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Sample records for cortisol awakening response

  1. Neural Correlates of the Cortisol Awakening Response in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Boehringer, Andreas; Tost, Heike; Haddad, Leila; Lederbogen, Florian; Wüst, Stefan; Schwarz, Emanuel; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The cortisol rise after awakening (cortisol awakening response, CAR) is a core biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation related to psychosocial stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, the neural regulation of the CAR has not been examined in humans. Here, we studied neural regulation related to the CAR in a sample of 25 healthy human participants using an established psychosocial stress paradigm together with multimodal functional and structural (vox...

  2. Cortisol awakening response and cortisol/DHEA ratio associations with hippocampal volume in MDD

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Jin Rowen; Sara Mason; Mellon, Synthia H.; Reus, Victor I.; Epel, Elissa S.; Heather M. Burke; Rebecca Rosser; John Coetzee; Laura Mahan; Michelle Coy; J Craig Nelson; Hamilton, Steven P; Sally Mendoza; Weiner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of Hypothalamic-Pituatary-Adrenal (HPA) associations with hippocampal (HC) volume have yielded inconsistent results. This might be due to the use of basal cortisol rather than cortisol reactivity measures and to the use of cortisol in isolation from related steroids. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the relationship of HC volume to cortisol awakening responses (CARs) and to the ratio of cortisol/DHEA in depressed (MDD) subjects and healthy controls. We additionally assessed...

  3. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  4. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M.; Puig-Perez, Sara; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93), we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase), but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people. PMID:27191847

  5. Naturalistic Stress and Cortisol Response to Awakening: Adaptation to Seafaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Jonathan; Abelson, James L.; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel

    2008-01-01

    Study of the hypothalmic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been critical to advancing our understanding of human adaptation to stress. The cortisol response to awakening (CRA) is a potentially useful measure for understanding group and individual differences in HPA axis regulation. In this study, the CRA was examined in the context of a naturalistic stressor – a six-week voyage of work and study aboard an oceangoing ship, including both experienced and novice sailors. Thirty-one subjects provided weekday and weekend baseline CRA data onshore prior to boarding, followed by three CRAs at sea and one shore leave CRA. Subjective measures of sleep, stress and control were also collected. Results suggest that novice sailors' cortisol response to awakening was elevated at sea relative to both a shoreside weekend and a shore leave during the voyage, but the most striking elevation was found during a workday onshore. Inexperienced students' profiles changed differently over the course of the voyage from those of professional crew. CRAs were not affected by sleep variables and were not predicted by subjective ratings. These data support the value of the cortisol response to awakening as a neuroendocrine marker of HPA regulatory responses to a naturalistic stressor, influenced by changes in work and living environment, and perhaps prior experience with the stressor. PMID:18657911

  6. Prefrontal serotonin transporter availability is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    higher cortisol responses when exposed to psychosocial stressors relative to high expressing 5-HTTLPR variants. However, it is not clear how the relation between SERT and cortisol output is reflected in the adult brain. We investigated the relation between cortisol response to awakening (CAR) and SERT...... binding in brain regions considered relevant to modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods: thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent in vivo SERT imaging with [11C]DASB-Positron Emission Tomography (PET), genotyping, and performed home-sampling of saliva to assess CAR. Results: CAR, defined...... between CAR and prefrontal SERT binding as tested by an interaction analysis (genotype×CAR). Conclusion: prefrontal SERT binding is positively associated with cortisol response to awakening. We speculate that in mentally healthy individuals prefrontal serotonergic neurotransmission may exert an inhibitory...

  7. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...

  8. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  9. The relationship between the cortisol awakening response, mood states, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Miguel M; Bocanegra, Olga L; Teixeira, Renata R; Tavares, Marcelo; Soares, Silvio S; Espindola, Foued S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the variation in the diurnal profile of cortisol, with an emphasis on the cortisol awakening response (CAR), in relation to mood states and performance during a professional swimming contest. Eleven athletes were examined during 2 consecutive days of competition and during a recreated event 2 weeks later that was matched to the time of the day and day of the week of the competition. On each day, salivary cortisol was determined upon awakening (07:00 hours); 30 and 60 minutes post-awakening; immediately before warming up for competition (16:00 hours); and 5 minutes (18:20 hours), 20 minutes (18:40 hours), and 40 minutes (19:00 hours) after competition. Psychometric instruments included the Profile of Mood States and self-reports of performance. Cortisol awakening responses did not differ between days of competition and control and were not related to performance on any day. However, a difference was observed in the concentration of cortisol before and after the contest between the competition and control days. Higher levels of cortisol before competition were associated with feelings of tension, anxiety, and hostility. The perceived demands of the day ahead might not produce the same magnitude of variation in the CAR in well-trained men. Explanations for this probably include better coping mechanisms and responses to the phase and time of competition.

  10. Writing about life goals: effects on rumination, mood and the cortisol awakening response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Tobias; Het, Serkan; Grillenberger, Matthias; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-11-01

    Rumination is a vulnerability factor for the onset and maintenance of emotional distress. This study examined whether writing about life goals is associated with a decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response. 68 healthy participants either wrote about their personal life goals or a control topic. Writing about life goals was associated with a modest decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response at the post-intervention assessment. Results provide initial evidence that writing about life goals can be a helpful aid in decreasing rumination and physiological stress reactivity.

  11. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...... patients, as an awakening profile, before medication and light therapy started. The CAR was calculated by using three time-points: awakening and 20 and 60 min after awakening. RESULTS: Patients with low CAR had a very substantial effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy, whereas...... patients with a high CAR had no effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy. CONCLUSION: High CAR was associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy. This result raises the question of whether bright light acts through a mechanism different from...

  12. Prospective prediction of major depressive disorder from cortisol awakening responses in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Emma K.; Doane, Leah D.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G.; Griffith, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol increase dramatically in the first 30-40 minutes after waking, an effect known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR). There is considerable cross-sectional evidence that psychosocial stress is associated with an increased CAR, and the CAR has been found to be altered in the presence of stress-related diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). To date, no prospective longitudinal studies have examined whether individual differences i...

  13. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  14. Cortisol Awakening Response and Internalizing Symptoms across Childhood: Exploring the Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Abelson, James L.; Muzik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to identify biological correlates of internalizing symptoms in childhood have involved examinations of HPA-axis functioning, namely Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). However, research has not assessed the relationship between CAR and internalizing problems among children younger than 8 years. Findings with older samples have been somewhat…

  15. Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeveld, Florian; Spijker, Jan; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; De Graaf, Ron; Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although HPA-axis activity has been studied extensively in relation to depression, there is no consensus whether HPA-axis parameters predicts major depressive disorder (MDD) recurrence. We investigated whether HPA-axis parameters (cortisol awakening response (CAR), the dexamethasone

  16. Adolescent personality: associations with Basal, awakening, and stress-induced cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ormel, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n = 343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. We studied the association between facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness and basal cortisol, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and four measures of stress-induced HPA-axis activity. Basal cortisol levels were related to facets of all three personality traits. The CAR and stress-induced cortisol were not related to personality. Possibly due to its more trait-like nature, basal cortisol seems more informative than stress-induced cortisol when investigating trait-like characteristics such as personality facets.

  17. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (β=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (β=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (β=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (β=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (β=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cortisol Awakening Response and Resilience in Elite Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, J; Golby, J; Mallett, C J; Gucciardi, D F; Polman, R C J

    2016-02-01

    The sports environment is stress-eliciting in that it encapsulates perceived uncontrollability, unpredictability and requires ego-involvement. The HPA axis has been shown (indicated by cortisol release) to respond to anticipated sports competition up to a week prior to the event. Research also alludes to the importance of individual differences, such as optimism and trait perfectionism, in moderating the impact of cortisol upon performance. In total, 41 (male n=27) national (n=38) and international (n=3) swimmers were recruited from northeast England and Australia. Swimmers completed a measure of resilience and also provided buccal saliva swabs, from which total cortisol release prior to and during the event was calculated. Findings revealed that resilience significantly predicted performance and the influence of AUC (cortisol release) upon performance was moderated by resilience. These findings suggest that resilience can influence athletic performance either directly or indirectly, through appraisal (i. e., interpretation of the stressor to be facilitative and non-threatening).

  19. Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one.

  20. Daily life stress and the cortisol awakening response: testing the anticipation hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Powell

    Full Text Available The cortisol awakening response (CAR is a distinct facet of the circadian cortisol rhythm associated with various health conditions and risk factors. It has repeatedly been suggested that the CAR could be a result of the anticipated demands of the upcoming day (stress anticipation and could support coping with daily life stress. In a sample of 23 healthy participants CARs were assessed on two consecutive days by measures of salivary cortisol upon awakening (S1 and 30 and 45 minutes later, which were aggregated to the area under the curve increase (AUCI. Stress anticipation was assessed immediately after awakening. On the same days, daily life stress and distress were assessed six times per day based on a quasi-randomized design using handheld computers. Associations were tested by day using regression analysis and standard multilevel/mixed effects models for longitudinal data. The CAR AUCI moderated the effect of daily life stress on distress; higher CAR increases were associated with attenuated distress responses to daily life stress on both days (day 1: p = .039; day 2: p = .004 adjusted for age, gender, sleep quality, time of awakening and oral contraceptive use. Lagged-effects and redundancy models showed that this effect was not due to prior-day CAR increases but specific for same day CARs. On day 2, associations between daily life stress and distress were stronger when individuals showed a higher S1 cortisol level, but this effect was similar for S1 on day 1, and the day 2 effect of S1 became non-significant when S1 on day 1 was controlled. No associations were found between stress anticipation and CARs. Findings indicate that the CAR increase is associated with successful coping with same-day daily life stress.

  1. High cortisol awakening response is associated with impaired error monitoring and decreased post-error adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Yuan, Yiran; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a rapid increase in cortisol levels following morning awakening, is an important aspect of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Alterations in the CAR have been linked to a variety of mental disorders and cognitive function. However, little is known regarding the relationship between the CAR and error processing, a phenomenon that is vital for cognitive control and behavioral adaptation. Using high-temporal resolution measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with behavioral assessment of error processing, we investigated whether and how the CAR is associated with two key components of error processing: error detection and subsequent behavioral adjustment. Sixty university students performed a Go/No-go task while their ERPs were recorded. Saliva samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after awakening on the two consecutive days following ERP data collection. The results showed that a higher CAR was associated with slowed latency of the error-related negativity (ERN) and a higher post-error miss rate. The CAR was not associated with other behavioral measures such as the false alarm rate and the post-correct miss rate. These findings suggest that high CAR is a biological factor linked to impairments of multiple steps of error processing in healthy populations, specifically, the automatic detection of error and post-error behavioral adjustment. A common underlying neural mechanism of physiological and cognitive control may be crucial for engaging in both CAR and error processing.

  2. IL-6 and TNF-α in unmedicated adults with ADHD: Relationship to cortisol awakening response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, M; Armario, A; Palomar, G; Corrales, M; Carrasco, J; Richarte, V; Ferrer, R; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A

    2017-05-01

    There is preliminary evidence that the immune system's cytokines may have impact on ADHD in children. Nevertheless, studies exploring the possible role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adults with ADHD are lacking. This study aimed to assess differences in serum IL-6 and TNF-α between patients and controls and their possible relationship to resting cortisol. 108 adults with ADHD (DSM-IV), 44 inattentive and 64 combined, age ranging between 18 and 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Major psychiatric disorders and organic comorbidities were excluded. Serum samples for IL-6 and TNF-α and salivary samples to assess cortisol awakening response were collected on the same day. Analysis of variance was applied to study differences in IL-6 and TNF-α between groups. Pearson correlations were used to study associations between IL-6, TNF-α, and CAR. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6 or TNF-α levels between patients and controls or between combined and inattentive patients. Negative associations between IL-6 (r=-0.386, p=0.020), TNF-α (r=-0.372, p=0.023) and cortisol awakening response were found in the inattentive subtype, whereas no association was seen in the combined subtype. A negative correlation between IL-6 and cortisol was also present in the control group (r=-0.44, 0.030). The peripheral pro-inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, do not appear to be primarily involved in ADHD in adults, although the role of other inflammatory markers cannot be ruled out. The differences regarding the association between IL-6 and TNF-α and morning cortisol response suggest possible underlying neurobiological differences between the inattentive or combined patients that merit further studies.

  3. Short-Wavelength Light Enhances Cortisol Awakening Response in Sleep-Restricted Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, follow a daily, 24-hour rhythm with concentrations reaching a minimum in the evening and a peak near rising time. In addition, cortisol levels exhibit a sharp peak in concentration within the first hour after waking; this is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR. The present study is a secondary analysis of a larger study investigating the impact of short-wavelength (λmax≈470 nm light on CAR in adolescents who were sleep restricted. The study ran over the course of three overnight sessions, at least one week apart. The experimental sessions differed in terms of the light exposure scenarios experienced during the evening prior to sleeping in the laboratory and during the morning after waking from a 4.5-hour sleep opportunity. Eighteen adolescents aged 12–17 years were exposed to dim light or to 40 lux (0.401 W/m2 of 470-nm peaking light for 80 minutes after awakening. Saliva samples were collected every 20 minutes to assess CAR. Exposure to short-wavelength light in the morning significantly enhanced CAR compared to dim light. Morning exposure to short-wavelength light may be a simple, yet practical way to better prepare adolescents for an active day.

  4. Cortisol awakening response and cognitive performance in hypertensive and normotensive older people.

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    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Puig-Perez, Sara; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Healthy older people with a cortisol awakening response (CAR) of decreased magnitude show worse frontal cortex-related cognitive performance. Systemic hypertension has been related to a CAR of decreased magnitude. Additionally, worse executive function and processing speed have been observed in older people with systemic hypertension. This is the first study to examine the relationship between the CAR (measured with six saliva samples at home on two consecutive weekdays) and cognitive performance, in both hypertensive (n=26) and normotensive (n=28) older people (from 56 to 78years old). Hypertensive participants showed lower morning cortisol secretion, and they also woke up earlier. No differences in CAR were observed. A CAR of decreased magnitude was related to worse executive function in both hypertensive and normotensive participants, but to slower processing speed only in normotensive participants. Being treated with antihypertensive for a longer period of time was related to a CAR of increased magnitude and better performance on executive function. Our findings suggest that earlier awakening time in hypertensive older people might underlie the lower overall morning cortisol secretion observed in previous studies. Additionally, this study confirms that a dysregulation of the CAR is related to worse executive function, and it extends this association to hypertensive older people. Finally, it is worth noting that hypertension may moderate the relationship between CAR and processing speed.

  5. Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.

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    Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR.

  6. Cortisol awakening response in drug-naïve panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakuszkowiak-Wojten K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Background: It is unclear whether hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. The findings remain inconsistent. Cortisol awakening response (CAR is a noninvasive biomarker of stress system activity. We designed the study to assess CAR in drug-naïve PD patients.   Materials and methods: We assessed CAR in 14 psychotropic drug-naïve outpatients with PD and 14 healthy controls. The severity of PD was assessed with Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. The severity of anxiety and depression was screened with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.   Results: No significant difference in CAR between PD patients and control group was found. No correlations were observed between CAR and anxiety severity measures in PD patients and controls.   Limitations: The number of participating subjects was relatively small, and the study results apply to nonsuicidal drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia and with short-illness duration. There was a lack of control on subjects’ compliance with the sampling instructions.  Conclusion: The study provides no support for elevated CAR levels in drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia. Keywords: panic disorder, PD, CAR, cortisol awakening response, HPA axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

  7. The cortisol awakening response is associated with performance of a serial sequence reaction time task.

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    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Schneider, Luke; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Clow, Angela; Ridding, Michael C; Pitcher, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    There is emerging evidence of a relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CAR is associated with acquisition, retention and overnight consolidation or improvement of a serial sequence reaction time task. Salivary samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening in 39 healthy adults on 2 consecutive days. The serial sequence reaction time task was repeated each afternoon. Participants completed the perceived stress scale and provided salivary samples prior to testing for cortisol assessment. While the magnitude of the CAR (Z score) was not associated with either baseline performance or the timed improvement during task acquisition of the serial sequence task, a positive correlation was observed with reaction times during the stable performance phase on day 1 (r=0.373, p=0.019). Residuals derived from the relationship between baseline and stable phase reaction times on day 1 were used as a surrogate for the degree of learning: these residuals were also correlated with the CAR mean increase on day 1 (r=0.357, p=0.048). Task performance on day 2 was not associated with the CAR obtained on this same day. No association was observed between the perceived stress score, cortisol at testing or task performance. These data indicate that a smaller CAR in healthy adults is associated with a greater degree of learning and faster performance of a serial sequence reaction time task. These results support recognition of the CAR as an important factor contributing to cognitive performance throughout the day.

  8. Childhood trauma and cortisol awakening response in symptomatic patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

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    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Serino, Ismene; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Di Genio, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to trauma during childhood is a risk factor for eating disorders (EDs) in adulthood. The biological mechanisms underlying such increased risk seem to involve the endogenous stress response system (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis), which undergoes trauma-induced functional changes that may persist later in life. In the present study, we examined the effects of childhood trauma experiences on HPA-axis activity, comparing saliva cortisol awakening response (CAR) in adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) with CAR in adult healthy controls. Twenty-three patients with symptomatic AN, 21 patients with symptomatic BN, and 29 healthy women collected saliva samples at awakening and again after 15, 30, and 60 min. Participants also completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and eating-related psychopathological rating scales. According to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, 13 individuals with AN and 12 individuals with BN, but none of the healthy women, reported childhood maltreatment. Compared with the control group, the non-maltreated AN patient group exhibited an enhanced CAR, whereas the group of non-maltreated BN patients showed a normal CAR. Moreover, both AN and BN patient groups with childhood maltreatment exhibited statistically significant blunting of CAR compared with non-maltreated groups. The present findings add to the evidence supporting the concept that there is a dysregulation of HPA-axis activity in symptomatic patients with EDs and suggest that childhood trauma exposure may contribute to such dysregulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Gustav R; Fisher, Patrick M; Dyssegaard, Agnete

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin signalling is considered critical for an appropriate and dynamic adaptation to stress. Previously, we have shown that prefrontal serotonin transporter (SERT) binding is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (Frokjaer et al., 2013), which is an index...... and serotonin signaling in vivo in humans. We suggest that higher synaptic serotonin concentration, here indexed by lower 5-HT4r binding, supports HPA-axis dynamics, which in healthy volunteers is reflected by a robust CAR....... of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis output dynamics. Here, we investigated in healthy individuals if cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4r) binding, reported to be a proxy for serotonin levels, is associated with CAR. Thirty healthy volunteers (25 males, age range 20-56 years) underwent 5-HT4r PET...

  10. Cortisol Awakening Response in Elite Military Men: Summary Parameters, Stability Measurement, and Effect of Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Hernández, Lisa M; Fuller, Shiloah A; Sargent, Paul; Padilla, Genieleah A; Harris, Erica

    2016-11-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) holds promise as a clinically important marker of health status. However, CAR research is routinely challenged by its innate complexity, sensitivity to confounds, and methodological inconsistencies. In this unprecedented characterization of CAR in elite military men (N = 58), we established summary parameters, evaluated sampling stability across two consecutive days, and explored the effect of subject compliance. Average salivary cortisol concentrations increased nearly 60% within 30 minutes of waking, followed by a swift recovery to waking values at 60 minutes. Approximately one in six were classified as negative responders (i.e., <0% change from waking to 30-minute postawakening). Three summary parameters of magnitude, as well as three summary parameters of pattern, were computed. Consistent with our hypothesis, summary parameters of magnitude displayed superior stability compared with summary parameters of pattern in the total sample. As expected, compliance with target sampling times was relatively good; average deviations of self-reported morning sampling times in relation to actigraph-derived wake times across both days were within ±5 minutes, and nearly two-thirds of the sample was classified as CAR compliant across both days. Although compliance had equivocal effects on some measures of magnitude, it substantially improved the stability of summary parameters of pattern. The first of its kind, this study established the foundation for a program of CAR research in a profoundly resilient yet chronically stressed population. Building from this, our forthcoming research will evaluate demographic, biobehavioral, and clinical determinants of CAR in this unique population. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENTRINGER, SONJA; BUSS, CLAUDIA; SHIRTCLIFF, ELIZABETH A.; CAMMACK, ALISON L.; YIM, ILONA S.; CHICZ-DEMET, ALEKSANDRA; SANDMAN, CURT A.; WADHWA, PATHIK D.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of maternal stress during pregnancy may depend, in part, on the timing in gestation of the occurrence of stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of stage of gestation on maternal psychophysiological responses to stress using a standardized laboratory paradigm and on the cortisol response to awakening (CAR). A longitudinal design was employed to quantify maternal psychophysiological stress reactivity [changes in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and psychological distress in response to the trier social stress test (TSST)] and the CAR at approximately 17 and 31 weeks gestation in a sample of 148 women. To account for the possible effects of habituation when being exposed to the same stress protocol twice, a non-pregnant comparison group (CG, N = 36) also underwent these assessments at two time points, with a comparable time interval between the assessments. In both groups, the TSST elicited significant changes in maternal HR, mean arterial pressure, and psychological distress levels but not a significant increase in cortisol levels. Among the pregnant women (pregnant group(PG)), the stressor-induced increases in HR, blood pressure, and psychological distress were significantly lower at the second (31 weeks gestation) compared to the first (17 weeks gestation) assessment of pregnancy (all p < 0.01). The maternal CAR was also significantly attenuated in later compared to earlier gestation (p = 0.003). In the CG, there were no significant differences in psychophysiological stress responses and in the CAR across the two assessments. Among pregnant women there is a progressive attenuation of psychophysiological stress responses with advancing gestation. This attenuation is unlikely to be attributable to habituation. Individual differences in the degree of attenuation of stress responses over gestation may represent a novel marker of stress susceptibility in human pregnancy. PMID:20067400

  12. Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cammack, Alison L; Yim, Ilona S; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2010-05-01

    The effects of maternal stress during pregnancy may depend, in part, on the timing in gestation of the occurrence of stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of stage of gestation on maternal psychophysiological responses to stress using a standardized laboratory paradigm and on the cortisol response to awakening (CAR). A longitudinal design was employed to quantify maternal psychophysiological stress reactivity [changes in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and psychological distress in response to the trier social stress test (TSST)] and the CAR at approximately 17 and 31 weeks gestation in a sample of 148 women. To account for the possible effects of habituation when being exposed to the same stress protocol twice, a non-pregnant comparison group (CG, N = 36) also underwent these assessments at two time points, with a comparable time interval between the assessments. In both groups, the TSST elicited significant changes in maternal HR, mean arterial pressure, and psychological distress levels but not a significant increase in cortisol levels. Among the pregnant women (pregnant group(PG)), the stressor-induced increases in HR, blood pressure, and psychological distress were significantly lower at the second (31 weeks gestation) compared to the first (17 weeks gestation) assessment of pregnancy (all p stress responses and in the CAR across the two assessments. Among pregnant women there is a progressive attenuation of psychophysiological stress responses with advancing gestation. This attenuation is unlikely to be attributable to habituation. Individual differences in the degree of attenuation of stress responses over gestation may represent a novel marker of stress susceptibility in human pregnancy.

  13. The Cortisol Awakening Response for Modified Method for Higher Order Logical Relationship Using Different Mean Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percent age of cases, regard less of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST value based on high-order fuzzy logical relationships. First, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical data into fuzzy sets to form high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it calculates the value of the variable between the subscripts of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Finally, it chooses a modified high-order fuzzy logical relationships group to forecast the free cortisol response to walking and the short day time profile using various mean techniques like, Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Heronian Mean, Root Mean Square and Harmonic Mean.

  14. Burnout and cortisol: Evidence for a lower cortisol awakening response in both clinical and non-clinical burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Maes, J.H.R.; Linden, D. van der; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the relationship between burnout and cortisol levels has been examined in previous studies, the results are mixed. By adopting a design in which we attempted to overcome important limitations of earlier research, the purpose of the present study was to improve the understanding

  15. The cortisol awakening response and anterior cingulate cortex function in maltreated depressed versus non-maltreated depressed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Doty, Jennifer; Roos, Leslie; Anker, Justin J

    2017-09-05

    Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and dACC activity during a self-appraisal task were assessed in maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth. Hierarchical linear models were employed to model the CAR. Maltreatment group, dACC activity during positive and negative self-appraisals as well as other key predictors, were included in the models. Post hoc analyses explored explanations for significant differences. Results indicated that maltreated depressed youth exhibited a higher CAR compared to non-maltreated youth. At low levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated and non-maltreated depressed youth's CAR did not differ. However, at elevated levels of dACC activity during processing of negative self-descriptors maltreated depressed youth exhibited significantly higher CAR compared to non-maltreated depressed youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality dimensions harm avoidance and self-directedness predict the cortisol awakening response in military men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; Kleber, Rolf J.; Geuze, Elbert; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To account for individual differences in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, studies have examined the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and personality. The present study examined the relationship between the free fraction of cortisol in saliva after

  17. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Gimenez, Marina C.; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G. M.; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.

    P>The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a

  18. The cross-sectional relation between medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and the Cortisol Awakening Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen-van Dessel, Nikki; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Dekker, Joost; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; van der Horst, Henriette E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to assess the cross-sectional relation between levels of cortisol and specific symptom clusters, symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Methods: Baseline data of a cohort of MUPS patients were used. We chose the

  19. Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy Modeling of Perceived Stress, And Cortisol Responses to Awakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Two Mamdani type fuzzy models (four inputs–one output and two inputs–one output were developed to test the hypothesis that high job demands and low job control (job strain are associated with elevated free cortisol levels early in the working day and with reduced variability across the day and to evaluate the contribution of anger expression to this pattern. The models were derived from multiple data sources including One hundred five school teachers (41 men and 64 women classified 12 months earlier as high (N = 48 or low (N = 57 in job strain according to the demand/control model sampled saliva at 2-hour intervals from 8:00 to 8:30 hours to 22:00 to 22:30 hours on a working day. The quality of the model was determined by comparing predicted and actual fuzzy classification and defuzzification of the predicted outputs to get crisp values for correlating estimates with published values. A modified form of the Hamming distance measure is proposed to compare predicted and actual fuzzy classification. An entropy measure is used to describe the ambiguity associated with the predicted fuzzy outputs. The four input model predicted over 70% of the test data within one-half of a fuzzy class of the published data. The two input model predicted over 40% of the test data within one-half of a fuzzy class of the published data. Comparison of the models show that the four input model exhibited less entropy than the two input model.

  20. Prospective associations between the cortisol awakening response and first onsets of anxiety disorders over a six-year follow-up--2013 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Kendall, Ashley D; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional associations have been found between anxiety disorders (ADs) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as measured by levels of salivary cortisol, but prospective data are lacking, as are studies examining specific ADs. We have previously shown that one aspect of the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), prospectively predicts both new onsets and recurrences of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we sought to examine whether it also predicts ADs. Participants (N=232) were drawn from the larger Northwestern-UCLA Youth Emotion Project, a two-site, longitudinal study of older adolescents, which aims to identify common and specific risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders. After baseline interviews for mental health diagnoses, a subset of adolescents completed a three-day cortisol sampling protocol measuring the CAR and other diurnal rhythm indices. Participants with past or current anxiety disorders at the time of cortisol measurement were excluded and Cox regression (survival analysis) was used to predict first onsets of ADs over the subsequent six years. AD onsets (N=25), the largest subset of which were social anxiety disorder (SAD) onsets (N=11), were observed over six annual follow up diagnostic interviews. Even when statistically adjusting for past and prospective MDD onsets and other covariates, a higher CAR significantly predicted increased first onsets of ADs (HR=2.20, p<.05). A higher CAR was also a strong and significant predictor of the subset of SAD onsets (HR=5.37, p<.005). Implications for the etiology of ADs, with a focus on SAD, are discussed.

  1. Polymorphisms of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis influence the cortisol awakening response as well as self-perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Tempel, Ting; Larra, Mauro F; Winnikes, Ulrike; Tempel, Tobias; DeRijk, Roel H; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Meyer, Jobst; Schote, Andrea B

    2016-09-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a crucial endocrine system for coping with stress. A reliable and stable marker for the basal state of that system is the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We examined the influence of variants of four relevant candidate genes; the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (MR), the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and the gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on CAR and self-perceived stress in 217 healthy subjects. We found that polymorphisms of GR influenced both, the basal state of the HPA axis as well as self-perceived stress. MR only associated with self-perceived stress and 5-HTT only with CAR. BDNF did not affected any of the investigated indices. In summary, we suggest that GR variants together with the CAR and supplemented with self reports on perceived stress might be useful indicators for the basal HPA axis activity.

  2. Cross-cultural gene- environment interactions in depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and the cortisol awakening response: FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood trauma in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Ressler, Kerry J; Mercer, Kristina B; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Koirala, Suraj; Nepal, Mahendra K; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased attention to global mental health, psychiatric genetic research has been dominated by studies in high-income countries, especially with populations of European descent. The objective of this study was to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene in a population living in South Asia. Among adults in Nepal, depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), and childhood maltreatment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). FKBP5 SNPs were genotyped for 682 participants. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed in a subsample of 118 participants over 3 days. The FKBP5 tag-SNP rs9296158 showed a main effect on depressive symptoms (p = 0.03). Interaction of rs9296158 and childhood maltreatment predicted adult depressive symptoms (p = 0.02) but not PTSD. Childhood maltreatment associated with endocrine response in individuals homozygous for the A allele, demonstrated by a negative CAR and overall hypocortisolaemia in the rs9296158 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment group (p depression but not PTSD. Gene-environment studies should take differences in prevalence and cultural significance of phenotypes and exposures into account when interpreting cross-cultural findings.

  3. Self-reported health and cortisol awakening response in parents of people with asperger syndrome: the role of trait anger and anxiety, coping and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-11-01

    Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life.

  4. The cortisol awakening response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is blunted and correlates with clinical status and depressive mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; Kim, Sungchul; Wolf, Oliver T.; Kim, Min Soo; Sung, Kang-Keyng; Lee, Sangkwan

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the motor system, has an enormous impact on the patient's emotional and physical well-being. As previous findings indicated that particularly the rise in cortisol levels immediately a

  5. In search of the HPA axis activity in unipolar depression patients with childhood trauma: Combined cortisol awakening response and dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Huang, Manli; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on HPA axis activity both in depression patients and healthy controls in order to determine the role of HPA axis abnormalities in depression and to find the differences in HPA axis functioning that may lead certain individuals more susceptible to the depressogenic effects of childhood trauma. Eighty subjects aged 18-45 years were recruited into four study groups (n = 18, depression patients with childhood trauma exposures, CTE/MDD; n = 17, depression patients without childhood adversity, non-CTE/MDD; n = 23, healthy persons with childhood trauma, CTE/non-MDD; and n = 22, healthy persons without childhood adversity, non-CTE/non-MDD). Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of CAR and underwent a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Regardless of depression, subjects with CTE exhibited an enhanced CAR and the CAR areas under the curve to ground (AUCg) were associated with their childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) physical neglect scores and CTQ total scores. In addition, the CTE/MDD group also showed a highest post-DST cortisol concentration and a decreased glucocorticoid feedback inhibition among four groups of subjects. The present findings suggested that childhood trauma was associated with hyperactivity of HPA axis as measured with CAR, potentially reflecting the vulnerability for developing depression after early life stress exposures. Moreover, dysfunction of the GR-mediated negative feedback control might contribute to the development of depression after CTE.

  6. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  7. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  8. Episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis and free cortisol secretion after awakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Ogawa, Namiko; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nakano, Masako; Nakase, Emiko; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Machida, Kazuhiko; Kodama, Masahisa; Nomura, Shinobu

    2007-05-01

    Cortisol secretion after awakening, an index of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, appears to be related to psychosocial stressors, or to symptoms caused by psychosocial stressors. The relationship between the quality, duration, and magnitude of psychosocial factors and cortisol secretion is however, unclear. Therefore, the effect of episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis on cortisol secretion after awakening was investigated. Saliva samples were collected from 10 undergraduate students at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening 1 month, 2 weeks, and a few days before the thesis submission and 1 week after the submission. They also completed the Short form of Profile of Moods Scale (POMS-S) on the night before each sampling. Results indicated that cortisol levels were higher a few days before the thesis submission compared to 1 month before submission. Scores of "Fatigue" and "Tension-Anxiety" in POMS-S were also higher a few days before submission. These results suggest that episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis caused an increase in cortisol levels after awakening.

  9. In abstinent MDMA users the cortisol awakening response is off-set but associated with prefrontal serotonin transporter binding as in non-users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is considered critical for an appropriate adaptation to stress. We have previously observed that in healthy volunteers, prefrontal serotonin transporter (SERT) binding is positively associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis output in terms of the cortisol...

  10. Poverty and Awakening Cortisol in Adolescence: The Importance of Timing in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    The deleterious effects of poverty on mental and physical health are routinely argued to operate, at least in part, via dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although empirical examinations connecting poverty with HPA axis functioning are rare. Research on the effects of timing of poverty is a particularly neglected aspect of this relationship. This study uses 15 years of prospective data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to assess how exposure to poverty during infancy, childhood, and adolescence is related to awakening cortisol (n = 826), a marker of HPA axis functioning. Among female participants, poverty exposure in infancy and adolescence, but not childhood, was negatively associated with awakening cortisol. Poverty exposure was unrelated to cortisol among male participants. The importance of timing and gender differences are discussed along with directions for future research.

  11. Daily Work Stress and Awakening Cortisol in Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-02-01

    The effect of daily work stress on the next morning's awakening cortisol level was determined in a sample of 124 mothers (M age = 49.89, SD= 6.33) of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities and compared to 115 mothers (M age = 46.19, SD = 7.08) of individuals without disabilities. Mothers participated in 8 days of diary telephone interviews and provided saliva samples. Multilevel models revealed that mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities had lower awakening cortisol levels than comparison mothers. Work stress interacted with parental status to predict the awakening cortisol level on the following morning. When mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities experienced a work stressor, their awakening cortisol level was significantly higher on the subsequent morning, but for comparison mothers, work stressors were not significantly associated with cortisol level. Findings extend understanding of the differential impacts of specific types of stressors on physiological functioning of mothers of individuals with and without developmental disabilities.

  12. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  13. The Awakening: Rethinking on the Relationships of Women's Self-being, Family Responsibility, and Social Harmony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓

    2009-01-01

    The Awakening stressed that if women wanted to gain self - being and self - independence they should abandon family and social responsibilities. This thought is too extreme. Women's real freedom and independence could not be gained out of family and social responsibilities. And family responsibilities should not be seen as the fetter to women's pursuit of self- being and self - independence, or it will cause a few problems in marriage and hurt themselves and other persons. Women's real awakening is that there are no conflicts between family and women's self- being. Only based on social harmony and family responsibilities, women could gain real self - being and that is women's real awakening.

  14. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm i

  15. Symptom-specific associations between low cortisol responses and functional somatic symptoms : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.A.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), like chronic pain and overtiredness, are often assumed to be stress-related. Altered levels of the stress hormone cortisol could explain the association between stress and somatic complaints. We hypothesized that low cortisol levels after awakening and

  16. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseva, Nina; Pyhälä, Riikka; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g). The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD), 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet. With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0), P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0), P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1) was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8), P = 0.97)]. Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  17. Cortisol response to social stress in parentally bereaved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Stoyak, Samuel; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Matthews, Karen A; Walker Payne, Monica; Brent, David A

    2013-02-15

    Parental bereavement is associated with increased risk for psychiatric illness and functional impairment in youth. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be one pathway through which bereaved children experience increased risk for poor outcomes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between parental bereavement and cortisol response while accounting for psychiatric disorders in both youth and their caregivers. One-hundred and eighty-one bereaved and nonbereaved offspring and their caregivers were assessed at multiple time points over a 5-year period after parental death. Offspring participated in an adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after exposure to social stressors. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of bereavement status, psychiatric disorder in both offspring and caregiver, and demographic indices on trajectories of cortisol response. After controlling for demographic variables and offspring depression, bereaved offspring demonstrated significantly different trajectories of cortisol response compared with nonbereaved offspring, characterized by higher total cortisol output and an absence of cortisol reactivity to acute social stress. Within the bereaved group, offspring of parents who died by sudden natural death demonstrated significant cortisol reactivity to social stress compared with offspring whose parents died by suicide, who demonstrated more blunted trajectory of cortisol response. Parentally bereaved youth demonstrate higher cortisol output than nonbereaved youth but are less able to mount an acute response in the face of social stressors. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  19. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  20. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  1. Normal cortisol response to cold pressor test, but lower free thyroxine, after recovery from undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Garcia, Márcia C; Spadari, Regina C; Clemente, Ana Paula G; de Albuquerque, Maria P; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-14

    Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus. Cortisol upon awakening was highest in the stunted and lowest in the underweight groups: control=5·05 (95% CI 3·71, 6·89) nmol/l, stunted=6·62 (95% CI 3·97, 11·02) nmol/l, underweight=2·51 (95% CI 1·75, 3·63) nmol/l and recovered=3·46 (95% CI 2·46, 4·90) nmol/l (P=0·005). Girls had higher cortisol concentrations upon awakening compared with boys (P=0·021). The undernourished groups showed an elevated cortisol response both to the unpleasant stimulus and at the last measurement (16.00 hours) compared with that of the recovered group: AUC, control=2·07 (95% CI 1·69, 2·45) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·48 (95% CI 1·91, 3·06) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·52 (95% CI 2·07, 2·97) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·68 (95% CI 1·26, 2·11) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·042); and control=2·03 (95% CI 1·75, 2·39) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·51 (95% CI 1·97, 3·19) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·61 (95% CI 2·16, 3·16) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·70 (95% CI 1·42, 2·03) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·009). Lower free thyroxine (T4) was found in the recovered and stunted groups: control=1·28 (95% CI 1·18, 1·39) pmol/l, stunted=0·98 (95% CI 0·87, 1·10) pmol/l, underweight=1·10 (95% CI 1·01, 1·21) pmol/l and recovered=0·90 (95% CI 0·83, 0·99) pmol/l (Pcortisol concentration along 10 h (06.00-16.00 hours) in the recovered compared with the other groups (P=0·017), and similar concentrations between the

  2. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  3. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "bes

  4. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  5. Salivary cortisol and cortisone responses to tetracosactrin (synacthen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Michael P; Ashby, Helen L; Khalid, Yasmeen; Buch, Harit N; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2015-09-01

    To establish cutoff values for salivary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy cortisol and cortisone in defining adequate adrenocortical function during a standard synacthen test. We compared salivary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy cortisol and cortisone responses to those of serum cortisol measured on the Roche E170 immunoassay analyser and the Abbott Architect i2000 before and 30 min and 60 min following 0.25 mg of intravenous synacthen. Correlations of salivary cortisol and cortisone were bimodal and linear, respectively. Based on these correlations, adequate salivary cortisol and cortisone responses to synacthen were extrapolated from a serum cortisol (Roche) cut-off of 550 nmol/L and defined as 15 nmol/L and 45 nmol/L, respectively. The Abbott method correlated well with the Roche but gave results that were about 20% lower than the Roche method. Measurement of salivary cortisol and cortisone responses offers an alternative to those of serum cortisol during a synacthen test in the investigation of adrenal hypofunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, pzebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  7. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  8. Cortisol intermediates and hydrocortisone responsiveness in critical neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Saarela, Timo; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2017-07-01

    Therapy-resistant hypotension complicates diseases in neonates. Our objective was to investigate whether lack of therapeutic response to plasma expanders and inotropes associates with serum levels of cortisol and its precursors. We investigated 96 infants with hypotension and critical neonatal disease for cortisol metabolism and are divided into responders and non-responders to plasma expanders and inotropes. Serum concentrations of steroids were analysed soon after the onset of volume expansion and inotrope treatment for shock. The 48 non-responders were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) and serum cortisol concentrations were monitored a week later. The mean cortisol concentrations did not differ between the responders and non-responders: 13.6 ± 2.5 and 12.5 ± 4.5 μg/dL, respectively. Dehydroepiandrosterone (37.3 ± 19.5 versus 324.0 ± 106.3; p cortisol and cortisone between the responders and non-responders. Hydrocortisone administration acutely increased blood pressure. Six non-responders who died despite HC administration had low levels of cortisol. The responders had normal serum cortisol after HC treatment. Precursors of cortisol, proximal to the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, accumulated in neonates with hypotension, responding to HC treatment.

  9. Neuroticism, cortisol reactivity, and antibody response to vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Anna C. Phillips; Carroll, Douglas; Burns, Victoria E.; Drayson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether neuroticism was related to the antibody response to influenza vaccination and whether the relationship was mediated by cortisol reactions to an acute laboratory mental stress. Antibody status was assessed at baseline and to a trivalent influenza vaccination in 57 students at five-weeks and five-month follow-up. Neuroticism was also measured at baseline. Cortisol was measured at rest and in response to a pressurised mental arithmetic task. At both follow-ups, hi...

  10. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Both the business community and public organisations...... are recognizing the potential benefits of public-private partnerships for furthering the Millennium Development Goals while having a positive impact on business. Partnerships have become more common as corporations react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government...... on the responsible nature of their business practices. The accountability of corporations has moved beyond the traditional obligations of addressing shareholder demands and today, corporations must be accountable to society and all stakeholders affected by global development. The corporate awakening towards...

  11. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporation...... public-private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar.......Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporations...... react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. The corporate awakening towards a broader role of business in society and the trend of corporations embracing partnerships has led many to question the driving...

  12. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  13. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  14. Underweight subjects with anorexia nervosa have an enhanced salivary cortisol response not seen in weight restored subjects with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Serino, Ismene; Amodio, Roberta; Monaco, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The cortisol response to awakening (CAR) has been reported to be enhanced in symptomatic patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, it has been not established whether the dysregulation of CAR was a primary phenomenon or a change secondary to malnutrition. Therefore, we aimed to explore the salivary CAR in both underweight and weigh-restored women with AN. Fifty-nine women volunteered for the study. They were 18 underweight AN women, 15 weight-restored AN women and 26 normal-weight healthy women. Saliva samples were collected in the morning, immediately on awakening and after 15, 30 and 60min to measure saliva levels of cortisol. Participants' anxiety levels in the morning of sampling were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. As compared to control women, underweight AN patients showed an enhanced CAR whereas weight-restored patients had a normal CAR. These results could be not explained by group differences in body mass index or levels of anxiety. These findings show, for the first time, that the enhanced CAR occurring in the acute phase of AN is not seen in weight-recovered patients, suggesting that the dysregulated activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of symptomatic AN patients is a state-dependent phenomenon.

  15. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  16. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  17. Motivation, stress, anxiety, and cortisol responses in elite paragliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Alix, Deborah; Rouveix, Matthieu; Le Scanff, Christine

    2007-06-01

    In this study metamotivational dominance (measured with the Telic Dominance Scale), precompetition anxiety (evaluated with the CSAI-2), perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale), and cortisol responses by 10 paragliding competitors prior to and following a paragliding competition were examined. Saliva was collected for each subject for cortisol analysis on eight occasions: during a resting day (baseline values) and prior to and after competition. Analysis indicated subjects were all paratelic-dominant (characterized by a desire for high arousal, a focus on the present). Scores were high on the Perceived Stress Scale and cognitive nxiety (a telic emotion). Cortisol values showed a significant increase early on the day of the competition and remained elevated all the day, with highest concentrations at the start. Participants' cognitive anxiety and cortisol responses were significantly correlated .79 just before the jump and the direction of the cognitive anxiety was rated as facilitative of performance. These results may suggest that the more frequently the subject is playful in life, the more cortisol they produce when aroused in a less frequent telic state.

  18. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N = 56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants’ learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old infants (N = 84) involved the still face procedure where infants’ reactions to their mothers’ lack of responsivity were not effective in reestabl...

  19. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Magen=n6.09 years; 70 girls) participate

  20. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response : Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related

  1. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    (CAR) and neuroticism, a personality trait associated with the tendency to experience negative emotions. Sixty-nine healthy adults were studied with diffusion-weighted imaging, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the cingulum and uncinate fasciculus. Higher neuroticism scores, which were...

  2. Adolescent Personality : Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress-Induced Cortisol Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning w

  3. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response : Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related

  4. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  5. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

  6. The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 μg/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; Psleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (Psleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (PSleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly.

  7. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety,...

  8. Social network characteristics and salivary cortisol in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2012-01-01

    Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in "cultivation") exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  9. Social Network Characteristics and Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. L. Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in “cultivation” exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  10. Individual differences in cortisol responses to a laboratory speech task and their relationship to responses to stressful daily events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, M; Nicolson, N.A; Berkhof, J.; Sulon, J

    1996-01-01

    A Stress Inducing Speech Task was used to investigate the contribution of perceived stress, individual traits, and current mood states to individual differences in salivary cortisol responses. Additionally, we examined the correspondence between laboratory baseline cortisol levels and overall levels

  11. Individual differences in cortisol responses to a laboratory speech task and their relationship to responses to stressful daily events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, M; Nicolson, N.A; Berkhof, J.; Sulon, J

    1996-01-01

    A Stress Inducing Speech Task was used to investigate the contribution of perceived stress, individual traits, and current mood states to individual differences in salivary cortisol responses. Additionally, we examined the correspondence between laboratory baseline cortisol levels and overall levels

  12. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-12-30

    The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80 healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically significant decreases were found in awakening salivary cortisol (P=0.04) and in all day salivary cortisol (P=0.02) in the escitalopram group compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress between the intervention groups. These findings from a randomised clinical trial suggest that a long-term escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity measured by salivary cortisol compared with inert placebo. However, change in salivary cortisol was one out of multiple outcome measures. The results of the present trial do not refute salivary cortisol as a potential endophenotype for depression.

  13. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn; Trumbell, Jill M

    2012-10-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a normative rise in cortisol levels across the 30 minutes post awakening. Both the levels and the degree of change in cortisol across this time period are sensitive to the perceived challenges of the day and are thought to prepare the individual to meet these tasks. However, working parents of young children may be under unique strains at this time as they attempt to simultaneously care for their children while also preparing themselves for the workday ahead. In these analyses we examined the contributions of both work and parenting stress on maternal cortisol levels and awakening responses, and how these relationships differed on workdays compared with nonworkdays. To do this, saliva samples were collected from 56 working mothers (25% single) with a child between the ages of 2 and 4 years old (mode = 2 children), at awakening and 30 min postawakening. Samples were collected on 4 consecutive days-2 nonworkdays followed by 2 workdays. Analyses revealed mothers reporting higher levels of parenting stress had higher average a.m. cortisol on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Further, mothers reporting a combination of high job strain and high parenting stress had significantly higher cortisol levels and steeper CAR increases on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Findings are discussed by integrating knowledge from the fields of parenting stress, work-family, and stress physiology.

  15. Cortisol, Health, and Coping in Patients with Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger;

    2016-01-01

    Subjective health complaints (SHC), including nonspecific low back pain (LBP) as the most common single complaint, are the main reasons for long-term sick leave in many western countries. These complaints are often attributed to "stress". Cortisol has frequently been considered a biomarker...... reflecting sustained physiological HPA-axis activity, and is characterized by a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low evening values. The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBP patients had a normal characteristic cortisol profile, and whether possible deviations were related to coping...... and health. 305 patients on long-term sick leave for LBP participated in the study, and saliva cortisol profiles were compared to a reference population consisting of Danish workers. Cortisol was measured upon awakening, after 30 min, and in the evening. Additionally, patients answered questionnaires about...

  16. Impaired memory retrieval correlates with individual differences in cortisol response but not autonomic response

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tony W.; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy participants (16 women) learned emotionally arousing and neutral words. One hour later, half of the participants underwent a stressor (cold pressor test) an...

  17. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this st

  18. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.

  19. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.;

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  20. Cancer-related fatigue shows a stable association with diurnal cortisol dysregulation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martina E; Semik, Johanna; Habermann, Nina; Wiskemann, Joachim; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is a major burden for breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy. Yet, its pathophysiology is still not well understood. Hypothesized mechanisms include dysregulations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be reflected in alterations in the diurnal cortisol patterns. However, studies on the association between cortisol and fatigue during adjuvant cancer therapy are rare. We therefore assessed salivary cortisol at awakening, 0.5h post-awakening, noon, 5 pm and 10 pm/bedtime in 265 breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy at three timepoints. Cancer-related fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) covering the physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue dimensions. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed cross-sectionally at the three timepoints as well as longitudinally considering changes in cortisol and fatigue over time. The results showed that the physical dimension of cancer-related fatigue was significantly associated with increased evening cortisol levels and higher overall cortisol secretion. These associations were independent of depressive symptoms. Morning cortisol levels, the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope were not consistently associated with physical fatigue. Affective and cognitive fatigue showed no clear association with any of the cortisol parameters. In conclusion, the physical but not the affective or cognitive dimension of fatigue seems associated with cortisol dysregulations in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy, characterized by an unaffected cortisol level in the morning but blunted decline to the evening level. Research focusing on disturbances of the cortisol rhythm and HPA dysregulations during and after cancer treatment may open new strategies to reduce cancer-related fatigue.

  1. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  2. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically......The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80...... healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min...

  3. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  4. Menstrual cycle effects on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval following a psychosocial stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Pauline M.; Mordecai, Kristen L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Sundermann, Erin; Savarese, Antonia; Eatough, Erin; Drogos, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-induced stress produces elevations in cortisol and deficits in memory, especially when stress is induced immediately before retrieval of emotionally valent stimuli. Sex and sex steroids appear to influence these stress-induced outcomes, though no study has directly compared the effects of laboratory-induced stress on cortisol and emotional retrieval across the menstrual cycle. We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval in women te...

  5. A Phenomenological Model for Circadian and Sleep Allostatic Modulation of Plasma Cortisol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    Cirelli C. The genetic and molecular regulation of sleep: from fruit flies to humans. Nat Rev Neurosci 10: 549–560, 2009. 12. Dallmann R, Viola AU...Hellhammer DH, Kirschbaum C. Genetic fac- tors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology 25...Levengood RA, Siever LJ. Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: a chronobiological analysis. Biol Psychiatry 49

  6. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGriebe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027. The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008; p = 0.010 respectively, as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022; p= 0.024 respectively. The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021 and anxiety (p = 0.007, but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  7. Cortisol Response Mediates HIV-1-Related Cognitive Deficits Among Injecting Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Ownby

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cortisol response is an important measure of the endocrine activity to environmental challenges and has been related to cognitive function and mood. Previous studies have shown that the cortisol response to stress is dysregulated in persons with HIV-1 infection. Since cortisol is neurotoxic and its levels have been related to cognitive dysfunction in various disorders, it is possible that neuroendocrine dysregulation may also be related to cognitive dysfunction in individuals with HIV-1 infection. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the cortisol response to an alpha adrenergic challenge, cold pressor, is related to cognitive function in HIV-infected injecting drug abusers. We used growth curve modeling to study the relationship of cold pressor challenge stimulated cortisol response to scores on the modified HIV Dementia Scale (mHDS. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of HIV-1 infection on the HDS score directly and indirectly via pattern of cortisol response. The analysis showed that HIV-1 infection was directly related to mHDS performance and that it also influenced scores on the mHDS by way of individuals’ pattern of cortisol response. Cortisol response to α-adrenergic challenge thus may mediate cognitive deficits in individuals with HIV-1 infection. These findings further emphasize the importance of understanding the role of stress in the cognitive problems associated with HIV-1 infection.

  8. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, H Marike; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2013-04-01

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms and/or treatment in the past 12 months) and asthma development (asthma at a specific survey while not having asthma at the previous survey(s)) were assessed in the TRAILS study (n=2230, mean age at survey 1 11 years, survey 2 14 years and survey 3 16 years). Logistic regression models were used to study associations between: 1) cortisol (cortisol awakening response, area under the curve (AUC) with respect to the ground (AUCg) or with respect to the increase (AUCi), and evening cortisol) and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol upon stress (AUCg or AUCi) and asthma. The meta-analyses included nine case-control articles on basal cortisol in asthma. No significant association was found between: 1) cortisol and asthma (age 11 years) or asthma development (age 14 or 16 years); 2) cortisol upon stress and asthma (age 16 years). The meta-analysis found lower morning and evening cortisol levels in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics; however, the summary estimates were not significant. We found no evidence supporting a role for cortisol in asthma and asthma development.

  9. Lifestyle, stress and cortisol response: Review I: Mental stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2001-01-01

    The incidences of diseases related to mental stress are increasing in Japan. Mental stress, unacknowledged for long periods, has been shown to lead to the development of a number of diseases. Thus, an index for mental stress is important to induce awareness of its presence. We focused on the relationship between cortisol and mental stress in this review. We will discuss both the usefulness and problems of cortisol as a mental stress index by summarizing the relationship between cortisol and m...

  10. Inflammation and cortisol response in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijm, Johnny; Jonasson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation involving autoimmune components. The degree of inflammatory activity, as detectable both within the atherosclerotic plaque and in the circulation, is associated with plaque destabilization and atherothrombotic complications. Endogenous glucocorticoids are modulators of innate and acquired immune responses, and as such play a key role in the reciprocal interaction between neuroendocrine and immune systems. Abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function have been described in several chronic inflammatory disorders, and evidence has emerged lately that HPA dysfunction may be implicated also in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. This review is an outline of knowledge gained so far by previous studies of glucocorticoids in coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. The results consistently point towards a dysregulated cortisol secretion that may involve a failure to contain inflammatory activity. A dysfunctional HPA axis and its possible implications for coronary artery disease progress, including the hypothetical link between stress and inflammation, are discussed.

  11. Effect of Sleep Extension on the Subsequent Testosterone, Cortisol and Prolactin Responses to Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, P J; Drogou, C; Sauvet, F; Regnauld, J; Dispersyn, G; Faraut, B; Millet, G Y; Leger, D; Gomez-Merino, D; Chennaoui, M

    2016-02-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) in humans is associated with altered hormonal levels, which may have clinical relevance. Less is known about the effect of an extended sleep period before TSD on these hormonal changes. Fourteen subjects participated in two experimental counterbalanced conditions (randomised cross-over design): extended sleep (21.00-07.00 h time in bed, EXT) and habitual sleep (22.30-07.00 h time in bed, HAB). For each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: six nights of either EXT or HAB. These nights were followed by 3 days in the sleep laboratory with blood sampling at 07.00 and 17.00 h at baseline (B-07.00 and B-17.00), after 24 and 34 h of continuous awakening (24 h-CA, 34 h-CA) and after one night of recovery sleep (R-07.00 and R-17.00) to assess testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and catecholamines concentrations. At 24 h of awakening, testosterone, cortisol and prolactin concentrations were significantly lower compared to B-07.00 and recovered basal levels after recovery sleep at R-07.00 (P sleep extension was observed on testosterone, cortisol and catecholamines concentrations at 24 and 34 h of awakening. However, prolactin concentration was significantly lower in EXT at B-07.00 and R-07.00 compared to HAB (P sleep extension is not sufficient to limit decreased concentrations of testosterone and cortisol at 24 h of awakening but may have an impact on prolactin concentration.

  12. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. Our main objectives...

  13. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  14. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  15. The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2014-01-01

    Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Cronin, John; Keogh, Justin; Cook, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the free hormone (in saliva) responses to squat workouts performed by recreationally weight-trained males, using either a power (8 sets of 6 reps, 45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 3-minute rest periods, ballistic movements), hypertrophy (10 sets of 10 reps, 75% 1RM, 2-minute rest periods, controlled movements), or maximal strength scheme (6 sets of 4 reps, 88% 1RM, 4-minute rest periods, explosive intent). To determine the relative importance of the different training variables, these schemes were equated by workout duration with the power and strength schemes also equated by load volume. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) both increased following the hypertrophy scheme (P hormonal change across the power and maximal strength schemes (P > 0.05). In general, the postexercise T and C responses to the hypertrophy scheme exceeded the other two schemes (P workout duration may explain the endocrine differences observed. The similar T and C responses to the power and maximal strength schemes (of equal volume) support such a view and suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume. Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth.

  17. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  18. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  19. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA using a novel collection device: electronic monitoring confirms accurate recording of collection time using this device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Calderone, Jacqueline; Philips, Sam; Natvig, Crystal; Carlson, Nichole E

    2013-09-01

    The accurate indication of saliva collection time is important for defining the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol as well as characterizing the cortisol awakening response. We tested a convenient and novel collection device for collecting saliva on strips of filter paper in a specially constructed booklet for determination of both cortisol and DHEA. In the present study, 31 healthy adults (mean age 43.5 years) collected saliva samples four times a day on three consecutive days using filter paper collection devices (Saliva Procurement and Integrated Testing (SPIT) booklet) which were maintained during the collection period in a large plastic bottle with an electronic monitoring cap. Subjects were asked to collect saliva samples at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch and 600 min after awakening. The time of awakening and the time of collection before lunch were allowed to vary by each subjects' schedule. A reliable relationship was observed between the time recorded by the subject directly on the booklet and the time recorded by electronic collection device (n=286 observations; r(2)=0.98). However, subjects did not consistently collect the saliva samples at the two specific times requested, 30 and 600 min after awakening. Both cortisol and DHEA revealed diurnal declines. In spite of variance in collection times at 30 min and 600 min after awakening, the slope of the diurnal decline in both salivary cortisol and DHEA was similar when we compared collection tolerances of ±7.5 and ±15 min for each steroid. These unique collection booklets proved to be a reliable method for recording collection times by subjects as well as for estimating diurnal salivary cortisol and DHEA patterns.

  20. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  1. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  2. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  3. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Recent depressive and anxious symptoms predict cortisol responses to stress in men

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Kathryn P.; Robles, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder show blunted cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors, but the extent to which this pattern of dampened responding characterizes individuals experiencing sub-clinical levels of depressive symptoms is unknown. This study investigated whether self-reports of depressive and anxious symptoms over the previous two weeks were associated with cortisol responses to a laboratory social stress task. In addition, we tested whether these associations were me...

  5. Gender-dependent effects of body esteem and appraisal on cortisol stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lupis, Sarah B.; Thoma, Myriam V.; Nicolas Rohleder; Jutta Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Background : The Social Self Preservation Theory posits that situations that threaten the ‘social self’ elicit shame which, in turn, is linked to cortisol stress response. Body esteem may be one predictor of the propensity to respond with shame to stress. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing whether body esteem is associated with cortisol stress responses, and further, whether this relationship is mediated by cognitive appraisals of challenge and threat. Methods : We expo...

  6. Diurnal salivary cortisol is associated with body mass index and waist circumference: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Bertoni, Alain G; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S; Diez Roux, Ana; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30-min postawakening), early decline (30 min to 2-h postawakening), late decline (2-h postawakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (P < 0.05), AUC during awakening rise, and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (P < 0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, β-blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy, and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  7. Ethnicity, Cortisol, and Experimental Pain Responses Among Persons With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Matthew S; Goodin, Burel R; Bulls, Hailey W; Sotolongo, Adriana; Petrov, Megan E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2017-09-01

    Although several factors are known to contribute to ethnic differences in pain, relatively little attention has been devoted to physiological factors. Our first aim was to examine the relationship between cortisol and pain responses during a cold-pressor task (CPT) among African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our second aim was to assess the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and cortisol among AA participants. Participants were 91 (56 AA; 35 NHW) community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 to 85 with knee OA based upon the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Plasma cortisol was measured at 3 timepoints: (1) baseline, (2) before the CPT, and (3) 20 minutes following the CPT. Perceived racial discrimination was measured by the Experiences of Discrimination scale. Using linear regression, we found a significant interaction between ethnicity and cortisol before the CPT with pain intensity ratings (β=-0.26; P=0.02). Analysis of simple slopes revealed that cortisol concentrations were negatively associated with pain intensity ratings in NHW participants (β=-0.54; P=0.001), but not in AA participants (β=-0.15; P=0.26). Perceived racial discrimination was not related to cortisol concentrations or pain ratings. Consistent with previous findings in young healthy adults, cold-pressor pain responses are related to pre-CPT cortisol concentrations in NHW persons with knee OA but not in their AA counterparts. Additional studies are required to better understand this finding.

  8. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response.

  9. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of cortisol in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocer, Tuba; Yildiz, Sedat; Uçar, Cihat

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of cortisol in saliva is of prime importance as it represents a bioavailable neuroendocrine marker for stress. Therefore, in this study, we developed an enzyme immune assay that was suitable for salivary cortisol measurements. For that purpose, rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against cortisol-3-CMO:BSA conjugate. The test was based on competition of liquid phase cortisol with conjugated cortisol on the solid phase. Primary antibody was used to bind available sites on the conjugate, which was proportional to numbers of cortisol in liquid phase. Biotinylated secondary anti-rabbit antibody was used to detect primary antibodies by addition of streptavidin peroxidase and substrate, respectively. Color formation was stopped and yellow color was read by a plate-reader spectrophotometer. Additionally, validated test was used to met all validation criteria including. Test developed was used to establish cortisol awakening response (CAR) in saliva samples collected in the morning after awakening (0, 15, 30, and 60(th) min) from women (n = 4) and men (n = 4) at 8 or 4 different days, respectively. Diurnal cortisol levels were assessed (n = 8) at after awaking 60 min at morning, 12:00, 19:00, and 22:00 hr. In conclusion, an enzyme immunoassay test was successfully produced, validated and used for cortisol measurement in saliva samples.

  10. Cortisol response to psychosocial stress during a depressive episode and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cortisol responses to a standardized psychosocial stressor during a major depressive episode (MDE) and again during remission in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-six individuals with no personal or family history of a major psychiatric disorder (NC) and 24 individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at Time 1 participated in the study. The MDD group showed robust cortisol responses during their index episode and after recovery. In contrast, the NC group showed habituation to the repeated psychosocial stressor, as evident in a flatter cortisol response profile at Time 2. Within the MDD group, net peak cortisol during the first stress test was positively associated with the duration of the index MDE and negatively associated with the total duration of all MDEs. Whereas summary indices of cortisol responses were relatively stable across repeated stress tasks within the MDD group, this was not the case for NC. Results demonstrate that cortisol responses fail to habituate to repeated psychosocial stress during recovery from an MDE and could reflect a trait-like marker of risk for recurrence.

  11. Exogenous cortisol facilitates responses to social threat under high provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Katja; Böhnke, Robina; Kruk, Menno R; Richter, Steffen; Naumann, Ewald

    2011-04-01

    Stress is one of the most important promoters of aggression. Human and animal studies have found associations between basal and acute levels of the stress hormone cortisol and (abnormal) aggression. Irrespective of the direction of these changes--i.e., increased or decreased aggressive behavior--the results of these studies suggest dramatic alterations in the processing of threat-related social information. Therefore, the effects of cortisol and provocation on social information processing were addressed by the present study. After a placebo-controlled pharmacological manipulation of acute cortisol levels, we exposed healthy individuals to high or low levels of provocation in a competitive aggression paradigm. Influences of cortisol and provocation on emotional face processing were then investigated with reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in an emotional Stroop task. In line with previous results, enhanced early and later positive, posterior ERP components indicated a provocation-induced enhanced relevance for all kinds of social information. Cortisol, however, reduced an early frontocentral bias for angry faces and--despite the provocation-enhancing relevance--led to faster reactions for all facial expressions in highly provoked participants. The results thus support the moderating role of social information processing in the 'vicious circle of stress and aggression'.

  12. Hot flashes and midlife symptoms in relation to levels of salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Linda M; Sievert, Lynnette L; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and hot flashes during midlife. Previous studies have shown that cortisol levels increase with hot flashes in the laboratory, and higher cortisol levels have been associated with more severe hot flashes. Salivary cortisol levels were also examined in relation to total number of midlife symptoms. Women aged 40-60 years (n=109) reported the presence or absence of 23 symptoms, including hot flashes, during the previous 2 weeks. Salivary samples were collected at waking, 30min after waking, 1h before bedtime, and at bedtime. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), cortisol daily decline (CDD), log transformed salivary cortisol levels at each time point, and mean cortisol levels were compared by hot flash report using t-tests. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between each cortisol measure and the presence or absence of hot flashes, after controlling for potential covariates. Salivary cortisol levels were not significantly associated with hot flashes or sum of symptoms. Hot flash report did not differentiate women who had a positive CAR from those who did not, or women who showed strong CDD from those who did not. Symptomatic women - defined by hot flash report or symptom total - were not found to have higher salivary cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lower cortisol response in high-resilient caregivers of people with autism: the role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Romero-Martínez, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-10-13

    Caring for an offspring with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been related to high stress levels and health disturbances. However, a protective effect against these negative health outcomes has been described in high-resilient caregivers. In this context, the main aim of the present study was to assess the association between resilient coping and cortisol response to acute stress in caregivers of people with ASD. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore the mediating role of anger in this association. We exposed 40 caregivers of people with ASD to an acute psychosocial stressor in the laboratory. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained before, during, and after the stressor. Resilient coping, anger, and socio-demographic variables were also assessed. Resilient coping was negatively correlated with cortisol response. Specifically, cortisol release was lower in high-resilient than low-resilient caregivers. Anger was positively correlated with cortisol response, mediating the association with resilient coping. The observed associations of resilient coping and anger with cortisol response indicate that these variables may affect health outcomes, resilience being protective and anger harmful. Psychotherapeutic interventions focused on strengthening resilience and anger management could benefit caregivers, improving their health status and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Experience, cortisol reactivity, and the coordination of emotional responses to skydiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eMeyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Physiological habituation to laboratory stressors has previously been demonstrated, although the literature remains equivocal. Previous studies have found skydiving to be a salient naturalistic stressor that elicits a robust subjective and physiological stress response. However, it is uncertain whether (or how stress reactivity habituates to this stressor given that skydiving remains a risky, life-threatening challenge with every jump despite experience. While multiple components of a stress response have been documented, it is unclear whether there is an individual’s subjective emotions are related to their physiological responses. Documenting coordinated responsivity would lend insight into shared underlying mechanisms for the nature of habituation of both subjective (emotion and objective (cortisol stress responses. Therefore, we examined subjective emotion and cortisol responses in first-time compared to experienced skydivers in a predominantly male sample (total n = 44; males = 32, females = 12. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that experienced skydivers showed less reactivity and faster recovery compared to first-time skydivers. Subjective emotions were coordinated with physiological responses primarily within first-time skydivers. Pre-jump anxiety predicted cortisol reactivity within first-time, but not experienced, skydivers. Higher post-jump happiness predicted faster cortisol recovery after jumping although this effect overlapped somewhat with the effect of experience. Results suggest that experience may modulate the coordination of emotional response with cortisol reactivity to skydiving. Prior experience does not appear to extinguish the stress response but rather alters the individual’s engagement of the HPA axis.

  16. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M; Scherer, Sean M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2011-08-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48h apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol's effects on emotion in two ways: (A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and (B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g., habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes.

  17. Stress and cortisol responses in men: differences according to facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2017-09-19

    Stress response is associated with increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Chronic stress-induced elevation in cortisol may alter its own negative regulation with multiple long-term consequences for physical and psychological health. One of the most reliable physical traits associated with mental, apparent physical health, and competitiveness is the degree of facial fluctuating asymmetry. However, to our knowledge there are no studies regarding the relationship between cortisol levels, facial symmetry and male competitiveness, and how cortisol changes after a stressful test depending on these traits. Here, a group of 100 college men were photographed to obtain their facial asymmetry levels. They then, answered the perceived stress scale and the intrasexual competition test and donated two saliva samples (pre-and post-test sample) to measure the change in their cortisol levels after a stressful test. We found that basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with both perceived stress and competitiveness, but not with facial fluctuating asymmetry. Cortisol levels increased in most symmetrical men after a short stressful test, but it decreased in most asymmetrical men. The results suggest differences in endocrine responses according to facial fluctuating asymmetry in men and how these responses could be related to the maintenance of social status.

  18. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2014-01-01

    -term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal...... and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00h, the following day at awakening, and 30min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level...... observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure...

  19. Seasonal effects on plasma cortisol concentrations in the Bedouin buck: circadian studies and response to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, N; Mormede, P; Foury, A; Khammar, F; Amirat, Z

    2017-03-01

    Our work aims at the exploration of cortisol secretion in the Bedouin goat, native to the Algerian Sahara desert, to understand the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme hot climates. In the present study, diurnal and seasonal variations of cortisol concentrations were measured in basal conditions, as well as the response to ACTH stimulation tests across seasons in bucks. The plasma concentrations of cortisol showed no diurnal cycle but a large variation across seasons. The highest levels occurred in summer and winter when the environmental conditions are at their extreme levels. The rectal temperature showed nychthemeral and seasonal variations, and BW was also different across seasons with highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The results obtained after administration of two doses (2 or 10 μg/kg BW) of synthetic ACTH to three different age groups (kids, adults and elderly animals) showed a strong increase in plasma cortisol concentrations under all conditions with maximum levels achieved between 15 and 120 min. The analysis of the area under the cortisol curve showed no significant difference between the responses to the two doses of ACTH and between age groups, but showed seasonal variations with the lowest response in autumn than in other seasons. We conclude that season significantly affects secretion of cortisol in both basal state and under ACTH stimulation. However, the variation of adrenal reactivity to ACTH is not sufficient to explain seasonal differences, and in particular the summer peak in basal circulating cortisol concentrations. Further research should focus on the respective contribution of environmental factors (such as day length, temperature, humidity) and the mechanisms involved in cortisol regulation.

  20. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental....... CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild to moderate depression had a different growth hormone and cortisol response to acute exercise stress compared to healthy controls. Strength training was able to reduce the growth hormone response to acute exercise stress in this patient population. Studies with more rigorous...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...

  1. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  2. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram eMossink

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-hour ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 minutes thereafter (cortisol awakening response. Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems.

  4. From Loss to Awakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高崇毅; 李柳英

    2007-01-01

    Katherine Mansfield's short story A Dill Pickle (1917) shows a full picture of the female image to the readers: Vera's loss in love and her awakening from the sorrow and despair.Vera changes during the talk with her former boyfriend and achieves in awakening as a female at last.

  5. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment is associated with diurnal cortisol regulation in term-born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, M N; Sandman, C A; Glynn, L M; Wing, D A; Davis, E P

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rapid developmental changes that occur during the fetal period, prenatal influences can affect the developing central nervous system with lifelong consequences for physical and mental health. Glucocorticoids are one of the proposed mechanisms by which fetal programing occurs. Glucocorticoids pass through the blood-brain barrier and target receptors throughout the central nervous system. Unlike endogenous glucocorticoids, synthetic glucocorticoids readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the developing fetus. The synthetic glucocorticoid, betamethasone, is routinely given prenatally to mothers at risk for preterm delivery. Over 25% of the fetuses exposed to betamethasone will be born at term. Few studies have examined the lasting consequences of antenatal treatment of betamethasone on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether antenatal exposure to betamethasone alters circadian cortisol regulation in children who were born full term. School-aged children prenatally treated with betamethasone and born at term (n=19, mean (SD)=8.1 (1.2) years old) were compared to children not treated with antenatal glucocorticoids (n=61, mean (SD)=8.2 (1.4) years old). To measure the circadian release of cortisol, saliva samples were collected at awakening; 30, 45, and 60min after awakening; and in the evening. Comparison children showed a typical diurnal cortisol pattern that peaked in the morning (the cortisol awakening response) and gradually decreased throughout the day. In contrast, children exposed to antenatal betamethasone lacked a cortisol awakening response and had a flatter diurnal slope (p'schildren born at term. Because disrupted circadian regulation of cortisol has been linked to mental and somatic health problems, future research is needed to determine whether children exposed to antenatal synthetic glucocorticoids are at risk for poor mental and physical health. Copyright

  6. Cortisol and vagal tone responses to competitive challenge in preschoolers: associations with temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzella, B; Gunnar, M R; Krueger, W K; Alwin, J

    2000-12-01

    Sixty-one 3- to 5-year-old nursery school children participated in a study of tempera ment and stress responses to competition. Each child individually participated in a competition against a familiar adult experimenter to determine who would win enough games to receive a prize. After initially winning three games (Win Period), the children lost the next three games (Lose Period), before winning the final games and receiving the prize. Salivary cortisol, vagal tone, affect and turn-taking behavior were measured in response to the competition and examined in relation to child temperament using a teacher-report version of the Child Behavior Questionnaire. Behavioral measures indicated that the procedures were emotionally engaging and the threat of losing was aversive. Surgency (extroversion) was positively correlated with positive affect during Win periods and tense/angry affect during the Lose period of the competition. Vagal tone decreased as the children began to play against the adult and children who were more tense/angry while losing showed additional suppression of vagal tone when they began to lose the competition. Most of the children did not show a cortisol response to the competition; however, the 15% who increased cortisol (responses >1 SD of classroom baselines) were described by teachers as more surgent and lower in effortful control. All but one of these children who increased in cortisol was male. Cortisol responsive children also displayed higher levels of tense/angry affect during the Lose period. Surgent, extroverted children appear to be vulnerable to competition stress.

  7. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can

  8. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. von Polier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.

  9. Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J J; Franco, C; Sodano, R; Frye, C A; Wulfert, E

    2010-02-09

    Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction. Notably, both pathological gambling and drug addiction are characterized by aberrations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responding. As well, there are indications that gender differences may play a role in these processes. Whether gender and/or HPA response are associated with pathological gambling was of interest. Recreational and pathological gamblers (15 men and 6 women per group) had the HPA factor, cortisol, assessed in saliva before and after watching a video of their preferred mode of gambling (slot machines, horse race betting, scratch-off tickets, blackjack, video poker, craps, sports betting, online casino games, or lottery tickets), and a video of neutral stimuli (a rollercoaster ride). Basal levels of salivary cortisol did not significantly differ among recreational and pathological gamblers. However, recreational gamblers demonstrated significantly increased salivary cortisol levels after the gambling and rollercoaster videos, whereas pathological gamblers demonstrated no salivary cortisol increase in response to either video stimulus. There was also a non-significant trend for women to have a greater cortisol response to video stimuli compared to men. These data suggest that pathological gambling is associated with hypoactive HPA response to gambling stimuli, similar to chronic drug exposure, and gender may contribute to this effect.

  10. Menstrual cycle effects on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval following a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M; Mordecai, Kristen L; Rubin, Leah H; Sundermann, Erin; Savarese, Antonia; Eatough, Erin; Drogos, Lauren

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Laboratory-induced stress produces elevations in cortisol and deficits in memory, especially when stress is induced immediately before retrieval of emotionally valent stimuli. Sex and sex steroids appear to influence these stress-induced outcomes, though no study has directly compared the effects of laboratory-induced stress on cortisol and emotional retrieval across the menstrual cycle. We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval in women tested during either the follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) or the luteal phase (higher estradiol and progesterone). Forty women (50% White; age 18-40 years) participated in the study; 20 completed the task during the luteal phase and 20 during the follicular phase. Psychosocial stress was induced with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). On the day before the TSST, participants learned two lists of word pairs to 100% criterion. The next day, participants recalled one list after the control condition and the other after the TSST. Women in the follicular phase, but not the luteal phase, demonstrated a significant cortisol response to the TSST. There was a stress-induced decrease in emotional retrieval following the TSST, but this effect was not modified by menstrual phase. However, regression and correlational analyses showed that individual differences in stress-induced cortisol levels were associated with impaired emotional retrieval in the follicular phase only. The present findings indicate that cortisol responsivity and the impairing effects of cortisol on emotional memory are lower when levels of estradiol and progesterone are high compared to when levels are low.

  11. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subjects design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874

  12. Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C; Root, James C; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E; Goldstein, Martin S; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; Ledoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David

    2009-06-01

    The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response.

  13. Perceived transgressor agreeableness decreases cortisol response and increases forgiveness following recent interpersonal transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E

    2011-07-01

    Stress associated with interpersonal conflict can adversely impact mental and physical health-especially when it causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Among victims of interpersonal transgressions, certain personality characteristics (viz., neuroticism and agreeableness) have been associated in some studies with successful conflict resolution and decreased physiological activity. How victims' perceptions of their transgressors' personalities affect conflict resolution and physiological reactivity, however, has not been examined. Here, we examined the relationships of (a) victims' agreeableness and neuroticism, and (b) victims' perceptions of their transgressors' agreeableness and neuroticism with plasma cortisol responses in women and (in a larger sample of men and women) forgiveness over time. Victims who perceived their transgressors as highly agreeable had (a) lower cortisol responses following a simulated speech to the transgressor, and (b) higher self-reported forgiveness, even after controlling for initial levels of forgiveness. Participants' own agreeableness and neuroticism had negligible associations with cortisol response and forgiveness over time.

  14. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  15. Neuroendocrine Abnormalities in Drug Abusers and HIV-Infected Individuals: Cortisol Response to Cold Pressor Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although endocrine abnormalities have been reported in HIV-1 infection, the role of risk factors is not understood. Injecting drug use (IDU is an important risk factor for contracting HIV-infection and studies suggest that substance use may also be associated with endocrine dysfunction. In order to investigate hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis activity in this population, this study investigated cortisol response to the cold pressor challenge in IDUs with and without HIV infection. After controlling for the effects of gender, duration of marijuana use and time since the last use of heroin, the findings show that the pattern of cortisol response depended upon HIV serostatus. Cortisol levels peaked later in HIV+ IDUs and recovered at a slower rate than HIV negative IDUs. These findings support our hypothesis that dysregulation in HPA axis activity occurs in HIV infected IDUs.

  16. Diurnal salivary cortisol, glycemia and insulin resistance: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-12-01

    Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0min to bedtime, excluding 30min cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6,6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3,10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: -13.3,-2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: -14.6, -0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance.

  17. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol, Glycemia and Insulin Resistance: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline slope (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0 minutes to bedtime, excluding 30 minute cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3, 10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: −13.3, −2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: −14.6, −0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  18. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  19. Exogenous Cortisol Administration; Effects on Risk Taking Behavior, Exercise Performance, and Physiological and Neurophysiological Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline V.; Immink, Maarten A.; Marino, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Exogenous cortisol is a modulator of behavior related to increased motivated decision making (Putman et al., 2010), where risky choices yield potentially big reward. Making risk based judgments has been shown to be important to athletes in optimizing pacing during endurance events (Renfree et al., 2014; Micklewright et al., 2015). Objectives: Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of 50 mg exogenous cortisol on neurophysiological responses and risk taking behavior in nine healthy men. Further to this, to examine the effect of exogenous cortisol on exercise performance. Methods: Using a double blind counterbalanced design, cyclists completed a placebo (PLA), and a cortisol (COR) trial (50 mg cortisol), with drug ingestion at 0 min. Each trial consisted of a rest period from 0 to 60 min, followed by a risk taking behavior task, a 30 min time trial (TT) with 5 × 30 s sprints at the following time intervals; 5, 11, 17, 23, and 29 min. Salivary cortisol (SaCOR), Electroencephalography (EEG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRs) were measured at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-ingestion. Glucose and lactate samples were taken at 0 and 60 min post-ingestion. During exercise, power output (PO), heart rate (HR), EEG, and NIRS were measured. SaCOR was measured 10 min post-exercise. Results: Cortisol increased risk taking behavior from baseline testing. This was in line with significant neurophysiological changes at rest and during exercise. At rest, SaCOR levels were higher (P < 0.01) in COR compared to PLA (29.7 ± 22.7 and 3.27 ± 0.7 nmol/l, respectively). At 60 min alpha slow EEG response was higher in COR than PLA in the PFC (5.5 ± 6.4 vs. −0.02 ± 8.7% change; P < 0.01). During the TT there was no difference in total km, average power or average sprint power, although Peak power (PP) achieved was lower in COR than PLA (465.3 ± 83.4 and 499.8 ± 104.3; P < 0.05) and cerebral oxygenation was lower in COR (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This is

  20. Rapid recovery of the cortisol response following social subordination in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Brett M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2016-10-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which distinctive behavioural and physiological phenotypes distinguish dominant from subordinate fish. In particular, subordinate fish are characterized by inhibition of behaviours such as feeding and activity, by low growth rates, and by chronic elevation of circulating glucocorticoid stress hormone (cortisol) concentrations. To evaluate the ability of trout to recover from chronic social stress, pairs of fish were allowed to interact for 4d, and subordinate fish were then separated from dominant fish. Recovery was assessed using behavioural (position in the tank, latency to feed, and food consumed) and physiological (plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, liver glycogen content, hepatosomatic index, specific growth rate, and gall bladder mass) indices. During 48 or 96h of recovery from the 4d interaction period, only plasma cortisol and glucose levels of subordinates returned to baseline values consistent with those of dominant and sham trout (fish that were handled like paired fish but housed singly). All other physiological variables failed to recover, likely owing to the absence of behavioural recovery, including continued inhibition of food intake even following separation from the dominant fish. Whereas subordinate fish exhibited an attenuated cortisol response to an acute netting stressor, 'recovered' subordinates mounted a cortisol response that was equivalent to those of dominant and sham fish. However, 'recovered' subordinates that were paired with a socially naïve conspecific were unable to achieve non-subordinate status. Collectively, these results indicate that recovery of the cortisol response precedes behavioural recovery from social subordination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Coordination of cortisol response to social evaluative threat with autonomic and inflammatory responses is moderated by stress appraisals and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    Recent approaches to stress regulation have emphasized coordination among multiple biological systems. This study builds on evidence that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity should be considered in coordination with other stress-sensitive biological systems to characterize healthy responses. Healthy African-Americans (n=115) completed the Trier Social Stress Test, and biological responses were assessed through salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), alpha amylase (sAA), and C-reactive protein (sCRP). Multilevel modeling demonstrated that cortisol responses typically aligned with changes in DHEA-S, sAA, and sCRP across the session. At the same time, the degree of cortisol coordination with sAA and sCRP varied by participants' subjective stress following the task; participants with higher secondary stress appraisals showed greater cortisol-sAA alignment, whereas those experiencing more negative affect showed greater cortisol-sCRP alignment. Results highlight the importance of a multisystem approach to stress and suggest that positive HPA axis coordination with the autonomic response, but not with the immune/inflammatory response, may be adaptive.

  2. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  3. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  4. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD.

  5. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two gro

  6. Cortisol response and psychological distress predict susceptibility to false memories for a trauma film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Ali, Sinan; Kemp, Richard I; Bryant, Richard A; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-10-01

    For eyewitness testimony to be considered reliable, it is important to ensure memory remains accurate following the event. As many testimonies involve traumatic, as opposed to neutral, events, it is important to consider the role of distress in susceptibility to false memories. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol response following a stressor would be associated with susceptibility to false memories. Psychological distress responses were also investigated, specifically, dissociation, intrusions, and avoidance. Participants were allocated to one of three conditions: those who viewed a neutral film (N = 35), those who viewed a real trauma film (N = 35), and a trauma "reappraisal" group where participants were told the film was not real (N = 35). All received misinformation about the film in the form of a narrative. Participants provided saliva samples (to assess cortisol) and completed distress and memory questionnaires. Cortisol response was a significant predictor of the misinformation effect. Dissociation and avoidance were related to confabulations. In conclusion, following a stressor an individual may differ with regard to their psychological response to the event, and also whether they experience a cortisol increase. This may affect whether they are more distressed later on, and also whether they remember the event accurately.

  7. Cortisol response to interpersonal stress in young adults with borderline personality disorder: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marc; Bureau, Jean-François; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Bertha, Eszter A.; Hollander, Michael; Wheelis, Joan; Brooks, Nancy Hall; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2008-01-01

    Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation after stress was found to be associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Nine female BPD young adults and 12 control subjects were investigated for stress reactivity and recovery after an interpersonal conflict discussion with their mothers. BPD subjects showed a delayed cortisol response after psychosocial stress. PMID:18325742

  8. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  9. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  10. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  11. Response to LPS in female offspring from sows treated with cortisol during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Kranendonk, G.; Fillerup, M.; Hopster, H.; Boersma, W.; Hodgson, D.; Reenen, van K.; Taverne, M.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus¿pituitary¿adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress respon

  12. Differences in Cortisol Response to Trauma Activation in Individuals with and without Comorbid PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dekel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although depression symptoms are often experienced by individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure, little is know about the biological correlates associated with PTSD and depression co-morbidity vs. those associated with PTSD symptoms alone.Methods: Here we examined salivary cortisol responses to trauma activation in a sample of 60 survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. Participants recalled the escape from the attacks 7 months post 9/11. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after their recollection of the trauma. PTSD, depression, and somatic symptoms were also assessed. From the behavioral assessment scales, the participants were grouped into three conditions: those with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms, PTSD alone symptoms, or no-pathology.Results: Baseline and cortisol response levels differed between the comorbid, PTSD alone, and no-pathology groups. Individuals endorsing co-morbid symptoms had higher PTSD and somatic symptom severity and their cortisol response decreased following their trauma reminder while a trend of an elevated response to the trauma was found in the PTSD alone group. Our findings show distinct psychological and biological correlates related to the endorsement of PTSD with and without depression comorbidity.Conclusions: The findings suggest that comorbidity symptoms manifestation entails a separate trauma induced condition from PTSD. Future research on biological correlates of comorbid PTSD and depression is warranted.

  13. Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50 μg cortisol/g body weight. Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma.

  14. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  15. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  16. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise...

  17. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  18. Stress and emotional memory retrieval: effects of sex and cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In some situations, memory is enhanced by stressful experience, while in others, it is impaired. The specific components of the stress-response that may result in these differing effects remain unclear, and the current study sought to address this knowledge gap. Forty healthy participants (20 women, 20 men) were exposed to emotionally arousing and neutral pictures. Twenty-four hours later, 20 participants underwent a social stressor (speech and math tests), and 20 underwent a control reading task, both followed by a delayed free recall task. Cortisol responders to the stress condition (5 men and 1 woman) showed reduced memory retrieval for both neutral and emotionally arousing pictures. Men and women in the stress condition who did not produce a cortisol response showed increased retrieval of unpleasant pictures compared to controls. The results provide further evidence that cortisol is a primary effector in the stress-induced memory retrieval deficit. At the same time, stress can enhance memory retrieval performance, especially for emotional stimuli, when the cortisol response is absent.

  19. The burden of conscientiousness? Examining brain activation and cortisol response during social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Anne-Sophie; Schmierer, Phöbe; Veer, Ilya M; Streit, Fabian; Görgen, Anna; Kruschwitz, Johann; Wüst, Stefan; Kirsch, Peter; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Although conscientiousness has for a long time been considered generally adaptive, there are findings challenging this view, suggesting that conscientiousness might be less advantageous during uncontrollable stress. We here examined the impact of conscientiousness on brain activation during and the cortisol response following an uncontrollable social evaluative stress task in order to test this hypothesis. Brain activation and cortisol levels were measured during an fMRI stress task, where subjects (n=86) performed cognitive tasks containing preprogrammed failure under time pressure, while being monitored by a panel of experts inducing social-evaluative threat. The degree of conscientiousness was measured using the NEO-FFI. We observed a positive correlation between conscientiousness and salivary cortisol levels in response to the stressful task in male subjects only. In male subjects conscientiousness correlated positively with activation in right amygdala and left insula, and, moreover, mediated the influence of amygdala and insula activation on cortisol output. This pattern of brain activation can be interpreted as a disadvantageous response to uncontrollable stress to which highly conscientious individuals might be predisposed. This is the first study showing the effect of conscientiousness on physiology and brain activation to an uncontrollable psychosocial stressor. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the hypothesis that conscientiousness should not just be seen as beneficial, but rather as a trait associated with either costs or benefits depending on the extent to which one is in control of the situation.

  20. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children are associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress but not with daily cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kajantie, Eero; Jones, Alexander; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo E; Räikkönen, Katri

    2011-11-01

    We tested associations of diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and its response to stress with behavioral symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among 272 eight-year-old children. We measured their diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Mothers rated their child's behavior with the ADHD-IV Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). There were no significant associations between ADHD symptoms and diurnal cortisol concentrations. The boys with predominantly inattentive symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-I; scores at or above the 90th percentile) had 26% lower mean salivary cortisol levels during the TSST-C than the boys with scores below this cutoff. In the girls with symptoms of ADHD-I, initial salivary cortisol levels prior to the TSST-C were higher and fell more rapidly during and after the TSST-C, which was not seen in the remaining girls (P = 0.007 for interaction 'ADHD-I × sampling time'). Controlling for Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and Anxiety Disorder or excluding children with these comorbid problems did not substantially affect these findings. We conclude that the boys and the girls with behavioral symptoms of ADHD-I had reduced HPAA responsiveness to stress, which is also seen in people after traumatic events or with chronic stress. Their diurnal cortisol rhythm was not affected. Thus, ADHD-I may be associated with dysregulation of the HPAA or reduced engagement with stressful stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced cortisol responses in men with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; van West, D; De Vos, N; Westenberg, H; Van Hunsel, F; Hendriks, D; Cosyns, P; Scharpé, S

    2001-01-01

    There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and a higher body temperature than normal volunteers. The mCPP-induced cortisol responses were significantly greater in pedophiles than in normal volunteers. In normal volunteers, mCPP-induced a hyperthermic response, whereas in pedophiles no such response was observed. mCPP induced different behavioral responses in pedophiles than in normal men. In pedophiles, but not in normal men, mCPP increased the sensations "feeling dizzy, " "restless," and "strange" and decreased the sensation "feeling hungry". The results suggest that there are several serotonergic disturbances in pedophiles. It is hypothesized that the results are compatible with a decreased activity of the serotonergic presynaptic neuron and a 5-HT2 postsynaptic receptor hyperresponsivity.

  2. The postoperative cortisol stress response following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: a potential screening method for assessing preserved pituitary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Tirosh, Amir; Huang, Abel P; Laws, Edward R; Woodmansee, Whitney W

    2013-09-01

    The ability to reliably identify patients with new hypocortisolemia acutely following pituitary surgery is critical. We aimed to quantify the postoperative cortisol stress response following selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy, as a marker for postoperative preservation of functional pituitary gland. Records of 208 patients undergoing transsphenoidal operations for pituitary lesions were reviewed. Patients with Cushing's Disease, preoperative adrenal insufficiency, and those receiving intraoperative steroids were excluded. To quantify the postoperative stress response, the ∆ cortisol index was defined as the postoperative day (POD) 1 morning cortisol minus the preoperative morning cortisol level. The incidence of new hypocortisolemia requiring glucocorticoid replacement upon hospital discharge was also recorded. Fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria. The mean preoperative, POD1, and POD2 cortisol levels were 16.5, 29.2, and 21.8 μg/dL, respectively. Morning fasting cortisol levels on POD1 ranged from 4.2 to 73.0 μg/dL. The ∆ cortisol index ranged from -19.0 to +56.2 (mean +12.7 μg/dL). Five patients (9.6%) developed new hypocortisolemia on POD 1-3 requiring glucocorticoid replacement; only one required long-term replacement. The mean ∆ cortisol in patients requiring postoperative glucocorticoids was -2.8 μg/dL, compared with +14.4 μg/dL in patients without evidence of adrenal insufficiency (p = 0.005). Of the 32 patients (61.5%) with a ∆cortisol >25 μg/dL, none developed postoperative adrenal insufficiency. The postoperative cortisol stress response, as quantified by the ∆ cortisol index, holds potential as a novel and complimentary screening method to predict preservation of normal pituitary function and acute development of new ACTH deficiency following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

  3. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  4. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxi Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms and long (1,600 ms visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group, individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the

  5. Cortisol and stress responses during a game and practice in female collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Kanae; Fry, Andrew C; Moore, Christopher A; Schilling, Brian K; Li, Yuhua; Fry, Mary D

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cortisol responses from a regular season game and a typical practice session in female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players. Eighteen players were assigned to 2 groups, 10 starters and 8 nonstarters, depending on their playing time. Salivary cortisol concentration, as well as competitive sport anxiety (somatic and cognitive anxiety, self-confidence), was monitored before and after 1 regular season game and 1 typical practice session. Although salivary cortisol levels increased postgame for both starters (+250%) and nonstarters (+140%), they increased to a greater extent for the starters. Practice salivary cortisol did not significantly change (p > 0.05). Cognitive and somatic anxiety was greater pre- and postgame when compared with the pre- and postpractice scores, respectively. These data clearly demonstrate the psychological and physiological differences between soccer competition and practice in collegiate women. It appears that both physiological and psychological variables combine to contribute to the large stress hormone response to an actual competitive game.

  6. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  7. The cortisol response to ACTH in pigs, heritability and influence of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, C; Terenina, E; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Mormede, P

    2015-12-01

    In the search for biological basis of robustness, this study aimed (i) at the determination of the heritability of the cortisol response to ACTH in juvenile pigs, using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model, and (ii) at the study of the relationships between basal and stimulated cortisol levels with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), IGF-I and haptoglobin, all important players in glucose metabolism and production traits. At 6 weeks of age, 298 intact male and female piglets from 30 litters (30 dams and 30 boars) were injected with 250 µg ACTH(1-24) (Synacthen). Blood was taken before ACTH injection to measure basal levels of cortisol, glucose, CBG, IGF-I and haptoglobin, and 60 min later to measure stimulated cortisol levels and glucose. Cortisol increased 2.8-fold after ACTH injection, with a high correlation between basal and stimulated levels (phenotypic correlation, r p=0.539; genetic correlation, r g=0.938). Post-ACTH cortisol levels were highly heritable (h 2=0.684) and could therefore be used for genetic selection of animals with a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. CBG binding capacity correlated with cortisol levels measured in basal conditions in males only. No correlation was found between CBG binding capacity and post-ACTH cortisol levels. Basal IGF-I concentration was positively correlated with BW at birth and weaning, and showed a high correlation with CBG binding capacity with a strong sexual dimorphism, the correlation being much higher in males than in females. Basal haptoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with CBG binding capacity and IGF-I concentrations. Complex relationships were also found between circulating glucose levels and these different variables that have been shown to be related to glucose resistance in humans. These data are therefore valuable for the genetic selection of animals to explore the consequences on production and robustness traits, but

  8. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... was associated only with higher job demands, but the self-report scores showed a number of interactions between cortisol group and gender. Among women, those showing a low CDD, compared with those with a higher CDD, had more favourable scores on a number of job stress factors and symptom load. In contrast, among...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  9. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  10. Effects of coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of plasma cortisol levels on leukocyte transcriptional response to endotoxin challenge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sleight, Kirsten; Nguyen, Tung T; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-10-01

    Severe traumas are associated with hypercortisolemia due to both disruption of cortisol secretion rhythm and increase in its total concentration. Understanding the effects of altered cortisol levels and rhythms on immune function is of great clinical interest, to prevent conditions such as sepsis from complicating the recovery. This in vivo study assesses the responses of circulating leukocytes to coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of cortisol, preceding an immune challenge induced by endotoxin administration. Through continuous infusion, plasma cortisol concentration was increased to and kept constant at a level associated with major physiologic stress. In response, transcriptional programming of leukocytes was altered to display a priming response before endotoxin exposure. Enhanced expression of a number of receptors and signaling proteins, as well as lowered protein translation and mitochondrial function indicated a sensitization against potential infectious threats. Despite these changes, response to endotoxin followed very similar patterns in both cortisol and saline pre-treated groups except one cluster including probe sets associated with major players regulating inflammatory response. In sum, altered dose and rhythm of plasma cortisol levels engendered priming of circulating leukocytes when preceded an immune challenge. This transcriptional program change associated with stimulated surveillance function and suppressed energy-intensive processes, emphasized permissive actions of cortisol on immune function.

  11. The human fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone, rather than cortisol, in response to intra-partum stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wynne-Edwards

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V and arterial (A samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A-V and proportional fetal synthesis ([A-V]/V. Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. RESULTS: Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. CONCLUSIONS: The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress.

  12. The human fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone, rather than cortisol, in response to intra-partum stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Edwards, Heather E; Hancock, Trina M

    2013-01-01

    Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V) and arterial (A) samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A-V) and proportional fetal synthesis ([A-V]/V). Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol) and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal) concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress.

  13. Association between subjective and cortisol stress response depends on the menstrual cycle phase.

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    Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-12-01

    The relation between the physiologic and subjective stress responses is inconsistently reported across studies. Menstrual cycle phases variations have been found to influence the psychophysiological stress response; however little is known about possible cycle phase differences in the relationship between physiological and subjective stress responses. This study examined the effect of menstrual cycle phase in the association between subjective stress and physiological response. Forty-five women in either the follicular (n=21) or the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were exposed to a psychosocial stress task. Salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, and subjective stress were assessed throughout the experiment. Results revealed a significant group difference in the association between peak levels of cortisol and post task subjective stress. In women in the follicular phase a negative association was observed (r(2)=0.199, p=0.04), while this relation was positive in the group of women in the luteal phase (r(2)=0.227, p=0.02). These findings suggest a possible role of sex hormones in modulating the cortisol stress response function in emotion regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortisol Response to Low-Dose (1 μg ACTH Stimulation for the Prediction of Outcome in Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

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    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS changes cortisol dynamics and indicates dissociation between the adrenal cortex and the hypothalamo-pituitary unit. The aim of this study was to assess the cortisol response after stimulation with ACTH1-24 in patients with SIRS at admission to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU and seven days later.

  15. Winning isn't everything: mood and testosterone regulate the cortisol response in competition.

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    Samuele Zilioli

    Full Text Available Dominance contests are recurrent and widespread causes of stress among mammals. Studies of activation of the stress axis in social defeat - as reflected in levels of adrenal glucocorticoid, cortisol - have generated scattered and sometimes contradictory results, suggesting that biopsychological individual differences might play an important mediating role, at least in humans. In the context of a larger study of the regulation of endocrine responses to competition, we evaluated the notion that mood states, such as self-assurance and hostility, may influence cortisol reactivity to dominance cues via an interplay with baseline testosterone, considered as a potential marker of individual differences in dominance. Seventy healthy male university students (mean age 20.02, range 18-26 provided saliva samples before and after competing for fifteen minutes on a rigged computer task. After a winner was determined, all participants were assessed on their mood states through a standardized psychometric instrument (PANAS-X. Among winners of a rigged videogame competition, we found a significant interaction between testosterone and self-assurance in relation to post-competition cortisol. Specifically, self-assurance was associated with lower post-competition cortisol in subjects with high baseline testosterone levels, but no such relationship was observed in subjects with lower baseline testosterone levels. In losers of the competition no interaction effect between basal testosterone and hostility was observed. However, in this subgroup a significant negative relationship between basal testosterone and post-competition cortisol was evident. Overall, these findings provide initial support for the novel hypothesis that biological motivational predispositions (i.e. basal testosterone and state (i.e. mood changes may interact in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation after a social contest.

  16. Antecedent longitudinal changes in body mass index are associated with diurnal cortisol curve features: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Diez Roux, Ana V; Sanchez, Brisa N; Seeman, Teresa E; Needham, Belinda L; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-03-01

    Prior studies have shown a cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and salivary diurnal cortisol profile features (cortisol features); however, to our knowledge prior population-based studies have not examined the longitudinal association of body-mass index (BMI) with cortisol features. To examine the association of (1) prior annual BMI percent change over 7years with cortisol features, (2) baseline cortisol features with subsequent change in BMI over 6years and (3) the association of change in cortisol features with change in BMI over 6years. Longitudinal study. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress I & II Studies (2004-2006 & 2010-2012). 1685 ethnically diverse men and women attended either MESA Stress exam (mean age 65±10years at MESA Stress I; mean age 69±9years at MESA Stress II). Log-transformed cortisol features including wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response, early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), bedtime, and total area under the curve (AUC) cortisol. Over 7years, following multivariable adjustment, (1) a 1% higher prior annual BMI % increase was associated with a 2.9% (95% CI: -5.0%, -0.8%) and 3.0% (95% CI: -4.7%, -1.4%) lower current wake-up and total AUC cortisol, respectively; (2) there was no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI and (3) among participants with BMI≥30kg/m(2), flattening of the late decline slope was associated with increases in BMI (every 1-unit increase late decline slope were associated with a 12.9% increase (95%CI: -1%, 26.8%) in BMI, respectively). We found a significant association between prior annual BMI % change and cortisol features, but no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI. In participants with obesity increases in BMI were associated with less pronounced declined. Collectively, our results suggest that greater

  17. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Franchini, Emerson; de Freitas, Camila Gobo; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol (sC) and the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses to simulated and official Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) matches. Saliva samples were collected from 9 male BJJ athletes before (pre) and after (post) 2 simulated matches (SMs) and 2 official matches (OMs) performed during 2 different competitions. Salivary cortisol and sIgA concentrations (absolute concentration of sIgA [sIgAabs] and the secretion rate of sIgA [sIgArate]) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For sC, there was an effect of condition (SM vs. OM) (p BJJ matches can increase sC levels. Moreover, the higher sC resting levels, observed before OMs, suggest that psychological factors associated with high physical-physiological demands from official BJJ competitions maximize stress hormone responses. In addition, the present findings suggest that the acute effect of BJJ matches on mucosal immunity is minimal, and it seems unlikely that changes in cortisol play a major role in the alterations in sIgA levels in response to BJJ matches. The findings of this study suggest that the use of sC can provide valuable information for coaches regarding athletes' responses to competition. In addition, psychological strategies should be implemented before events, to improve the manner in which BJJ athletes cope with the stress inherent to official matches.

  18. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  19. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  20. Cortisol response to an induction of negative affect among adolescents with and without loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Rachel M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Kelly, Nichole R; Pickworth, Courtney K; Thompson, Katherine A; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew; Galescu, Ovidiu; Altschul, Anne M; Shank, Lisa M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-12-01

    Adults with binge eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge eating disorder. We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger. Salivary cortisol was collected at -80, 0, 30 and 50 min relative to film administration, and state mood ratings were reported before and after the film. Adolescents with LOC had greater increases in negative affect during the experimental paradigm in both conditions (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms, but not LOC, related to a greater cortisol response in the sad film condition (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms and state LOC were related to different aspects of eating behaviour, independent of film condition or cortisol response (ps > 0.05). A film clip that induced depressed state affect increased salivary cortisol only in adolescents with more elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents with and without LOC were differentiated by greater increases in state depressed affect during laboratory test meals but had no difference in cortisol reactivity. Future studies are required to determine if adolescents with LOC manifest alterations in stress reactivity to alternative stress-inducing situations. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Resilience is decreased in irritable bowel syndrome and associated with symptoms and cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Naliboff, B D; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Videlock, E J; Ju, T; Kilpatrick, L; Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2017-07-18

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs. Ninety-six of these subjects had serial serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH measured. The relationship between IBS status, resilience, and other variables of interest was assessed by regression analysis after adjusting for demographics and neuroticism, a predictor of resilience. Resilience was significantly lower in IBS compared to HCs (CD-RISC: 72.16±14.97 vs 77.32±12.73, P=.003; BRS: 3.29±0.87 vs 3.93±0.69, Presilience and IBS status for ACTH-stimulated cortisol response (P=.031); more resilient IBS subjects had lower cortisol response, and more resilient HCs had higher cortisol response. Lower resilience is associated with IBS status, worse IBS symptom severity, lower IBS-QOL, greater EALs, and stress hyperresponsiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Behavioural and cortisol responses of lambs to castration and tailing using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S J; Mellor, D J; Holmes, R J; Ward, R N; Stafford, K J

    1996-04-01

    Lambs at 4-5 weeks of age were studied during the first 4 hours after castration and/or tailing using three methods in various commonly used combinations. The methods were: cutting with a knife, application of constricting rubber rings and using a heated docking iron (tailing only). Behaviour was monitored by quantifying the incidences of restlessness (during the first hour only), normal and abnormal standing/walking, and normal and abnormal lying. Plasma cortisol concentrations were also measured in samples taken at intervals during the 4 hours after treatment. With the knife, abnormal standing/walking predominated throughout the fist 4 hours and beyond, and restlessness was virtually absent. Plasma cortisol concentrations in knife-treated lambs remained above pretreatment values for at least 4 hours. With rings, high restlessness was invariably present during the first 30-45 minutes, and much of the associated standing/walking and lying was abnormal, but all behaviours had returned to control values within 4 hours of treatment, as had the plasma cortisol concentrations. There were no correlations between the incidences of abnormal behaviours and the plasma cortisol concentrations during the first 4 hour after any treatment, except that when abnormal behaviour was present the cortisol concentrations were greater than pretreatment values, and vice versa. Thus, the presence/absence of the abnormal behaviours reported here allowed an assessment of the duration of distress after castration and/or tailing. However, as the behavioural responses to castration and/or tailing were broadly procedure-specific, so that the responses to the knife and rings were not apparently part of the one behavioural continuum, it is argued that the relative intensities of distress caused by the two procedures cannot be assessed from behaviour alone. Rather, reference must also be made to established physiological indices of distress such as plasma cortisol concentration. On that basis, the

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  5. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity.

  6. Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Children with Autism Syndrome Disorders (ASDs) exhibit social, communicative, and behavioral deficits. We know that human interaction with dogs, which is thought to serve as a social catalyst, results in a decrease of cortisol levels in healthy adults. Introducing service dogs to children with ASD is an attractive idea that has received growing attention in recent decades. However, no study has measured the physiological impact of service dogs on these children. Therefore, the goal of our study was to assess the effects of service dogs on the basal salivary cortisol secretion of children with ASD. We measured the salivary cortisol levels of 42 children with ASD in three experimental conditions; prior to and during the introduction of a service dog to their family, and after a short period during which the dog was removed from their family. We compared average cortisol levels and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) before and during the introduction of the dog to the family and after its withdrawal. We found that the introduction of service dogs translated into a statistically significant diminished CAR. Before the introduction of service dogs, we measured a 58% increase in morning cortisol after awakening, which diminished to 10% when service dogs were present. The increase in morning cortisol jumped back to 48% once the dogs were removed from the families (pdogs did not have an effect on the children's average diurnal cortisol levels. These results show that the CAR of children with ASD is sensitive to the presence of service dogs, which lends support to the potential behavioral benefits of service dogs for children with autism.

  7. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

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    TP Backes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U • ml-1 and high intensity (284 ± 30 U • ml-1 as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U • ml-1 and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug • dL -1 as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug • dL -1 and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 . This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption.

  8. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  9. Salivary cortisol response to psychological stress in children with early childhood caries

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    Kambalimath Halaswamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a multi-factorial disease and has numerous biological, psychological, and behavioral risk factors. In this study, we have attempted to study psychological stress as a risk factor for early childhood caries by investigating and comparing the response of event-related stress on salivary cortisol level in children with ECC and those without ECC and also compared the adaptability to various dental procedures in children with early childhood caries and without early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: One hundred children aged between four and five years were examined in the school and 16 pairs of children with caries and without caries were selected after cross-matching them on various risk factors for Early Childhood Caries. Oral prophylaxis and topical fluoride treatment procedures were used as stressors and salivary samples were collected at the time of arrival for the treatment, after Oral Prophylaxis and Fluoride treatment. The salivary samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay for an unbound plasma cortisol level. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test, on the collected data, to compare the mean values of the salivary cortisol across the group and within the groups to evaluate the cortisol response to stress. No significant differences were found between the salivary cortisol levels prior to treatment, post oral prophylaxis, or post fluoride treatment at the first and second appointments of both groups. At the first appointment, the fluoride treatment caused a significant increase in the salivary cortisol level over the pretreatment level, in both the groups, but it was not evident in either of the two groups studied at the second appointment. Conclusion: We have concluded that the stress produced by different dental procedures was similar in children from the two groups studied, and the coping ability of the children was also similar in both the groups. Small

  10. Cortisol Test

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    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  11. Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

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    Lars Niklasson

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol.

  12. Differences in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following exposure to electrical stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests.

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    Yoshihiro Maruyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S and Trait (STAI-T versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations, while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM

  13. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  14. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health.

  15. Cortisol response to critical illness: Effect of intensive insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vanhorebeek (Ilse); R.P. Peeters (Robin); S.V. Perre (Sarah Vander); I. Jans (Ivo); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); K. Skogstrand (Kristin); T.K. Hansen (Troels); R. Bouillon (Roger); G. van den Berghe (Greet)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractContext: Both excessive and insufficient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to critical illness is associated with increased mortality. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the effect of intensive insulin therapy, recently shown to reduce mort

  16. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    -sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low......-Risk twins. The 109 High-Risk twins had significantly higher evening cortisol levels than the 81 Low-Risk MZ twins, also after adjustment for age, sex, and the level of subclinical depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in awakening cortisol levels between High-Risk and Low-Risk twins....... In conclusion, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was associated with a higher evening cortisol level, but not with awakening cortisol level. Future prospective family, high-risk and twin studies are needed to decide whether abnormalities in the HPA axis can be identified as an endophenotype...

  17. The influence of perceived control and locus of control on the cortisol and subjective responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Annie M; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Kestler, Lisa

    2004-11-01

    Stress has been implicated in the etiology of numerous mental and physical illnesses. Thus, it is important to identify factors that buffer individuals against stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived control (PC) on the biological and subjective stress responses, and to investigate the potential moderating effect of locus of control (LOC) on this relationship. Stress was induced with a noise-cognitive paradigm, and PC was manipulated by offering the option of manual control over noise intensity. Saliva cortisol and subjective stress were measured. There was no main effect of control on cortisol. However, LOC moderated the relation between control and cortisol; participants with more internal LOC, who also perceived themselves to have control over the stressor, showed a reduced cortisol response in the PC condition. The results are discussed in light of their implications for elucidating the determinants of the effects of perceived control on stress.

  18. Relationship of Morning Cortisol to Circadian Phase and Rising Time in Young Adults with Delayed Sleep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Rea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at further elucidating the relationship between circadian phase, rising time, and the morning cortisol awakening response (CAR. The results presented here are a secondary analysis of experimental data obtained from a study of advanced sleep-wake schedules and light exposures on circadian phase advances measured by dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO. The present results demonstrate that morning CAR is strongly related to rising time and more weakly related to DLMO phase.

  19. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrically stimulated physical stress in bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Y

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Aimi Kawano, Tomoko Ando, Rie Ikeda, Ayako Inoue, Junko Imanaga, Shizuko Okamoto, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Jusen Tsuru, Jotaro Akiyoshi Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama-Machi, Oita, Japan Background: Bipolar disorder (BP is often associated with a change in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients. Method: We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Results: Tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls. No difference in salivary cortisol was observed between BP patients and the healthy controls. Only three time points were measured before and after the electrical stimulation stress. Furthermore, sAA secretion by BP patients increased before and after electrical stimulation. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a useful biological marker for BP patients. Keywords: HPA axis, bipolar disorder, α-amylase, cortisol, SAM activity

  20. The role of stress in absenteeism: cortisol responsiveness among patients on long-term sick leave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik B Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.

  1. Ear tagging in piglets: the cortisol response with and without analgesia in comparison with castration and tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numberger, J; Ritzmann, M; Übel, N; Eddicks, M; Reese, S; Zöls, S

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the cortisol response caused by ear tagging piglets with the distress caused by other known painful husbandry procedures (e.g. castration and tail docking) and to evaluate the effectiveness of analgesia with meloxicam to reduce the cortisol response caused by these procedures. In total, 210 male piglets were randomised to equal numbers (n=30) into one of seven groups: a control group which was only handled (H), an ear tagged group that received no analgesia (ET), an ear tagged group with analgesia (ETM), a castration group with no analgesia (C), a castration group with analgesia (CM), a tail-docked group with no analgesia (TD) and a tail-docked group with analgesia (TDM). The procedures were carried out on day 3 or 4 after farrowing. Five blood samples were taken from each piglet: 30 min before the respective procedure (baseline value), and 30, 60 min, 4 and 7 h after processing, to assess cortisol concentrations. Means as well as the area under the curve (AUC) value were analysed and the effective sizes of the procedures were established. At 7 h after the experimental treatment, cortisol concentrations had returned to base values in all groups. ET evoked a greater cortisol response than H piglets at 30 min (Pear tagging causes a dramatic increase in cortisol levels compared with handling alone in piglets, which suggests that this procedure causes substantial distress. However, further research is needed to confirm these results.

  2. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which

  3. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  4. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2016-05-04

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg.

  5. Short communication: Ovine leukocyte telomere length is associated with variation in the cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, L; Oh, S Y; Li, Z; You, Q; Quinton, V M; Gilchrist, G C; Karrow, N A

    2016-04-01

    Stress has been associated with biological aging and numerous age-related diseases. This may be due, in part, to accelerated shortening of telomeres, which are critical genomic structures that cap and protect chromosomal ends. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may indirectly contribute to telomere shortening if an animal reacts too strongly or weakly to a stressor, leading to accelerated biological aging. In this study, outbred Rideau-Arcott sheep were stress challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin and classified as high, middle, or low cortisol responders to investigate a potential relationship between cortisol response and age, and telomere length. In the present study, no association was found between age and telomere length. The study, however, revealed shorter telomeres in high and low cortisol responders compared with the middle cortisol responders, which suggests that health and longevity may be compromised in extreme high- and low-stress-responding sheep.

  6. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders : a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without...

  7. Salivary but not plasma cortisone tracks the plasma cortisol response to exercise: effect of time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corral, P; Schurman, R C; Kinza, S S; Fitzgerald, M J; Kordick, C A; Rusch, J L; Nadolski, J B

    2016-03-01

    The cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, and CBG responses to exercise in the AM and PM have not been described. This study examined the response of these glucocorticoids and CBG to intense exercise in 12 endurance-trained men in plasma (Pl) and saliva (Sa). Each subject completed treadmill exercise in the morning and evening. Paired blood and Sa samples were obtained at rest before and after exercise. Significant time effect existed for Pl-cortisol and Sa-cortisol from baseline in the AM and PM (p cortisone and CBG significantly increased in the PM (p cortisone, Sa-cortisone was significantly higher in the AM compared to the PM, increasing in the AM and PM (All p cortisone (r = 0.81, p cortisone (~90 %) and corticosterone (~200 %) in the AM and PM, whereas exercise increases CBG in the PM, but not in the AM; (2) vigorous exercise increases Sa-cortisone; (3) Sa-cortisone and cortisol are equally strongly correlated to Pl-cortisol, suggesting a significant role for Sa-cortisone as a novel marker of free cortisol during exercise.

  8. Self-awakening improves alertness in the morning and during the day after partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohide; Kuriyama, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-12-01

    The ability to awaken at a predetermined time without an alarm is known as self-awakening. Self-awakening improves morning alertness by eliminating sleep inertia; however, the effects of self-awakening on daytime alertness and alertness that has deteriorated as a result of sleep loss are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of self-awakening on both morning and daytime alertness after partial sleep deprivation. Fifteen healthy males without the habit of self-awakening participated in a cross-over trial including forced awakening and self-awakening conditions. In each condition, participants' sleep was restricted to 5 h per night in their homes for 4 consecutive days. They completed a psychomotor vigilance task and subjective ratings of sleepiness immediately upon awakening each morning. On the fourth day, participants completed subjective ratings of sleepiness, a psychomotor vigilance task and sleep latency tests in the laboratory seven times at 1-h intervals during the day. The response speed on the psychomotor vigilance task, in the morning and during the day, was higher in the self-awakening than the forced awakening condition. Our results showed that self-awakening improved alertness (assessed by response speeds) by reducing sleep inertia and alleviated daytime sleepiness heightened by partial sleep deprivation.

  9. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).

  10. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  11. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  12. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, Nicholas M; Catelani, Krista N; Robbins, Michelle N; Trego, Marisa L; Allen, Camryn D; Danil, Kerri; Chivers, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08) and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2) = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation)/ul(tissue extract added)). The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1) fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught), 2) specimen condition (state of decomposition), 3) total body length, 4) sex, 5) sexual maturity state, 6) pregnancy status, 7) lactation state, and 8) adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  13. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  14. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  15. The hypothalamic-pituitary response in SLE. Regulation of prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenský, J; Blazícková, S; Rauová, L; Jezová, D; Koska, J; Lukác, J; Vigas, M

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuroendocrine regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and activation of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the hypothalamic-pituitary response to a well-defined stimulus under standardised conditions in patients with SLE. Plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol were determined in venous blood drawn through an indwelling cannula during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 U/kg b.w., i.v.) in ten patients and in 12 age-, gender- and weight-matched healthy subjects. Basal PRL concentrations were higher in patients vs healthy controls (12 vs 6 ng/ml, P < 0.01), though still within the physiological range. Insulin-induced plasma PRL and GH were significantly increased both in patients and healthy subjects; however, the increments or areas under the curves were not different in the two groups. Plasma cortisol response showed moderate attenuation in patients. Sensitivity of pituitary lactotrothrops to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration (200 microg, i.v.) was the same in patients and control subjects. In SLE patients with low activity of the disease the sensitivity of pituitary PRL release to TRH administration remained unchanged. The hypothalamic response to stress stimulus (hypoglycaemia) was comparable in patients and healthy subjects.

  16. Milk-based phospholipids increase morning cortisol availability and improve memory in chronically stressed men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Melanie; Contreras, Carina; Franz, Nadin; Hellhammer, Juliane

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) have been shown to dampen the activity and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). To further investigate stress protective effects of PL, 75 chronically stressed men aged 30 to 51 years were enrolled in a randomized and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects received a bovine milk drink with either 0.5% PL, 1% PL, or a placebo for 42 days to test the hypothesis that supplementation with specific phospholipids would normalize the cortisol response of the HPAA. For determining HPAA activity, the cortisol awakening response was studied before and after treatment. In addition, participants were exposed to an acute stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to assess treatment effects on stress reactivity and stress-related memory impairment. After receiving PL-enriched milk, both PL groups showed a delayed decline from peak levels in morning salivary cortisol, suggesting a prolonged availability of free cortisol. Treatment with 0.5% PL additionally resulted in a stronger increase of cortisol after awakening, whereas no such differences could be observed in the 1% PL group and the placebo group, respectively. The acute stress response did not significantly differ among placebo and PL groups. An exploratory data analysis further revealed that elderly participants receiving the higher PL dosage had a significant better memory performance after the Trier Social Stress Test as compared with elderly participants from the placebo and low-PL dosage group; no such difference was observed at baseline. Our results suggest that PL may increase the availability of cortisol in chronically stressed men and may attenuate stress-induced memory impairments. Results of the present study are discussed within the context of previous research and current state of knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  18. Lower stress-reactive cortisol in female veterans associated with military status but not PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Meghan E; Pritchard, Laurel M

    2016-09-01

    Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans. This study examined salivary cortisol in 52 female veterans and civilians both with and without PTSD. We collected saliva samples at bedtime and awakening, as well as in response to the Trier social stress test (TSST). We found that female veterans had blunted cortisol concentrations at all time points during the TSST compared to female civilians, regardless of PTSD status. Even though all groups showed the expected diurnal decline in cortisol, the difference between awakening and bedtime samples were significant only in civilians without PTSD. The results of our study suggest that stressors specific to the military may lead to lower than normal cortisol, which may not be associated with the expressions of PTSD.

  19. On the Awakening of Edna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2007-01-01

    The Awakening is a remarkable work of feminism written by Kate Chopin. The novel mainly depicts how Edna comes to her awakening and develops into a new woman with a heartfelt concern for freedom, equality and independence. The novel had significant influence on the formation of women's literature and contributed a lot to the achievements of feminist movement.

  20. The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Booij, Sanne H.; van der Zwan, J Esi; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol resp

  1. Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, P A; Quested, D J; Cowen, P J

    1998-11-01

    We measured the cortisol response to the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, (5-HTP) in seven patients with major depression before and after 8 weeks treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. The cortisol response to 5-HTP was significantly increased following clomipramine treatment, suggesting that clomipramine, like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), enhances this 5-HT2 receptor mediated response. Because other tricyclic antidepressants do not increase 5-HTP-mediated cortisol release, it seems unlikely that enhancement of 5-HT2 receptor function is a critical mechanism for antidepressant action. However, facilitation of neurotransmission at 5-HT2 receptors could account for the efficacy of clomipramine and SSRIs in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder and also for their liability to cause orgasmic dysfunction.

  2. The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bijleveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50 and blatant (r = .53 prejudice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups, experienced threat (or its biological substrate is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.

  3. Cortisol and glucose responses in juvenile striped catfish subjected to a cold shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabi Adloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-shock stress happens when a fish had been adjusted to a specific water temperature or range of temperatures and is consequently exposed to a rapid drop in temperature, resulting in a cascade of physiological and behavioral responses and, in some cases, death. In the current study, the stress response of striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was studied by evaluating serum cortisol and glucose level following an abrupt reduction in water temperature (from 28°C to 15°C at different time points (prior to, and after 1h, 12h and 24h cold treatment, respectively. Regardless of some mortality occurred in cold challenged fish, none of the physiological parameters changed during evaluation period. The results, suggesting that despite of necessity of cortisol and glucose evaluation in any of stress assessment, yet, due to their high variability in different fish species, additional complementary tests such as measurement of other stress hormones e.g. heat shock proteins as well as blood-cell counts (preferably in chronic experiments should also be included.

  4. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Freitas, Camila G; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Drago, Gustavo; Drago, Murilo; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the session ratings of perceived exertion (Session-RPE) responses and the salivary cortisol (sC) and immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels between a regular season match (RM) and the final championship match (FM) in elite male volleyball players against the same opponent team. Higher importance was assumed for FM because this match would define the championship team. Session-RPE was obtained after 30 minutes of each match using the CR-10 scale. Saliva samples were collected before and after each match and during a rest day (baseline) at the same period of the matches. The SIgA and sC concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Greater Session-RPE was observed for FM as compared with RM (p cortisol concentration, and SIgA prelevel were affected by the match importance. These results indicate that monitoring session-RPE, sC, and SIgA responses, in conjunction, during training and competition, would provide valuable informations regarding how athletes cope with sports induced stress. This study provided knowledge about the effect of match importance on salivary markers related to stress that may help coaches to avoid excessive training loads reducing the likelihood to decrements on mucosal immunity and its consequent risk to upper respiratory tract infections, which in turn might affect the performance.

  5. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  6. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatores relacionados com as respostas da testosterona e do cortisol ao treinamento de força Factors concerned with the testosterone and cortisol response to strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lusa Cadore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo visa revisar os resultados encontrados na literatura a respeito dos diversos fatores relacionados com a resposta hormonal aguda e crônica ao treinamento de força. Foi observado que existe uma estreita relação entre a treinabilidade de indivíduos submetidos ao treinamento de força e os níveis circulantes de testosterona nesses sujeitos. Além disso, outros parâmetros hormonais, tais como as razões entre a testosterona e sua proteína carreadora e entre a testosterona com o cortisol, também foram relacionados com a capacidade de aumento de força. Diversos fatores ligados à sessão de treino, além das características da população investigada, influenciam a resposta hormonal aguda e crônica ao treinamento. Entre esses fatores, o volume e a intensidade são as principais variáveis ligadas à magnitude dessa resposta. A determinação de quais fatores possam estar estreitamente relacionados com a resposta hormonal ao treinamento de força pode ser importante para o estabelecimento de uma sessão de treino e uma periodização que otimizem o ambiente anabólico determinado pelas concentrações de testosterona e cortisol, e, dessa forma, maximizar os ajustes neuromusculares decorrentes desse tipo de treinamento.This study aims to review the results found in the literature concerning a variety of factors related to the acute and chronic hormonal response to strength training. It has been observed that there is a close relationship between the trainability of individuals submitted to strength training and the circulating testosterone levels in these subjects. Moreover, other hormonal parameters, such as the ratios between testosterone and its binding protein and between testosterone and cortisol, were also related to the ability to increase strength. Besides the characteristics of the population investigated, several factors associated with the training session affect the acute and chronic hormonal response to training

  8. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders.

  9. Stress biomarkers as predictors of transition to psychosis in at-risk mental states: roles for cortisol, prolactin and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, Javier; Stojanovic-Pérez, Alexander; Montalvo, Itziar; Solé, Montse; Cabezas, Ángel; Ortega, Laura; Moreno, Irene; Vilella, Elisabet; Martorell, Lourdes; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Stress and inflammation are thought to play a role in the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. We aimed to identify stress-related biomarkers for psychosis transition in help-seeking individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS). We studied 39 ARMS subjects who were attending an Early Intervention Service. We included a control group of 44 healthy subjects (HS) matched by sex and age. Stressful life events and perceived stress were assessed. Stress-related biomarkers were determined in serum (cortisol, prolactin, C-reactive protein and albumin), plasma (fibrinogen) or saliva (morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response). All ARMS were followed-up at our Unit for at least one year. We divided the ARMS group into two subgroups based on the development of a psychotic disorder (ARMS-P, N = 10) or not (ARMS-NP, N = 29). ARMS-P reported more stressful life events and perceived stress than HS and ARMS-NP groups. In relation to baseline stress biomarkers, ARMS-P subjects had increased prolactin and lower albumin levels in serum, when compared to ARMS-NP and HS groups. These results did not change when repeated in a subsample of antipsychotic-naïve ARMS subjects. We also found significant differences between groups in the cortisol secretion after awakening. In a multinomial logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and life stress, prolactin was a predictor of psychosis transition whereas albumin levels had a protective effect. Our study underscores the role of stress and stress-related biomarkers (cortisol awakening response, prolactin and albumin) in the pathogenesis of psychosis.

  10. Comparison of cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic adrenal steroid responses to hydrocortisone suspension vs. commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Boonstra, Timothy; Yaw Addo, O; Brundage, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recommend against using hydrocortisone suspension based on a study that examined a commercial suspension. Our objective was to examine the absorption of an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension and compare it to tablets. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione adrenal steroid responses. Using a parallel design, 34 children diagnosed with CAH received either suspension (n = 9; median age 1.8 years) or tablets (n = 25; median age 7.5 years). Patients were given their usual morning hydrocortisone formulation and dose; 12 serial blood samples were obtained and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The mg/m(2) dose-normalized cortisol AUCs were no different in the suspension and tablet groups (P = ·06), nor was there a significant difference in the C(max) or T(max) (P = .08 and P = .41, respectively). Although there were no differences in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone change-from-baseline AUCs, baseline concentrations, or the nadir concentrations when comparing suspension and tablet formulations, the androstenedione values were significantly lower as expected in the younger aged suspension group. Our results offer compelling evidence that an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension provides comparable cortisol exposures to commercially available tablet formulations in children and can be used to safely and effectively treat CAH.

  11. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.

  12. Lack of cortisol response in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD undergoing a diagnostic interview

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    de Quervain Dominique JF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV, the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD requires the experience of a traumatic event during which the person's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. In order to diagnose PTSD, clinicians must interview the person in depth about his/her previous experiences and determine whether the individual has been traumatized by a specific event or events. However, asking questions about traumatic experiences can be stressful for the traumatized individual and it has been cautioned that subsequent "re-traumatization" could occur. This study investigated the cortisol response in traumatized refugees with PTSD during a detailed and standardized interview about their personal war and torture experiences. Methods Participants were male refugees with severe PTSD who solicited an expert opinion in the Psychological Research Clinic for Refugees of the University of Konstanz. 17 patients were administered the Vivo Checklist of War, Detention, and Torture Events, a standardized interview about traumatic experiences, and 16 subjects were interviewed about absorption behavior. Self-reported measures of affect and arousal, as well as saliva cortisol were collected at four points. Before and after the experimental intervention, subjects performed a Delayed Matching-to-Sample (DMS task for distraction. They also rated the severity of selected PTSD symptoms, as well as the level of intrusiveness of traumatic memories at that time. Results Cortisol excretion diminished in the course of the interview and showed the same pattern for both groups. No specific response was detectable after the supposed stressor. Correspondingly, ratings of subjective well-being, memories of the most traumatic event(s and PTSD symptoms did not show any significant difference between groups. Those in the presumed stress condition did not perform worse than persons in the control condition after the stressor. However, both

  13. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) during pregnancy: Composition, continuity, change, and concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Bryce, Crystal I; Letourneau, Nicole; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis are often operationalized using summary measures of cortisol that are taken to represent stable individual differences. Here we extend our understanding of a novel latent variable approach to latent trait cortisol (LTC) as a measure of trait-like HPA axis function during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=380) prospectively collected 8 diurnal saliva samples (4 samples/day, 2 days) within each trimester. Saliva was assayed for cortisol. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to fit LTC models to early morning and daytime cortisol. For individual trimester data, only the daytime LTC models had adequate fit. These daytime LTC models were strongly correlated between trimesters and stable over pregnancy. Daytime LTC was unrelated to the cortisol awakening response and the daytime slope but strongly correlated with the area under the curve from ground. The findings support the validity of LTC as a measure of cortisol during pregnancy and suggest that it is not affected by pregnancy-related changes in HPA axis function.

  14. Early morning salivary cortisol and cortisone, and adrenal responses to a simplified low-dose short Synacthen test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Joanne; Lancaster, Gillian; Titman, Andrew; Peak, Matthew; Newlands, Paul; Collingwood, Catherine; Chesters, Christine; Moorcroft, Teresa; Wallin, Naomi; Hawcutt, Daniel; Gardner, Christopher; Didi, Mohammed; Lacy, David; Couriel, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To examine serum cortisol responses to a simplified low-dose short Synacthen test (LDSST) in children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for asthma and to compare these to early morning salivary cortisol (EMSC) and cortisone (EMSCn) levels. Early morning salivary cortisol and EMSCn samples were collected for three consecutive days. On day three, Synacthen 500 ng/1·73 m(2) was administered intravenously. Samples were collected at 0, 15, 25, 35 min. A total of 269 subjects (160 M: 109 F), median (range) age 10·0 (5·1-15·2) years were studied. Peak cortisol in the LDSST was <500 nmol/l in 101 subjects (37·5%) and <350 nmol/l in 12 subjects (4·5%). Basal cortisol correlated with peak cortisol: r = 0·55, (95% CI: 0·46, 0·63, P < 0·0001). Time at which peak cortisol concentration was achieved was significantly related to the value of peak cortisol (P < 0·0001), with higher cortisol peaks occurring later in the test and lower cortisol peaks occurring earlier. EMSC and EMSCn had no predictive value for the identification of patients with a peak cortisol <500 nmol/l. EMSCn was superior to EMSC in identifying patients with a peak cortisol <350 nmol/l: a minimum EMSCn cut-off value of 12·5 nmol/l gave a negative predictive value of 99·2% and positive predictive value of 30·1%. Our data illustrate that basal measures of cortisol are likely to be of value in screening populations for patients at greatest risk of adrenal crisis. EMSCn shows promise as a screening tool for the identification of patients with severe adrenal insufficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase responses to repeated bouts of downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckune, Andrew J; Bach, Christopher W; Semple, Stuart J; Dyer, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathoadrenal (SA) system response to repeated bouts of downhill running. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7 ± 0.4 y; VO2peak 47.8 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min) performed two 60 min bouts of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline), after, and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were measured as markers of the HPA axis and SA response, respectively. Results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2 × 14; 24 h intervals 2 × 7, P ≤ 0.05) with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare collapsed data vs. baseline measurements. There were no significant group × time interactions for cortisol or α-amylase for the hourly samples up to 12 h after each run, nor for the 24 h samples up to 6 days later. The 24 h samples for α-amylase showed a significant group effect between runs (Run 1: 69.77 ± 7.68 vs. Run 2: 92.19 ± 7.67 U/ml; P = 0.04). Significant time effects were measured for both cortisol (decreased 2 h to 12 h post-run) and α-amylase (elevated immediately after, 1 h and 2 h post-run) (P < 0.001). The 24 h period group effect for salivary α-amylase suggested an adaptation in the sympathoadrenal system that may alter the systemic inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage but may also reflect enhanced mucosal immunity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early social deprivation and the social buffering of cortisol stress responses in late childhood: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-stress responses of children (ages 8.9-11, M = 9.83 years, SD = .55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from orphanage care by age 5 (n = 40) and an age- and gender-matched group of nonadopted (NA) children (n = 40). On average, internationally adopted children were invited to the laboratory 7.6 years postadoption (SD = 1.45). We experimentally manipulated the provision of parent support during the 5-min speech preparation period before a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and examined its effect on levels of salivary cortisol secreted in response to this laboratory stressor. All participants were randomly assigned to receive support from their parent or a stranger. Analyses revealed a significant interaction of support condition and group such that parent support significantly dampened the cortisol-stress response in NA children compared with support from a stranger, whereas the cortisol response curves of postinstitutionalized (PI) children did not differ between the parent- and stranger-support conditions. Cortisol reactivity for PI children in both conditions was lower than that of NA children in the stranger-support condition. Social deprivation during the first few years of life may shape neurobehavioral development in ways that reduce selective responses to caregivers versus strangers.

  18. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses of children (ages 8.9–11, M = 9.83 years, SD = .55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from orphanage care by age 5 (N = 40) and an age- and gender-matched group of non-adopted children (N = 40). On average, internationally adopted children were invited to the laboratory 7.6 years post-adoption (SD = 1.45). We experimentally manipulated the provision of parent support during the 5-minute speech preparation period before a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and examined its effect on levels of salivary cortisol secreted in response to this laboratory stressor. All participants were randomly assigned to receive support from their parent or a stranger. Analyses revealed a significant interaction of support condition and group such that parent support significantly dampened the cortisol stress response in non-adopted children compared to support from a stranger, whereas the cortisol response curves of post-institutionalized children did not differ between the parent and stranger support conditions. Cortisol reactivity for PI children in both conditions was lower than that of non-adopted children in the stranger support condition. Social deprivation during the first few years of life may shape neurobehavioral development in ways that reduce selective responses to caregivers versus strangers. PMID:26322485

  19. Cortisol, glucagon and growth hormone responses to oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Joubert, S M

    1982-10-09

    Cortisol and growth hormone (GH) responses to a 100 g oral glucose load were measured in 85 Indian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young (NIDDY) and 50 reference subjects; in 16 patients and 12 reference subjects the glucagon responses were also assessed. Fasting serum cortisol and plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher in the NIDDY group (P less than 0.001); in contrast, GH levels in the NIDDY patients were significantly lower (P less than 0.01). Plasma glucagon was only significantly suppressed 150 minutes after oral glucose loading in the NIDDY group, in contrast to the reference group, which showed maximum suppression at 90 minutes; at all time intervals plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher in the NIDDY patients. Obesity did not affect fasting plasma glucagon levels. In response to the oral glucose load serum cortisol levels in the NIDDY patients were suppressed in parallel with those in the reference group but remained significantly higher throughout the period of observation at all time intervals. Obese NIDDY patients had higher fasting cortisol levels, but their response to orally administered glucose was no different from that of the NIDDY group as a whole. GH suppression by oral glucose in NIDDY patients was less than that in the reference group, and the rebound rise occurred earlier. Obese NIDDY patients had higher fasting GH levels than their non-obese counterparts, but responses to the glucose load were not different.

  20. Job Strain and the Cortisol Diurnal Cycle in MESA: Accounting for Between- and Within-Day Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Kara E; Sánchez, Brisa N; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Greenberg, Benjamin; Fujishiro, Kaori; Wand, Gary S; Shrager, Sandi; Seeman, Teresa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Golden, Sherita H

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the link between job strain and cortisol levels has been inconsistent. This could be due to failure to account for cortisol variability leading to underestimated standard errors. Our objective was to model the relationship between job strain and the whole cortisol curve, accounting for sources of cortisol variability. Our functional mixed-model approach incorporated all available data-18 samples over 3 days-and uncertainty in estimated relationships. We used employed participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress I Study and data collected between 2002 and 2006. We used propensity score matching on an extensive set of variables to control for sources of confounding. We found that job strain was associated with lower salivary cortisol levels and lower total area under the curve. We found no relationship between job strain and the cortisol awakening response. Our findings differed from those of several previous studies. It is plausible that our results were unique to middle- to older-aged racially, ethnically, and occupationally diverse adults and were therefore not inconsistent with previous research among younger, mostly white samples. However, it is also plausible that previous findings were influenced by residual confounding and failure to propagate uncertainty (i.e., account for the multiple sources of variability) in estimating cortisol features.

  1. Is there an association between work stress and diurnal cortisol patterns? Findings from the Whitehall II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The evidence on whether there is work stress related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is equivocal. This study assessed the relation between work stress and diurnal cortisol rhythm in a large-scale occupational cohort, the Whitehall II study. METHODS: Work stress was assessed in two ways, using the job-demand-control (JDC and the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI models. Salivary cortisol samples were collected six times over a normal day in 2002-2004. The cortisol awakening response (CAR and diurnal cortisol decline (slope were calculated. RESULTS: In this large occupational cohort (N = 2,126, mean age 57.1, modest differences in cortisol patterns were found for ERI models only, showing lower reward (β = -0.001, P-value = 0.04 and higher ERI (β = 0.002, P-value = 0.05 were related to a flatter slope in cortisol across the day. Meanwhile, moderate gender interactions were observed regarding CAR and JDC model. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the associations of work stress with cortisol are modest, with associations apparent for ERI model rather than JDC model.

  2. Cortisol-induced inhibition of ovine renin and aldosterone responses to hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.E.; Silbiger, J.

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that in preterm fetal sheep increases in plasma cortisol (F) concentration equal in amplitude to fetal F stress responses suppress plasma renin activity (PRA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that this negative interaction exists in adult sheep. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. Five conscious ewes with chronically prepared carotid arterial loops were infused intravenously with F or vehicle for 5 h. One hour after the end of F or vehicle infusion, renin secretion was stimulated by hypotension produced by infusion of sodium nitroprusside. F infusion increased plasma F; during vehicle infusion plasma F did not change. F infusion decreased hematocrit from 29 +/- 2 to 26 +/- 1%. Basal PRA in vehicle- and F-infused groups were 0.4 +/- 0 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 ng angiotensin I-ml/sup -1/-h/sup -1/ and did not change. In vehicle-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.4 +/- 0 to 4.6 +/- 0.4 and plasma aldosterone from 26.0 +/- 1.0 to 173.1 +/- 21.8 pg/ml, while in F-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.2 +/- 1 to 3.3 +/- 0.4 ng angiotensin I-ml/sup -1/-h/sup -1/ and aldosterone from 25.0 +/- 0 to 48.2 +/- 23.2 pg/ml, significantly smaller responses. These results suggest that repeated stress may modulate the responses of the renin-angiotensin system in this species.

  3. Differential Effects of Stress-induced Cortisol Responses on Recollection and Familiarity-based Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol o...

  4. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  5. Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Odgers, Candice L.; Danese, Andrea; Bowes, Lucy; Shakoor, Sania; Papadopoulos, Andrew S.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthood. Few studies have investigated whether blunted HPA axis reactivity observed in children exposed to early-life stress signals social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 190 12-year-old children (50.5% males) recruited from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994 to 1995 cohort of families with twins. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress were measured in maltreated/ bullied (n = 64) and comparison children (n = 126). We ascertained maltreatment and bullying victimization using mothers’ reports and assessed children’s social, emotional, and behavioral problems at ages 5 and 12 using mothers’ and teachers’ reports. Results Piecewise multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that maltreated/bullied and comparison children showed distinct cortisol responses to stress. Specifically, maltreated/bullied children had lower cortisol responses than comparison children who exhibited a significant increase. Lower cortisol responses were, in turn, associated with more social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied children. Conclusions These findings provide support for the influence of childhood harm on blunted HPAaxis reactivity and its potential impacton children’s functioning. Our findings emphasize the need to integrate stress biomarkers in guiding prevention efforts for young victims. PMID:21839988

  6. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  7. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  8. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K.; Heissel, Jennifer A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Ross, Emily C.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Levy, Dorainne J.; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N = 50 Black, N = 62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key

  9. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  10. Awakening epilepsy ('Aufwach-Epilepsie') revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E

    1991-01-01

    The concept of 'awakening epilepsy' (introduced by Janz, 1953) occupies a crucial position for the comprehension of primary generalized epilepsy. The associated electroencephalographic manifestations are discussed and the role of abnormal (paroxysmal) arousal responses ('dyshormia') is stressed. The origin of these bilateral-synchronous discharges appears to be located below the frontal midline scalp region in mesial portions of the supplementary motor region. 'Awakening epilepsy' is also interesting from the viewpoint of sleep research. There is also an important age factor; these seizures (mostly grand mal and classical petit mal absences) are most common in older children, adolescents and young adults. The general management of these patients has to take into account the patient's special vulnerability after a night of poor sleep.

  11. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed.

  12. Insight into the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism by which cortisol suppresses pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Kellie M; Davis, Tracy L; Doro, Lisa C; Nett, Terry M; Oakley, Amy E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Rispoli, Louisa A; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2008-02-01

    Stress-like elevations in plasma glucocorticoids rapidly inhibit pulsatile LH secretion in ovariectomized sheep by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. This effect can be blocked by a nonspecific antagonist of the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) RU486. A series of experiments was conducted to strengthen the evidence for a mediatory role of the type II GR and to investigate the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism underlying this inhibitory effect of cortisol. First, we demonstrated that a specific agonist of the type II GR, dexamethasone, mimics the suppressive action of cortisol on pituitary responsiveness to GnRH pulses in ovariectomized ewes. This effect, which became evident within 30 min, documents mediation via the type II GR. We next determined that exposure of cultured ovine pituitary cells to cortisol reduced the LH response to pulse-like delivery of GnRH by 50% within 30 min, indicating a pituitary site of action. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in ovariectomized ewes is due to reduced tissue concentrations of GnRH receptor. Although cortisol blunted the amplitude of GnRH-induced LH pulses within 1-2 h, the amount of GnRH receptor mRNA or protein was not affected over this time frame. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that cortisol acts via the type II GR within the pituitary gland to elicit a rapid decrease in responsiveness to GnRH, independent of changes in expression of the GnRH receptor.

  13. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  14. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation on the cortisol response to surgical castration of unweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D; Lomax, S; Windsor, P A; White, P J

    2016-01-01

    Impracticality and cost of existing pain management strategies during surgical castration of beef cattle have limited their widespread implementation on-farm. A farmer-applied topical anaesthetic formulation, originally developed and used commercially to mitigate the pain of mulesing in lambs, was investigated for its potential use for managing pain in surgically castrated calves. This formulation contained lidocaine, bupivacaine, adrenalin and cetrimide. In this study, 24 Angus bull calves were randomly allocated to (1) surgical castration (C, n=8), (2) surgical castration with the post-operative application of topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=8) and (3) sham castration/control (CON, n=8). The experiment was conducted over 2 days, with treatment groups evenly represented across each day. Calves were habituated to handling before the experiment and blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol measurement at defined time periods before, at and post treatment, (at -0.5, 0 h, then +0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4 and 6 h). There was a significant effect of time on cortisol concentrations across all treatment groups (Pcortisol response at 0 h. The effect of treatment was not significant (P=0.077), however, there was a trend for CON calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C and CTA calves and CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves. The mean area under the curve (AUC) of CON calves was significantly lower than those of C and CTA calves (P=0.04), however, there was no significant difference between the AUCs of CTA and C calves. Immediate application of topical anaesthetic after surgical castration did not significantly reduce plasma cortisol concentrations. However, the trend for CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves warrants further investigation into the use of TA for pain relief of surgically castrated beef calves.

  16. Effect of Eight Weeks of Resistance Exercise on Adaptive Responses of Cortisol and Androgens in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decreased anabolic to catabolic ratio during menopause, can lead to a reduction in muscle size and strength. Hence, the current study amed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of resistance exercise on adaptive responses of cortisol and androgens in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 healthy postmenopausal women with the age range of 48 to 62 years and a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were selected (via paposeful and convenience sampling who participated in an eight-week program of circular shape resistance training (8 stations, 3 sets with 12 repeatation with intensity of 65-40% of one repetition maximum. Serum levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol were measured 48 hours before and after the intervention. The study data were analyzed by paired student’s t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The study results following resistance training, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (58%, P=0.000, testosterone (71%, P=0.017, testosterone to cortisol ratio (125%, P=0.016 and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to cortisol ratio (61%, P=0.002 significantly increased. Although the amount of post-test cortisol levels was decreased, this change was not held to be significant (P=0.459. Conclusion: Eight weeks of resistance training leads to a significant increase in levels of androgens as well as androgens to cortisol ratio. Therefore, resistance training by increasing the ratio of anabolic to catabolic hormones can prevente muscle size and strength, and aid to wellbeing and health of postmenopausal women.

  17. High and low emotion events influence emotional stress perceptions and are associated with salivary cortisol response changes in a consecutive stress paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejtek, Vicki A

    2002-04-01

    Numerous studies over the last few decades have successfully utilized "psychological" stressors to examine stress-induced cortisol release as a function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cascade. In contrast, research examining the effect emotionally-laden stressors may have on cortisol release is scarce. Moreover, the results from the few studies that have examined subjective perceptions of emotional stress and their relationship to cortisol release are mixed. Thus, little is known about the impact an emotionally-charged stressor may have on cortisol responsivity and even less is understood about the relationship between cortisol release and perceived emotional stress. The primary goal of the present research was to investigate the effect of consecutive, emotionally stressful events on cortisol release. The secondary goal was to examine the influence perceptions about emotionally stressful events might have on cortisol responsivity. This is the first study to identify two distinct patterns of cortisol release that were significantly reversed (P=0.006) in response to high and low emotion events presented in a consecutive stress paradigm that were associated with perceptions of emotional stress.

  18. An Exploratory Study Using Cortisol to Describe the Response of Incarcerated Women IPV Survivors to MAMBRA Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if incarcerated women survivors of IPV had a physiological response to the Music and Account-Making for Behavioral-Related Adaptation (MAMBRA) intervention, as measured by cortisol levels. Methods. A single-group repeated measures designed exploratory study was used to pilot-test MAMBRA. A convenience sample (n = 33) was recruited in a Midwestern women's correctional facility. Serving as their own control, participants provided demographics and pre-/post-MAMBRA salivary samples while attending four MAMBRA sessions. Baseline data were compared to participants' data collected over the remaining 3 MAMBRA sessions. Data were analyzed with descriptive and univariate statistics with an alpha of .05 and post-hoc power of .65. Results. Participants were predominantly White (52%), single (80%), and early middle-aged (x-AGE=38.7±9.4), with a history of physical/nonphysical spousal abuse. Using a subsample (n = 26), salivary cortisol decreased between the pre-/post-MAMBRA over the sessions (F(3,75) = 4.59, p < .01). Conclusion. Participants had a physiological response to the MAMBRA intervention as evidenced by the decreased cortisol between the pre-/post-MAMBRA. This is the first step in examining MAMBRA's clinical utility as an intervention for female IPV survivors. Future longitudinal studies will examine MAMBRA's effectiveness given this change in cortisol. PMID:27672452

  19. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune...... post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased m......RNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head...

  20. Interpersonal motives and social-evaluative threat: Effects of acceptance and status stressors on cardiovascular reactivity and salivary cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Jordan, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    Social-evaluative threat evokes increases in salivary cortisol and heightened cardiovascular reactivity. However, the types or content of social threats underlying these physiological responses are not clearly delineated in direct comparisons. Based in interpersonal theory, the present study manipulated high and low levels of acceptance threat (i.e., evaluation of likability, potential for inclusion) and status threat (i.e., evaluation of competence, leadership potential) during a modified Trier Social Stress Test, using a sample of 137 undergraduates (73 women). Both acceptance threat and status threat heightened salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the task. Hence, concerns about social inclusion or connection with others and concerns about social standing or status can contribute independently to physiological stress responses.

  1. Blunted serum and enhanced salivary free cortisol concentrations in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage--is stress the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, E M; Gilsbach, J M; Hans, F-J; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a cause of stroke, which constitutes a severe trauma to the brain and may lead to serious long-term medical, psychosocial and endocrinological sequelae. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency, which is considered to occur in up to 20% of all survivors, is a possible consequence of bleeding. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that a poor psychosocial outcome in SAH survivors is linked to alterations in cortisol secretion. Despite these findings, investigation of diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in chronic SAH patients has not been done so far. In this study, basal serum cortisol and salivary cortisol concentration profiles were investigated in 31 SAH patients more than 1 year after the acute event and in 25 healthy controls. Additionally, low-dose dexamethasone (DEX) suppression tests were conducted, and sensitivity to stress was measured with a psychometric questionnaire (Neuropattern(TM)). Although significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were observed on waking in SAH patients (p = 0.013, ANOVA), without a CAR change, total serum cortisol concentrations were blunted, but only in patients with high levels of perceived stress (SAH high stress: 337 nmol/l, SAH low stress: 442 nmol/l, controls: 467 nmol/l; Controls vs. SAH high stress p = 0.018). DEX suppression of cortisol secretion was not significantly different between patients and controls. The results indicate that total (serum) and free (salivary) cortisol concentrations give different information about cortisol availability in patients after aneurysmal SAH. Enhanced free cortisol concentrations may reflect a meaningful biological coping mechanism in SAH patients.

  2. Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Folkesson, Lisa; Bergström, Malin; Östberg, Viveca; Lindfors, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Each year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children in two homes could benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents' financial resources. However, children could experience stress from being constantly moving and potentially exposed to parental conflicts. Still, studies on JPC and biological functioning related to stress, are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate to HPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents. Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was computed using an established formula. Additionally, the diurnal decline between the waking and 8 p.m. samples was computed. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that living arrangements (intact family/JPC) was not associated with morning cortisol (CAR), the diurnal cortisol decline or with recurrent pain. However, sex was a significant predictor of both cortisol measures and recurrent pain with girls exhibiting a higher cortisol awakening response and a greater diurnal decline value as well as reporting more recurrent pain than did boys. Living arrangements were not associated with HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this study is the first to investigate how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning and additional studies are needed, the tentative findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living

  3. Neural and cortisol responses during play with human and computer partners in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Merkle, Kristen; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-08-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in reciprocal social interactions, including play, which can manifest as failure to show social preference or discrimination between social and nonsocial stimuli. To explore mechanisms underlying these deficits, we collected salivary cortisol from 42 children 8-12 years with ASD or typical development during a playground interaction with a confederate child. Participants underwent functional MRI during a prisoner's dilemma game requiring cooperation or defection with a human (confederate) or computer partner. Search region of interest analyses were based on previous research (e.g. insula, amygdala, temporal parietal junction-TPJ). There were significant group differences in neural activation based on partner and response pattern. When playing with a human partner, children with ASD showed limited engagement of a social salience brain circuit during defection. Reduced insula activation during defection in the ASD children relative to TD children, regardless of partner type, was also a prominent finding. Insula and TPJ BOLD during defection was also associated with stress responsivity and behavior in the ASD group under playground conditions. Children with ASD engage social salience networks less than TD children during conditions of social salience, supporting a fundamental disturbance of social engagement. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Method-specific serum cortisol responses to the adrenocorticotrophin test: comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and five automated immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farhan, Nadia; Pickett, Alan; Ducroq, David; Bailey, Catherine; Mitchem, Kelly; Morgan, Nicola; Armston, Annie; Jones, Laila; Evans, Carol; Rees, D Aled

    2013-05-01

    The serum cortisol response to the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) test is known to vary significantly by assay, but lower reference limits (LRL) for this response have not been established by the reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method or modern immunoassays. We aimed to compare the normal cortisol response to ACTH stimulation using GC-MS with five widely used immunoassays. An ACTH test (250 μg iv ACTH1-24 ) was undertaken in 165 healthy volunteers (age, 20-66 years; 105 women, 24 of whom were taking an oestrogen-containing oral contraceptive pill [OCP]). Serum cortisol was measured using GC-MS, Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott), Modular Analytics E170 (Roche), Immulite 2000 (Siemens) and Access (Beckman) automated immunoassays. The estimated LRL for the 30 min cortisol response to ACTH was derived from the 2·5th percentile of log-transformed concentrations. The GC-MS-measured cortisol response was normally distributed in males but not females, with no significant gender difference in baseline or post-ACTH cortisol concentration. Immunoassays were positively biased relative to GC-MS, except in samples from women on the OCP, who showed a consistent negative bias. The LRL for cortisol was method-specific [GC-MS: 420 nm; Architect: 430 nm; Centaur: 446 nm; Access 459 nm; Immulite (2000) 474 nm] and, for the E170, also gender-specific (female: 524 nm; male 574 nm). A separate LRL is necessary for women on the OCP. Normal cortisol responses to the ACTH test are influenced significantly by assay and oestrogen treatment. We recommend the use of separate reference limits in premenopausal women on the OCP and warn users that cortisol measurements in this subgroup are subject to assay interference. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  6. For whom the bell (curve) tolls: cortisol rapidly affects memory retrieval by an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Thomas M; Kölsch, Monika; Larra, Mauro F; Zech, Carina M; Blumenthal, Terry D; Frings, Christian; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    Stress and cortisol are generally considered to impair declarative memory retrieval, although opposite results have also been reported. Dose-dependent effects and differences between genomic and non-genomic cortisol effects are possible reasons for these discrepancies. The aim of the current experiment was to assess the non-genomic effects of escalating doses of intravenous cortisol on cued recall of socially relevant information in humans. 40 participants (age range 20-30 years; 20 females) learned associations between male faces with a neutral facial expression and descriptions of either positive or negative social behaviors and were tested one week later in a cued recall paradigm. Escalating doses of cortisol (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 mg) were administered 8 min before testing according to a between-subjects design. An inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between salivary cortisol levels and recall performance was observed, with moderate elevation of salivary cortisol resulting in the best recall performance. This is the first study in humans demonstrating that cortisol rapidly modulates declarative memory retrieval via a dose-dependent, non-genomic mechanism that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. Our result further emphasizes the importance of fast cortisol effects for human cognition.

  7. Daily salivary cortisol profile: Insights from the Croatian Late Adolescence Stress Study (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Milas, Goran; Hofman, Irena Drmić; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to examine basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and to determine associations of various covariates (gender, sleep-wake rhythm, demographic, academic, life style and health-related characteristics) with altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. Materials and methods The total analytic sample consisted of 903 Croatian secondary school students aged 18 - 21 years (median 19 years). Salivary cortisol was sampled at home at three time points over the course of one week and its concentrations were measured by using the enzyme immunoassay. Results In comparison to males, female students had a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) (median 4.69, IQR 10.46 and median 3.03, IQR 8.94, respectively; P students who woke-up earlier and were awake longer, had a higher CAR (P students who woke-up later and were awake shorter. Less consistent but still significant predictors of salivary cortisol indexes were age, school behaviour, friendship, diet healthiness and drug abuse. Conclusion Gender and sleep-wake up rhythm were major determinants of the altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. The predictive power of other covariates, although less clear, has a potential for identifying vulnerable subgroups such as male drug users and females without a best friend.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis and metabolism of testosterone and cortisol are altered by the high levels of adipose tissue and the constant state of low-grade inflammation of obesity. Resistance exercise (REx) has become one of the main lifestyle interventions prescribed to obese individuals due to its ability to positively influence body composition and some biomarkers, such as cholesterol and insulin resistance. Yet, little research has been done in obese examining the effects of REx on the testosterone and blood cortisol responses, two integral hormones in both exercise and obesity. The obese testosterone response to REx and whether or not it is blunted compared to lean individuals remains elusive. Conflicting findings concerning the blood cortisol response have also been reported, likely due to variance in REx protocol and the level of obesity in the participants in studies. Comparatively, both of these hormones have been extremely well studied in untrained lean males, which could be used as a basis for future research in obese males. However, without this endocrinological information, it is unknown if the current acute REx prescriptions are appropriate for eliciting a favorable acute endocrinological response, and ultimately, a positive chronic adaptation in obese males.

  9. Cortisol Stress Response in Men and Women Modulated Differentially by the Mu-Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphism OPRM1 A118G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Glahn, David C; Goldman, David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in stress reactivity may affect long-term health outcomes, but there is little information on how these differences arise. The stress axis is regulated by, in part, the endogenous opioid, beta-endorphin, acting on mu-opioid receptors. Persons carrying one or two copies of the G allele of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 A118G) may have higher receptor binding for beta-endorphin compared with AA homozygotes that may contribute to individual differences in cortisol reactivity to stress, leading to a relative blunting of cortisol stress reactivity in G allele genotypes. We measured cortisol in 251 young adults (69 GA/GG vs 182 AA genotypes) exposed to mental arithmetic plus public speaking stress relative to a resting control day. Women had smaller cortisol responses than men (F=10.2, p=0.002), and women with GA or GG genotypes (N=39) had an absence of cortisol response relative to AA carriers (N=110) (F=18.4, pCortisol response following mu-opioid receptor blockade using naltrexone in 119 of these subjects unmasked a greater tonic opioid inhibition of cortisol secretion in women (N=64), consistent with their blunted stress reactivity. Compared with men, women may have cortisol stress responses that are more heavily regulated by endogenous opioid mechanisms, and the OPRM1 GA/GG genotypes may affect females differentially relative to males. Diminished cortisol responses to stress may have consequences for health behaviors in women with GA/GG genotypes. PMID:25881118

  10. Exploring heart and soul: effects of religiosity/spirituality and gender on blood pressure and cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Jessica; Luecken, Linda J; Gunn, Heather E

    2005-11-01

    The current study investigated gender effects on the influence of self-reported religiosity and spirituality on cardiovascular and cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor among young adults. Participants with higher composite religiosity/spirituality scores, religiosity, levels of forgiveness and frequency of prayer showed lower cortisol responses. Greater composite religiosity/spirituality, religiosity, frequency of prayer and attendance at services were associated with lower blood pressure in males and elevated blood pressure in females. Findings suggest that spiritual and/or religious individuals may experience a protective effect against the neuroendocrine consequences of stress, though cardiovascular benefits may vary by gender. This work represents an important step in the convergence of multiple realms of research by linking physiological measures with indicators of individual belief systems.

  11. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seok Hyeon Yun; Sang Jin Park; Chang Sun Sim; Joo Hyun Sung; Ahra Kim; Jang Myeong Lee; Sang Hyun Lee; Jiho Lee

    2017-01-01

    ...) may have the different effects on the human’s body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact...

  12. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.

  13. Effects of four analgesic treatments on the behavioural and cortisol responses of 3-week-old lambs to tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M J; Kent, J E; Molony, V

    1997-01-01

    The behavioural and cortisol responses of groups of seven or eight lambs were used to determine which of three methods of tail docking (rubber ring, Burdizzo and rubber ring combined, or heated docking iron) produced the least signs of pain in the first 3 h after use and which of four analgesic treatments (1.0 ml bupivacaine subcutaneously, 0.5 ml bupivacaine epidurally, a topical cold analgesic spray or diclofenac 1.5 mg kg-1) was most effective in reducing these signs. Amputation with a heated docking iron produced levels of behaviour and cortisol responses which did not differ markedly from those of handled controls. The rubber ring method produced the greatest increase in all parameters (total active behaviour 110 +/- 91 counts; 51 +/- 23 min spent in abnormal postures; peak cortisol 93 +/- 51 nmol l-1). Subcutaneous bupivacaine, administered immediately prior to application of the ring, appeared to be the analgesic treatment most effective at reducing these responses (23 +/- 15 counts; 24 +/- 22 min.; 44 +/- 20 nmol l-1).

  14. The Awakening of Feminist Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊江

    2013-01-01

    Virginia Woolf in her great novel To the Lighthouse shows her deep concern for women. In this book, she discusses women’s spiritual world and the process of the awakening of feminist consciousness, which is represented by Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe.

  15. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  16. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2014-03-01

    It is hypothesized that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 11-16, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 9-14, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. I do…do you? Dependence and biological sex moderate daters' cortisol responses when accommodating a partner's thoughts about marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    We examined how daters' levels of relationship dependence interact with men's and women's degree of accommodation during a likelihood of marriage discussion to predict cortisol levels at the conclusion of the discussion. Upon arriving at the laboratory, couple members were separated and asked to graph their perceived likelihood of one day marrying each other. Couples were reunited and instructed to create a joint graph depicting their agreed-upon chance of marriage. For the majority of couples, negotiating their likelihood of marriage required one or both partners to accommodate each other's presumed likelihood of marriage. Multilevel analyses revealed a significant Dependence×Accommodation×Sex interaction. For women who increased their likelihood of marriage, feelings of dependence predicted heightened levels of cortisol relative to baseline; we suggest such a response is indicative of eustress. Among men, those who accommodated by decreasing their likelihood of marriage experienced significantly lower levels of cortisol to the extent that they were less dependent on their partners. Discussion focuses on why men and women show different physiological reactions in response to seemingly favorable outcomes from a relationship discussion.

  18. Relationship between serum cholesterol levels and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced cortisol responses in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, T; Nakamura, J; Yoshimura, R; Ohmori, O; Takahashi, N; Kojima, H; Soeda, S; Shinkai, T; Nakano, H; Okuno, T

    2000-10-30

    We investigated the effect of cholesterol on serotonergic receptor function in 20 healthy male and 10 healthy female subjects using cortisol responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) neuroendocrine challenge tests. M-CPP, a metabolite of the antidepressant trazodone, has been widely used in psychopharmacology research as a probe of serotonin function. In the human brain, m-CPP binds both to various serotonergic receptors, mainly 5-HT(2C), and to alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. After an overnight fast, the subjects received m-CPP (0.5 mg/kg) or identical placebo capsules orally in a randomized, double blind, crossover design. Blood was obtained for measurement of cholesterol and cortisol. In some analyses, especially in males, there were significant positive correlations between serum cholesterol levels and cortisol responses. These findings suggest the possibility that serum cholesterol levels may be positively associated with serotonergic receptor function. The existence of such an association may provide an explanation for reported increases in depression, suicide and violence in individuals with low or lowered cholesterol.

  19. The Effect of One Session Continuous and Intermittent Aerobic Exercise on Blood Responses of HSP72 , Cortisol and Creatine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Heat shock proteins help the cells’ ability to keep their structures against different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one ses-sion continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on blood responses of HSP72, cortisol and creatine kinase (CK. Materials & Methods: This study is semi-experimental in which 21 male student athletes were divided in continuous group (n=7, intermittent group (n=7 and control group (n=7. Exer-cise protocol of continuous group included 1 hour running with 80% maximum heart rate in-tensity and that of intermittent group was 3 stages of 20 minute running with the same inten-sity as of continuous group . Blood sampling of basal, pre exercise, immediately after exer-cise and 90 minutes after exercise were gathered and the amounts of HSP72, cortisol and CK, were measured by ELISA, RIA and Enzymatic methods respectively. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and repeated measure analysis of variance at P?0.05 significance level. Results: HSP72 levels in the continuous group and intermittent group despite an increase in the average did not show a statistically significant difference. Changes between the groups were significant in immediately after exercise and 90 minutes after exercise (P.values respectively 0.017 and 0.002. CK changes in continuous group were significant but cortisol changes in different stages hadn’t significant difference Conclusion: Exercise with its role associated with cortisol and CK will stimulate HSP72 and continuous exercise will make further increase in HSP72 and CK increasing leads to a greater HSP72 response. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:223-231

  20. Changes in EEG pre and post awakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence of awakenings. Awakenings are understood here as a state change from sleeping to waking. We will discuss the methodological issues and the problem of properly defining an awakening. With regard to phenomena preceding an awakening, we will look at arousals and compare background to event-related activity in the electroencephalography (EEG). As arousability varies between and within species, the relevant EEG correlates of this variability are described. Concerning EEG changes following an awakening, the discussion focuses on sleep inertia effects.

  1. Salivary cortisol and sleep problems among civil servants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Kaergaard, Anette

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study used information from a field study conducted among 4489 civil servants (70% women) in Denmark in 2007. The purpose was to examine the association between sleep problems and salivary cortisol by using a cross-sectional design with repeated measures in a subsample three...... during the past four weeks were associated with low morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations: [-3.1% per score of disturbed sleep (p=.009); and -4.7% per score of awakening problems (p...

  2. Salivary Cortisol Protocol Adherence and Reliability by Sociodemographic Features: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; DeSantis, Amy S.; Wu, Meihua; Castro, Cecilia; Seeman, Teresa E.; Tadros, Sameh; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of salivary cortisol has become increasingly popular in large population-based studies. However, the impact of protocol compliance on day-to-day reliabilities of measures, and the extent to which reliabilities differ systematically according to socio-demographic characteristics, has not been well characterized in large-scale population-based studies to date. Using data on 935 men and women from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated whether sampling protocol compliance differs systematically according to socio-demographic factors and whether compliance was associated with cortisol estimates, as well as whether associations of cortisol with both compliance and socio-demographic characteristics were robust to adjustments for one another. We further assessed the day-to-day reliability for cortisol features and the extent to which reliabilities vary according to socio-demographic factors and sampling protocol compliance. Overall, we found higher compliance among persons with higher levels of income and education. Lower compliance was significantly associated with a less pronounced cortisol awakening response (CAR) but was not associated with any other cortisol features, and adjustment for compliance did not affect associations of socio-demographic characteristics with cortisol. Reliability was higher for area under the curve (AUC) and wake up values than for other features, but generally did not vary according to socio-demographic characteristics, with few exceptions. Our findings regarding intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) support prior research indicating that multiple day collection is preferable to single day collection, particularly for CAR and slopes, more so than wakeup and AUC. There were few differences in reliability by socio-demographic characteristics. Thus, it is unlikely that group-specific sampling protocols are warranted. PMID:24703168

  3. The awakening concentration of sevoflurane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, S; Inomata, S; Yaguchi, Y; Toyooka, H; Baba, Y; Kohda, Y

    2000-08-01

    Sevoflurane is frequently used as a rapidly acting drug for the induction of anesthesia. We investigated the awakening concentration (MAC-awake) of sevoflurane in ASA physical status I children (age range 2-10 yr). We also investigated the effects of two different doses of clonidine (2 and 4 microg/kg) on the MAC-awake of sevoflurane. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups and received placebo (n = 24), clonidine 2 microg/kg (n = 17), or clonidine 4 microg/kg (n = 22) orally, 100 min before the induction of anesthesia. Sedation scores were estimated, by using a five-point scale, after entry into the operating room, and anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and balanced nitrogen, without an additional anesthetic. After surgery, end-tidal sevoflurane was decreased stepwise by 0.2% at 15-min intervals, a standardized verbal command was played to the patients, and the MAC-awake was determined. The MAC-awake of sevoflurane alone was 0. 78% +/- 0.24% (mean +/- SD), which decreased to 0.36% +/- 0.09% and 0.36% +/- 0.16% (both P <0.0001, compared with the control group) after premedication with the small and large doses of clonidine, respectively. The lack of any dose-response relationship might be explained by a plateau effect. The awakening concentration of sevoflurane in unpremedicated children was 0.78%. Oral clonidine premedication at a dose of 2 microg/kg reduced the awakening concentration to 0.36%. However, an additional decrease in this value was not observed after the administration of the larger dose of clonidine premedication (4 microg/kg).

  4. Caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies in a virtual navigation task are associated with lower basal cortisol and impaired episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, Véronique D; Gupta, Melini; Banner, Harrison; Dahmani, Louisa

    2011-09-01

    The present research examined the relationship between endogenous glucocorticoids, navigational strategies in a virtual navigation task, and performance on standard neuropsychological assessments of memory. Healthy young adult participants (N=66, mean age: 21.7) were tested on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8 VM) and standard neuropsychological tests such as the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (RO) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT), which measure episodic memory. The 4/8 VM differentiates between navigational strategies, where participants either use a hippocampal-dependent spatial strategy by building relationships between landmarks, or a caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response strategy by automatizing a pattern of open and closed arms to learn the location of objects within the maze. Degree of stress was assessed by administering the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaire. Cortisol samples were taken on two consecutive days upon waking, 30 min after waking, at 11 am, 4 pm, and 9 pm. There was a significant difference in basal levels of cortisol between spatial and response learners. Interestingly, response learners had significantly lower cortisol levels throughout the day. The two groups did not differ in terms of perceived stress as measured with the PSS questionnaire. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between PSS scores and salivary cortisol levels, indicating that the higher cortisol levels in the spatial group were not associated with greater perceived stress. In addition, participants who spontaneously used a spatial strategy performed significantly better on the RAVLT and RO. These data indicate that the cortisol levels in the spatial group may be optimal in terms of episodic memory performance whereas the cortisol levels in the response group may be associated with poorer memory. These results are suggestive of an inverted U-shaped curve describing the effects of basal levels of circulating cortisol on memory in young adults.

  5. Cortisol profiles: A test for adaptive calibration of the stress response system in maltreated and nonmaltreated youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    PECKINS, MELISSA K.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; NEGRIFF, SONYA; NOLL, JENNIE; TRICKETT, PENELOPE K.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the life span, exposure to chronic stress such as child maltreatment is thought to contribute to future dysfunction of the stress response system (SRS) through the process of adaptive calibration. Dysfunction of the SRS is associated with numerous health and behavior problems, so it is important to understand under what conditions and what time frame adaptive calibration occurs. The present study tested for adaptive calibration of the SRS in a sample of maltreated (n = 303) and nonmaltreated (n = 151) youth during the important developmental period of adolescence. Data were used from Waves 2, 3, and 4 of a larger study of the consequences of maltreatment on health and well-being. At each time point, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children and provided a baseline and four poststressor saliva samples to measure cortisol reactivity. Adaptive calibration was tested by performing a latent profile analysis using the five samples of salivary cortisol provided at each time point, and testing whether maltreatment status predicted the likelihood of profile membership at Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4. Three cortisol profiles emerged from the data at each time point (blunted, moderate, and elevated), and results indicated that maltreated youth were more likely than nonmaltreated youth to present with the blunted cortisol profile compared to the moderate and elevated profiles at Time 2 and Time 3, even after controlling for recent exposure to violence and trauma. At Time 4, there was no longer a difference in profile membership between maltreated and nonmaltreated youth, suggesting adaptive calibration may be a lengthy process requiring a period of years to become evident. Overall, the findings provide support for adaptive calibration and offer insight into the conditions under which adaptive calibration occurs. PMID:26535937

  6. Differential circadian catecholamine and cortisol responses between healthy women with and without a parental history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Alfarano, Alexandria S; van Berge-Landry, Helene M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that otherwise healthy individuals who have a parental history of hypertension (PH+) have an accentuated reactive rise in catecholamines and cortisol to laboratory stressors as well as elevated plasma levels when compared with those with no parental history (PH-); however, few, if any, studies have evaluated whether parental history affects the responses of these hormones to changing environmental circumstances in everyday life. The purpose of this study was to compare urinary catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and cortisol excretion and ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) across three daily microenvironments between women with and without a parental history of hypertension. The women in the study (PH+, N = 62, age = 35.2 ± 9.1; PH-, N = 72, age = 33.8 ± 10.0) worked in clerical, technical, or professional positions at a major medical center in New York City. Urinary hormone excretion rates and ambulatory BP were measured across three daily microenvironments: work (11 am to 3 p.m.), home (approximately 6 p.m. to 10 p.m.), and during sleep (approximately 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.). History group comparisons by microenvironment were made using repeated-measures ANCOVA and ANOVA analyses. The results show that epinephrine excretion among PH+ women was 36% higher than PH- women (P < 0.008) over the entire day and that nocturnal cortisol excretion was also greater among PH+ women (P < 0.045). PH+ women also had statistically significantly higher systolic (4 mm Hg higher; P < 0.01) and diastolic (2 mm Hg higher, P < 0.03) BP when compared with PH- women across all daily microenvironments. These findings suggest that there may be genetically linked mechanisms which elevate tonic epinephrine levels and nocturnal cortisol levels that contribute to elevating circadian BP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered.

  8. Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (pcortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (pSport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes.

  9. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  10. Impairment of the cortisol stress response mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to monocrotophos pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Zhong, Yan; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    In teleosts, an important component of the stress response is coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Environmental contaminants might disrupt the stress axis and consequently affect the stress response in fish. To investigate the effect of monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide on the stress response of fish and its potential mechanisms, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 100μg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min air-exposure stressor. Concentrations of the whole-body cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay and abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in the HPI axis were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that 100μg/L of MCP pesticide decreased whole-body cortisol levels of female zebrafish in response to an acute stressor, but without any effect on the cortisol response in males. 100μg/L MCP pesticide reduced POMC and GR expression in the brain, MC2R and P45011β expression in the head kidney, but enhanced 20β-HSD2 expression in the head kidney, suggesting that MCP damaged the HPI axis involving acting at pituitary regulatory levels, inhibiting cortisol synthesis and stimulating cortisol catabolism, or disturbing the negative feedback regulation. Additionally, MCP depressed liver GR transcription but did not affect phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and tyrosine aminotransferase expression in zebrafish, suggesting a role for this pesticide in reducing target tissue responsiveness to cortisol. Considered together, the reduced ability to elevate cortisol levels in response to an acute stress may be an endocrine dysfunction occurring in zebrafish subchronically exposed to MCP pesticide.

  11. Awakening in Wawasee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mary M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the response of a community in Indiana to charges of teacher racism and the resurfacing of the Ku Klux Klan in the area. Focuses on a march and rally for tolerance organized entirely by high school students. The "Wawasee Cares" campaign is bringing about positive community change. (SLD)

  12. Responses of cortisol and prolactin to sexual excitement and stress in stallions and geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborn, D R; Thompson, D L; Roth, T L; Capehart, J S; White, K L

    1991-06-01

    Sexual stimulation induces rapid secretion of cortisol and prolactin (PRL) in stallions. Experiment 1 was designated to determine whether stallions associated location and(or) procedure with previous sexual stimulation in that location. After a control period on d 1, four stallions were exposed to an estrous mare for 5 min on d 2. On d 3, 4, 5, and 6, the same procedure was followed with no mare present. Concentrations of PRL and cortisol increased (P less than .05) after mare exposure on d 2 but did not vary (P greater than .05) on d 1, 3, 4, 5, or 6. In Exp. 2, six stallions were used to determine the short-term effects of 1) sexual stimulation, 2) acute physical exercise, 3) restraint via a twitch (twitching), 4) epinephrine administration, and 5) no stimulation on plasma concentrations of PRL and cortisol. Stallions received one treatment per day separated by 2 d of no treatment. Concentrations of cortisol increased (P less than .05) within 10 min after sexual stimulation, exercise, twitching, and epinephrine administration but not during control bleedings. Concentrations of PRL increased (P less than .05) immediately after sexual stimulation, exercise, and twitching but not after epinephrine administration or during control bleeding. In Exp. 3, the same five treatments were administered to six geldings. Concentrations of cortisol increased (P less than .05) after epinephrine administration, exercise, and twitching but not after sexual stimulation or during control bleedings. Concentrations of PRL increased (P less than .05) after exercise and sexual stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  14. Saliva cortisol profiles in field research: internal structure, confounding factors, quantification, and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The last decades of research on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity have established salivary cortisol as a prevalent biological marker of stress. Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles in healthy adults are characterized by peak values in the post-awakening period and a consecutive decline thereafter. Basically, the variety of published measures quantifying basal salivary cortisol profiles can be classified into level and dynamic parameters reflecting both state and trait aspects. A tot...

  15. Effects of a topical anaesthetic formulation and systemic carprofen, given singly or in combination, on the cortisol and behavioural responses of Merino lambs to castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, D R; Lee, C; Colditz, I G; Fisher, A D

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a topical anaesthetic formulation (Tri-Solfen) with or without the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (carprofen) on the pain and distress response associated with ring or surgical castration of ram lambs. Merino ram lambs (n = 78) were allocated to 10 treatment groups: 4 groups of knife-castrated lambs and 4 groups of ring-castrated lambs received carprofen (4 mg/kg SC) and Tri-Solfen; 2 control groups (sham) received carprofen at 0 or 4 mg/kg SC. Measurements included plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations, haematology, and behaviour, including posture. Knife-castrated lambs had higher peak cortisol and integrated cortisol responses for the first 6 h after treatment and greater concentration s of circulating acute phase proteins than ring-castrated lambs, both of which were significantly different from the sham controls. Tri-Solfen applied to the knife castration wound significantly reduced both the peak plasma cortisol concentration and the integrated cortisol response for the first 6 h and improved lying behaviour in the first 12 h. Carprofen reduced the cortisol response to knife castration at 30 min, but elevated the cortisol responses at 24 and 48 h. Carprofen nearly halved the number of acute pain behaviours associated with ring castration. There were no significant additive or synergistic effects from combining the analgesic treatments. Tri-Solfen applied to the tail wound provided no detectible benefits during ring castration + tail docking. The physiological and behavioural responses suggest that ring castration has less impact on the lamb than knife castration. The specific analgesic treatments can provide modest amelioration of the pain and discomfort associated with castration. Alternative doses or application methods may enhance their efficacy.

  16. The acute testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 response to 164-km road cycling in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingren, Jakob L; Budnar, Ronald G; McKenzie, Amy L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Luk, Hui-Ying; Levitt, Danielle E; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acute endocrine responses to a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. Thirty-four male experienced cyclists (49.1 ± 8.3 years, 86.8 ± 12.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.1 cm) participating in a 164-km road cycling event were recruited. Blood samples were collected within 0.3-2.0 h before the start (PRE: ~0500-0700 h) and immediately following the ride (POST). Samples were analysed for testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The temperature and humidity during the event were 35.3 ± 4.9°C and 47.2 ± 14.0%, respectively. Based on the finishing time, results for the fastest (FAST, 305 ± 10 min) and the slowest (SLOW, 467 ± 31 min) quartiles were compared. At POST, testosterone concentration was significantly (P cortisol (PRE, 661 ± 165; POST, 1073 ± 260 nmol · L(-1)) and IL-6 (PRE, 4.0 ± 3.4; POST, 22.4 ± 15.2 pg · mL(-1)) concentrations were significantly higher than those at PRE. At POST, GH and cortisol were significantly higher for the FAST group than for the SLOW group (GH, 3.6 ± 2.0 and 1.0 ± 0.8 µg · L(-1); cortisol, 1187 ± 209 and 867 ± 215 nmol · L(-1)). Participation in an ultra-endurance road cycling event in a hot environment induced significant acute changes in concentrations of circulating hormones, with a greater augmentation of GH and cortisol in those completing the ride fastest.

  17. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve; Hopster, Hans; Fillerup, Maaike; Ekkel, E Dinand; Mulder, Eduard J H; Wiegant, Victor M; Taverne, Marcel A M

    2006-03-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows to levels also observed after psychological stress. HCA was administered during three different periods of gestation (115 days in pigs): period 1: 21-50 (P1, n = 10), period 2: 51-80 (P2, n = 10) and period 3: 81-110 (P3, n = 10) days after insemination. Control sows (n = 11) received vehicle from 21-110 days after insemination. When P1-, P2- and P3-sows did not receive HCA, they also received vehicle. During gestation, weekly saliva samples were taken from the sows to determine salivary cortisol concentrations. Treatment effects on sow, litter and piglet characteristics were determined. In addition, two female piglets per litter were subjected to an ACTH-challenge test at 6 weeks of age to determine the adrenocortical response to ACTH. Pigs were slaughtered at 6 months of age and slaughter weight, back fat thickness and percentage of lean meat were analysed. During the period of treatment with HCA, salivary cortisol concentrations were increased in P1-, P2- and P3-sows compared to control sows (P 0.30), but pooled HCA-litters had a higher percentage of live born piglets (P Gestation length did not differ among treatment groups (P = 0.21), but did affect treatment effects on birth weight. Overall, HCA-piglets weighed less at birth, and remained lighter until weaning (P < 0.05). The salivary cortisol concentrations after i.m. injection of ACTH (2.5 IU/kg) were lower in P1- and P3-piglets compared to control piglets. At slaughter, HCA-treatment indirectly decreased lean meat percentage and increased back fat thickness. In conclusion, elevated peripheral cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows affect both litter characteristics and piglet physiology, the latter depending on

  18. Differential associations between infant affective and cortisol responses during the still face paradigm among infants born very low birth weight versus full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Qualls, Clifford; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-06-01

    Psychological stress responses may have both emotional and cortisol reactivity correlates, but there are limited data addressing the association between generalized negative and positive emotional states and cortisol reactivity to a psychological stressor among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW; cortisol) responses may provide insight into the nature of regulation difficulties identified in infants born VLBW. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between infant affective and cortisol responses to the Still Face paradigm (SF) in a cohort of six- to eight-month old infants born VLBW compared with infants born full-term (N=53 total; N=29 and N=24, respectively). Infant affect was coded in 1-s intervals while mother-infant dyads participated in the SF paradigm, and percent positive affect and percent negative affect were calculated separately for each SF episode. We had hypothesized that because infants born VLBW are at increased risk for dysregulation, they would show, compared to full-term controls, greater dysregulation in the form of less synchrony (i.e., less correlated affective and cortisol responses) across the two SF stressors (episodes 2 and 4). This hypothesis was largely supported: the associations between affective and cortisol responses were different for the two groups across the two stressors for percent positive affect (both stressor episodes 2 and 4) and percent negative affect (episode 4 only). For the full-term group, follow up correlations revealed significant negative associations between percent positive affective and cortisol responses for both stressors. Mothers' responsiveness did not explain the term group association differences between infant affective and cortisol responses across stressors. The (lack of) association of stress reactivity systems may index dysregulation or dysregulation correlates in preterm children. Understanding how this lack of coordination among stress systems relates to greater dysregulation

  19. Stress, Cortisol, and B-Lymphocytes: A Novel Approach to Understanding Academic Stress and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly Mary; Albano, Denise L; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Animal and human in vitro models suggest that stress-related B lymphocyte decrements are due to high levels of glucocorticoids which cause apoptosis of pre-B-cells as they emerge from the bone marrow. The present study sought to explore the relationships among distress, salivary cortisol and human B lymphocytes in vivo. Distress (perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptoms), lymphocyte phenotype, and salivary cortisol were assessed among first year graduate students (n=22) and a community control sample (n= 30) at the start of classes in the fall and the week immediately before spring preliminary exams. Compared to controls, students reported greater distress on all measures at each time point except baseline perceived stress. Hierarchical linear regression with necessary control variables was used to assess the effect of student status on the three measures of distress, the four measures of lymphocyte phenotype, and cortisol AUC and CAR over time (T1-T2). Student status was associated with a significant decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes and flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR). Change in CAR was associated with the decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes. Results indicated that there are significant associations among student status, flattening of CAR, and decrements in CD19+ lymphocytes. PMID:26644211

  20. Are neuroticism and extraversion related to morning cortisol release in healthy older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Perez, Sara; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matías M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) function that has been widely related to both health and some personality traits. There is evidence that neuroticism and extraversion affect health and well-being and play a damaging or protective role, respectively. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between these personality dimensions and morning cortisol concentrations in people aged 55 or older. To do so, morning saliva samples were collected on two consecutive weekdays from a total of 160 older men and women. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, short form (EPQ-RS). Our results showed that neuroticism was negatively related to overall morning cortisol concentrations (AUCG) (i.e., area under the curve with respect to the ground in cortisol levels), but not to the CAR. When we explored sex as a moderator, neuroticism was related to a CAR of increased magnitude in women, although this relationship was not significant in men. No significant relationships were found between extraversion and CAR or AUCG, regardless of sex. In conclusion, neuroticism - but not extraversion - was related to HPA-axis function in older adults, highlighting its potential relevance in health alterations associated with HPA-axis functioning.

  1. Stress, cortisol, and B lymphocytes: a novel approach to understanding academic stress and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly M; Albano, Denise L; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Animal and human in vitro models suggest that stress-related B lymphocyte decrements are due to high levels of glucocorticoids which cause apoptosis of pre-B-cells as they emerge from the bone marrow. The present study sought to explore the relationships among distress, salivary cortisol, and human B lymphocytes in vivo. Distress (perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptoms), lymphocyte phenotype, and salivary cortisol were assessed among first-year graduate students (n = 22) and a community control sample (n = 30) at the start of classes in the fall and the week immediately before spring preliminary exams. Compared to controls, students reported greater distress on all measures at each time point except baseline perceived stress. Hierarchical linear regression with necessary control variables was used to assess the effect of student status on the three measures of distress, the four measures of lymphocyte phenotype, and cortisol AUC and CAR over time (T1-T2). Student status was associated with a significant decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes and flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR). Change in CAR was associated with the decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes. Results indicated that there are significant associations among student status, flattening of CAR, and decrements in CD19 + lymphocytes.

  2. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue.

  3. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food.

  4. Effects of subchronic treatment with valproate on L-5-HTP-induced cortisol responses in mania: evidence for increased central serotonergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Calabrese, J; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-07-04

    The mechanisms underlying the acute and prophylactic antimanic properties of valproate have remained elusive. There are some reports that treatment with valproic acid may increase brain serotonergic neurotransmission in the rodent. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of subchronic therapy with valproate on central serotonin metabolism in manic patients. Toward this end, the authors examined plasma cortisol responses to 200 mg (orally) L-5-hydroxy-tryptophan (L-5-HTP) in 10 manic patients both before and after subchronic treatment with valproate. Administration of L-5-HTP resulted in significantly increased cortisol responses both before and after treatment with valproate. The L-5-HTP-induced cortisol responses were significantly higher after treatment with valproate than before treatment. It is suggested that valproate may increase central serotonergic neurotransmission and that this stimulation may play a role in the antimanic effects of valproate.

  5. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  6. Food restriction alters salivary cortisol and α-amylase responses to a simulated weightlifting competition without significant performance modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durguerian, Alexandre; Filaire, Edith; Drogou, Catherine; Bougard, Clément; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-05-05

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 6-day food restriction period on the physiological responses and performance of 11 high-level weightlifters. After a period of weight maintenance (T2), they were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group, n = 6) or maintained their body weight (Control group, n = 5) during the course of those 6 days. An evaluation of performance and the measurement of salivary cortisol concentrations and salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity were performed during a simulated weightlifting competition which took place at T2, after a 6-day period of food restriction (T3). Dietary data were collected using a 6-day diet record. We noted a 41.8% decrease in mean energy intake during the dietary restriction period, leading to a 4.34% weight loss for the Diet group. Dietary restriction did not modify absolute performance levels, whilst a significant improvement was noted for the Control group. Furthermore, we noted a response of decreased salivary cortisol and increased sAA activity to the simulated competition stress at T3 for the Diet group. These results may indicate that dietary reduction led to a dissociation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adreno-medullary system, which could impair training adaptations and absolute performance development.

  7. Periconceptional undernutrition suppresses cortisol response to arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M H; Bloomfield, F H; Jaquiery, A L; Todd, S E; Thorstensen, E B; Harding, J E

    2012-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy can result in increased disease risk in adult offspring. Many of these effects are proposed to be mediated via altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) function, and are sex and age specific. Maternal undernutrition around the time of conception alters HPAA function in foetal and early postnatal life, but there are limited conflicting data about later effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate periconceptional undernutrition on HPAA function of offspring of both sexes longitudinally, from juvenile to adult life. Ewes were undernourished from 61 days before until 30 days after conception or fed ad libitum. HPAA function in offspring was assessed by arginine vasopressin plus corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4, 10 and 18 months. Plasma cortisol response was lower in males than in females, and was not different between singles and twins. Periconceptional undernutrition suppressed offspring plasma cortisol but not adrenocorticotropic hormone responses. In males, this suppression was apparent by 4 months, and was more profound by 10 months, with no further change by 18 months. In females, suppression was first observed at 10 months and became more profound by 18 months. Maternal undernutrition limited to the periconceptional period has a prolonged, sex-dependent effect on adrenal function in the offspring.

  8. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psychogiou Lamprini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Emotions (EE are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.

  10. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism , in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... disease Cushing disease Cushing syndrome Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  11. Cortisol - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... Cushing syndrome Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  12. Cortisol reactivity and suicidal behavior: Investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in suicide attempters and ideators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Green, Jessica A; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2017-01-01

    Every 40s a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. The current study aimed to investigate whether cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress task differentiated individuals who had previously made a suicide attempt from those who had thought about suicide (suicide ideators) and control participants. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited to a previous attempt, a suicidal ideation or a control group. Participants completed background questionnaires before completing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Cortisol levels were assessed throughout the stress task. Measures of suicide behavior were measured at baseline, 1 month and 6 month follow-up. Participants who had made a previous suicide attempt exhibited significantly lower aggregate cortisol levels during the MAST compared to participants in the control group; suicide ideators were intermediate to both groups. This effect, however, was driven by participants who made an attempt within the past year, and to some degree by those with a family history of attempt. Participants who made a suicide attempt and had a family history of suicide exhibited the lowest levels of cortisol in response to stress. Finally, lower levels of cortisol in response to the MAST were associated with higher levels of suicidal ideation at 1-month follow-up in the suicide attempter group. These results are consistent with other findings indicating that blunted HPA axis activity is associated with some forms of suicidal behavior. The challenge for researchers is to elucidate the precise causal mechanisms linking stress, cortisol and suicide risk.

  13. Timing matters : Long term effects of adversities from prenatal period up to adolescence on adolescents' cortisol stress response. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bakker, Martin P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Altered cortisol response is a vulnerability marker for a variety of stress-related diseases and psychiatric disorders. Childhood adversity has been shown to modify this response, but evidence is inconsistent. Effects may differ depending on the timing of exposure, or due to the interplay

  14. Effects of different kinds of couple interaction on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress in women.

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    Ditzen, Beate; Neumann, Inga D; Bodenmann, Guy; von Dawans, Bernadette; Turner, Rebecca A; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2007-06-01

    In animal studies, positive social interaction and physical contact play a preeminent role in the control of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific kinds of couple interaction reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and autonomic responses to psychosocial stress in women. Sixty-seven women, aged 20-37 years, who had been married or cohabiting with a male partner for at least 12 months at the time of the study, were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Participants were randomly assigned to three study groups differing in the type of a 10-min period of social interaction with their partner prior to stress: n=25 with no partner interaction, n=22 with verbal social support, and n=20 with physical contact (standardized neck and shoulder massage). Salivary free cortisol levels, plasma levels of oxytocin, heart rate, and psychological responses to stress were compared among the three study groups. Women with positive physical partner contact before stress exhibited significantly lower cortisol and heart rate responses to stress but no different plasma oxytocin levels compared to women who received social support or no social interaction. Verbal social support alone was not associated with reduced stress responsiveness. Our results are in line with previous human studies indicating reduced responsiveness to verbal social support by a spouse in women. More importantly, these findings imply a direct protective effect of touch on stress-related neurobiological systems as a possible underlying mechanism of health beneficial effects of positive couple interaction.

  15. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

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    Krasnov Aleksei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13. Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions

  16. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D

    2013-10-01

    , and more feeding behavior than LA-treated calves. In summary, FM alone tended to shorten the duration of cortisol response and reduce crouching after surgical castration. Combining LA+FM eliminated the cortisol response to castration but was associated with more leg lifting behavior. Treatment with LA alone did not mitigate the cortisol response and was associated with several behavioral differences compared with SC, FM-treated, or FM+LA-treated calves. Results suggest that LA alone did not effectively control discomfort in young dairy calves castrated using the Henderson castration tool.

  17. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability in the horse and its rider: different responses to training and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Mareike; Biau, Sophie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Faure, Jean-Michel; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Although some information exists on the stress response of horses in equestrian sports, the horse-rider team is much less well understood. In this study, salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals) were analysed in horses and their riders (n=6 each) at a public performance and an identical rehearsal that was not open to the public. Cortisol concentrations increased in both horses and riders (Phorses and riders increased during the rehearsal and the public performance (Priders than in their horses during the public performance (from 91 ± 10 to 150 ± 15 beats/min) compared to the rehearsal (from 94 ± 10 to 118 ± 12 beats/min). The SDRR decreased significantly during the equestrian tasks in riders (Phorses. The RMSSD decreased in horses and riders (Priders was more pronounced (Priders than it did in their horses.

  18. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  19. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on acute leukocyte, cortisol, and interleukin-6 response in high-intensity long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Vuorimaa, Timo; Puurtinen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Ismo; Mero, Antti A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of fluids with different carbohydrate concentrations (0, 1.5, and 7%) on the acute immune stress responses after high-intensity long-distance running. Continuous 18- to 20-km run was performed at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake with carbohydrate supplementation (CHO7%, 7% carbohydrate solution) and low-carbohydrate supplementation (lowCHO1.5%, 1.5% carbohydrate solution) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled design. Seven recreational runners (4 men and 3 women) completed all 3 trials. Blood was collected at baseline (PRE) and immediately after the run (POST). The running task induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in leukocyte (white blood cells), neutrophil, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) counts in every trial. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in cortisol with PLA and lowCHO1.5% but not with CHO7%. Increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil concentration was significantly lower with CHO7% compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). Postexercise IL-6 levels were significantly elevated when compared with baseline in all conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations did not differ significantly between trials. LowCHO1.5% sport drink did not significantly differ from PLA in measured variables, which indicated that the amount and rate of carbohydrate ingestion (15 g, 10 g·h) in low-carbohydrate sport drink was not enough to significantly protect from the stress induced by high-intensity long-distance running, whereas the ingestion of CHO7% (45 g·h) blunted the significant cortisol response and significantly decreased the leukocyte response.

  20. Good self-rated health is related to psychosocial resources and a strong cortisol response to acute stress: the LiVicordia study of middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristenson, Margareta; Olsson, Anders G; Kucinskiene, Zita

    2005-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a strong predictor for disease and death. The relations among SRH, psychosocial factors, and cortisol dynamics were tested using pooled data from the LiVicordia study of 50-year-old men in Lithuania (n = 94) and Sweden (n = 89), controlling for effect of residence. SRH was assessed by "How would you assess your own health?" A standardized laboratory stress test included measures of cortisol in serum and saliva. Good SRH related to high scale scores of decision latitude, social support at work, coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence; to low scores of overcommitment (all p stress (r = .27, p = .001). Findings that good SRH related to favorable psychosocial characteristics and to a dynamic cortisol stress response indicate a possible explanation for observed lower risk for disease and death in this state.

  1. Assessment of the stress response in Columbian ground squirrels: laboratory and field validation of an enzyme immunoassay for fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Curtis O; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses play a critical role in the ecology and demography of wild animals, and the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites is a powerful noninvasive method to assess the role of stress. We characterized the metabolites of injected radiolabeled cortisol in the urine and feces of Columbian ground squirrels and validated an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) with a 5 alpha-3beta,11 beta-diol structure by stimulation and suppression of adrenocortical activity and by evaluation of the circadian pattern of FCM excretion. In addition, we also evaluated the impact of capture, handling, and acclimation to the laboratory on FCM. Cortisol is highly metabolized, with virtually none being excreted, and of the radiolabeled cortisol injected, 31% was recovered in urine and 6.5% in feces. The lag time between cortisol injection and its appearance in urine and feces was 4.5 +/- 0.82 (SE) h and 7.0 +/- 0.53 (SE) h, respectively. FCM levels varied over the day, reflecting circadian variation in endogenous cortisol. Dexamethasone decreased FCM levels by 33%, and ACTH increased them by 255%. Trapping and housing initially increased FCM levels and decreased body mass, but these reversed within 3-7 d, indicating acclimation. Finally, FCM levels were modestly repeatable over time (r=0.57) in wild, live trapped, nonbreeding animals, indicating that FCMs provide a measure of the squirrel's stress-axis state. This assay provides a robust noninvasive assessment of the stress response of the Columbian ground squirrel and will facilitate an integration of its life history and physiology.

  2. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Baiamonte

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio, the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA, as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms.The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  3. Sustained Action of Developmental Ethanol Exposure on the Cortisol Response to Stress in Zebrafish Larvae and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Brennan, Caroline H.; Vinson, Gavin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio), the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA), as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms. Results and Conclusions The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation. PMID:25875496

  4. Early response roles for prolactin cortisol and circulating and cellular levels of heat shock proteins 72 and 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, K; Apostolou, K; Briassouli, E; Goukos, D; Psarra, K; Botoula, E; Tsagarakis, S; Magira, E; Routsi, C; Nanas, S; Briassoulis, G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Patients with early (first 48 hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P SIRS compared to H (P SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  5. Thermal, cardiorespiratory and cortisol responses of impala (Aepyceros melampus to chemical immobilisation with 4 different drug combinations

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    L.C.R. Meyer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermometric data loggers were surgically implanted in 15 impala (Aepyceros melampus to investigate the consequences of chemical capture. Impala were darted and chemically immobilised for 30 min with each of the following drug combinations: etorphine and azaperone; etorphine and medetomidine; thiafentanil and azaperone, and a thiafentanil medetomidine combination. During immobilisation, pulse oximeter readings, respiratory rhythm, the plane of immobilisation and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured and recorded. The impala developed an extremely high rise in body temperature, which peaked 20-30 min after reversal of the immobilisation. The magnitude of the rise in body temperature was similar for all the drug combinations (F=0.8, P=0.5, but the duration of the hyperthermia was shorter when the thiafentanil and azaperone combination was used(F=3.35, P<0.05. Changes in body temperature were related to the time that it took for ananimal to become recumbent after darting (r2 = 0.45, P = 0.006 and not to the effect of the drug combination on time to recumbency (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.46. The relationship between time to recumbency and body temperature change, and also to plasma cortisol concentration(r2=0.67,P=0.008, indicated that physiological consequences of capture were related to the duration of exposure to a stress or, and not to the pharmacology of the capture drugs. Although shorter time to recumbency in individuals resulted in the benefit of smaller stress responses and body temperature changes, those individuals were predisposed to developing hypoxia and possibly induction apnoea. When animals are chemically immobilised,reducing the thermal consequences of capture requires limiting the exposure of the animal to a psychological 'fright stress'.

  6. Hair-Normalized Cortisol Waking Response as a Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity following Acute Trauma: A Proof-of-Concept Study with Pilot Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Walton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of persistent posttraumatic pain and disability remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that disordered stress-system pathway (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be responsible for the genesis and maintenance of long-term sensory and emotional problems. However, confidence in current evidence is limited by the necessarily retrospective collection of data. Hair cortisol can serve as a calendar of HPA axis activity going back several months prior to injury. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility of using hair cortisol and hair-normalized salivary cortisol as biomarkers of distress following traumatic injuries of whiplash or distal radius fracture. Ten subjects provided complete data within 3 weeks of injury. Hair cortisol, cortisol waking response (CWR, and mean daily cortisol (MDC were captured at inception, as were self-report indicators of pain, disability, and pain catastrophizing. Pain and disability were also captured 3 months after injury. Results indicate that cortisol waking response may be a useful biomarker of current distress as measured using the pain catastrophizing scale, especially when normalized to 3-month hair cortisol (r=0.77 raw, 0.93 normalized. Hair-normalized CWR may also have predictive capacity, correlating with 3-month self-reported disability at r=0.70. While promising, the results must be viewed in light of the small sample.

  7. Mothers' parenting stress is associated with salivary cortisol profiles in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpa, Terpsichori; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Angeli, Eleni; Apostolakou, Filia; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the relation between mothers' parenting stress and the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), as expressed by daily salivary cortisol concentrations, in their children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Seventy-five children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with ADHD predominant Hyperactive-Impulsive/Combined (ADHD-HI/C, N = 49) and Inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I, N = 26) and 45 healthy peers and their mothers participated in the study. Μothers completed measures assessing their children's ADHD status, perceived parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form, PSI-SF), mothers' symptoms of psychopathology, social support and socio-economic status. Children's salivary cortisol samples were collected at six different time points on a single day. Mothers of children with ADHD-HI/C reported higher levels of parenting stress than mothers of children with ADHD-I and controls. All PSI-SF subscales showed significant associations with children's Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in both ADHD groups, with the exception of the Parental Distress subscale in the ADHD-I group. In both ADHD groups, the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale, the Difficult Child subscale and the PSI total score were significantly associated with children's CAR. An interrelation is revealed between mothers' high levels of parenting stress and HPAA functioning in children with ADHD. In this population, CAR has been identified as a sensitive peripheral measure of HPAA functioning in children.

  8. Effects of cortisol on hippocampal subfields volumes and memory performance in healthy control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Scott G; Coupland, Nicholas J; Hegadoren, K; Silverstone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Carter, Rawle; Fujiwara, Esther; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-09-01

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most consistently replicated biological findings in psychiatry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated that hippocampal (HC) volume is decreased in patients with MDD. The improved spatial resolution of high field strength MRI has recently enabled measurements of HC subfield volumes in vivo. The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol concentrations over a day and HC subfield volumes in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls and to investigate whether diurnal cortisol measures are related to memory performance. Fourteen MDD patients with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 14 healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a 4.7T whole-body imaging system. HC subfields and subregions were segmented manually using previously defined protocol. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale IV. The salivary cortisol levels were measured over the course of one day. We found that cortisol awakening response to 8h (CAR-8h) was higher in MDD patients compared to controls and that this increase in CAR-8h in MDD patients correlated negatively with left total Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and left HC head volume. In healthy controls mean cortisol levels were negatively associated with right total CA1-3, right HC head, and right total HC volume. In addition, in healthy controls higher CAR-8h was related to worse performance on the immediate content memory. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of the negative associations between cortisol level, CA1-3 HC subfield volume and memory performance in patients with MDD and healthy controls.

  9. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  10. Cortisol response to low dose versus standard dose (back-to-back adrenocorticotrophic stimulation tests in children and young adults with thalassemia major

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia major patients with repeated blood transfusion have high prevalence of endocrinopathies due to iron overload. Materials and Methods: We examined the adrenocortical function in 23 thalassemic patients (10 children and 13 young adults aged 8-26 years. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S concentrations were determined in each subject before blood transfusion both in basal condition and after low dose (LD (1 μg, followed by standard dose (SD (250 μg, respectively with synthetic corticotrophin beta 1-24 ACTH (Synacthen, Ciba. Normal controls were a group of 13 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Results: Using a peak total cortisol cutoff level of 550 nmol/L and increments of 200 μg above basal cortisol, adrenal insufficiency (AI was demonstrated in 8 patients (34.7% after the LD ACTH and in 2 patients (8.7% after SD cosyntropin (ACTH test, but none of the controls. Using a peak total cortisol cutoff level of 420 nmol/L and increments of 200 μg above basal cortisol, AI was demonstrated in 5 patients (21.7% after the LD ACTH and in 2 patients after SD ACTH test (8.7%, but none of controls. All patients with biochemical AI were asymptomatic with normal serum sodium and potassium concentrations and had no history suggestive of adrenal pathology. The peak cortisol concentrations in thalassemic patients with impaired adrenal function both after 1 μg and 250 μg cosyntropin (294 ± 51 nmol/L and 307 ± 58.6 were significantly lower than those with patients with normal (454 ± 79.7 nmol/L and 546.1 ± 92.2 nmol/L, respectively and controls (460.2 ± 133.4 nmol/L and 554.3 ± 165.8 nmol/L, respectively. Adolescents and young adults, but not children with thalassaemia, had significantly lower peak cortisol concentration after SD ACTH versus controls. Peak cortisol response to LD ACTH was correlated significantly with peak cortisol response to SD in all patients (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001. In adolescents and

  11. Short polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene and its association with the cortisol stress response: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliano Agüero-Tejado

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to analyze the role of short polymorphism of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) in response to psy-chosocial stress mediated by cortisol, having found inconsistent results. In order to synthesize and analyze available information about the role of short polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR gen in the stress response, this meta-analysis has been carried out. A meta-analysis of studies published until November 2011 without language restrictions, which analyzed the effect ...

  12. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; ROSS, RANDAL G .; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  13. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people.

  14. Larger amygdala volumes after childhood trauma associated with depression and cortisol response to psychosocial stress in adulthood

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    Claudia Buss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Childhood trauma is a major risk factor for the development of affective disorders later in life. We sought to determine whether this risk is linked to neurostructural changes in limbic brain regions after childhood trauma. Methods :We recruited 49 medically healthy adult women (28.2±7.1 years of age from the Atlanta area to include women with/without childhood trauma and with/without major depression (MDD. Childhood trauma exposure was quantified using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ.Lifetime and current diagnoses of MDD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. Current depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Magnetic resonance images were acquired, preprocessed, and registered into stereotactic space. Volume analyses of the left and right amygdala were performed using the interactive software package DISPLAY developed at the Brain Imaging Center of the Montreal Neurological Institute, and a standardized segmentation protocol was applied to outline the anatomical boundaries of the amygdala. Total plasma cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST were measured. Results : When stratifying groups by childhood trauma exposure and MDD, women with both childhood trauma and MDD had largest right amygdala volumes compared to all other groups (interaction effect: F=6.172, p= 0.017. Correlational analyses revealed that higher CTQ scores were associated with larger left (r=0.31, p<0.05 and right (r=0.31, p<0.05 amygdala volumes. These correlations remained significant when controlling for age, race, and lifetime diagnoses of MDD and PTSD. Higher CTQ scores were associated with current depression scores (r=0.30, p<0.05, which in turn were positively associated with the size of the right amygdala volume (r=0.32, p<0.05. Finally, the size of the left amygdala was associated with increased cortisol response

  15. Association between Stress Response Genes and Features of Diurnal Cortisol Curves in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: A New Multi-Phenotype Approach for Gene-Based Association Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihuai; Payne, Erin K; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A; Ware, Erin B; Sánchez, Brisa N; Seeman, Teresa E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-01-01

    The hormone cortisol is likely to be a key mediator of the stress response that influences multiple physiologic systems that are involved in common chronic disease, including the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and metabolism. In this paper, a candidate gene approach was used to investigate genetic contributions to variability in multiple correlated features of the daily cortisol profile in a sample of European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We proposed and applied a new gene-level multiple-phenotype analysis and carried out a meta-analysis to combine the ethnicity specific results. This new analysis, instead of a more routine single marker-single phenotype approach identified a significant association between one gene (ADRB2) and cortisol features (meta-analysis p-value=0.0025), which was not identified by three other commonly used existing analytic strategies: 1. Single marker association tests involving each single cortisol feature separately; 2. Single marker association tests jointly testing for multiple cortisol features; 3. Gene-level association tests separately carried out for each single cortisol feature. The analytic strategies presented consider different hypotheses regarding genotype-phenotype association and imply different costs of multiple testing. The proposed gene-level analysis integrating multiple cortisol features across multiple ethnic groups provides new insights into the gene-cortisol association.

  16. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol...

  17. Ultralow-dose dexamethasone to preserve endogenous cortisol stress response in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A new promising treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by sufficient cortisol and aldosterone production at the cost of androgen overproduction. Hydrocortisone or dexamethasone in supraphysiological doses are current treatment; however, their downside is suppres

  18. Short polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR gene and its association with the cortisol stress response: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Agüero-Tejado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to analyze the role of short polymorphism of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR in response to psy-chosocial stress mediated by cortisol, having found inconsistent results. In order to synthesize and analyze available information about the role of short polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR gen in the stress response, this meta-analysis has been carried out. A meta-analysis of studies published until November 2011 without language restrictions, which analyzed the effect of the short polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR in the cortisol response during a stress-inducing protocol was conducted. Published F or p genotype values were collected as estimators of the difference between groups as well as the sign of this difference for analysis. The global meta-analysis showed no significant association between the presence of the short allele and a different response to psychosocial stress. After comparing the subgroups of studies where participants underwent an emotionally neutral intervention versus an emotionally negative intervention, significant differences were found. The subgroup of studies where patients underwent an emotionally negative intervention showed a significantly greater cortisol release by those individuals carrying the short allele. This association was not seen in the neutral subgroup.

  19. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  20. The moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between work and salivary cortisol: a cross-sectional study of 401 employees in 34 Canadian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Marchand, Alain

    2015-12-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of personality traits in explaining the relationship between workplace stressors and variations in salivary cortisol concentrations. Multilevel regression analyses were performed on a sample of 401 employees from 34 Quebec firms. Saliva samples were collected five times a day (on awakening, 30 min after awakening, and at 2 p.m., 4 p.m., and bedtime). Sample collection was repeated on three days (1 rest day, 2 working days). Work-related variables comprised skill utilization, decision authority, psychological demands, physical demands, job insecurity, irregular schedule, number of working hours, and social support from coworkers and supervisors. Personality traits comprised self-esteem, locus of control, and the Big Five. Cortisol levels at awakening and 30 min later were significantly higher for work days than for days off. Psychological demands and job insecurity were associated with lower cortisol levels at bedtime. Also, self-esteem moderated the relationship between physical demands and cortisol levels at awakening and 4 p.m. Agreeableness was associated with lower cortisol levels at awakening and at 2 p.m. and further moderated the relationship between number of hours worked and cortisol at 2 p.m. Neuroticism moderated the relationship between coworker support and cortisol at bedtime. Specific working conditions and certain personality traits are associated with variations in salivary cortisol concentrations. In addition, certain personality traits moderate the relationship between stressors and salivary cortisol concentrations. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations at work seem to be modulated in part by personality traits.

  1. Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pytiak, Andrew V; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine whether an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses inhibition of LH pulsatility in response to the layered stress. We used two animal models to assess different aspects of LH pulse regulation. With the first model (ovariectomized ewe), LH pulse characteristics could vary as a function of both altered GnRH pulses and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. In this case, antagonism of the type II GR did not prevent stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. With the second model (pituitary-clamped ovariectomized ewe), pulsatile GnRH input to the pituitary was fixed to enable assessment of stress effects specifically at the pituitary level. In this case, the layered stress inhibited pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and antagonism of the type II GR reversed the effect. Collectively, these findings indicate acute psychosocial stress inhibits pulsatile LH secretion, at least in part, by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Cortisol, acting via the type II GR, is an obligatory mediator of this effect. However, under conditions in which GnRH input to the pituitary is not clamped, antagonism of the type II GR does not prevent stress-induced inhibition of LH pulsatility, implicating an additional pathway of suppression that is independent of cortisol acting via this receptor.

  2. Cortisol Responsivity Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Free and Cooperative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate significant heterogeneity in their profiles of social interaction and stress responsivity. We evaluated behavior and stress response in 52 male children ages 8-12 in a naturalistic playground interaction paradigm involving a child with ASD, a typically developing peer, and a same-age…

  3. Cortisol Responsivity Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Free and Cooperative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate significant heterogeneity in their profiles of social interaction and stress responsivity. We evaluated behavior and stress response in 52 male children ages 8-12 in a naturalistic playground interaction paradigm involving a child with ASD, a typically developing peer, and a same-age…

  4. Modulation of cortisol responses to the DEX/CRH test by polymorphisms of the interleukin-1beta gene in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Miho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function assessed with the combined dexamethasone (DEX/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH test has been shown to be associated with response to antidepressant treatment. A polymorphism (rs16944 in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β gene has also been reported to be associated with the medication response in depression. These findings prompted us to examine the possible association between IL-1β gene polymorphisms and HPA axis function assessed with the DEX/CRH test. Methods DEX/CRH test was performed in 179 healthy volunteers (45 males: mean age 40.5 ± 15.8 years; 134 females: mean age 47.1 ± 13.2 years. Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944 were selected at an r2 threshold of 0.80 with a minor allele frequency > 0.1. Genotyping was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed with the DEX/CRH test results as the dependent variable and genotype and gender as independent variables. To account for multiple testing, P values Results The cortisol levels after DEX administration (DST-Cortisol showed significant associations with the genotypes of rs16944 (P = 0.00049 and rs1143633 (P = 0.0060, with no significant gender effect or genotype × gender interaction. On the other hand, cortisol levels after CRH administration (DEX/CRH-Cortisol were affected by gender but were not significantly influenced by the genotype of the examined SNPs, with no significant genotype × gender interaction. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variations in the IL-1β gene contribute to the HPA axis alteration assessed by DST-Cortisol in healthy subjects. On the other hand, no significant associations of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms with the DEX/CRH-Cortisol were observed. Confirmation of our findings in futures studies may add new insight into

  5. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ≤ 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  7. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  8. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  9. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Morato

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca. Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20ºC until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37ºC for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 ± 17.5 ng/g dry feces in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline. On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (± SEM fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 ± 26.7, after: 213.7 ± 43.6 ng/g dry feces. These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.

  10. Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars (Panthera onca) in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, R G; Bueno, M G; Malmheister, P; Verreschi, I T N; Barnabe, R C

    2004-12-01

    In the present study we determined the efficacy of the measurement of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolite concentrations to monitor adrenal and testicular activity in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Three captive male jaguars were chemically restrained and electroejaculated once or twice within a period of two months. Fecal samples were collected daily for 5 days before and 5 days after the procedure and stored at -20 degrees C until extraction. Variations in the concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites before and after the procedure were determined by solid phase cortisol and testosterone radioimmunoassay and feces dry weight was determined by drying at 37 degrees C for 24 h under vacuum. On four occasions, fecal cortisol metabolite levels were elevated above baseline (307.8 +/- 17.5 ng/g dry feces) in the first fecal sample collected after the procedure (100 to 350% above baseline). On one occasion, we did not detect any variation. Mean (+/- SEM) fecal androgen concentration did not change after chemical restraint and electroejaculation (before: 131.1 +/- 26.7, after: 213.7 +/- 43.6 ng/g dry feces). These data show that determination of fecal cortisol and androgen metabolites can be very useful for a noninvasive assessment of animal well-being and as a complement to behavioral, physiological, and pathological studies. It can also be useful for the study of the relationship between adrenal activity and reproductive performance in the jaguar.

  11. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  12. Individual differences in emotional expressivity predict oxytocin responses to cortisol administration : Relevance to breast cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Reduced emotional expression has been consistently related to susceptibility or fast progression of breast cancer. Breast cancer development and reduced emotional expression have both been related to rejection- and separation-related conditions. The neuropeptide oxytocin is low in response to reject

  13. Work stress models and diurnal cortisol variations: The SALVEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess components, subscales, and interactions proposed by the popular Job Demand-Control (JDC), Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS), and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) work stress models in relation to diurnal variation of the stress hormone cortisol. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed from a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. Questionnaires included the Job Content Questionnaire to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to measure effort, reward, and overcommitment. Salivary cortisol was collected on 2 working days at awaking, +30 min after awaking, 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Multilevel regressions with 3 levels (time of day, workers, workplaces) were performed. Results revealed that JDC, JDCS and ERI interactions were not statistically associated with variations in diurnal cortisol concentrations. By contrast when assessing specific work stress subscales, increased psychological demands were linked to decreased bedtime cortisol, increased job recognition was linked to increased cortisol +30 min after waking and at bedtime, and finally increased overcommitment was linked to increased awakening cortisol and decreased cortisol at 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Sex moderation effects principally among men were additionally detected for psychological demands, total social support, and supervisor support. Our findings suggest that components and subsubscales of these popular work stress models rather than theorized interactions are more meaningful in explaining diurnal cortisol variations. In particular, psychological demands, job recognition, overcommitment, and to a lesser extent social support at work are the most significant predictors of diurnal cortisol variation in this large sample of Canadian workers. Importantly, the overall effect sizes of these subscales that explained diurnal cortisol concentrations were weak.

  14. Night-Time Noise Index Based on the Integration of Awakening Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junta Tagusari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance induced by night-time noise is a serious environmental problem that can cause adverse health effects, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Night-time noise indices are used to facilitate the enforcement of permitted noise levels during night-time. However, existing night-time noise indices, such as sound exposure level (SEL, maximum sound level (LAmax and night equivalent level (Lnight are selected mainly because of practical reasons. Therefore, this study proposes a noise index based on neurophysiological determinants of the awakening process. These determinants have revealed that the potential on awakening is likely integrated into the brainstem that dominates wakefulness and sleep. From this evidence, a night-time noise index, N awake,year, was redefined based on the integration of the awakening potential unit (punit estimated from the existing dose-response relationships of awakening. The newly-defined index considers the total number of awakenings and covers a wide-range and number of noise events. We also presented examples of its applicability to traffic noise. Although further studies are needed, it may reveal a reasonable dose-response relationship between sleep disturbance and adverse health effects and provide a consistent explanation for the risks of different sound sources where the characteristics of noise exposure are quite different.

  15. Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.16e power management for the initiations of awakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To increase battery life in IEEE 802.16e systems, it is essential to efficiently manage energy in mobile stations. The sleep-mode operation in power management helps to increase the life of a station by saving energy consumption. In power management, there are two important performance metrics: energy consumption and the response delay of awakening medium access control (MAC) service data unit (SDU). While in a base station (BS) initiation of awakening, the two performance metrics should be simultaneously considered, in a mobile subscriber station (MSS) initiation of awakening, the response delay is not considered because it is self-operational. There performance metrics are affected by the minimum sleep interval (Tmin), the maximum sleep interval (Tmax), and the average interarrival time of awakening MAC SDUs (TI) during sleep-mode operation. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the two initiations of awakening depending on TI. To reach a fuller understanding of the performance, this paper shows an analytical mode and simulations results for the standard sleep-mode operation in the IEEE 802.16e MAC.

  16. Stress and emotional memory retrieval: Effects of sex and cortisol response

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tony W.; Tranel, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In some situations, memory is enhanced by stressful experience, while in others, it is impaired. The specific components of the stress–response that may result in these differing effects remain unclear, and the current study sought to address this knowledge gap. Forty healthy participants (20 women, 20 men) were exposed to emotionally arousing and neutral pictures. Twenty-four hours later, 20 participants underwent a social stressor (speech and math tests), and 20 underwent a control reading ...

  17. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Stephanie Jane; Herbert, J.; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, M. R.; Goodyear, I.; Croudace, T.; Murray, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a\\ud potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. However,\\ud this has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis\\ud activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women:\\ud one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine speci...

  18. Modulation of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies by exogenous cortisol in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S; Richter, Steffen; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2009-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to influence learning and memory processes. While most studies focus on the effects of GCs on the performance within a single memory system, we asked whether GCs modulate also the transition between hippocampus-dependent spatial and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response memory systems. Eighty-four young healthy women received a placebo, 5 or 30 mg hydrocortisone orally. One hour later, participants were asked to locate a win-card in a 3D model of a room. The card could be located via two strategies: spatial (multiple distal cues) and stimulus-response (a single proximal cue). Relocation of the proximal cue after 12 trials revealed the strategy, number of trials to learning criterion the performance. As expected, more trials were needed to acquire the task with hydrocortisone. Remarkably, hydrocortisone switched the use of learning strategies towards more spatial learning (dose-dependently: placebo 4% learning curves of spatial and stimulus-response learners were comparable. Our results demonstrate that exogenous GCs prior to learning affect the performance within a memory system and also coordinate the use of multiple memory systems. Taking into account this dual action of GCs will contribute to a better understanding of stress (hormone) effects on learning and memory.

  19. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blunted ACTH and cortisol responses to systemic injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in fibromyalgia: role of somatostatin and CRH-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Walter; Schlapp, Ulrike; Leck, Stefanie; Netter, Petra; Neeck, Gunther

    2002-06-01

    Thirteen female patients suffering from fibromyalgia (FM) and thirteen female age-matched controls were intravenously injected with a bolus dose of 100 microg corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and the evoked secretion pattern of ACTH, cortisol, somatostatin, and growth hormone (GH) was followed up for two hours, together with the plasma levels of CRH. The increases of ACTH and cortisol following CRH were not significantly different between controls and FM patients. The increase of plasma CRH following its injection was significantly higher in FM patients and lasted about 45 min, paralleled by an increase of somatostatin with a similar time course. Basal GH levels were significantly lower in FM patients. GH increased in FM patients 90 min after injection of CRH, coincident with decreasing CRH and somatostatin levels, while GH levels in controls rather decreased with the lowest values occurring 90 min after CRH. The results support the concept that the hormonal secretion pattern frequently observed in FM patients is primarily caused by CRH, possibly as a response to chronic pain and stress. The elevated levels of CRH in the circulation of FM patients suggest elevated levels of CRH-binding protein, which could explain why the levels of ACTH and cortisol between controls and FM following CRH do not differ.

  1. Response of plasma cortisol and progesterone after ACTH challenge in ovariectomized lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    Shortened and weakened estrous expressions could be one of the causes of poor heat detection rate. Non-specific acute stresses are assumed to depress expression of estrus by an increase of plasma progesterone which may originate from the adrenal cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the adrenal cortex can secrete significant amounts of progesterone in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in lactating cows. Four cows had estrus synchronized and were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. The cows were given 25 IU ACTH through an indwelling catheter 5 h after catheterization. Blood samples were collected at an interval of 30 min. In 3 of the 4 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations increased significantly 0.5-1.5 h after the first ACTH challenge with a mean peak value of 4.2 +/- 0.4 (S.D.) ng/ml. A similar response was also observed after the second ACTH challenge. Peak plasma progesterone concentrations in the 3 cows after first ACTH challenge were comparable with the progesterone values in the luteal phase of each cow. The results suggest that lactating cows have the capability to secrete a significant amount of progesterone from the adrenal cortex.

  2. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  3. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows t

  4. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows

  5. Optimism moderates psychophysiological responses to stress in older people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Perez, S; Hackett, R A; Salvador, A; Steptoe, A

    2017-04-01

    Optimism is thought to be beneficial for health, and these effects may be mediated through modifications in psychophysiological stress reactivity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiovascular responses to stress and heightened cortisol over the day. This study assessed the relationships between optimism, stress responsivity, and daily cortisol output in people with T2D. A total of 140 participants with T2D were exposed to laboratory stress. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and cortisol were measured throughout the session. Cortisol output over the day was also assessed. Optimism and self-reported health were measured using the revised Life Orientation Test and the Short Form Health Survey. Optimism was associated with heightened SBP and DBP stress reactivity (ps Optimism was not related to HR, cortisol stress responses, or the cortisol awakening response (ps > .180). Low optimism was related to poorer self-reported physical and mental health (ps Optimism could have a protective role in modulating stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine dysregulation in people with T2D. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Cortisol Exerts Bi-Phasic Regulation of Inflammation in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yeager, Mark P.; Pioli, Patricia A.; Guyre, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used for decades to suppress inflammation. In this paper, we re-examine the role of the endogenous GC, cortisol, as a primary homeostatic regulator of the human inflammatory response to injury. Our data show that cortisol regulation of innate immunity can be both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. Using a human model of in vivo cortisol depletion, we first show that baseline (diurnal) cortisol concentrations do not exert an anti-infla...

  7. Association of Job Strain With Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Among Shift-Working Health Care Professionals in Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and α-amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Prolonged perceived stress and saliva cortisol in a large cohort of Danish public service employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Forman, Julie Lyng; Fink, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: In 2007, 4467 Danish public service employees participated in a study of stress and mental health, and 3217 participated in a follow-up in 2009. Perceived stress during the past 4 weeks was assessed by Cohen's four item perceived stress scale. Participants were asked to collect saliva 30 min......PURPOSE: It is well known that acute stress can lead to a transient increase in cortisol secretion, but the effects of prolonged stress on cortisol secretion are uncertain. This study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between prolonged perceived stress and salivary cortisol...... after awakening and at approximately 20:00 in the evening. The cortisol dependence on perceived stress was examined in regression analyses adjusted for effects of potential confounders. We adjusted for a large variation in saliva sampling times by modelling the time trajectory of cortisol concentrations...

  10. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakening as an aspect of Buddhist thought. The second section locates it in the history of Buddhist thought, demonstrating that it is not a modern conceptualization of the path, not one created in response to Euro–American religio-therapeutic culture. Locus of awakening is, instead, part of the continuity of the Buddhist tradition, and does not fall on one side or the other of the sometimes overdrawn dichotomy between Asian and American Buddhisms.

  11. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  13. Corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins in adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior and stress-induced cortisol response. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Johanna M; Fetissov, Serguei O; Legrand, Romain; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins (ACTH IgG) were found in males with conduct disorder, suggesting their involvement in the biology of antisocial behavior. We first aimed to confirm these findings in a large general population sample of adolescents. Secondly, we studied the association between ACTH IgG levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Free and total ACTH IgG levels were measured in sera of 1230 adolescents (15-18 years). HPA axis activity was determined by measuring salivary cortisol before, during, and after a social stress test. Antisocial behavior was assessed using the Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire. ACTH peptide and IgG affinity kinetics for ACTH were assayed in a subsample of 90 adolescents selected for high or low ACTH IgG levels. In boys, higher total ACTH IgG levels were associated with higher antisocial behavior scores (β=1.05, p=0.04), especially at high levels of free ACTH IgG. In girls, antisocial behavior was associated with low free ACTH IgG levels (β=-0.20, p=0.04). Stress-induced cortisol release was associated with free ACTH IgG in boys (βareaunderthecurve=-0.67, pantisocial behavior and HPA axis response to stress in adolescents. The mechanisms behind these associations, including different ACTH binding properties of IgG in subjects with antisocial behavior, deserve further attention.

  14. The Adaptogens Rhodiola and Schizandra Modify the Response to Immobilization Stress in Rabbits by Suppressing the Increase of Phosphorylated Stress-activated Protein Kinase, Nitric Oxide and Cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panossian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK, the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO, cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the fi nal treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200–300% cf basal levels following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their anti-depressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.

  15. The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Alexander; Hambardzumyan, Marina; Hovhanissyan, Areg; Wikman, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO), cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E(2), leukotriene B(4) and thromboxane B(2) were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the final treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200-300% cf basal levels) following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their antidepressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.

  16. Acute and chronic stress increase salivary cortisol: a study in the real-life setting of a national examination undertaken by medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabrera, J; Fernández-Prada, M; Iribar-Ibabe, C; Peinado, J M

    2014-03-01

    Spanish medical graduates who apply for a medical specialty training position (MIR) must take an examination that will shape their future personal and professional lives. Preparation for the test represents an important stressor that persists for several months. The aim of this study was to elucidate the stress pattern of this group and evaluate possible changes in the circadian rhythm of cortisol release in medical graduates preparing for this test. A repeated-measures longitudinal study was performed, measuring the salivary cortisol concentrations in 36 medical graduates (13 males and 23 females; mean age of 24.2 years) on five sampling days. Five cortisol samples were collected from 07:00 to 21:00 h in order to monitor changes in the circadian rhythm. On all sampling days (except on the day of the official examination), anxiety and psychological stress were evaluated with the Spanish versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). During the study period, participants showed higher levels of anxiety than the Spanish reference population as well as a progressive increase in self-perceived stress. A significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration was observed in both chronic (study and examination preparation) and acute (examinations) situations. Our results suggest that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) may be a good indicator of anticipatory stress but is unaffected by long-term examination preparation. Comparison of results between the official examination day and the mock examination days yielded evidence that learning may modulate the behavior of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  17. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente

    2009-01-01

    with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... familiar risk of affective disorder and the met allele was associated with a higher whole blood BDNF (p=0.02) and a higher evening cortisol level (p=0.01), but not with awakening cortisol. CONCLUSION: Individuals at high risk of affective disorders and who are carriers of the met allele of the Val66Met...

  18. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  19. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  20. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Firelight: Rebellion and Awakening of Female Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Jiachong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available "Firelight" is a movie directed by William Nicholson in 1997,the movie through the heroine Elizabeth in order to earn money at the expense of his body to go and the British aristocracy Charlie to carry out a surrogate transaction experience,profound analysis and reflection of the rebellion and awakening of women's consciousness in Vitoria,show the heroine Elizabeth unwilling to succumb to the patriarchal society culture into the "other" status.She is constantly seeking love and respect,finally got the spirit of freedom

  2. Accelerated trace eyeblink conditioning after cortisol IV-infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Linn K; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Richter, Steffen; Blumenthal, Terry D; Oitzl, Melly; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-11-01

    Impairing effects of cortisol on learning performance have been shown in human trace eyeblink conditioning. As the effect is observed from 30 min to hours after administration, a genomic action of cortisol is assumed. Here we report rapid cortisol effects that were observed during the first 10 min after cortisol administration in humans. Young healthy males (n=24) received the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (1.5 g per os) to avoid interference of the endogenous pulsatile secretion of cortisol. Next, 2mg cortisol or placebo was infused intravenously, immediately before the trace conditioning task. The probability of the conditioned eyeblink responses was assessed electromyographically during the trace eyeblink conditioning task (unconditioned stimulus: corneal air puff, 10 psi, 50 ms; conditioned stimulus: binaural pure tone, 7 dB, 1000 Hz, 400 ms; empty interval between CS and US: 550 ms). Cortisol resulted in a faster increase of conditioning (p=.02), reaching a comparable level to placebo later on. This result extends the well-known effects of stress on the quality and amount of learning by showing that cortisol also affects the speed of learning. We propose that cortisol accelerates trace eyeblink conditioning via a fast, non-genomic mechanism. This fast action of cortisol is part of the adaptive strategy during the early stress response.

  3. Acute pre-learning stress and declarative memory: impact of sex, cortisol response and menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Laura; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the influence of pre-learning stress on performance on declarative memory tasks in healthy young adults in relation to sex and menstrual cycle phase. The sample was composed of 119 students (32 men and 87 women) from 18 to 25 years of age. The women were tested in different hormonal stages (30 in follicular phase, 34 in luteal phase, and 23 using oral contraceptives). The participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition. Afterwards, their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). In the control condition, all groups of women recalled more words than men, but these differences disappeared in the group exposed to TSST because men's performance on the memory test improved, but only to the level of women. In addition, our data suggest that in women the relationship between cortisol and memory can be modulated by sex hormone levels, since in luteal women a negative relationship was found between memory performance and peak cortisol level. These results confirm that sex differences need to be considered in the relationship between pre-learning stress and memory performance.

  4. Context-dependent responses to novelty in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), selected for high and low post-stress cortisol responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Winberg, S.; Schjolden, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in a rainbow trout model, selectively bred for high (HR) and low (LR) post stress plasma cortisol levels, have yielded data that are indicative of contrasting stress coping styles. Fish from the HR line have been suggested to display a more diverse behavioral repertoire...

  5. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS...

  6. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families.

  7. The effect of short-term cortisol changes on growth hormone responses to the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone test in healthy adults and patients with suspected growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Støving, R K; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between cortisol and growth hormone (GH)-levels may significantly influence GH-responses to a stimulation test. In order to systematically analyse the interaction in a paired design, it is necessary to use a test, which has been proven safe and reliable such a...

  8. Effect of combined music and touch intervention on pain response and β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Jiang, Yun-Fei; Li, Fang; Tong, Qian-Hong; Rong, Hui; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-26

    Preterm neonates undergo many painful procedures as part of their standard care in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, pain treatment is inadequate in many of these routine procedures. In the present study, we investigated the impact and mechanism of combined music and touch intervention (CMT) on the pain response in premature infants. Sixty-two preterm neonates (gestational age of painful procedures with CMT, and those in the control group underwent painful procedures without CMT. Blood samples were collected from all infants at the beginning of hospitalization and 2 weeks later to assess the cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations. Differences in the levels of cortisol and β-endorphin between two groups were examined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In total, 3707 painful procedures were performed on 62 neonates during their hospitalization. The average number of painful procedures in the control group (n = 35.5) was higher than that in the experimental group (n = 29.0) during hospitalization, although no significant difference was reached (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks, the Premature Infant Pain Profile scores were significantly higher in the control group than experimental group (13.000 ± 0.461 vs 10.500 ± 0.850, respectively; P  0.05) or 2 weeks later (162.400 ± 23.580 vs 184.600 ± 21.170, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the serum β-endorphin concentration was higher in the experimental group than in the control group both at the beginning of hospitalization (1.640 ± 0.390 vs 1.179 ± 0.090, respectively; P pain response of preterm neonates by significantly improving the β-endorphin concentration, but not the blood cortisol concentration. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14131492 . Registered on 01 Aug 2016.

  9. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyeon; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun; Sung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ahra; Lee, Jang Myeong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jiho

    2017-01-01

    Recently, noise coming from the neighborhood via floor wall has become a great social problem. The noise between the floors can be a cause of physical and psychological problems, and the different types of floor impact sound (FIS) may have the different effects on the human's body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact. Ten men and 5 women were enrolled in our study, and the English listening test was performed under the twelve different types of FIS, which were made by the combinations of bang machine (B), tapping machine (T), impact ball (I) and sound-proof mattress (M). The 15 subjects were exposed to each FIS for about 3 min, and the subjective annoyance, performance ability (English listening test), cortisol level of urine/saliva and heart rate variability (HRV) were examined. The sound pressure level (SPL) and frequency of FIS were analyzed. Repeated-measures ANOVA, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test were performed for data analysis. The SPL of tapping machine (T) was reduced with the soundproof mattress (M) by 3.9-7.3 dBA. Impact ball (I) was higher than other FIS in low frequency (31.5-125 Hz) by 10 dBA, and tapping machine (T) was higher than other FIS in high frequency (2-4 k Hz) by 10 dBA. The subjective annoyance is highest in the combination of bang machine and tapping machine (BT), and next in the tapping machine (T). The English listening score was also lowest in the BT, and next in T. The difference of salivary cortisol levels between various types of FIS was significant (p = 0.003). The change of HRV parameters by the change of FIS types was significant in some parameters, which were total power (TP) (p = 0.004), low frequency (LF) (p = 0.002) and high frequency (HF) (p = 0.011). These results suggest that the human's subjective and objective responses were different according to FIS types and

  10. Twenty four Hours Circadian Cortisol Profile in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kakooei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It is well established that adrenal hormone cortisol has long been used in human psychobiological studies as a biological marker of circadian rhythm, stress, and anxiety. There is little information, however, about the interrelationships of night work, plasma cortisol levels in females’ nurses of the developing countries. The aim of the present study was to compare circadian cortisol profile between two groups of nurses with shift and permanent work in a Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between January 2006 to September 2008. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we examined the reproducibility of plasma cortisol levels during one month period in 34 shift work nurses and 10 permanent day shift works. We evaluated potential associations between night work and hormone levels, using current and shift work information for the health care shift workers. Results: The results clearly revealed that shift work significantly increased nighttime cortisol levels (34.93 μg/dl during night shift and decreased the peak levels of cortisol in the morning (39.03 μg/dl. During the work shift the plasma cortisol presented a decreased concentration in the morning and increasing levels (44.93 μg/dl by the end of the evening. In contrast , the permanent day work nurses, who had never worked at night shifts, showed a lowest secretion of cortisol during the first half of night time sleep (10.02 μg/dl , and a peak value of the cortisol after awakening at 07:00 h ( 59.75 μg/ml. We also observed a significant association between night work and increased levels of cortisol over the remaining of the day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nurses with night shift work have an abnormal cortisol secretion profile. Shift work nurses on rotating night shifts seem to experience changes in hormones levels that may be associated with increased of circadian disorders risk observed among night

  11. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    these variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through...... and the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  12. Perceived Stigmatization, Resilience, and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm Among Children of Parents Living With HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Slatcher, Richard B.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a prevalent risk factor challenging the health and well-being of children from marginalized groups. One potential protective factor for such children is resilience—one’s capability to adapt flexibly, persistently, and resourcefully to stressful situations. This study investigated the associations among stigma, resilience, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in a sample of 645 youth affected by parental HIV. Perceived stigmatization was associated with lower cortisol levels at awakening and flatter cortisol slopes, whereas resilience was independently associated with higher levels of salivary cortisol at awakening and steeper cortisol slopes. We found evidence for an indirect effect of resilience on diurnal cortisol through lower perceived stigma. These associations remained significant after controlling for demographic and health factors and stressful life events. Our findings demonstrate that perceived stigma and resilience are associated with HPA axis functioning in childhood. Broadly, the data suggest that resilience-promoting and stigma-reducing efforts should be considered to improve the health of children from disadvantaged groups. PMID:25888685

  13. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  14. Janie’s Self-Awakening Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬亚

    2013-01-01

    As one of the greatest Afro-American writers of the 20th century during the period of the Harlem Renaissance, Zora Neale Hurston drew on her own experiences as a feminist Afro-American female to create a story of a female character Janie Craw⁃ford in her book There Eyes were Watching God. In the history of literature, it has come to be regarded as a“seminal work in both African-American literature and Woman's literature.”(Louis Gates 1993). The main character Janie Crawford is definitely a typical representative of feminism and feminist movement and as a women who successfully achieved her self-consciousness, she has been commenting and criticizing for a long period of time. This research paper will analyzes how Janie achieves her self-awakening in the man-dominated society through Janie’s childhood and her three periods of completely different marriages.

  15. Salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, and anxiety during a youth taekwondo championship: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Condello, Giancarlo; Tornello, Francesco; Iona, Teresa; Chiodo, Salvatore; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Messina, Giovanni; Tessitore, Antonio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship.Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ± 0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats. Time-matched (awakening and pre-competition) salivary samples and trait anxiety were collected 7-day postcompetition during a resting day.No effect for match outcome emerged. No difference emerged between athletes and coach RPEs. Higher (P = .03) state anxiety (41.6 ± 10.9 points) was shown than trait anxiety (34.8 ± 7.1 points). Time-matched sAA were similar. Peak sAA observed at the end of the combat (114.2 ± 108.1 U/mL) was higher (P Taekwondo combats pose a high stress on young athletes, eliciting a fast reactivity of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary system relative to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Understanding the athlete's efforts during combats, coaches are recommended to apply effective recovery strategies between matches.

  16. Salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, and anxiety during a youth taekwondo championship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Condello, Giancarlo; Tornello, Francesco; Iona, Teresa; Chiodo, Salvatore; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Messina, Giovanni; Tessitore, Antonio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship. Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ± 0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes’ ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats. Time-matched (awakening and pre-competition) salivary samples and trait anxiety were collected 7-day postcompetition during a resting day. No effect for match outcome emerged. No difference emerged between athletes and coach RPEs. Higher (P = .03) state anxiety (41.6 ± 10.9 points) was shown than trait anxiety (34.8 ± 7.1 points). Time-matched sAA were similar. Peak sAA observed at the end of the combat (114.2 ± 108.1 U/mL) was higher (P Taekwondo combats pose a high stress on young athletes, eliciting a fast reactivity of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary system relative to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Understanding the athlete's efforts during combats, coaches are recommended to apply effective recovery strategies between matches. PMID:28700470

  17. Measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva - are our assays good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farhan, Nadia; Rees, D Aled; Evans, Carol

    2017-05-01

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and wellbeing and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophilic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (∼10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant inter-assay differences. Liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers improved specificity and sensitivity; however, cortisol cut-offs used in the short Synacthen and Dexamethasone suppression tests are yet to be validated for these assays. Urine free cortisol is used to screen for Cushing's syndrome. Unbound cortisol is excreted unchanged in the urine and 24-h urine free cortisol correlates well with mean serum-free cortisol in conditions of cortisol excess. Urine free cortisol is measured predominantly by immunoassay or LC-MS/MS. Salivary cortisol also reflects changes in unbound serum cortisol and offers a reliable alternative to measuring free cortisol in serum. LC-MS/MS is the method of choice for measuring salivary cortisol; however, its use is limited by the lack of a single, validated reference range and poorly standardized assays. This review examines the methods available for measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva, explores cortisol in disease and considers the difficulties of measuring cortisol in acutely unwell patients and in neonates.

  18. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral responses to novelty, learning, and memory, and the circadian rhythm in cortisol in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ingrid C.; Prelle, Ina T.; van de Burgwal, Johan A.; Lambooij, Elbert; Korte, S. Mechiel; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    Previously we showed that pigs reared in an enriched environment had higher baseline salivary cortisol concentrations during the light period than pigs reared under barren conditions. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether these higher baseline salivary cortisol concentrations were a

  19. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  20. Local awakening: regional reorganizations of brain oscillations after sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jung; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Hsu, Chun-Yao; Wu, Changwei W; Wu, Yu-Chin; Hung, Ching-Sui; Yang, Albert C; Liu, Po-Yu; Biswal, Bharat; Lin, Ching-Po

    2014-11-15

    Brain functions express rhythmic fluctuations accompanied by sleep and wakefulness each day, but how sleep regulates brain rhythms remains unclear. Following the dose-dependent local sleep concept, two succeeding questions emerge: (1) is the sleep regulation a network-specific process; and (2) is the awakening state dependent on the previous sleep stages? To answer the questions, we conducted simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings over 22 healthy male participants, along pre-sleep, nocturnal sleep and awakening. Using paired comparisons between awakening and pre-sleep conditions, three scenarios of the regional specificity were demonstrated on awakening: (1) the default-mode and hippocampal networks maintained similar connectivity and spectral power; (2) the sensorimotor network presented reduced connectivity and spectral power; and (3) the thalamus demonstrated substantially enhanced connectivity to the neo-cortex with decreased spectral power. With regard to the stage effect, the deep sleep group had significant changes in both functional connectivity and spectral power on awakening, whereas the indices of light sleep group remained relatively quiescent after sleep. The phenomena implied that slow-wave sleep could be key to rebooting the BOLD fluctuations after sleep. In conclusion, the regional specificity and the stage effect were verified in support of the local awakening concept, indicating that sleep regulation leads to the reorganization of brain networks upon awakening.

  1. Comparing Cortisol, Stress and Sensory Sensitivity in Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Schupp, Clayton W; Levine, Seymour; Mendoza, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Previously we reported that children with autism show significant variability in cortisol. The current investigation was designed to extend these findings by exploring plausible relationships between cortisol and psychological measures of stress and sensory functioning. Salivary cortisol values for diurnal rhythms and response to stress in children with and without autism were compared to parent-report measures of child stress, the Stress Survey Schedule (SSS), sensory functioning, Short Sens...

  2. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  3. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  4. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  5. Effects of oral contraceptive use on the salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to training sessions and competitions in elite women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Hamilton, Dave; Casto, Kathleen; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses of elite women hockey players across 4 activities (light and heavy training, club and International competitions). The players formed an oral contraceptive (OC) group (n=10) and a Non-OC (n=19) group for analysis. The Non-OC group had higher T levels (by 31-52%) across all activities, whilst the OC group showed signs of reduced T and C reactivity when data were pooled. As a squad, positive T and C changes occurred with heavy training (45%, 46%), club competitions (62%, 80%) and International competitions (40%, 27%), respectively. Our results confirm that OC use lowers T levels in women athletes whilst reducing the T and C responses to training and competition activities within the sporting environment. Differences in the physical and/or psychological demands of the sporting activity could be contributing factors to the observed hormone responses. These factors require consideration when applying theoretical models in sport, with broader implications for women around exercising behaviours and stress physiology.

  6. Hair cortisol and lifetime discrimination: Moderation by subjective social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Kymberlee M; Meyer, Jerrold; Tronick, Edward; Moore, Celia L

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination has been associated with elevated cortisol as measured in saliva, blood, and urine. This study investigated the association between lifetime discrimination and hair cortisol concentrations, considered a measure of chronic stress. We recruited 180 young adults from diverse backgrounds. Participant responses to lifetime discrimination, home stress, and subjective status measures were recorded. Lifetime discrimination significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations, supporting past research that discrimination experiences impact neuroendocrine systems. To our knowledge, these are the first findings associating hair cortisol concentrations with discrimination and supports prior evidence positing discrimination as a chronic stressor that serves as a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:28491342

  7. Hair cortisol and lifetime discrimination: Moderation by subjective social status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberlee M O’Brien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination has been associated with elevated cortisol as measured in saliva, blood, and urine. This study investigated the association between lifetime discrimination and hair cortisol concentrations, considered a measure of chronic stress. We recruited 180 young adults from diverse backgrounds. Participant responses to lifetime discrimination, home stress, and subjective status measures were recorded. Lifetime discrimination significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations, supporting past research that discrimination experiences impact neuroendocrine systems. To our knowledge, these are the first findings associating hair cortisol concentrations with discrimination and supports prior evidence positing discrimination as a chronic stressor that serves as a risk factor for chronic disease.

  8. Hair cortisol and lifetime discrimination: Moderation by subjective social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kymberlee M; Meyer, Jerrold; Tronick, Edward; Moore, Celia L

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination has been associated with elevated cortisol as measured in saliva, blood, and urine. This study investigated the association between lifetime discrimination and hair cortisol concentrations, considered a measure of chronic stress. We recruited 180 young adults from diverse backgrounds. Participant responses to lifetime discrimination, home stress, and subjective status measures were recorded. Lifetime discrimination significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations, supporting past research that discrimination experiences impact neuroendocrine systems. To our knowledge, these are the first findings associating hair cortisol concentrations with discrimination and supports prior evidence positing discrimination as a chronic stressor that serves as a risk factor for chronic disease.

  9. Effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol near airports in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Marie; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard; Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Saliva cortisol is a possible marker of noise-induced stress and could then mediate the relation observed between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between transportation noise and cortisol levels is still unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the variability of saliva cortisol concentration as an indicator of disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation in relation to long-term aircraft noise exposure. Saliva samples were taken when awakening and before going to bed for 1244 participants older than 18 years of age. Information about health, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was also collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at home by an interviewer. Aircraft noise exposure was assessed for each participant's home address using noise maps. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the effects of aircraft noise exposure on the morning and evening cortisol levels and on the daily variation of cortisol per hour. This study suggests a modification of the cortisol circadian rhythm in relation to aircraft noise exposure. This exposure was associated with a smaller variation of cortisol levels over the day, with unchanged morning cortisol levels, but higher cortisol levels in the evening. These findings provide some support for a psychological stress induced by aircraft noise exposure, resulting in HPA dysregulation and a flattened cortisol rhythm, thus contributing to cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Development of a formula for estimating plasma free cortisol concentration from a measured total cortisol concentration when elastase-cleaved and intact corticosteroid binding globulin coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong T T; Lewis, John G; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Torpy, David J; Shorten, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Cortisol bound to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) contributes up to 90% of the total cortisol concentration in circulation. Therefore, changes in the binding kinetics of cortisol to CBG can potentially impact on the concentration of free cortisol, the only form that is responsible for the physiological function of the hormone. When CBG is cleaved into elastase-cleaved CBG (eCBG) by the activity of neutrophil elastase, its affinity for cortisol is reduced. Therefore, when eCBG coexists with intact CBG (iCBG) in plasma, the calculation of free cortisol concentration based on the formulae that considers only one CBG pool with the same affinity for cortisol may be inappropriate. In this study, we developed in vivo and in vitro models of cortisol partitioning which considers two CBG pools, iCBG and eCBG, with different affinities for cortisol, and deduce a new formula for calculating plasma free cortisol concentration. The formula provides better estimates of free cortisol concentration than previously used formulae when measurements of the concentrations of the two CBG forms are available. The model can also be used to estimate the affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in different clinical groups. We found no significant difference in the estimated affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in normal, sepsis and septic shock groups, although free cortisol was higher in sepsis and septic shock groups. The in vivo model also demonstrated that the concentration of interstitial free cortisol is increased locally at a site of inflammation where iCBG is cleaved to form eCBG by the activity of elastase released by neutrophils. This supports the argument that the cleavage of iCBG at sites of inflammation leads to more lower-affinity eCBG and may be a mechanism that permits the local concentration of free cortisol to increase at these sites, while allowing basal free cortisol concentrations at other sites to remain unaffected.

  11. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  12. Cortisol reactivity and suicidal behavior: investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in suicide attempters and ideators

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Daryl B.; Green, Jessica A.; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Carroll, Ronan E.; O'Connor, Rory C.

    2017-01-01

    Every 40 s a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. The current study aimed to investigate whether cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress task differentiated individuals who had previously made a suicide attempt from those who had thought about suicide (suicide ideators) and control participants. On...

  13. Cortisol reactivity and suicidal behavior: investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in suicide attempters and ideators

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Daryl B.; Green, Jessica A.; Ferguson, Eamonn; O’Carroll, Ronan E.; O’Connor, Rory C

    2017-01-01

    Every 40 seconds a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. The current study aimed to investigate whether cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress task differentiated individuals who had previously made a suicide attempt from those who had thought about suicide (suicide ideators) and control participan...

  14. The Masculine Sea and the Impossibility of Awakening in Chopin’s The Awakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kate Chopin has a firm place in American women’s writing. A persistent theme in her works is said to be women’s emotional liberation. The Awakening (1899 as a feminist novel is no exception. In the novel, Edna’s inner voice and desire for escape from a male-dominated society awaken in her. Edna’s suicide has been interpreted as her victory over the society however, this study argues that the idea of female defeat has been ignored to a great extent the main reason for which is the ignorance or a misreading of sea imagery. The sea of the novel that dissolves Edna is a signifier of male society and language signifying Edna’s failure to find a place within the male dialogue of the society. Extra-marital relationships with Alcee or Robert are not promising, for the climax of such relationships is no more than the old requirement of becoming the good wife and mother that the society prescribes to women. By her ultimate suicidal choice, Edna determines to find a voice and be seen but is totally perished instead to prove that women cannot speak. This study intends to argue and conclude that Chopin had this Kristevaesque belief that the male socio-cultural formation does not let women experience freedom. A new interpretation of the sea as a patriarchal element is offered which makes Edna’s drowning a total defeat rather than victory as suggested by many critics.

  15. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace...... Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30min after awakening and at 8p.m.). All participants responding...... to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after...

  16. Responses of hematological parameters, beta-endorphin, cortisol, reactive oxygen metabolites, and biological antioxidant potential in horses participating in a traditional tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Pira, E; Sedda, G; Vacca, G M; Cocco, R; Sechi, S; Bonelli, P; Nicolussi, P

    2015-04-01

    Several concerns have been raised over the health of animals used in equestrian games that have their origins in historical or religious events and are currently held in many countries. This study investigated physiological stress response and health status of horses participating in the Sartiglia, a historical horse tournament held in the city of Oristano, Italy, which is principally based on the attempts of masked horsemen at a gallop to run a sword through a hole in a suspended silver star. Blood samples were collected from 21 horses the day before the tournament (D0), during the tournament (D1), and the day after the tournament (D2). Samples were analyzed for complete blood count and biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress assays. Data were analyzed using the mixed effect model with sampling session as one of the fixed effects. On the whole, blood parameters evidenced an optimal health status of horses at D0. Significant dehydration and increase of circulating glucose, enzymes, cortisol, and β-endorphin were registered at D1 (P horses in similar tournaments.

  17. Inverse relation between cortisol and anger and their relation to performance and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuenne, Thomas; Frankenberg, Heiko; Quirin, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Cortisol has been found to increase in response to social evaluative threat. However, little is known about the cortisol response to induced anger. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the cortisol response to anger induction and its effects on performance and explicit memory. A variant of the Montreal Stress Imaging Task (MIST; Dedovic et al., 2005) was used to induce anger in 17 male and 17 female students. Consistent with previous observations, a significant decrease in cortisol was found from pre to post manipulation which was inversely related to increases in subjective anger. Moreover, whereas anger increase was related to impairments in performance, cortisol reduction was inversely related to cognitive performance and explicit memory (recall and recognition of persons' features in a social memory task). The adaptive value of an increase in cortisol in response to fear or uncontrollability and of a decrease in cortisol in response to anger will be discussed.

  18. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  19. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  20. Falha na resposta do cortisol ao estresse por captura e por carragenina em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae Failure of cortisol response in induced capture handling stress and carrageenin in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, foi estudado o efeito do estresse de captura e das injeções de carragenina (500 µg dissolvidos em 0,5 ml de solução salina ou solução salina (0,5 ml sobre as repostas glicêmica e de cortisol em pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887. O estímulo estressante foi aplicado pela captura em rede por 30s, repetidamente a cada 60 min, pelo período de 6 h. Para dosagem do cortisol, da glicose e contagem diferencial de leucócitos e trombócitos, alíquotas de sangue foram colhidas no tempo zero para determinar os valores basais, seguindo-se a aplicação do primeiro estresse. No tempo 1, os peixes foram injetados com carragenina ou salina (controle e nova colheita foi realizada após 5 min; no tempo 2, aplicou-se novo estresse de captura e, após cinco minutos, nova colheita de sangue, repetindo-se as mesmas operações nos tempos três e quatro. No tempo cinco, a colheita de sangue foi realizada 90 minutos após a aplicação do estresse. Os resultados demonstraram que, nos peixes injetados com salina, a glicemia aumentou uma hora depois, enquanto que, nos injetados com carragenina, esse fenômeno foi detectado após duas horas. No sangue, maior número de células granulocíticas especiais e linfopenia ocorreram a partir de duas horas e neutrofilia a partir de três horas, coincidindo com o aumento da glicemia. Os níveis circulantes de cortisol apresentaram redução significativa em ambos os grupos após uma hora; permaneceu reduzido no grupo injetado com carragenina na segunda hora, enquanto o grupo tratado com salina sofreu incremento e não diferiu do valor basal. Após três horas, no grupo carragenina continuou a diminuir até a última colheita. No grupo controle, injetado com salina, ocorreu nova redução da concentração do cortisol que se manteve até o final do ensaio.In this assay the effect of consecutive stress handling and carrageenin injection (500 µg in 0.5 ml of saline solution or 0.5 mL of saline on

  1. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  2. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  3. Cortisol, resposta glicêmica e secreção de insulina em equinos clinicamente sadios submetidos a sessões de hipóxia normobárica Serum cortisol, glycemic response and insulin secretion in healthy horses exposed to normobaric hypoxia sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego De Gasperi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis séricos de cortisol, resposta glicêmica e secreção de insulina foram avaliados em equinos não exercitados submetidos a sessões de hipóxia normobárica. Cavalos adultos sadios (n=8 foram selecionados após exame físico e submetidos ao teste de tolerância à glicose intravenosa (0,5g kg-1 (TTGIV. Amostras de sangue (n=11 foram coletadas entre 0 e 180 minutos após a administração de glicose para avaliar a resposta glicêmica e a secreção de insulina. Os animais foram então expostos a sessões de uma hora de hipóxia duas vezes ao dia, totalizando 43 sessões, com concentração decrescente de O2 de 17 a 12%. A frequência cardíaca e as amostras sanguíneas para a determinação do cortisol sérico foram coletadas antes e a cada 15 minutos durante as sessões 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 22 e 43. A TTGIV foi repetida ao final do estudo. Os níveis de cortisol sérico foram maiores na sessão 1 (S1 (17% O2 quando comparados aos níveis da S10 (13% O2 e da S43 (12% O2(PThe cortisol levels, glycemic response and insulin secretion were evaluated in non-exercised horses submitted to sessions of normobaric hypoxia. Healthy adult horses (n=8 were selected after physical examination and underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.5g kg-1 (IVGTT. Blood samples (n=11 were collected between 0 and 180 minutes after glucose administration to evaluate glycemic response and insulin secretion. Then, they were exposed to 1-hour hypoxia sessions twice a day, reaching a total of 43 hypoxia sessions, with [O2] decreasing from 17 to 12%. Heart rate and serum samples to measure cortisol were collected before and every 15 minutes during the sessions 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 22 and 43. The IVGTT was repeated at the end of the study. The serum cortisol levels were higher in session 1 (S1 (17% O2 when compared to the levels of S10 (13% O2 and S43 (12% O2 (P<0.05. The glycemic curve in resting healthy horses is not altered by exposure to 43 normobaric

  4. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  5. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  6. Burnout symptom sub-types and cortisol profiles: what's burning most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2014-02-01

    The current study assessed which specific burnout symptoms were most predictive of distinct diurnal cortisol profiles. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed in a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. The 16-item Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to extract burnout sub-scales that included emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional inefficacy, as well as a global burnout average. Consenting workers provided five saliva samples a day (awaking, 30 min after awaking, 1,400 h, 1,600 h, and bedtime) repeated three times over the course of a week (Saturday, Tuesday, Thursday) to capture workday and non-workday variations. Multilevel regression models were estimated from cortisol measurements at each occasion within a day at level-1, workers at level-2, and workplaces at level-3. Multilevel regression analyses found that emotional exhaustion and a global burnout showed the strongest and consistent negative associations to cortisol in the afternoon and evening. In a separate analysis using regression coefficients, emotional exhaustion and a global burnout average were associated with low cortisol levels 30 min upon awakening. By contrast, professional inefficacy was associated only with lower bedtime cortisol. No associations were detected for cynicism and sex did not emerge as a moderator in secondary analyses. Our findings are discussed in a theoretical framework postulating different pathophysiological stages of burnout development. Specifically, professional inefficacy may be the earliest warning signal culminating with emotional exhaustion that may dampen diurnal cortisol levels.

  7. The effect of short-term cortisol changes on growth hormone responses to the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone test in healthy adults and patients with suspected growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Støving, R K; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between cortisol and growth hormone (GH)-levels may significantly influence GH-responses to a stimulation test. In order to systematically analyse the interaction in a paired design, it is necessary to use a test, which has been proven safe and reliable such a...... (30 mg/day for 1 and 3 days). However, peak GH-responses to PD in combination with GHRH were reduced during HC (80 mg/day for 1 day) compared to no glucocorticoid pretreatment in all patients. Short-term hypocortisolism did not significantly affect peak GH-responses. CONCLUSION: The GH...

  8. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  9. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  10. Predicting emotional responses to potentially traumatic events from pre-exposure waking cortisol levels: a longitudinal study of police and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineles, Suzanne L; Rasmusson, Ann M; Yehuda, Rachel; Lasko, Natasha B; Macklin, Michael L; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    There is a large literature demonstrating that individuals who have experienced traumatic events have alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the existing literature does not address the extent to which these alterations represent pre-existing risk factors for developing psychopathology upon exposure to a significant stressor. In the current study, we examined the relationship between waking salivary cortisol level and physiological, personality, and psychological measures in 60 firefighters and police trainees during training, and then again after exposure to a highly stressful, potentially traumatic event (PTE). Waking cortisol was negatively associated with neuroticism, but positively associated with physiological reactivity to loud tones and fear conditioning when assessed during training. Longitudinally, there were significant negative correlations between pre-PTE waking cortisol and post-PTE negative mood and anxiety symptoms, but a positive correlation (trend) between pre-PTE waking cortisol and post-PTE physiological reactivity during recollection of the PTE. Thus, waking cortisol level may serve to predict divergent types of emotional sequelae following PTEs.

  11. Exponentially Distributed Outages of Decreased ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Stress in Healthy Adults with Childhood Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha. T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitantly hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder and PostTraumatic Stress Disorder. This paper discussed the constant stress level of adult patients with times to damage of stress effect and recoveries. Also In adults without diagnosable psychopathology, childhood maltreatment is associated with diminished HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

  12. On Edna's Awakening from a Perspective of transcendentalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianeng

    2008-01-01

    American woman writer Kate Chopin's(1851-1904)The Awakening,published in 1899,is generally considered aS a classic feminism hovel in the history of American Literature.However,the heroin's awakening of self-awareness under che caress of nature,her struggle against traditional society under the guidance of spirit and soul,and even her final pursuing of self-independence all reveal the ideas of Transcendentalism,advanced by Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803-1882),who is regarded as the most outstanding representative of the Amefican Trartscendentalism.This paper intends to explore how the novel reveals a transcendental tendency and how profound the influence of the transcendental belief is upon the heroine's double awakening both spiritually and physically.

  13. Cortisol Response to a Crowding Stress: Heritability and Association with Disease Resistance to Yersinia ruckeri in Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A breeding program to develop improved germplasm for the US rainbow trout aquaculture industry is being conducted at the USDA-ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture. Current selection efforts are focused on growth and disease resistance, but stress response is also a concern. Usin...

  14. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-stress responses of children (ages 8.9-11, M = 9.83 years, SD = 0.55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from…

  15. Predicting Early Awakening from Coma after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eGoodman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction – Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, family members and healthcare providers base early supportive management decisions, at least in part, on expected prognosis. In the comatose patient with ICH, this short-term prognosis is most overtly characterized by regaining of consciousness.Methods – A retrospective consecutive cohort of 51 patients admitted to a neuroICU with ICH and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8 was identified. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association of baseline characteristics and treatment parameters associated with awakening.Results – Awakening from coma was observed in 53% of ICH patients: 83% with an initial GCS score of 7-8, 43% with an initial score of 5-6, and 20% with an initial score of 3-4. Awakening from coma in the cohort of 27 patients who regained consciousness occurred in 59% of patients by day 2, 89% by day 7, and 96% by day 9. In multivariable analysis, only higher admission GCS score was associated with a greater likelihood of awakening from coma (OR 4.9 [95%CI 1.9–13] per 2-point category, p=0.001. DNR status during the first 24 hours was not associated with awakening but was at later time points.Conclusion – GCS score is the predominant initial predictor of early awakening in patients who present in coma after ICH. Patients who regained consciousness typically did so within the first 9 days of hospital admission.

  16. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  17. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy.

  18. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  19. Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny J; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter A; Brewer, Mark J; Duff, Elizabeth I; Miller, David; Mitchell, Richard; Clow, Angela

    2013-09-02

    Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35-55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels of stress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not in work, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant

  20. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower.

  1. Cortisol Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Through a Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptor in Rainbow Trout Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Marlen B; Aedo, Jorge E; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valenzuela, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo; Valdés, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    Cortisol is an essential regulator of neuroendocrine stress responses in teleosts. Cortisol predominantly affects target tissues through the genomic pathway, which involves interacting with cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors, and thereby, modulating stress-response gene expressions. Cortisol also produces rapid effects via non-genomic pathways, which do not involve gene transcription. Although cortisol-mediated genomic pathways are well documented in teleosts, non-genomic pathways are not fully understood. Moreover, no studies have focused on the contribution of non-genomic cortisol pathways in compensatory stress responses in fish. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skeletal myotubes were stimulated with physiological concentrations of cortisol and cortisol-BSA, a membrane-impermeable agent, resulting in an early induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This production was not suppressed by transcription or translation inhibitors, suggesting non-genomic pathway involvement. Moreover, myotube preincubation with RU486 and NAC completely suppressed cortisol- and cortisol-BSA-induced ROS production. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed the presence of cell membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Finally, cortisol-BSA induced a significant increase in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, as well as in CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the pgc1a gene expression. The obtained results strongly suggest that cortisol acts through a non-genomic glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pathway to induce ROS production and contribute to ERK/CREB/PGC1-α signaling pathway activation as stress compensation mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 718-725, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  3. Antidepressant use and salivary cortisol in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; Leeds, Caroline; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressants are an effective treatment for depressive and anxiety disorders. Those disorders are frequently accompanied by heightened cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, the alteration of which could be partially responsible for treatment

  4. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  5. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect. PMID:28228738

  6. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  7. An exploratory study into the effect of exhausting bicycle exercise on endocrine and immune responses in post-menopausal women: relationships between vigour and plasma cortisol concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pompe, G; Bernards, N; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C

    2001-08-01

    It is well-established that bicycle exercise alters the endocrine and immune responses in men, but little information is available for women, especially middle-aged, post-menopausal women. The purpose of our study was to document the endocrine and immune reactivity to exhausting bicycle exercise in post-menopausal women, and to explore whether complaints of fatigue or low vigour are related to these exercise-induced responses. Thirteen healthy post-menopausal women participated in this study. We used a graded exercise protocol to study the kinetics of activation of the endocrine and immune system. We chose to examine hormones related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system such as adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol and hormones related to the pituitary such as prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). With regard to the immune system, we examined the natural killer (NK) cell activity and pokeweed (PWM)-induced lymphocyte proliferation in addition to changes in peripheral blood cell counts. Our results demonstrate that acute physical stress results in a strong release of ACTH, cortisol, GH and PRL. The bicycle test significantly increased the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16/56+ (NK cells) and CD8+ cells in our group of post-menopausal women. Interestingly, NK activity did not increase significantly despite an increase in NK cell numbers. PWM-induced lymphocyte proliferation did not change either. In addition, our data support the hypothesis that low vigour in post-menopausal women interferes with the endocrine and immune responses to exhausting exercise. In women with complaints of low vigour we found lower cortisol responses and higher increments in the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes as compared to those with high vigour scores. NK activity was unrelated to exhaustive mood states. These data indicate that endocrine as well as immune system activity changes in response to exhausting exercise in middle-aged, post-menopausal women. In addition

  8. Awakening of Biff and Happy in Death of a Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田烨

    2014-01-01

    Death of a Salesman is one of the classic works written by Arthur Miller,an American modern dramatist.When the protagonist Willy Loman’s suicide,Biff and Happy eventually awaken in different ways,and understand in different angles who they are and what is their father’s dream.

  9. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids--a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5 ± 1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents.

  10. The association between perceived emotional support, maternal mood, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, and the ratio between the two compounds in response to acute stress in second trimester pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; La Marca, Roberto; Dainese, Sara M; Haller, Marina; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of social support on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy. Moreover, when investigating the HPA axis most studies do not consider the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), an enzyme within the salivary glands that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. This study explores the association between perceived emotional support and the maternal psychobiological stress response to a standardized naturalistic stressor by assessing maternal mood and the reactivity of salivary cortisol (SalF), salivary cortisone (SalE), and the SalE/(E+F) ratio as a marker of 11β-HSD2 activity. Repeated saliva samples and measures of maternal mood were obtained from 34 healthy second trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis which served as a psychological stressor. The pregnant women additionally responded to a questionnaire of perceived emotional support and provided sociodemographic (e.g., maternal educational degree) and pregnancy-specific data (e.g., planned versus unplanned pregnancy). Perceived emotional support neither showed a significant effect on mood nor on the SalF or SalE response to stress. However, a moderately strong positive association was found between perceived emotional support and SalE/(E+F) (r=.49). Additionally, the final regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between educational degree, planned/unplanned pregnancy and SalE/(E+F). Findings suggest a higher metabolization of cortisol to cortisone in pregnant women with higher emotional support. In contrast, higher maternal education and unplanned pregnancy appear to be associated with decreased salivary 11β-HSD2 activity. The current study emphasizes the importance of taking the activity of 11β-HSD2 into account when examining SalF. © 2013.

  11. Morning Salivary Cortisol in Young Children: Reference Values and the Effects of Age, Sex, and Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bakkeheim, Egil; Berents, Teresa Løvold; Alm, Johan; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Sjöbeck, Ann-Christine; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2017-05-01

    To identify morning salivary cortisol reference values in infancy and at 2 years of age and to investigate the influence of age, sex and acute bronchiolitis. In this South-East Norwegian cohort study, 308 children hospitalized with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis in infancy in 2010-2011 were compared with 223 healthy controls included in 2012 by measuring morning salivary cortisol levels at inclusion and at 2 years of age. Samples were collected shortly after awakening after 6 am. The influences of age, sex, and acute bronchiolitis were assessed by regression analysis. In infancy, cortisol values were higher in acute bronchiolitis, with an age- and sex-adjusted weighted mean group difference of 13.9 nmol/L (95% CI 8.1-19.7; P bronchiolitis than in healthy infants. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00817466. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  13. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  14. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.

  15. A study of cortisol reactivity and recovery among young adolescents: Heterogeneity and longitudinal stability and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Negriff, Sonya; Kim, Hansung; Susman, Elizabe