formation of such manifestations of the disease, the role of the systemic inflammatory response and therapeutic approaches with the use of antiviral drugs and glucocorticosteroids are discussed.

  12. [HIV infection and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Infective basis in childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, Leo

    1995-01-01

    Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)

  14. Cryptococcosis infection among HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is commonly known as a central nervous system infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans. It is one of the most frequent infections in AIDS patients. Disseminated cryptococcosis appears in almost one third of these patients. In this review, we will discuss the clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections among HIV patients and various methods of diagnosis, such as India ink, latex agglutination test and culture.

  15. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, determinants for carriage of resistant bacteria in Indonesian individuals and the implementation of measures for the prevention of the spread of bacteria and nosocomial infections in Indonesian...

  16. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...

  17. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  18. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos ...

  20. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ...

  5. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  6. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & ... How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ...

  11. Infections are a global issue: Infection addresses global issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobusch, M. P.; Calleri, G.; Bogner, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseasesaEuro

  12. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  13. Anaerobes in pleuropulmonary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.

  14. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  15. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  16. [Infected knee prostheses. Part 2: chronic late infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, P; Thoele, P; Heppert, V

    2013-06-01

    Treatment of late and chronic infections, which require the replacement of all the infected implant material. All infections lasting more than 4 weeks that have been proven to be bacterial and/or obvious signs of infection. Unsuitable for anesthesia, high acute infection with sepsis and risk for bacteremia with danger to life, large soft tissue damage where plastic surgery coverage is not possible. Arthrotomy, synovectomy, removal of all foreign bodies including all residue of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), jet lavage, spacer, drainage, wound closure or temporary closure using vacuum sealing. Bed rest with a leg brace and drainage until daily drainage volume is exchange of the spacer. In the literature, the success rate for both the one-stage or the two-stage procedure is about 80-95%. In our very nonhomogeneous collective the overall rate of success is about 81%.

  17. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  18. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...

  20. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.