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Sample records for cortico-medullary anatomical organization

  1. Cortico-medullary continuity in bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation mimicking osteochondroma on imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybak, Leon D.; Abramovici, Luigia; Steiner, German C.; Kenan, Samuel; Posner, Martin A.; Bonar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is an unusual surface-based lesion of bone found most commonly in the hands and feet. In the original description of the lesion and in all publications that followed, one of the key imaging characteristics used to define this entity was the lack of cortico-medullary continuity with the underlying bone. The authors present 4 unique cases of pathologically proven BPOP in which cortico-medullary continuity with the underlying bone was demonstrated on imaging. It is believed that florid reactive periostitis, BPOP and turret osteochondroma may reflect points along the same continuum with trauma the likely inciting event. The authors suggest that, given this continuum, it may be possible to have BPOP lesions demonstrating overlapping imaging features with osteochondroma. If this is the case, strict adherence to the standard imaging criterion of lack of continuity between the lesion and the underlying bone may lead to misdiagnosis of these unusual cases of BPOP as osteochondromas. (orig.)

  2. Associação entre o ângulo de Norberg, o percentual de cobertura da cabeça femoral, o índice cortical e o ângulo de inclinação em cães com displasia coxofemoral Associations among Norberg angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, cortico-medullary index, and femoral inclination angle in dogs with hip dysplasia

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    G.L.T. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 386 radiografias da articulação coxofemoral, sendo 220 de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, 112 machos e 108 fêmeas, e 166 da raça Labrador Retriever, 69 machos e 97 fêmeas. As radiografias foram classificadas segundo o grau de displasia coxofemoral (DCF, e foram mensurados o ângulo de inclinação, o ângulo de Norberg, o índice cortical e o percentual de cobertura da cabeça femoral de ambos os lados. As variáveis foram associadas mediante análise estatística multivariada de componentes principais. As variáveis índice cortical e ângulo de inclinação foram inversamente associadas. A raça Pastor Alemão apresentou valores de índice cortical e graus de DCF mais baixos em relação à raça Labrador Retriever. Maior ângulo de inclinação foi associado a menor ângulo de Norberg e menor percentual de cobertura. Animais mais velhos apresentaram menor ângulo de Norberg, menor porcentagem de cobertura e maior grau de DCF. Nas fêmeas, foram observados menor porcentagem de cobertura, menor ângulo de Norberg e maior grau de DCF. Pode-se concluir que o ângulo de inclinação e o índice cortical não demonstraram associação com a DCF.A total of 386 radiographs of the pelvis were evaluated, being 220 of German Shepherd dogs (112 males and 108 females and 166 of Labrador Retrievers (69 males and 97 females. The radiographs were degree classified regarding the of hip dysplasia (DHD. The Norberg and inclination angles, the cortico-medullary index, and the percentage coverage of the femoral head were measured and associated using multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis. The cortico-medullary index and the inclination angle were inversely associated. The results indicated that German Shepherd Dogs showed lower cortico-medullary index and DHD compared with Labrador Retrievers. The higher the inclination angle, the lower the Norberg angle and percentage coverage of the femoral head. It was observed

  3. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  4. A Topographically and anatomically unified phantom model for organ dose determination in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Ermakov, I.; Masarskyi, L.; Saltukova, L.

    1989-08-01

    The effective dose equivalent is used as a risk-related factor for assessing radiation impact on patients. In order to assess the effective dose equivalent, data on organ doses in several organs are needed. For calculation of the collective effective dose equivalent, data on the sex and size distribution of the exposed population are also needed. A realistic phantom model based on the Alderson-Rando anatomical phantom has been developed for these purposes. The phantom model includes 22 organs and takes into account the deflections due to sex, height, weight and other anatomical features. Coordinates of the outer contours of inner organs are given in different slabs of the phantom. The images of cross sections of different slabs realistically depict the distribution of the organs in the phantom. Statistics about height and weight distribution as a function of the age of the Finnish population are also given. (orig.)

  5. Anatomical contouring variability in thoracic organs at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, Ross, E-mail: rmccall86@gmail.com [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); MacLennan, Grayden; Taylor, Matthew; Lenards, Nishele [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Lemons, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Hunzeker, Ashley [Medical Dosimetry Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether contouring thoracic organs at risk was consistent among medical dosimetrists and to identify how trends in dosimetrist's education and experience affected contouring accuracy. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to contextualize the raw data that were obtained. A total of 3 different computed tomography (CT) data sets were provided to medical dosimetrists (N = 13) across 5 different institutions. The medical dosimetrists were directed to contour the lungs, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus. The medical dosimetrists were instructed to contour in line with their institutional standards and were allowed to use any contouring tool or technique that they would traditionally use. The contours from each medical dosimetrist were evaluated against “gold standard” contours drawn and validated by 2 radiation oncology physicians. The dosimetrist-derived contours were evaluated against the gold standard using both a Dice coefficient method and a penalty-based metric scoring system. A short survey was also completed by each medical dosimetrist to evaluate their individual contouring experience. There was no significant variation in the contouring consistency of the lungs and spinal cord. Intradosimetrist contouring was consistent for those who contoured the esophagus and heart correctly; however, medical dosimetrists with a poor metric score showed erratic and inconsistent methods of contouring.

  6. Patient reported and anatomical outcomes after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azab, Ahmed S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Imam, Hala M K

    2009-01-01

    Primary aim was to modify Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) to assess pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Arabic Muslim women. Secondary aim was to compare functional and anatomical outcomes of POP repair. Questionnaire. A characteristic (prayer) was added to PFIQ. Linguistic validation of questionnaires was then done. Twenty cases were enrolled in a pilot study to test internal consistency and reliability. Subsequent study. Prospective study included women with symptomatic POP >or= stage II. History, examination by POP-Q, and administration of PFDI and PFIQ, were done before and 6 months after surgery. Questionnaire. Internal consistency of added question was good (Cronbach alpha = 0.78). Test-retest reliability of individual PFIQ items was variable. Subsequent Study. Between September 2004 and February 2007, 78 consecutive women were included. Cystocele, rectocele, and no site predominated in 74.4%, 17.9% and 7.7% of cases, respectively. Preoperatively 19.2%, 15.4% and 47.4% reported stress, urge, and mixed incontinence, respectively. Overall and individual urinary symptoms scores improved significantly after surgery. There were significant improvements in individual symptoms of constipation, splint to defecate and losing not well formed stools. Low self-esteem was most negative impact of prolapse on quality of life (QoL) followed by prayer. After surgery 90% of subjects had anatomical cure. After surgery, QoL issues are significantly related to anatomic location of prolapse as determined by POP-Q. Modified PFIQ and PFDI are suitable to assess POP among Muslim women. Postoperatively, many prolapse-related symptoms and QoL significantly improve after surgery on the short term with an anatomic cure rate of 90%.

  7. Anatomical features of venous outflow from rat’s reproductive organs

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    N. A. Nikitin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The venous drainage from reproductive organs of rats is described; new data on peculiarities of the venous drainage are obtained.Objects of study were adult Wistar white rats (20 animals. The animals have passed precision dissection of vessels in order to study anatomic peculiarities of venous drainage from the left spermary in male rats and internal genital organs in female rats in norm. It has been shown that the venous drainage from the left spermary follows the spermatic vein entering into the pampiniform plexus system, which continues into the single venous trunk, which, in its turn, divides into the ascending and descending veins. The descending vein runs into the common left iliac vein, while the ascending vein runs into the renal vein. The venous drainage from female reproductive organs follows through the uterine vein, which, taking the tubal and spermatic veins, runs from the left into the left renal vein and from the right into the caudal vena cava.

  8. Organ Transplantation and the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act: A Fifty-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Blair L; Sadler, Alfred M

    2018-03-01

    Fifty years ago this summer, the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was adopted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and approved by the American Bar Association. The UAGA has provided a sound and stable legal platform on which to base an effective nationwide organ donation system. The cardinal principles of altruism, autonomy, and public trust are still important. At a time when confidence and trust in our government and many private institutions has declined, maintaining trust and confidence in our health care system and its commitment to "first, do no harm" has never been more important. Any policies that override these core ethical principles could cause irreparable damage to the public's faith in our transplant system. While progress has been made to increase organ registration and the number of organs transplanted, much more must be done to realize the potential of life-saving therapy without jeopardizing ethical principles. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  9. [Morphogenetic processes and seasonal changes in the anatomic and histological organization of the Barents Sea sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, L V

    1978-10-01

    As a result of histological investigations of seasonal dynamics in the anatomical-tissue organization of the litoral sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas), morphogenetical processes during different periods of its life cycle are described in detail. Correlations between different phases of sexual reproduction and conditions of anatomical and tissue organization in the maternal organism are stated. It is noted that tissue reduction of the definitive sponge Halichondria panicea during autumn--winter season is a natural phenomenon, regularly repeating in the life of the litoral sponge investigated, as a result of the maternal organism's "exhaustion" in the period of sexual embryogenesis.

  10. Microbiological evaluation of anatomical organs submitted to glycerinization and freeze-drying techniques

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    Marianna Justo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives conservation techniques are being requested with the proposal of formaldehyde substitution. Formaldehyde results in excessive anatomical specimens' weight and it can cause serious health problems to the manipulator, such as cancer. However, it provides an efficient germicide and fungicide action depending on concentration. The substitute techniques are glicerinization and freeze-drying which have advantages such as non-production of smells, lightness of the organs and dispenses the use of fixatives in conservation. As well as both intrinsic and extrinsic factors interfere in microbial growth, microbiological analyzes are essential to detect possible deteriorative microorganisms in organs and concluding effectively the technique used. Formalinized, glycerinated and freeze-drying organs were collected in three different times which were intercalated by two months, except formalinization that had one evaluation. The procedure required the use of sterilized swabs wetted in peptone water and molds measuring 5,0 cm x 10,0 cm positioned on two different piece's local resulting in 100 cm2 of area, to spread plate of total moulds, mesophiles (except in freeze-drying, psychrophilic (only in freeze-drying and Pseudomonas sp (except in formalinization. All the plates were counted and compared between each technique's evaluations by variance analyzes. Both alternatives techniques resulted in zero or in very low microbial quantity to cause health problems as well as it preserve pieces morphology. All values of all analyzes resulted below 1/ml, showing that glicerinization and freeze-drying techniques are so as efficient as formaldehyde. Keywords: Organs conservation, Anatomical techniques, Microbiology, Microbial growth

  11. SEM characterization of anatomical variation in chitin organization in insect and arthropod cuticles.

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    Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Williams, Lee; Hung, Albert; Nowlin, Kyle; LaJeunesse, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The cuticles of insects and arthropods have some of the most diverse material properties observed in nature, so much so that it is difficult to imagine that all cutciles are primarily composed of the same two materials: a fibrous chitin network and a matrix composed of cuticle proteins. Various factors contribute to the mechanical and optical properties of an insect or arthropod cuticle including the thickness and composition. In this paper, we also identified another factor that may contribute to the optical, surface, and mechanical properties of a cuticle, i.e. the organization of chitin nanofibers and chitin fiber bundles. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers serve as the foundation for all higher order chitin structures in the cuticles of insects and other arthropods via interactions with structural cuticle proteins. Using a technique that enables the characterization of chitin organization in the cuticle of intact insects and arthropod exoskeletons, we demonstrate a structure/function correlation of chitin organization with larger scale anatomical structures. The chitin scaffolds in cuticles display an extraordinarily diverse set of morphologies that may reflect specific mechanical or physical properties. After removal of the proteinaceous and mineral matrix of a cuticle, we observe using SEM diverse nanoscale and micro scale organization of in-situ chitin in the wing, head, eye, leg, and dorsal and ventral thoracic regions of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim and in other insects and arthropods. The organization of chitin also appears to have a significant role in the organization of nanoscale surface structures. While microscale bristles and hairs have long been known to be chitin based materials formed as cellular extensions, we have found a nanostructured layer of chitin in the cuticle of the wing of the dog day annual cicada Tibicen tibicens, which may be the scaffold for the nanocone arrays found on the wing. We also use this process to examine

  12. Deep organ space infection after emergency bowel resection and anastomosis: The anatomic site does not matter.

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    Benjamin, Elizabeth; Siboni, Stefano; Haltmeier, Tobias; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2015-11-01

    Deep organ space infection (DOSI) is a serious complication after emergency bowel resection and anastomosis. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for the development of DOSI. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database study including patients who underwent large bowel or small bowel resection and primary anastomosis. The incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for DOSI were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 87,562 patients underwent small bowel, large bowel, or rectal resection and anastomosis. Of these, 14,942 (17.1%) underwent emergency operations and formed the study population. The overall mortality rate in emergency operations was 12.5%, and the rate of DOSI was 5.6%. A total of 18.0% required ventilatory support in more than 48 hours, and 16.0% required reoperation. Predictors of DOSI included age, steroid use, sepsis or septic shock on admission, severe wound contamination, and advanced American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. The anatomic location of resection and anastomosis was not significantly associated with DOSI. Patients undergoing emergency bowel resection and anastomosis have a high mortality, risk of DOSI, and systemic complications. Independent predictors of DOSI include wound and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, sepsis or septic shock on admission, and steroid use. The anatomic location of resection and anastomosis was not significantly associated with DOSI. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  13. Anatomical and histological description of the male taruca reproductive organs (Hippocamelus antisensis, d'Orbigny 1834

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    Pacheco JI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The taruca is the largest species of cervid native of the Peruvian Andes, which is in a vulnerable state, a circumstance by which it is necessary to carry out studies regarding its anatomy and reproductive physiology, in the future, to implement reproductive biotechnologies for its conservation. The anatomy and histological structure of the reproductive organs of an adult male Hippocamelus antisensis specimen is described and sent to the IVITA Maranganí, UNMSM station by the SERFOR Cusco with custody act No. 042-2015-SERFOR-ATFFS CUSCO for Research purposes, the same one that died in the Zoo of Tipon - Cusco. The external reproductive organs are described, which present anatomical disposition similar to other artiodactyls, with the peculiarity of being covered with secretions and odors characteristic of the species; Have vesicles of the deferent, testicles represent 3.4% of the body weight, there are three adjoining glands: vesicular glands, prostate and bulbourethral glands, fibroelastic penis without sigmoid flexure, glans does not present urethral process, histologically the testis presents The structure similar to other species of artiodactyls, the epididymis shows sperm content, the vas deferens presents a broad muscular tunica, in conclusion the characteristics are similar to other cervids and also to domestic species like the ram and the goat

  14. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

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    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S; Lim, Kelvin O; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-10-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  15. What Does the Anatomical Organization of the Entorhinal Cortex Tell Us?

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    Cathrin B. Canto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex is commonly perceived as a major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, entertaining the role of the nodal point of cortico-hippocampal circuits. Superficial layers receive convergent cortical information, which is relayed to structures in the hippocampus, and hippocampal output reaches deep layers of entorhinal cortex, that project back to the cortex. The finding of the grid cells in all layers and reports on interactions between deep and superficial layers indicate that this rather simplistic perception may be at fault. Therefore, an integrative approach on the entorhinal cortex, that takes into account recent additions to our knowledge database on entorhinal connectivity, is timely. We argue that layers in entorhinal cortex show different functional characteristics most likely not on the basis of strikingly different inputs or outputs, but much more likely on the basis of differences in intrinsic organization, combined with very specific sets of inputs. Here, we aim to summarize recent anatomical data supporting the notion that the traditional description of the entorhinal cortex as a layered input-output structure for the hippocampal formation does not give the deserved credit to what this structure might be contributing to the overall functions of cortico-hippocampal networks.

  16. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

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    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  17. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

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    Thomas R Knösche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high-degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation.Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed.We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  18. The role of long-range connectivity for the characterization of the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation. Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed. We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant, and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms, and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  19. Features of morpho-anatomic structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC.

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    Valentyna Berezkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study results of biological features and morpho-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC. are given. S. antiquum is Eastern Carpathian-Opillia rare endemic species. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in the European Red List of Animals and Plants and is endangered in world scale. As a result of study of morpho-anatomic structure of leaves and stems of S. antiquum the anisocytic type of stomata and presence of cuticle have been determined. It was ascertained that structure of leaves is adapted to the accumulation of significant water reserves and its further gradual use. Ecological and phytocenotic conditions of growth are studied too. S. antiquum has been determined here as petrophyte, calcephyl, and succulent ephemer. This rare species need protection and control of population state in all natural habitats.

  20. The modular organization of human anatomical brain networks: Accounting for the cost of wiring

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    Richard F. Betzel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain networks are expected to be modular. However, existing techniques for estimating a network’s modules make it difficult to assess the influence of organizational principles such as wiring cost reduction on the detected modules. Here we present a modification of an existing module detection algorithm that allowed us to focus on connections that are unexpected under a cost-reduction wiring rule and to identify modules from among these connections. We applied this technique to anatomical brain networks and showed that the modules we detected differ from those detected using the standard technique. We demonstrated that these novel modules are spatially distributed, exhibit unique functional fingerprints, and overlap considerably with rich clubs, giving rise to an alternative and complementary interpretation of the functional roles of specific brain regions. Finally, we demonstrated that, using the modified module detection approach, we can detect modules in a developmental dataset that track normative patterns of maturation. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that brain networks are composed of modules and provide additional insight into the function of those modules.

  1. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

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    Lauren H Sumner-Rooney

    Full Text Available The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001. We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  2. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

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    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  3. Basal forebrain cholinergic systems in primate brain: Anatomical organization and role in the pathology of aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Cork, L.C.; Hedreen, J.C.; Kitt, C.A.; Struble, R.G.; Walker, L.C.; Whitehouse, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the anatomical organization of the Chl-4 system: evidence implicating this system in the pathology of AD and related disorders; and hypothetical models by which dysfunction and, eventually, death of these cells may account for some of the neurochemical/neuropathological changes observed in the brains of individuals with AD and related dementias. The topography of Chl-4 projections has been analyzed by injecting tritium-amino acids in proximity to cell bodies of the Chl-4 cell group. It is suggested that reductions in cholinergic markers (activites of ChAT and AChE, high-affinity uptake of choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine from C 14-glucose) in the neocortex appear to be the most severe, consistent, and perhaps earliest transmitter specific abnormalities occurring in the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex

  4. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

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    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  5. Laminar and dorsoventral molecular organization of the medial entorhinal cortex revealed by large-scale anatomical analysis of gene expression.

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    Helen L Ramsden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC encode an animal's position and orientation in space. Within the MEC spatial representations, including grid and directional firing fields, have a laminar and dorsoventral organization that corresponds to a similar topography of neuronal connectivity and cellular properties. Yet, in part due to the challenges of integrating anatomical data at the resolution of cortical layers and borders, we know little about the molecular components underlying this organization. To address this we develop a new computational pipeline for high-throughput analysis and comparison of in situ hybridization (ISH images at laminar resolution. We apply this pipeline to ISH data for over 16,000 genes in the Allen Brain Atlas and validate our analysis with RNA sequencing of MEC tissue from adult mice. We find that differential gene expression delineates the borders of the MEC with neighboring brain structures and reveals its laminar and dorsoventral organization. We propose a new molecular basis for distinguishing the deep layers of the MEC and show that their similarity to corresponding layers of neocortex is greater than that of superficial layers. Our analysis identifies ion channel-, cell adhesion- and synapse-related genes as candidates for functional differentiation of MEC layers and for encoding of spatial information at different scales along the dorsoventral axis of the MEC. We also reveal laminar organization of genes related to disease pathology and suggest that a high metabolic demand predisposes layer II to neurodegenerative pathology. In principle, our computational pipeline can be applied to high-throughput analysis of many forms of neuroanatomical data. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in gene expression contribute to functional specialization of superficial layers of the MEC and dorsoventral organization of the scale of spatial representations.

  6. Anatomical organization of the brain of a diurnal and a nocturnal dung beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Dacke, Marie; Heinze, Stanley; El Jundi, Basil

    2017-06-01

    To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology. Although there is already some knowledge emerging concerning how celestial cues are processed in the dung beetle brain, little is known about its general neural layout. Mapping the neuropils of the dung beetle brain is thus a prerequisite to understand the neuronal network that underlies celestial compass orientation. Here, we describe and compare the brains of a day-active and a night-active dung beetle species based on immunostainings against synapsin and serotonin. We also provide 3D reconstructions for all brain areas and many of the fiber bundles in the brain of the day-active dung beetle. Comparison of neuropil structures between the two dung beetle species revealed differences that reflect adaptations to different light conditions. Altogether, our results provide a reference framework for future studies on the neuroethology of insects in general and dung beetles in particular. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anatomical and micro-morphological analysis of the fruit and vegetative organs of Inula oculus-christi L. in the Pannonian part of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inula oculus-christi L. is a perennial plant, 20-60 cm high, growing in south-east Europe, central and southern Russia and some parts of Asia. It belongs to Pontic-Pannonian floristic element. In Pannonian part of Serbia this species is extremely rare, with very few recently confirmed literature and herbarium data. According to the field data for the period from 2013 to 2015, only one population of this species was recorded in Pannonian part of Serbia, on the site of Rimski Šanac, which is threatened by anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, anatomical and micro-morphological features of I. oculus-christi have not been documented so far. Therefore, in order to get better knowledge of the biology this species, as well as on the basis of the abovementioned, its anatomical and micro-morphological characteristics were investigated. Cross sections of the leaf, stem, rhizome and fruit were obtained using cryotechnique procedure by Leica CM 1850 cryostat. Using a light microscopy, detailed descriptions of anatomical characteristics of the analysed organs were given. The scanning electron microscopy revealed specific qualitative features of leaf and fruit that characterize the species. Obtained data may be useful in determination of this species and represent the valuable contribution to its micro-morphological and anatomical differentiation from other congeneric and related species. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173002

  8. Reduction of Mental Distress in the Dissection Course by Introducing the Body Donor Experience through Anatomical Demonstrations of Organ Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Baader, Christoph; Fassnacht, Ulrich Kai; Ochsner, Wolfgang; Bockers, Tobias Maria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of dissection teaches students not only the foundations of anatomical knowledge but also encourages the development of professional competencies. Yet, the dissection of cadavers in the gross anatomy course can be a stress factor for medical students. There are a minor proportion of students who demonstrate strong emotional reactions…

  9. A probabilistic approach using deformable organ models for automatic definition of normal anatomical structures for 3D treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Daniel; Yu Liyun; Johnson, Valen; McAuliffe, Matthew; Pizer, Stephen; Chaney, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective : Current clinical methods for defining normal anatomical structures on tomographic images are time consuming and subject to intra- and inter-user variability. With the widespread implementation of 3D RTP, conformal radiotherapy, and dose escalation the implications of imprecise object definition have assumed a much higher level of importance. Object definition and volume-weighted metrics for normal anatomy, such as DVHs and NTCPs, play critical roles in aiming, shaping, and weighting beams. Improvements in object definition, including computer automation, are essential to yield reliable volume-weighted metrics and gains in human efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate a probabilistic approach using deformable models to automatically recognize and extract normal anatomy in tomographic images. Materials and Methods: Object models were created from normal organs that were segmented by an interactive method which involved placing a cursor near the center of the object on a slice and clicking a mouse button to initiate computation of structures called cores. Cores describe the skeletal and boundary shape of image objects in a manner that, in 2D, associates a location on the skeleton with the width of the object at that location. A significant advantage of cores is stability against image disturbances such as noise and blur. The model was composed of a relatively small set of extracted points on the skeleton and boundary. The points were carefully chosen to summarize the shape information captured by the cores. Neighborhood relationships between points were represented mathematically by energy functions that penalize, due to warping of the model, the ''goodness'' of match between the model and the image data at any stage during the segmentation process. The model was matched against the image data using a probabilistic approach based on Bayes theorem, which provides a means for computing a posteriori (posterior) probability from 1) a

  10. Anatomical description of genital organs and abdominal secreting glands of the beetle Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmare 1893) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Castro, Randal E.; Villalba Velasquez, Vladimir; Moreira Gonzalez, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of genital organs and abdominal glands of dermestoides Ulomoide have been described in laboratory conditions (diet of peanuts, 70% RH, 23 degrees C at 1300 msnm) to present biotechnological potential and submit pharmacological properties. The description is made in the Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia from the Instituto Tecnologico de Cartago, Costa Rica. The same was processed for macroscopic observation and for observing of internal structures using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the Unidad de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Ten females and ten males in adult stage were selected using stereoscope and entomological tweezers of manipulation. Digital images were captured of genital organs of each sex with the software package AverMedia EzCaptura 2,5 and equipment BioVid LWScientific, Inc. In females has been observed the mechanics of the ovipositional structure and has described reproductive functions and defense, as it has found two apical fences with sensory accumulations, meccano and chemoreceptor. Sclerotic internal structures have been reported to function in oviposition, as well as guides along with the elastic tissue of the oviduct form the final segment of the ovipositor. In males adeago has been identified, your internal extensions and particular form that allows its introduction and coupling during intercourse, also serving as guide surface of defensive secretions. The micrographs showed the presence of corrugated secreting glands in both sexes (1,05 mm long by 350 mm diameter) with strong adhesion to the abdominal wall by muscular tissue of convergence of secretory ducts associated with gonopore communication with glandular receptacle. Bacterial cells apparently have found inside the glands, this as possible pathological infection or as symbiotic organisms, which could not be clearly distinguished. The secretions were associated with a defense mechanism of the species, as the genital

  11. TH-AB-207A-11: Anatomical and Functional Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease Using Low-Dose Whole-Organ Dynamic Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L; Ziemer, B; Lipinski, J; Malkasian, S; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Dertli, B; Groves, EM; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a low-dose, first-pass-analysis (FPA) dynamic computed tomography angiography and perfusion (CTAP) technique, for whole-organ anatomical and functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: An angioplasty balloon was advanced into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of five swine (35–45 kg) to induce several levels of stenosis at maximal hyperemia (intracoronary adenosine, 240 µg/min). Reference fluorescence microspheres and intravenous contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) were injected centrally and dynamic imaging was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA. Twenty volume scans were acquired per stenosis level to capture complete aortic and myocardial enhancement curves, but only two volume scans were used for whole-organ dynamic FPA CTAP measurement. All CTAP measurements in the LAD were compared to the reference microsphere perfusion measurements using linear regression, concordance correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The result of dynamic FPA CTAP measurement in the LAD was in good agreement with the reference microsphere perfusion measurement (P-CTAP = 1.01 P-MICRO + 0.16, R{sup 2} = 0.95). The root mean square error (RMSE) and difference (RMSD) of measurement were 0.51 mL/min/g and 0.47 mL/min/g, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated negligible systematic measurement bias. Additionally, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was found to be ρ = 0.97, indicating excellent agreement between dynamic FPA CTAP measurement and the reference microsphere perfusion measurement. Lastly, the effective dose of the proposed technique using the “simulated” two-volume scan CTAP acquisition protocol was 2.6 mSv; much lower than the ∼10 mSv effective dose of current dynamic CTP techniques alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the potential for significant improvements in CAD assessment through low-dose, quantitative dynamic FPA CTAP. Such

  12. In search of a periodic table of the neurons: Axonal-dendritic circuitry as the organizing principle: Patterns of axons and dendrites within distinct anatomical parcels provide the blueprint for circuit-based neuronal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Wheeler, Diek W

    2016-10-01

    No one knows yet how to organize, in a simple yet predictive form, the knowledge concerning the anatomical, biophysical, and molecular properties of neurons that are accumulating in thousands of publications every year. The situation is not dissimilar to the state of Chemistry prior to Mendeleev's tabulation of the elements. We propose that the patterns of presence or absence of axons and dendrites within known anatomical parcels may serve as the key principle to define neuron types. Just as the positions of the elements in the periodic table indicate their potential to combine into molecules, axonal and dendritic distributions provide the blueprint for network connectivity. Furthermore, among the features commonly employed to describe neurons, morphology is considerably robust to experimental conditions. At the same time, this core classification scheme is suitable for aggregating biochemical, physiological, and synaptic information. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Automatic segmentation of thoracic and pelvic CT images for radiotherapy planning using implicit anatomic knowledge and organ-specific segmentation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, B; Coradi, T; Scholz, M; Kunz, P; Huber, M; Oppitz, U; Andre, L; Lengkeek, V; Huyskens, D; Esch, A van; Reddick, R

    2008-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is a valuable tool for efficient computer-aided radiotherapy and surgery planning and an enabling technology for dynamic adaptive radiotherapy. This paper presents the design, algorithms and validation of new software for the automatic segmentation of CT images used for radiotherapy treatment planning. A coarse to fine approach is followed that consists of presegmentation, anatomic orientation and structure segmentation. No user input or a priori information about the image content is required. In presegmentation, the body outline, the bones and lung equivalent tissue are detected. Anatomic orientation recognizes the patient's position, orientation and gender and creates an elastic mapping of the slice positions to a reference scale. Structure segmentation is divided into localization, outlining and refinement, performed by procedures with implicit anatomic knowledge using standard image processing operations. The presented version of algorithms automatically segments the body outline and bones in any gender and patient position, the prostate, bladder and femoral heads for male pelvis in supine position, and the spinal canal, lungs, heart and trachea in supine position. The software was developed and tested on a collection of over 600 clinical radiotherapy planning CT stacks. In a qualitative validation on this test collection, anatomic orientation correctly detected gender, patient position and body region in 98% of the cases, a correct mapping was produced for 89% of thorax and 94% of pelvis cases. The average processing time for the entire segmentation of a CT stack was less than 1 min on a standard personal computer. Two independent retrospective studies were carried out for clinical validation. Study I was performed on 66 cases (30 pelvis, 36 thorax) with dosimetrists, study II on 52 cases (39 pelvis, 13 thorax) with radio-oncologists as experts. The experts rated the automatically produced

  14. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  15. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  16. Anatomical Organization of Urocortin 3-Synthesizing Neurons and Immunoreactive Terminals in the Central Nervous System of Non-Human Primates [Sapajus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella S. Battagello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin 3 (UCN3 is a neuropeptide member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF peptide family that acts as a selective endogenous ligand for the CRF, subtype 2 (CRF2 receptor. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data from rodents revealed UCN3-containing neurons in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS, such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the rostral perifornical area (PFA, the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the superior paraolivary nucleus. UCN3-immunoreactive (UCN3-ir terminals are distributed throughout regions that mostly overlap with regions of CRF2 messenger RNA (mRNA expression. Currently, no similar mapping exists for non-human primates. To better understand the role of this neuropeptide, we aimed to study the UCN3 distribution in the brains of New World monkeys of the Sapajus genus. To this end, we analyzed the gene and peptide sequences in these animals and performed immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to identify UCN3 synthesis sites and to determine the distribution of UCN3-ir terminals. The sequencing of the Sapajus spp. UCN3-coding gene revealed 88% and 65% identity to the human and rat counterparts, respectively. Additionally, using a probe generated from monkey cDNA and an antiserum raised against human UCN3, we found that labeled cells are mainly located in the hypothalamic and limbic regions. UCN3-ir axons and terminals are primarily distributed in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH and the lateral septal nucleus (LS. Our results demonstrate that UCN3-producing neurons in the CNS of monkeys are phylogenetically conserved compared to those of the rodent brain, that the distribution of fibers agrees with the distribution of CRF2 in other primates and that there is anatomical evidence for the participation of UCN3 in neuroendocrine control in primates.

  17. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  18. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  19. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  20. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative

  1. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: analysis of D2 cc hot spot in three-dimensional and anatomic factors affecting D2 cc hot spot in organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Robert Y; Dragovic, Alek F; Whitley, Alexander C; Shen, Sui

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the D2 cc hot spot in three-dimensional CT and anatomic factors affecting the D2 cc hot spot in organs at risk (OARs). Thirty-one patients underwent pelvic CT scan after insertion of the applicator. High-dose-rate treatment planning was performed with standard loading patterns. The D2 cc structures in OARs were generated in three dimensional if the total equivalent dose in 2 Gy exceeded our defined dose limits (hot spot). The location of D2 cc hot spot was defined as the center of the largest D2 cc fragment. The relationship between the hot spot and the applicator position was reported in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine coordinates. The location of sigmoid, small bowel, and bladder D2 cc hot spots was around the endocervix: The mean location of sigmoid hot spot for lateral view was 1.6 cm posteriorly and 2.3 cm superiorly (Y, 1.6 and Z, 2.3), small bowel was 1.6 cm anteriorly and 2.7 cm superiorly (Y, -1.6 and Z, 2.7). The mean location of bladder hot spot was 1.6 cm anteriorly and 1.6 cm superiorly (Y, -1.6 and Z, 1.6). These hot spots were near the plane of Point A (X, 2.0 or -2.0; Y, 0; and Z, 2.0). The mean location of rectal hot spot was 1.6 cm posteriorly and 1.9 cm inferiorly (Y, 1.6 and Z, -1.9). D2 cc hot spot was affected by uterine wall thickness, uterine tandem position, fibroids, bladder fullness, bowel gas, and vaginal packing. Because of the location of the D2 cc hot spots, larger tumors present a challenge for adequate tumor coverage with a conventional brachytherapy applicator without an interstitial implant. Additionally, anatomic factors were identified which affect the D2 cc hot spot in OARs. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  4. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  5. Anatomical structure of virginal plants of Ikonnikovia kaufmanniana (Regel Lincz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Аkhmetova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is represented anatomical characteristic of vegetative organs of the rare, endangered and endemic species – Ikonnikovia kaufmanniana, which has been studied in conditions of three different coenopopulations. As a result, it was established that vegetative organs of these plants are characterized by different stage of development of its tissues dependently from the habitat.

  6. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivas, Diego; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource.

  7. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  8. The Fate of Anatomical Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina; Zwijnenberg, Robert

    Almost every medical faculty possesses anatomical and/or pathological collections: human and animal preparations, wax- and other models, as well as drawings, photographs, documents and archives relating to them. In many institutions these collections are well-preserved, but in others they are poorly

  9. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  10. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  11. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  12. Inexpensive anatomical trainer for bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano; Simonassi, Claudio; Chessa, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an indispensable tool for optimal management of intensive care unit patients. However, the acquisition of sufficient training in bronchoscopy is not straightforward during residency, because of technical and ethical problems. Moreover, the use of commercial simulators is limited by their high cost. In order to overcome these limitations, we realized a low-cost anatomical simulator to acquire and maintain the basic skill to perform bronchoscopy in ventilated patients. We used 1.5 mm diameter iron wire to construct the bronchial tree scaffold; glazier-putty was applied to create the anatomical model. The model was covered by several layers of newspaper strips previously immersed in water and vinilic glue. When the model completely dried up, it was detached from the scaffold by cutting it into six pieces, it was reassembled, painted and fitted with an endotracheal tube. We used very cheap material and the final cost was euro16. The trainer resulted in real-scale and anatomically accurate, with appropriate correspondence on endoscopic view between model and patients. All bronchial segments can be explored and easily identified by endoscopic and external vision. This cheap simulator is a valuable tool for practicing, particularly in a hospital with limited resources for medical training.

  13. Learning-based stochastic object models for characterizing anatomical variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Steven R.; Lou, Yang; Anastasio, Mark A.; Li, Hua

    2018-03-01

    It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs. This may introduce phantom-specific bias into computer-simulation studies, where the study result is heavily dependent on which phantom is used. In certain applications, however, databases of high-quality volumetric images and organ contours are available that can facilitate this SOM development. In this work, a novel and tractable methodology for learning a SOM and generating numerical phantoms from a set of volumetric training images is developed. The proposed methodology learns geometric attribute distributions (GAD) of human anatomic organs from a broad patient population, which characterize both centroid relationships between neighboring organs and anatomic shape similarity of individual organs among patients. By randomly sampling the learned centroid and shape GADs with the constraints of the respective principal attribute variations learned from the training data, an ensemble of stochastic objects can be created. The randomness in organ shape and position reflects the learned variability of human anatomy. To demonstrate the methodology, a SOM of an adult male pelvis is computed and examples of corresponding numerical phantoms are created.

  14. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  15. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  16. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  17. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  18. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-02-28

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features.

  19. Analysis of anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of Iva xanthifolia nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Iva xanthifolia is a North American weed species, which was introduced and naturalized in Europe. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of this species were investigated, in order to get better knowledge of its biology, which could help in development of strategies for prevention of its spreading. Detailed descriptions of lamina, petiole, stem and inflorescence axis anatomical structures were given, together with micromorphological characteristics of epidermis and indumentum of lamina, petiole, stem, inflorescence axis, involucre and fruit. All vegetative organs had mesomorphic structure, with some xeromorphic adaptations. Mechanical tissue was well developed, which gave those plants additional strength and resistance. Trichomes were the most numerous on lamina and in the region of inflorescence, while rare on petiole and stem epidermis and their distribution varied according to plant organ.

  20. Extra-Anatomic Revascularization of Extensive Coral Reef Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiano, Andrea; Kasemi, Holta; Monti, Andrea; Laurito, Antonella; Maselli, Mauro; Manzo, Paola; Quaglino, Simone; Tavolini, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare, potential lethal disease of the visceral aorta as it can cause visceral and renal infarction. Various surgical approaches have been proposed for the CRA treatment. The purpose of this article is to report different extensive extra-anatomic CRA treatment modalities tailored on the patients' clinical and anatomic presentation. From April 2006 to October 2012, 4 symptomatic patients with extensive CRA were treated at our department. Extra-anatomic aortic revascularization with selective visceral vessels clamping was performed in all cases. Technical success was 100%. No perioperative death was registered. All patients remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period (62, 49, 25, and 94 months, respectively), with bypasses and target vessels patency. The extra-anatomic bypass with selective visceral vessels clamping reduces the aortic occlusion time and the risk of organ ischemia. All approaches available should be considered on a case-by-case basis and in high-volume centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  2. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  3. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  4. [The meninges, an anatomical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, L; Chazal, J

    2005-03-01

    The meninges correspond to an anatomical concept. For the morphologist, the microscopic organization, the hypothetical presence of a subdural space, the nature of the interface between the deep meningeal layer and the nervous parenchyma in the perivascular spaces are the central issues. For the clinician, dynamic aspects of cerebrospinal fluid flow, secretion, and resorption are essential factors with practical consequences in terms of disease and patient management. Comparative anatomy, embryology, and organogenesis provide an interesting perspective for the descriptive and functional anatomy of the meninges. Usually considered as protective membranes, the meninges play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. The meninges are in constant evolution, from their formation to senescence. The meninges present three layers in children and adults: the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. The cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexuses, flows through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, and is absorbed by arachnoid granulations. Other sites of secretion and resorption are suggested by comparative anatomy and human embryology and organogenesis.

  5. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  7. Anatomical Basis for the Cardiac Interventional Electrophysiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Sánchez-Quintana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques as the mainstay in the treatment of tachycardia has renewed new interest in cardiac anatomy. The interventional arrhythmologist has drawn attention not only to the gross anatomic details of the heart but also to architectural and histological characteristics of various cardiac regions that are relevant to the development or recurrence of tachyarrhythmias and procedural related complications of catheter ablation. In this review, therefore, we discuss some anatomic landmarks commonly used in catheter ablations including the terminal crest, sinus node region, Koch’s triangle, cavotricuspid isthmus, Eustachian ridge and valve, pulmonary venous orifices, venoatrial junctions, and ventricular outflow tracts. We also discuss the anatomical features of important structures in the vicinity of the atria and pulmonary veins, such as the esophagus and phrenic nerves. This paper provides basic anatomic information to improve understanding of the mapping and ablative procedures for cardiac interventional electrophysiologists.

  8. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists: The Association of Pathology Chairs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Parslow, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization's methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical "full-time faculty" (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs-reported median work relative value unit productivity

  11. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  12. Posterolateral supporting structures of the knee: findings on anatomic dissection, anatomic slices and MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, M. de; Shahabpour, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium); Roy, F. van [Dept. of Experimental Anatomy, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    In this article we study the ligaments and tendons of the posterolateral corner of the knee by anatomic dissection, MR-anatomic correlation, and MR imaging. The posterolateral aspect of two fresh cadaveric knee specimens was dissected. The MR-anatomic correlation was performed in three other specimens. The MR images of 122 patients were reviewed and assessed for the visualization of different posterolateral structures. Anatomic dissection and MR-anatomic correlation demonstrated the lateral collateral, fabellofibular, and arcuate ligaments, as well as the biceps and popliteus tendons. On MR images of patients the lateral collateral ligament was depicted in all cases. The fabellofibular, arcuate, and popliteofibular ligaments were visualized in 33, 25, and 38% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a detailed appreciation of the posterolateral corner of the knee. (orig.)

  13. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  14. [Application of polyguanidine solution for fixation of biological and anatomical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkov, N M; Danilova, I A; Riabinin, I A; Kipenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new method for fixation of biological material is described, and its effectiveness is compared to that one of formalin fixation. As an embalming agent, polyhexamethylenguanidine (PHMG) hydrochloride was used. Using the proposed method of fixation, the anatomical and histological preparations of human organs and of chick embryos at developmental 12 days, were produced. The anatomical preparations obtained show the appearance, similar to that of the recently removed organs. Histological preparations were free from significant distortions of the microscopic characteristics of the specimens, which are typical to the material fixed with formalin. The results of the study suggest the possibility of PHMG application in the morphological studies.

  15. Caracterização morfo-anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664 Morpho-anatomic characterization of vegetative organs of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de orquídeas epífitas possuem adaptações morfo-anatômicas singulares e que as tornam aptas a ocuparem ambientes onde a escassez de água e de nutrientes é freqüente, como os ramos e troncos das árvores. Nelas são comuns os tecidos especializados para a reserva de água, tanto nas folhas quanto nas raízes e nos pseudobulbos, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente os órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. As folhas são coriáceo-carnosas, revestidas com espessa cutícula, hipostomáticas e com mesofilo tendendo para a dorsi-ventralidade. Nos pseudobulbos, a cutícula e algumas camadas de células subjacentes impermeabilizam o parênquima fundamental, formado por grandes células que reservam água e carboidratos na forma de grãos de amido. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais, tendo os maiores, calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores. Nas raízes o velame e o tecido cortical estão formados por várias camadas de células, embora tanto a exoderme quanto a endoderme mostrem-se pouco espessadasThe epiphytic orchids species have singular morpho-anatomic adaptations, which enable them to stay in places where water and nutrients scarcity are frequent, such as trees branch and trunk. The tissues specialized in water reservation are common in these species, as much as in leaves, roots and pseudobulbs. This study aimed to distinguish morpho-anatomically the vegetative organs of ,em>Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. Their leaves are coriaceous-fleshy in texture, covered by thick cuticle, hypostomatic and their mesophyll tends to the dorsal-ventral. In the pseudobulbs, the cuticle and some underlying cell layers waterproof the fundamental parenchyma, formed by big cells that reserve water and grains of starch. The vascular bundles are collateral, and the longest ones have sclerenchyma cap in both conductor tissue poles. In the roots, the velamen and the cortical tissue are formed

  16. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  17. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo, Mariano; Meli, Francisco; Lambre, Hector; Blessing, Ricardo; Gigy Traynor, Ignacio; Miguez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  18. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a left...

  19. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  20. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  1. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5)

  2. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  3. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is considered to be the next step in uroradiology. This technique combines superb anatomical images and functional information in a single test. In this article, we aim to present the topic of MRU in children and how it has been implemented in Northern Greece so ...

  4. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...

  5. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  6. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  7. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  8. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  9. Surgical reconstruction of pelvic floor descent: anatomic and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Bschleipfer, T; Liedl, B; Gunnemann, A; Petros, P; Weidner, W

    2010-01-01

    The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and pelvic floor dysfunction is seen frequently in females. This review focuses on the surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor employing recent findings on functional anatomy. A selective literature research was performed by the authors. Pelvic floor activity is regulated by 3 main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor organs, bladder and rectum. A variety of symptoms can derive from pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, fecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. These symptoms mainly derive, for different reasons, from laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in case of pelvic floor symptoms, restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve patients' symptoms. The surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. Exact preoperative identification of the anatomical lesions is necessary to allow for exact anatomical reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  11. Laryngeal spaces and lymphatics: current anatomic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.W.; Welsh, J.J.; Rizzo, T.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the anatomic concepts of individual spaces or compartments within the larynx by isotope and dye diffusion. The authors identified continuity of spaces particularly within the submucosal planes and a relative isolation within the fixed structures resulting from the longitudinal pattern of fibroelastic tissues, muscle bands, and perichondrium. The historical data of anatomic resistance are refuted by the radioisotope patterns of dispersion and the histologic evidence of tissue permeability to the carbon particles. There is little clinical application of the compartment concept to the perimeter of growth and the configuration of extensive endolaryngeal cancers. The internal and extralaryngeal lymphatic network is presented and the regional associations are identified. The normal ipsilateral relationship is distorted by dispersion within the endolarynx supervening the anatomic midline. The effects of lymphatic obstruction caused by regional lymphadenectomy, tumor fixation, and irradiation-infection sequelae are illustrated; these result in widespread bilateral lymphatic nodal terminals. Finally, the evidence suggests that the internal network is modified by external interruption to accommodate an outflow system in continuity with the residual patent lymphatic channels

  12. Retrieving high-resolution images over the Internet from an anatomical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp-Adams, Annette; Henderson, Earl

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Data set is an important contribution to the national collection of anatomical images. To enhance the availability of these images, the National Library of Medicine has supported the design and development of a prototype object-oriented image database which imports, stores, and distributes high resolution anatomical images in both pixel and voxel formats. One of the key database modules is its client-server Internet interface. This Web interface provides a query engine with retrieval access to high-resolution anatomical images that range in size from 100KB for browser viewable rendered images, to 1GB for anatomical structures in voxel file formats. The Web query and retrieval client-server system is composed of applet GUIs, servlets, and RMI application modules which communicate with each other to allow users to query for specific anatomical structures, and retrieve image data as well as associated anatomical images from the database. Selected images can be downloaded individually as single files via HTTP or downloaded in batch-mode over the Internet to the user's machine through an applet that uses Netscape's Object Signing mechanism. The image database uses ObjectDesign's object-oriented DBMS, ObjectStore that has a Java interface. The query and retrieval systems has been tested with a Java-CDE window system, and on the x86 architecture using Windows NT 4.0. This paper describes the Java applet client search engine that queries the database; the Java client module that enables users to view anatomical images online; the Java application server interface to the database which organizes data returned to the user, and its distribution engine that allow users to download image files individually and/or in batch-mode.

  13. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  14. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI and gross anatomy of rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rongfeng; Wu Xiaomei; Chen Xiaoyan; Deng Yu; Li Xinchun; He Jianxun; Li Huiming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating the cortico-medullary layers of rat kidneys. Methods: Twelve rats underwent MRI using a 1.5 Tesla system including DWI of various b-values, T1WI and T 2 WI sequences. The MR characteristics and thickness of renal cortico-medullary layers compared to those of the gross anatomical layers. Results: On the longitudinal anatomical sections of the kidneys, four parenchymal layers of cortex (CO), the outer (OS) and inner (IS) stripes of the outer medulla (OM), the inner medulla (IM) and renal pelvis could be clearly recognized. The numbers of layers visible on MRI varied with different pulse sequences. Single layers of cortex and medulla were visible on T 1 WI. CO, OM and IM were delineated on T 2 WI. CO, OS, IS and IM were clearly identified on DWI and ADC maps. DWI was significantly superior to T 1 WI and T 2 WI for displaying the renal parenchymal layers (P 0.05) from the measurements on DWI (CO: 1.39±0.15 mm, OS: 1.01±0.17 mm, IS: 1.11±0.19 mm, IM: 1.06±0.10 mm). Different b-values of DWI did not show significant difference in depiction of the parenchyma (P>0.05). Conclusion: Four parenchymal layers shown on DWI correlated well with gross anatomical structure and may be used in imaging study of rat kidneys. (authors)

  15. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Interfractional Variations in Patient Setup and Anatomic Change Assessed by Daily Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Qi, X. Sharon; Pitterle, Marissa; Kalakota, Kapila; Mueller, Kevin; Erickson, Beth A.; Wang Dian; Schultz, Christopher J.; Firat, Selim Y.; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the interfractional variations in patient setup and anatomic changes at seven anatomic sites observed in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 152 patients treated at seven anatomic sites using a Hi-Art helical tomotherapy system were analyzed. Daily tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography images acquired before each treatment were fused to the planning kilovoltage computed tomography images to determine the daily setup errors and organ motions and deformations. The setup errors were corrected before treatment and were used, along with the organ motions, to determine the clinical target volume/planning target volume margins. The organ motions and deformations for 3 representative patient cases (pancreas, uterus, and soft-tissue sarcoma) and for 14 kidneys of 7 patients are presented. Results: Interfractional setup errors in the skull, brain, and head and neck are significantly smaller than those in the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. These site-specific relationships are statistically significant. The margins required to account for these setup errors range from 3 to 8 mm for the seven sites. The margin to account for both setup errors and organ motions for kidney is 16 mm. Substantial interfractional anatomic changes were observed. For example, the pancreas moved up to ±20 mm and volumes of the uterus and sarcoma varied ≤30% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The interfractional variations in patient setup and in shapes, sizes, and positions of both targets and normal structures are site specific and may be used to determine the site-specific margins. The data presented in this work dealing with seven anatomic sites may be useful in developing adaptive radiotherapy

  17. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  18. Familial intracranial aneurysms: is anatomic vulnerability heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jason; Brown, Robert D; Moomaw, Charles J; Hornung, Richard; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Connolly, E Sander; Deka, Ranjan; Koller, Daniel L; Abruzzo, Todd; Huston, John; Broderick, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that family members with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) often harbor IAs in similar anatomic locations. IA location is important because of its association with rupture. We tested the hypothesis that anatomic susceptibility to IA location exists using a family-based IA study. We identified all affected probands and first-degree relatives (FDRs) with a definite or probable phenotype in each family. We stratified each IA of the probands by major arterial territory and calculated each family's proband-FDR territory concordance and overall contribution to the concordance analysis. We then matched each family unit to an unrelated family unit selected randomly with replacement and performed 1001 simulations. The median concordance proportions, odds ratios (ORs), and P values from the 1001 logistic regression analyses were used to represent the final results of the analysis. There were 323 family units available for analysis, including 323 probands and 448 FDRs, with a total of 1176 IAs. IA territorial concordance was higher in the internal carotid artery (55.4% versus 45.6%; OR, 1.54 [1.04-2.27]; P=0.032), middle cerebral artery (45.8% versus 30.5%; OR, 1.99 [1.22-3.22]; P=0.006), and vertebrobasilar system (26.6% versus 11.3%; OR, 2.90 [1.05-8.24], P=0.04) distributions in the true family compared with the comparison family. Concordance was also higher when any location was considered (53.0% versus 40.7%; OR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]; PIA development, we found that IA territorial concordance was higher when probands were compared with their own affected FDRs than with comparison FDRs, which suggests that anatomic vulnerability to IA formation exists. Future studies of IA genetics should consider stratifying cases by IA location.

  19. Chronic ankle instability: Arthroscopic anatomical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Mellado-Romero, M; Páramo-Díaz, P; García-Lamas, L; Vilà-Rico, J

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries. Despite appropriate conservative treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients continue to have chronic ankle instability and pain. In 75-80% of cases there is an isolated rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 21 patients surgically treated for chronic ankle instability by means of an arthroscopic anatomical repair, between May 2012 and January 2013. There were 15 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 30.43 years (range 18-48). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 25-33). All patients were treated by arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament. Four (19%) patients were found to have varus hindfoot deformity. Associated injuries were present in 13 (62%) patients. There were 6 cases of osteochondral lesions, 3 cases of posterior ankle impingement syndrome, and 6 cases of peroneal pathology. All these injuries were surgically treated in the same surgical time. A clinical-functional study was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The mean score before surgery was 66.12 (range 60-71), and after surgery it increased up to a mean of 96.95 (range 90-100). All patients were able to return to their previous sport activity within a mean of 21.5 weeks (range 17-28). Complications were found in 3 (14%) patients. Arthroscopic anatomical ligament repair technique has excellent clinical-functional results with a low percentage of complications, and enables patients to return to their previous sport activity within a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Talocalcaneal luxation: an anatomic and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, M.J.; Purinton, P.T.; Penwick, R.C.; Aron, D.N.; Roberts, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Talocalcaneal luxation in dogs was studied by anatomic dissection of the talocalcaneal joint in cadavers and review of five clinical cases. The integrity of the talocalcaneal joint was maintained by two strong ligaments traversing the tarsal sinus between the two bones. The joint was found to be a low motion joint. Luxation in clinical cases was not always apparent on standard radiographic views. Three dogs were treated surgically with a screw inserted in lag fashion from talus to calcaneus. One luxation was treated surgically with figure-of-eight orthopedic wires and one was treated with external coaptation. Four dogs returned to their previous levels of function without clinically detectable lameness

  1. Embryologic and anatomic basis of inguinal herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E; Colborn, G L; Androulakis, J A; Skandalakis, L J; Pemberton, L B

    1993-08-01

    The embryology and surgical anatomy of the inguinal area is presented with emphasis on embryologic and anatomic entities related to surgery. We have presented the factors, such as patent processus vaginalis and defective posterior wall of the inguinal canal, that may be responsible for the genesis of congenital inguinofemoral herniation. These, together with impaired collagen synthesis and trauma, are responsible for the formation of the acquired inguinofemoral hernia. Still, we do not have all the answers for an ideal repair. Despite the latest successes in repair, we, to paraphrase Ritsos, are awaiting the triumphant return of Theseus.

  2. Age dependent physical and anatomical Indian data for application in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1996-01-01

    The data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic human characteristics of the Indian population in various age groups were obtained for application in internal dosimetry. Only the physical and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population in age groups 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 y and adult are considered here. A comparison of the adult Indian data with that of ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that with the exception of a few smaller organs, the body size as well as the organ weights of Indian subjects are, in general, smaller. With the exception of brain, a statistically significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the body weights and the corresponding organ weights of Indian subjects in different age groups. (author)

  3. [Anatomical study of men's nipple areola complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, R; Dast, S; Assaf, N; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    The surgical approach of gynecomastia, sexual reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and the increase of number of obese wishing to turn to plastic surgery led us to deepen the anatomical knowledge of the nipple areola complex (NAC) in men, poorly retailed in the literature. By inspiring us of the methodology of a Japanese study, we studied 50 healthy volunteers male, from 18 to 55 years old, from July till August 2015. We measured various distances relative to the NAC to define its vertical and horizontal position, as well as the internipple distance according to the size, to the weight and to the body mass index (BMI). At the end of the analysis, we were able to underline a lower vertical thoracic position of the NAC in the tall category of person, a more side horizontal position to the subject presenting a high BMI and a linear relation between the BMI and the internipple (Em) defined by (Em)=8.96×BMI. The surgeon's judgment and the desires of the patient are essentials basis of therapeutics decisions that could be lean on this anatomical study, which allowed to establish an idea of the cartography of the NAC in man. It will be interesting and necessary to confront it with other studies with larger scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. What is the best MR sepuence to evaluate normal structures of kidney?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Seol, Young Hae; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Nam Jun; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuk [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    To determine the best MR sequence for evaluation of the anatomical structures of normal kidney. Twenty normal volunteers (M:F = 15:5) took part in this study, and for each, seven sequences were performed. The T1 weighed sequences were conventional spin echo T1 (Conv-SET1), turbo spin echo T1 (TSET1), and fast low angle shot (FLASH), while the T2 weighted sequences were turbo spin echo T2 (TSET2), half-Fourier acquisition single -shot turbo spin echo (HASTE), true-fast imaging with steadystate precession (True-FISP), and echoplanar imaging (EPI). The study involved quantitative and puantitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, CNRs between cortex and adjacent fat tissue, and between cortex and medulla were calculated from SNR (signal to noise ratio), and the CNRs of sequences were statistcally compared. In quantative analysis, three radiologists collectively evaluated kidney outline, cortico-medullary division, the renal vessels, the pelvis/ureter, and artifacts. For each sequence a grade was assigned, and for each parameter the grades were compared. Between cortex and adjacent fat, the highest CNR was shown by TSET1, followed by Conv-SET1, while among T2 sequences, the CNR shown by TSET2 was highest. Between cortex and medulla, the CNR demonstarted by the three T1 sequences showed no statistically significant differance. Among T2 sequences, however, HASTE showed the highest CNR, followed by EPI, and sttistcally, the findings for these two were significantly differnt from those of other T2 sepuences. Among T1 sequences, FLASH provided the best kidney outline, though among T2-sequences there was no statiscally significant difference. FLASH was also the best for cortico-medullary distinstion, while for tis purpose the best T2 sequence was HASTE. True -FISP was best for the evaluation of renal vessels, and HASTE for evaulating the pelvis and ureter. Artifacts were most prominent on Conv SET1. For evaluating the shape of the kidney, the best T2 sequence was TSET2

  5. What is the best MR sepuence to evaluate normal structures of kidney?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Seol, Young Hae; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Nam Jun; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuk

    2001-01-01

    To determine the best MR sequence for evaluation of the anatomical structures of normal kidney. Twenty normal volunteers (M:F = 15:5) took part in this study, and for each, seven sequences were performed. The T1 weighed sequences were conventional spin echo T1 (Conv-SET1), turbo spin echo T1 (TSET1), and fast low angle shot (FLASH), while the T2 weighted sequences were turbo spin echo T2 (TSET2), half-Fourier acquisition single -shot turbo spin echo (HASTE), true-fast imaging with steadystate precession (True-FISP), and echoplanar imaging (EPI). The study involved quantitative and puantitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, CNRs between cortex and adjacent fat tissue, and between cortex and medulla were calculated from SNR (signal to noise ratio), and the CNRs of sequences were statistcally compared. In quantative analysis, three radiologists collectively evaluated kidney outline, cortico-medullary division, the renal vessels, the pelvis/ureter, and artifacts. For each sequence a grade was assigned, and for each parameter the grades were compared. Between cortex and adjacent fat, the highest CNR was shown by TSET1, followed by Conv-SET1, while among T2 sequences, the CNR shown by TSET2 was highest. Between cortex and medulla, the CNR demonstarted by the three T1 sequences showed no statistically significant differance. Among T2 sequences, however, HASTE showed the highest CNR, followed by EPI, and sttistcally, the findings for these two were significantly differnt from those of other T2 sepuences. Among T1 sequences, FLASH provided the best kidney outline, though among T2-sequences there was no statiscally significant difference. FLASH was also the best for cortico-medullary distinstion, while for tis purpose the best T2 sequence was HASTE. True -FISP was best for the evaluation of renal vessels, and HASTE for evaulating the pelvis and ureter. Artifacts were most prominent on Conv SET1. For evaluating the shape of the kidney, the best T2 sequence was TSET2

  6. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  7. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  9. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  10. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  11. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs. PMID:21613505

  12. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commowick, O.

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  13. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  14. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  15. An anatomic transcriptional atlas of human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Ralph B; Shah, Nameeta; Miller, Jeremy; Dalley, Rachel; Nomura, Steve R; Yoon, Jae-Guen; Smith, Kimberly A; Lankerovich, Michael; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kris; Boe, Andrew F; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Chapin, Mike; Datta, Suvro; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim; Dotson, Nadezhda; Ebbert, Amanda; Feng, David; Feng, Xu; Fisher, Michael; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Hejazinia, Nika; Hohmann, John; Hothi, Parvinder; Howard, Robert; Joines, Kevin; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Leonard; Lau, Chris; Lee, Felix; Lee, Hwahyung; Lemon, Tracy; Long, Fuhui; Mastan, Naveed; Mott, Erika; Murthy, Chantal; Ngo, Kiet; Olson, Eric; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zack; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Sodt, Andrew; Stockdale, Graham; Szafer, Aaron; Wakeman, Wayne; Wohnoutka, Paul E; White, Steven J; Marsh, Don; Rostomily, Robert C; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan; Keogh, Bart; Gittleman, Haley R; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Cimino, Patrick J; Uppin, Megha S; Keene, C Dirk; Farrokhi, Farrokh R; Lathia, Justin D; Berens, Michael E; Iavarone, Antonio; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed; Phillips, John W; Rostad, Steven W; Cobbs, Charles; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Foltz, Greg D

    2018-05-11

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain tumor that carries a poor prognosis. The tumor's molecular and cellular landscapes are complex, and their relationships to histologic features routinely used for diagnosis are unclear. We present the Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas, an anatomically based transcriptional atlas of human glioblastoma that aligns individual histologic features with genomic alterations and gene expression patterns, thus assigning molecular information to the most important morphologic hallmarks of the tumor. The atlas and its clinical and genomic database are freely accessible online data resources that will serve as a valuable platform for future investigations of glioblastoma pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve......Purpose Many researchers have investigated measures also other than density in the mammogram such as measures based on texture to improve breast cancer risk assessment. However, parenchymal texture characteristics are highly dependent on the orientation of vasculature structure and fibrous tissue...... methodologies as seen from table 2 in given temporal study. Conclusion The curve-linear anatomical breast coordinate system facilitated computerized analysis of mammograms. The proposed coordinate system slightly improved the risk segregation by Mammographic Texture Resemblance and minimized the geometrical...

  17. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.) [de

  18. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: MR imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Savino, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a gaze disorder characterized by impaired adduction of the side of a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) with dissociated nystagmus of the abducting eye. Eleven patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (nine with multiple sclerosis, two with infarction) were examined with spin-echo MR imaging performed at 1.5 T. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent CT. MR imaging was highly sensitive (10 of 11 cases) and CT was of no value (0 of 9 cases) in detecting clinically suspected MLF lesions. These lesions must be distinguished from ''pseudo-MLF hyperintensity,'' which appears as a thin, strictly midline, linear hyperintensity just interior to the fourth ventricle and aqueduct in healthy subjects. True MLF lesions are nodular, more prominent, and slightly off the midline, corresponding to the paramedian anatomic site of the MLF

  19. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous mature adult cells as well as stem cells, which are not considered pluripotent, have been reported to be safe and efficacious in clinical applications for regenerating cartilage [1] and corneal epithelium [2]. Use of primary autologous cells and stem cells expanded in number from cartilage and corneal epithelial tissues have shown abilities to reconstruct and regenerate tissues, de novo. It is to be noted that in both these cases, the source of the cells that have been used for transplantation into the cornea and cartilage have been from the same organ and tissue. The replacement cells for regeneration have also been sourced from the same germ layer, as that of the cells of the target tissue; corneal epithelial tissue embryologically originating from the ectoderm has been replaced with corneal limbal stem cells that are also of ectodermal origin from the unaffected healthy eye of the same individual. Similarly, the cartilage which developmentally is from the mesoderm has been replaced with mature chondrocytes from the non-weight bearing area of the cartilage, again of the same individual. Figure 1: Autologous, in vitro cultured, adult cell based therapies; An overview and categorization. (Click here for High Resol. Image The proceedings of the IIDIAS session published in this issue have described two novel cell therapies, where cells taken from a tissue or organ, after normal in vitro expansion, have been clinically applied to aid the regeneration of a different tissue or organ, i.e skeletal myoblasts having been used for myocardial regeneration and buccal mucosal epithelium having been used for corneal epithelial regeneration heralding the birth of a new paradigm called ‘extra-anatomic cell therapy’. The myocardium is a specialized muscle in that it works as an electrical synctitium with an intrinsic capacity to generate and propagate action potentials (involuntary as opposed to the skeletal muscles that are dependent on neuronal

  20. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  1. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The  superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  2. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  4. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001 ...

  6. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  7. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  8. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  9. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  10. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): A Tool to Analyze Enrichment of Zebrafish Anatomical Terms in Large Gene Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene

  11. [Corneal transparency: anatomical basis and evaluation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Narbut, M N

    Being just a relatively small part of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball, the cornea is, nevertheless, unique in terms of the variety of its functions. Because the cornea differs significantly from other protective frames in its structure, it provides the possibility of light transmission and strong refraction that largely contributes to the total refraction of the eye. The development of ophthalmology is impossible without improving methods of adequate anatomical and functional assessment of the eye not only as a whole, but also as a collection of interacting structures.In this regard, examination methods of the cornea have undergone significant advances in recent years. So far, the level of corneal transparency has been judged by biomicroscopy findings or indirect characteristics (thickness, structure, etc.). Confocal microscopy of the cornea and wave-based examinations involving one of the available laser interferometers (OCT or HRT) are also used. However, the data obtained with these methods resembles that of layer-specific reflectometry, i.e. the magnitude of directed reflection of the light beam from corneal corpuscles, which does not completely agree with the classical idea of transparency.

  12. Anatomical basis of the liver hanging maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Belghiti, Jacques; Gadzijev, Eldar M; Ravnik, Dean; Hribernik, Marija

    2005-01-01

    The anterior approach to right hepatectomy using the liver hanging maneuver without liver mobilization claims to be anatomically evaluated. During this procedure a 4 to 6-cm blind dissection between the inferior vena cava and the liver is performed. Short subhepatic veins, entering the inferior vena cava could be torn and a hemorrhage, difficult to control, could occur. On 100 corrosive casts of livers the anterior surface of the inferior vena cava was studied to evaluate the position, diameter and draining area of short subhepatic veins and inferior right hepatic vein. The width of the narrowest point on the planned route of blind dissection was determined. The average value of the narrowest point on the planned route of blind dissection was 8.7+/-2.3mm (range 2-15mm). The ideal angle of dissection being 0 degrees was found in 93% of cases. In 7% we found the angle of 5 degrees toward the right border of inferior vena cava to be the better choice. Our results show that liver hanging maneuver is a safe procedure. With the dissection in the proposed route the risk of disrupting short subhepatic veins is low (7%).

  13. Nonintubated uniportal VATS pulmonary anatomical resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Carlos; Navarro-Martinez, Jose; Bolufer, Sergio; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio; Corcoles, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Nonintubated procedures have widely developed during the last years, thus nowadays major anatomical resections are performed in spontaneously breathing patients in some centers. In an attempt for combining less invasive surgical approaches with less aggressive anesthesia, nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomies and segmentectomies have been proved feasible and safe, but there are no comparative trials and the evidence is still poor. A program in nonintubated uniportal major surgery should be started in highly experienced units, overcoming first a learning period performing minor procedures and a training program for the management of potential crisis situations when operating on these patients. A multidisciplinary approach including all the professionals in the operating room (OR), emergency protocols and a comprehensive knowledge of the special physiology of nonintubated surgery are mandatory. Some concerns about regional analgesia, vagal block for cough reflex control and oxygenation techniques, combined with some specific surgical tips can make safer these procedures. Specialists must remember an essential global concept: all the efforts are aimed at decreasing the invasiveness of the whole procedure in order to benefit patients' intraoperative status and postoperative recovery.

  14. Progressive data transmission for anatomical landmark detection in a cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, M; Ralovich, K; Zhang, J; Zhou, S K; Comaniciu, D

    2012-01-01

    In the concept of cloud-computing-based systems, various authorized users have secure access to patient records from a number of care delivery organizations from any location. This creates a growing need for remote visualization, advanced image processing, state-of-the-art image analysis, and computer aided diagnosis. This paper proposes a system of algorithms for automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in 3D volumes in the cloud computing environment. The system addresses the inherent problem of limited bandwidth between a (thin) client, data center, and data analysis server. The problem of limited bandwidth is solved by a hierarchical sequential detection algorithm that obtains data by progressively transmitting only image regions required for processing. The client sends a request to detect a set of landmarks for region visualization or further analysis. The algorithm running on the data analysis server obtains a coarse level image from the data center and generates landmark location candidates. The candidates are then used to obtain image neighborhood regions at a finer resolution level for further detection. This way, the landmark locations are hierarchically and sequentially detected and refined. Only image regions surrounding landmark location candidates need to be trans- mitted during detection. Furthermore, the image regions are lossy compressed with JPEG 2000. Together, these properties amount to at least 30 times bandwidth reduction while achieving similar accuracy when compared to an algorithm using the original data. The hierarchical sequential algorithm with progressive data transmission considerably reduces bandwidth requirements in cloud-based detection systems.

  15. Anatomical Variability of the Posterior Communicating Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnal, Sandhya Arvind; Farooqui, Mujibuddin S; Wabale, Rajendra N

    2018-01-01

    Although posterior communicating artery (PCoA) is a smaller branch of the internal carotid artery, it gives the main contribution in the formation of circle of Willis (CW) by communicating with the internal carotid arterial system and the vertebro-basilar arterial system. The size of PCoA varies frequently. The present work aims to study the PCoA regarding its morphology, morphometry, and symmetry. This study was conducted on 170 human cadaveric brains. Brains were dissected carefully and delicately to expose all components of CW, especially PCoA. Morphological variations of PCoA were noted along with its morphometry and symmetry. Morphological variations of PCoA were aplasia (3.52%), hypoplasia (25.29%), fenestration (0.58%), and persistent fetal pattern (16.47%). In the present study, we found the five different types of terminations of PCoA. Type I termination was the most common type, seen in 92.94% of cases, Type II termination was seen in 1.17%, Type III and Type IV terminations both were seen in 0.58%, and Type V was seen in 1.17%. The mean length of PCoA was 15.9 mm and 15.3 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean diameter of PCoA was 2.1 mm and 1.9 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Symmetry of PCoA was seen in 65.29% and asymmetric PCoA was seen in 34.70% of cases. The present study provides the complete description of PCoA regarding its morphology, symmetry, and morphometry. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures.

  16. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  17. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  18. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head and neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  19. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 x 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs

  20. Determination of the anatomic borders of the irradiation area for cervical and corporal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller-Kuhlmann, G.

    1980-01-01

    Intention of the present study was to refer the silhouettes of the irradiation field to anatomically definite osseous structures. For this examination the caudal, cranial and the lateral borders were marked by different methods and their position with respect to the corresponding osseous structures was detected. For documenting the soft-tissue structures the following techniques could be applied: lymphography, hysterosalpingography, vaginal contrasting and computerized tomography. The evaluation of the obtained results showed that the dorsal silhouette ranges between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae, that the lateral silhouette reaches the middle of the head of the femur and that the caudal one includes the obturator. The detection and definition of the target area for curative radiotherapy of corporal and cervical carcinomas can therefore renounce on the contrast representation of soft-tissue organs. On the contrary it is even possible to adjust the irradiation field with the therapy simulator under consideration of anatomically fixed osseous structures. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Computed tomography of the retroperitoneum: an anatomical and pathological atlas with emphasis on the fascial planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldberg, M.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a descriptive clinical pathological CT atlas of a range of conditions involving retroperitoneum and neighbouring organs and structures (excluding the pelvic part of the retroperitoneum). Chapter 1 describes the patient material studied, some aspects of CT techniques and patient handling. Chapter 2 describes the anatomy of the renal fascia based upon reports derived from the literature and is followed by our CT observations in more than 5000 abdominal CT examinations. In short it is an anatomical CT atlas. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 deal with reactions of the fascial structures in different pathological conditions caused by major disease entities. The patients were scanned for these diseases, of which anatomical topographical appearances and spread are described in the general considerations, followed by CT findings and illustrative cases, combined with abstracted experience from other workers. (Auth.)

  2. Perceptions of science. The anatomical mission to Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappol, Michael

    2003-10-10

    Until the 1830s, most Americans were unfamiliar with the images of anatomy. Then a small vanguard of reformers and missionaries began to preach, at home and around the world, that an identification with the images and concepts of anatomy was a crucial part of the civilizing process. In his essay, Sappol charts the changes in the perception of self that resulted from this anatomical evangelism. Today, as anatomical images abound in the arts and the media, we still believe that anatomical images show us our inner reality.

  3. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  4. Anatomical Study of Healthy Aortic Arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Lefebvre, François; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickael; Chakfe, Nabil

    2017-10-01

    With the steady increase of endovascular procedures involving the aortic arch (AA), an actual depiction of its anatomy has become mandatory. It has also become necessary to evaluate the natural evolution of the AA morphology as part of the evaluation of endovascular devices durability. The objective of this study was to perform a morphological and anatomical study of the AA and of the supra aortic trunks (SAT) in healthy patients, with an evaluation of their evolution with time, with a specific orientation applied to endovascular therapies of the AA. Sixty-one patients (31 men, mean age 50.8 [18-82]) with a normal anatomy were included in the study. Measurements included the diameters of the AA and SAT in 17 locations, their distance and angulation based on computed tomography angiography data. Statistical analysis focused on descriptive statistics, differences between genders, as well as correlations with age. Aortic diameters (mean ± SD) were 29.5 ± 3.9 mm at the ascending aorta, 28.6 ± 3.9 mm at the innominate artery (IA), 27.1 ± 3.2 mm at the left common carotid artery (LCCA), 25.3 ± 3.0 mm at the left subclavian artery (LSCA), 23.9 ± 3.3 mm at the descending aorta. Mean angulation of the AA was 82° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.95-85.19°), mean angulation between LSCA/LCCA was -5.7° (95% CI: -0.9 to 18.7°) and -1.8° (95% CI: 5.4-26.4°) between LCCA/IA. Mean distance between the LSCA and the LCCA was 14.3 mm (95% CI: 13-15.6 mm) and 21.8 mm (95% CI: 20.3-23.4 mm) between LCCA and IA. All diameters of the AA increased with age (P Men had diameters statistically (P women except at the LCCA ostium level. A statistically significant increase of the distances between the LSCA and the LCCA, between the LSCA and the IA and between the IA and the LCCA was found with age, P = 0.027, better understanding of the three-dimensional aspects of the AA, confirmed the variability and heterogeneity of the SAT disposition, and discussed the principles of vascular

  5. A Review of the Published Anatomical Research on the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of the Published Anatomical Research on the African Giant Rat ... of their anatomy and morphophysiology however, the scientific bases for these ... conference proceedings and unpublished research dissertations and thesis. All data ...

  6. Anatomic features involved in technical complexity of partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weibin; Yan, Weigang; Ji, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Nephrometry score systems, including RENAL nephrometry, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical classification system, C-index, diameter-axial-polar nephrometry, contact surface area score, calculating resected and ischemized volume, renal tumor invasion index, surgical approach renal ranking score, zonal NePhRO score, and renal pelvic score, have been reviewed. Moreover, salient anatomic features like the perinephric fat and vascular variants also have been discussed. We then extract 7 anatomic characteristics, namely tumor size, spatial location, adjacency, exophytic/endophytic extension, vascular variants, pelvic anatomy, and perinephric fat as important features for partial nephrectomy. For novice surgeons, comprehensive and adequate anatomic consideration may help them in their early clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anatomical structure of each human female body. Hassen ... pregnancy ovaries become really slightly displaced they would keep the proposed three- ... ovarian ligament, which anchors the ovary to the uterus; and the suspensory ligament,.

  8. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  9. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-09-21

    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  10. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  11. Automatic anatomically selective image enhancement in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezan, M.I.; Minerbo, G.N.; Schaetzing, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors develop a technique for automatic anatomically selective enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the desire to simultaneously meet the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm and a set of rules are applied to the image histogram to determine automatically a gray-level threshold between the lung field and mediastinum. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and/or unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band or black-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter which varies asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast

  12. Notes from the field: Investigation of infectious disease risks associated with a nontransplant anatomical donation center--Arizona, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A; Bernard, Bruce P; Delaney, Lisa J; Pesik, Nicki; Cohen, Nicole J

    2014-05-02

    CDC is investigating reports of potential occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among workers performing preparation and dissection procedures on human nontransplant anatomical materials at a nontransplant anatomical donation center in Arizona. CDC is working with Arizona public health officials to inform persons exposed to these potentially infected materials. Nontransplant anatomical centers around the United States process thousands of donated cadavers annually. These materials (which might be fresh, frozen, or chemically preserved) are used by universities and surgical instrument and pharmaceutical companies for medical education and research. The American Association of Tissue Banks has developed accreditation policies for nontransplant anatomical donation organizations. It also has written standards that specify exclusion criteria for donor material, as well as use of proper environmental controls and safe work practices to prevent transmission of infectious agents during receipt and handling of nontransplant anatomical materials. At the center under investigation, which is now closed, these standards might not have been consistently implemented.

  13. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  14. [Lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks obtained with vector graphics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Antonica, Filippo; Renna, Maria Antonia; Ferrari, Cristina; Iuele, Francesca; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Losco, Matteo; Niccoli Asabella, Artor

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear medicine images are difficult to interpret because they do not include anatomical details. The aim of this study was to obtain lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks that could be easily interpreted by General Physicians. Traditional lymphoscintigrams were processed with Adobe© Photoshop® CS6 and converted into vector images created by Illustrator®. The combination with a silhouette vector improved image interpretation, without resulting in longer radiation exposure or acquisition times.

  15. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  16. Sparing functional anatomical structures during intensity-modulated radiotherapy: an old problem, a new solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenyong; Han, Guang; Wei, Shaozhong; Hu, Desheng

    2014-08-01

    During intensity-modulated radiotherapy, an organ is usually assumed to be functionally homogeneous and, generally, its anatomical and spatial heterogeneity with respect to radiation response are not taken into consideration. However, advances in imaging and radiation techniques as well as an improved understanding of the radiobiological response of organs have raised the possibility of sparing the critical functional structures within various organs at risk during intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Here, we discuss these structures, which include the critical brain structure, or neural nuclei, and the nerve fiber tracts in the CNS, head and neck structures related to radiation-induced salivary and swallowing dysfunction, and functional structures in the heart and lung. We suggest that these structures can be used as potential surrogate organs at risk in order to minimize their radiation dose and/or irradiated volume without compromising the dose coverage of the target volume during radiation treatment.

  17. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anatomy of sex: Revision of the new anatomical terms used for the clitoris and the female orgasm by sexologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual medicine experts and sexologists must spread certainties on the biological basis of the female orgasm to all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions. Therefore, they must use scientific anatomical terminology. The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women. The internal/inner clitoris does not exist: the entire clitoris is an external organ. The clitoris is not composed of two arcs but of the glans, body, and crura or roots. "Clitoral bulbs" is an incorrect term from an embryological and anatomical viewpoint: the correct term is "vestibular bulbs." The bulbocavernosus muscles are implicated in inferior vaginismus, while the pubovaginal muscle is responsible for superior vaginismus. The clitoral or clitoris-urethro-vaginal complex has no embryological, anatomical and physiological support: the vagina has no anatomical relationship with the clitoris, and the clitoris is a perineal organ while the supposed G-spot is in the pelvic urethra. G-spot/vaginal/clitoral orgasm, vaginally activated orgasm, and clitorally activated orgasm, are incorrect terms: like "male orgasm," "female orgasm" is the correct term. The "vaginal" orgasm that some women report is always caused by the surrounding erectile organs (triggers of female orgasm). The male penis cannot come in contact with the venous plexus of Kobelt or with the clitoris during vaginal intercourse. Also, female ejaculation, premature ejaculation, persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), periurethral glans, vaginal-cervical genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, and G-spot amplification, are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual satisfaction is based on orgasm and resolution: in all women, orgasm is always possible if the female erectile organs, i.e. the female penis, are effectively stimulated during masturbation, cunnilingus, partner masturbation, or during vaginal

  19. Anatomic variations in vascular and collecting systems of kidneys from deceased donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, H C; Moreira, R J; Fukunaga, P; Fernandes, R C; Boni, R C; Matos, A C

    2011-01-01

    Nephroureterectomy for transplantation has increased owing to the greater number of deceased donors. Anatomic variations may complicate the procedure or, if unrecognized, compromise the viability of kidneys for transplantation. We reviewed 254 surgical descriptions of nephroureterectomy specimens from January 2008 to December 2009. All organs collected according by standard techniques were evaluated for age, cause of death, renal function, frequency of injury during the procedure, as well as variations in the vascular and collecting systems. The mean donor age was 42 years (range, 2-74). The mean serum creatinine was 1.2 mg/dL (range, 1.0-7.0). The causes of death were cerebrovascular cause (stroke; n = 130), traumatic brain injury (n = 81) or other cause (n = 43). Among the anatomic variations: 8.6% (n = 22) were right arterial anatomical variations: 19 cases with 2 arteries and 3 cases with 3 arteries. In 25 cases (9.8%) the identified variation was the left artery: 2 arteries (n = 23), 3 arteries (n = 1) and 4 arteries (n = 1). We observed 9.8% on right side and 1.5% on left side venous anatomic variations, including 24 cases with 2 veins on the right side and 4 cases with 2 veins on the left side. Three cases of a retroaortic left renal vein and 1 case of a retro necklace vein (anterior and posterior to the aorta). Two cases of ureteral duplication were noted on the left and 1 on the right kidney. There were 3 horseshoe and 1 pelvic kidney. In 7.5% of cases, an injury to the graft included ureteral (n = 3), arterial (n = 10), or venous (n = 6). The most common anatomic variation was arterial (17.8%). Duplication of the renal vein was more frequent on the right. The high incidences of anatomic variations require more attention in the dissection of the renal hilum to avoid an injury that may compromise the graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  1. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  2. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  3. Congenital blindness is associated with large-scale reorganization of anatomical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Uri; Andric, Michael; Atilgan, Hicret; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Blindness is a unique model for understanding the role of experience in the development of the brain's functional and anatomical architecture. Documenting changes in the structure of anatomical networks for this population would substantiate the notion that the brain's core network-level organization may undergo neuroplasticity as a result of life-long experience. To examine this issue, we compared whole-brain networks of regional cortical-thickness covariance in early blind and matched sighted individuals. This covariance is thought to reflect signatures of integration between systems involved in similar perceptual/cognitive functions. Using graph-theoretic metrics, we identified a unique mode of anatomical reorganization in the blind that differed from that found for sighted. This was seen in that network partition structures derived from subgroups of blind were more similar to each other than they were to partitions derived from sighted. Notably, after deriving network partitions, we found that language and visual regions tended to reside within separate modules in sighted but showed a pattern of merging into shared modules in the blind. Our study demonstrates that early visual deprivation triggers a systematic large-scale reorganization of whole-brain cortical-thickness networks, suggesting changes in how occipital regions interface with other functional networks in the congenitally blind. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Is Dependent on Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Lima Mesquita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive. Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  5. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Geisa L; Zambrosi, Fernando C B; Tanaka, Francisco A O; Boaretto, Rodrigo M; Quaggio, José A; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  6. Characterization and Management of Interfractional Anatomic Changes for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Feng; Erickson, Beth; Peng Cheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively characterize interfractional anatomic variations in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy (RT) and to study dosimetric advantages for using an online adaptive replanning scheme to account for these variations. Methods and Materials: Targets and organs at risk (OAR) were delineated by autosegmentation based on daily computed tomography (CT) images acquired using a respiration-gated in-room CT during daily image-guided RT (IGRT) for 10 pancreatic cancer patients. Various parameters, including the maximum overlap ratio (MOR) between the volumes based on planning and daily CTs for a structure, while the overlapping volumes were maximized, were used to quantify the interfractional organ deformation with the intrafractional variations largely excluded. An online adaptive RT (ART) was applied to these daily CTs. To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of ART, the dose distributions from the online ART were compared to those from the repositioning in the current standard IGRT practice. Results: The interfractional anatomic variations, particularly the organ deformation, are significant during pancreas irradiation. For the patients studied, the average MORs of all daily CTs were 80.2%, 61.7%, and 72.2% for pancreatic head, duodenum, and stomach, respectively. The online ART leads to improved dosimetric plan with better target coverage and/or OAR sparing than IGRT repositioning. For the patients studied, the mean V{sub 50.4Gy} (volume covered by 50.4 Gy) for the duodenum was reduced from 43.4% for IGRT to 15.6% for the online ART scheme. Conclusions: The online adaptive RT scheme can effectively account for the significant interfractional anatomic variations observed in pancreas irradiation. The dosimetric advantages with the online ART may enable safe dose escalation in radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer.

  7. Characterization and Management of Interfractional Anatomic Changes for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Erickson, Beth; Peng Cheng; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively characterize interfractional anatomic variations in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy (RT) and to study dosimetric advantages for using an online adaptive replanning scheme to account for these variations. Methods and Materials: Targets and organs at risk (OAR) were delineated by autosegmentation based on daily computed tomography (CT) images acquired using a respiration-gated in-room CT during daily image-guided RT (IGRT) for 10 pancreatic cancer patients. Various parameters, including the maximum overlap ratio (MOR) between the volumes based on planning and daily CTs for a structure, while the overlapping volumes were maximized, were used to quantify the interfractional organ deformation with the intrafractional variations largely excluded. An online adaptive RT (ART) was applied to these daily CTs. To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of ART, the dose distributions from the online ART were compared to those from the repositioning in the current standard IGRT practice. Results: The interfractional anatomic variations, particularly the organ deformation, are significant during pancreas irradiation. For the patients studied, the average MORs of all daily CTs were 80.2%, 61.7%, and 72.2% for pancreatic head, duodenum, and stomach, respectively. The online ART leads to improved dosimetric plan with better target coverage and/or OAR sparing than IGRT repositioning. For the patients studied, the mean V 50.4Gy (volume covered by 50.4 Gy) for the duodenum was reduced from 43.4% for IGRT to 15.6% for the online ART scheme. Conclusions: The online adaptive RT scheme can effectively account for the significant interfractional anatomic variations observed in pancreas irradiation. The dosimetric advantages with the online ART may enable safe dose escalation in radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  9. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    populations. The first section of the report provides summary tables of all the anatomical and physiological parameters given as reference values in this publication. These results give a comprehensive view of reference values for an individual as influenced by age and gender. The second section describes characteristics of dosimetric importance for the embryo and fetus. Information is provided on the development of the total body and the timing of appearance and development of the various organ systems. Reference values are provided on the mass of the total body and selected organs and tissues, as well as a number of physiological parameters. The third section deals with reference values of important anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals from birth to adulthood. This section begins with details on the growth and composition of the total body in males and females. It then describes and quantifies anatomical and physiological characteristics of various organ systems and changes in these characteristics during growth, maturity, and pregnancy. Reference values are specified for characteristics of dosimetric importance. The final section gives a brief summary of the elemental composition of individuals. Focusing on the elements of dosimetric importance, information is presented on the body content of 13 elements: calcium, carbon, chloride, hydrogen, iodine, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and phosphorus

  10. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    populations. The first section of the report provides summary tables of all the anatomical and physiological parameters given as reference values in this publication. These results give a comprehensive view of reference values for an individual as influenced by age and gender. The second section describes characteristics of dosimetric importance for the embryo and fetus. Information is provided on the development of the total body and the timing of appearance and development of the various organ systems. Reference values are provided on the mass of the total body and selected organs and tissues, as well as a number of physiological parameters. The third section deals with reference values of important anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals from birth to adulthood. This section begins with details on the growth and composition of the total body in males and females. It then describes and quantifies anatomical and physiological characteristics of various organ systems and changes in these characteristics during growth, maturity, and pregnancy. Reference values are specified for characteristics of dosimetric importance. The final section gives a brief summary of the elemental composition of individuals. Focusing on the elements of dosimetric importance, information is presented on the body content of 13 elements: calcium, carbon, chloride, hydrogen, iodine, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and phosphorus.

  11. Interpreting and Integrating Clinical and Anatomic Pathology Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Lila; Hinrichs, Mary Jane; Skuba, Elizabeth V; Iverson, William O; Ennulat, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The continuing education course on integrating clinical and anatomical pathology data was designed to communicate the importance of using a weight of evidence approach to interpret safety findings in toxicology studies. This approach is necessary, as neither clinical nor anatomic pathology data can be relied upon in isolation to fully understand the relationship between study findings and the test article. Basic principles for correlating anatomic pathology and clinical pathology findings and for integrating these with other study end points were reviewed. To highlight these relationships, a series of case examples, presented jointly by a clinical pathologist and an anatomic pathologist, were used to illustrate the collaborative effort required between clinical and anatomical pathologists. In addition, the diagnostic utility of traditional liver biomarkers was discussed using results from a meta-analysis of rat hepatobiliary marker and histopathology data. This discussion also included examples of traditional and novel liver and renal biomarker data implementation in nonclinical toxicology studies to illustrate the relationship between discrete changes in biochemistry and tissue morphology.

  12. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  13. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  14. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Martin E.; Alharbi, Fawaz; Chawla, Tanya P.; Moshonov, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  15. [Project HRANAFINA--Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin

    2012-01-01

    HRANAFINA--Croatian Anatomical and Physiological Terminology is a project of the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine funded by the Croatian Science Foundation. It is performed in cooperation with other Croatian universities with medical schools. This project has a two-pronged aim: firstly, building of Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology and secondly, Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology usage popularization between health professionals, medical students, scientists and translators. Internationally recognized experts from Croatian universities with medical faculties and linguistics experts are involved in the project. All project activities are coordinated in agreement with the National Coordinator for Development of Croatian Professional Terminology. The project enhances Croatian professional terminology and Croatian language in general, increases competitiveness of Croatian scientists on international level and facilitates the involvement of Croatian scientists, health care providers and medical students in European projects.

  16. A practical workflow for making anatomical atlases for biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; van Langeveld, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical atlas has been at the intersection of science and art for centuries. These atlases are essential to biological research, but high-quality atlases are often scarce. Recent advances in imaging technology have made high-quality 3D atlases possible. However, until now there has been a lack of practical workflows using standard tools to generate atlases from images of biological samples. With certain adaptations, CG artists' workflow and tools, traditionally used in the film industry, are practical for building high-quality biological atlases. Researchers have developed a workflow for generating a 3D anatomical atlas using accessible artists' tools. They used this workflow to build a mouse limb atlas for studying the musculoskeletal system's development. This research aims to raise the awareness of using artists' tools in scientific research and promote interdisciplinary collaborations between artists and scientists. This video (http://youtu.be/g61C-nia9ms) demonstrates a workflow for creating an anatomical atlas.

  17. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlham Eröz Poyraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae used for some medicinal purposes like antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral and treat to gastritis was investigated. Morphological studies were supported by morphometric measurements and drawings of male and female flowers, fruit and seeds of the species. In anatomical studies, cross sections of stem and leaf, upper and lower surface sections of leaves were evaluated. It was detected that the stem with typical anatomical properties of a climbing dicotyl plant. The leaves were amphistotamic and with lots of cyctoliths on the lower surface of leaves. Stomata are anomocytic and situated much more at the lower surface of leaves. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae*

  18. Improving anatomical mapping of complexly deformed anatomy for external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy dose accumulation in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vásquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Schuring-Pereira, Monica; Zolnay, András; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the treatment of cervical cancer, large anatomical deformations, caused by, e.g., tumor shrinkage, bladder and rectum filling changes, organ sliding, and the presence of the brachytherapy (BT) applicator, prohibit the accumulation of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and BT dose distributions. This work proposes a structure-wise registration with vector field integration (SW+VF) to map the largely deformed anatomies between EBRT and BT, paving the way for 3D dose accumulation between EBRT and BT. Methods: T2w-MRIs acquired before EBRT and as a part of the MRI-guided BT procedure for 12 cervical cancer patients, along with the manual delineations of the bladder, cervix-uterus, and rectum-sigmoid, were used for this study. A rigid transformation was used to align the bony anatomy in the MRIs. The proposed SW+VF method starts by automatically segmenting features in the area surrounding the delineated organs. Then, each organ and feature pair is registered independently using a feature-based nonrigid registration algorithm developed in-house. Additionally, a background transformation is calculated to account for areas far from all organs and features. In order to obtain one transformation that can be used for dose accumulation, the organ-based, feature-based, and the background transformations are combined into one vector field using a weighted sum, where the contribution of each transformation can be directly controlled by its extent of influence (scope size). The optimal scope sizes for organ-based and feature-based transformations were found by an exhaustive analysis. The anatomical correctness of the mapping was independently validated by measuring the residual distances after transformation for delineated structures inside the cervix-uterus (inner anatomical correctness), and for anatomical landmarks outside the organs in the surrounding region (outer anatomical correctness). The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of the

  19. Improving anatomical mapping of complexly deformed anatomy for external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy dose accumulation in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez Osorio, Eliana M., E-mail: e.vasquezosorio@erasmusmc.nl; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Schuring-Pereira, Monica; Zolnay, András; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: In the treatment of cervical cancer, large anatomical deformations, caused by, e.g., tumor shrinkage, bladder and rectum filling changes, organ sliding, and the presence of the brachytherapy (BT) applicator, prohibit the accumulation of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and BT dose distributions. This work proposes a structure-wise registration with vector field integration (SW+VF) to map the largely deformed anatomies between EBRT and BT, paving the way for 3D dose accumulation between EBRT and BT. Methods: T2w-MRIs acquired before EBRT and as a part of the MRI-guided BT procedure for 12 cervical cancer patients, along with the manual delineations of the bladder, cervix-uterus, and rectum-sigmoid, were used for this study. A rigid transformation was used to align the bony anatomy in the MRIs. The proposed SW+VF method starts by automatically segmenting features in the area surrounding the delineated organs. Then, each organ and feature pair is registered independently using a feature-based nonrigid registration algorithm developed in-house. Additionally, a background transformation is calculated to account for areas far from all organs and features. In order to obtain one transformation that can be used for dose accumulation, the organ-based, feature-based, and the background transformations are combined into one vector field using a weighted sum, where the contribution of each transformation can be directly controlled by its extent of influence (scope size). The optimal scope sizes for organ-based and feature-based transformations were found by an exhaustive analysis. The anatomical correctness of the mapping was independently validated by measuring the residual distances after transformation for delineated structures inside the cervix-uterus (inner anatomical correctness), and for anatomical landmarks outside the organs in the surrounding region (outer anatomical correctness). The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of the

  20. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  1. Evaluation of 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Tyagi; Schlafly, Millicent; Reed, Kyle B

    2017-07-01

    This case study compares a transfemoral amputee's gait while using the existing Ossur Total Knee 2000 and our novel 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee is 3D printed out of a carbon-fiber and nylon composite that has a gear-mesh coupling with a hard-stop weight-actuated locking mechanism aided by a cross-linked four-bar spring mechanism. This design can be scaled using anatomical dimensions of a human femur and tibia to have a unique fit for each user. The transfemoral amputee who was tested is high functioning and walked on the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) at a self-selected pace. The motion capture and force data that was collected showed that there were distinct differences in the gait dynamics. The data was used to perform the Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric (CGAM), where the scores revealed that the overall asymmetry of the gait on the Ossur Total Knee was more asymmetric than the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee had higher peak knee flexion that caused a large step time asymmetry. This made walking on the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee more strenuous due to the compensatory movements in adapting to the different dynamics. This can be overcome by tuning the cross-linked spring mechanism to emulate the dynamics of the subject better. The subject stated that the knee would be good for daily use and has the potential to be adapted as a running knee.

  2. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  3. Renal Tumor Anatomic Complexity: Clinical Implications for Urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shreyas S; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic tumor complexity can be objectively measured and reported using nephrometry. Various scoring systems have been developed in an attempt to correlate tumor complexity with intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Nephrometry may also predict tumor biology in a noninvasive, reproducible manner. Other scoring systems can help predict surgical complexity and the likelihood of complications, independent of tumor characteristics. The accumulated data in this new field provide provocative evidence that objectifying anatomic complexity can consolidate reporting mechanisms and improve metrics of comparisons. Further prospective validation is needed to understand the full descriptive and predictive ability of the various nephrometry scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  5. Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Bong, David; Balint, Peter V

    2018-01-01

    Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US......), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess...... of agreement between images acquired in cadaver specimens and images acquired in four centers using healthy patients....

  6. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Pozzobon, Adriane; Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  7. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos, E-mail: pclopes@ulbra.br [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pozzobon, Adriane [Centro Universitario Univates, Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela [Fundacao Serdil/Saint Pastous, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  8. The variability of leaf anatomical characteristics of Solanum nigrum L. (Solana-les, Solanaceae) from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Lana N.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Boža Pal P.

    2002-01-01

    In Europe on the whole as well as in Yugoslavia, the most widespread weed species from the genus Solanum is Solanum nigrum L. Since this species inhabits different habitats, it developed several ways of adaptation to environmental conditions. The influence of ecological factors on plant organism and resulting plant adaptations are most evident in leaf morphology and anatomy. Therefore, the anatomical structure of leaves and leaf epidermal tissue of S. nigrum was analyzed and compared among pl...

  9. Korean anatomical reference data for adults for use in radiological protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chansoo; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Han, Haegin; Shin, Bangho; Zhang, Xujia; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Chung, Beom Sun

    2018-01-01

    For radiological protection from exposure to ionizing radiation, in which a population-averaged dose evaluation is used, establishing a system of reference anatomical and physiological data for a specific population of interest is important. Some studies were done in the past to establish Korean reference data; however, the data provided the mass values only for a limited number of organs/tissues. In addition, the standing height and total body mass are based on 20-year-old data. In the present study, a new set of Korean reference anatomical values was established for use in the radiological protection of Korean workers and members of the public. The established Korean reference data provide the masses of 58 organs/tissues, including those needed to calculate the effective dose, which were derived by collecting and analyzing various scientific reports in the literature and data. In addition, the data provide not only standing height and total body mass, but also 131 additional anthropometric parameters; these values were derived from the most recent Korean national survey project, 7 th Size Korea. The characteristics of the data were also compared with several other population data, including the Asian and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference data.

  10. Anatomic and Physiologic Heterogeneity of Subgroup-A Auditory Sensory Neurons in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Natsuki; Nakamura, Mizuki; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2017-01-01

    The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca 2+ imaging. Our findings indicate that the subgroup-A neurons that project into various combinations of subareas in the brain are more anatomically diverse than previously described. Subgroup-A neurons were also physiologically diverse, and some types were tuned to a narrow frequency range, suggesting that the response of subgroup-A neurons to sounds of a wide frequency range is due to the existence of several types of subgroup-A neurons. Further, we found that an auditory behavioral response to the courtship song of flies was attenuated when most subgroup-A neurons were silenced. Together, these findings characterize the heterogeneous functional organization of subgroup-A neurons, which might facilitate species-specific acoustic signal detection.

  11. A hierarchical anatomical classification schema for prediction of phenotypic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Somin; Gupta, Aishwarya; Dokania, Shubham; Kanji, Rakesh; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of adverse drug reactions is an important problem in drug discovery endeavors which can be addressed with data-driven strategies. SIDER is one of the most reliable and frequently used datasets for identification of key features as well as building machine learning models for side effects prediction. The inherently unbalanced nature of this data presents with a difficult multi-label multi-class problem towards prediction of drug side effects. We highlight the intrinsic issue with SIDER data and methodological flaws in relying on performance measures such as AUC while attempting to predict side effects.We argue for the use of metrics that are robust to class imbalance for evaluation of classifiers. Importantly, we present a 'hierarchical anatomical classification schema' which aggregates side effects into organs, sub-systems, and systems. With the help of a weighted performance measure, using 5-fold cross-validation we show that this strategy facilitates biologically meaningful side effects prediction at different levels of anatomical hierarchy. By implementing various machine learning classifiers we show that Random Forest model yields best classification accuracy at each level of coarse-graining. The manually curated, hierarchical schema for side effects can also serve as the basis of future studies towards prediction of adverse reactions and identification of key features linked to specific organ systems. Our study provides a strategy for hierarchical classification of side effects rooted in the anatomy and can pave the way for calibrated expert systems for multi-level prediction of side effects.

  12. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  13. Salt effect on physiological, biochemical and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we evaluated the salt concentration effect on plant growth, mineral composition, antioxidant responses and anatomical structure of two varieties of Origanum majorana after exposure to NaCl treatment. Our results show an inclusive behaviour of the two varieties, since the majority of sodium was exported and ...

  14. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  15. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  16. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...

  17. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... The tendon sheath of the posterior tibial muscle covers the posterior and ..... may be associated with avulsion fractures at either the origin or the insertion .... 14. Shibata Y, Nishi G, Masegi A. Stress test and anatomical study of.

  18. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  19. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Curr Opin Urol 2008;18:214–9. [9] Lingeman JE, Siegal YI, Steele B, Nyhus AW, Woods JR. Manage- ment of lower pole nephrolithiasis: a critical analysis. J Urol 1994;151: 663–7. [10] Sampaio FJB, Aragao AHM. Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stone: anatomic insight.

  20. Anatomical studies of some medicinal plants of family polygonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, I.; Hussain, F.; Dastgir, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical studies of the 6 different species of family Polygonaceae viz., Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus Linn, Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Rheum australe D. Don, Polygonum plebejum R. Br and Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gay are presented. The study is based on the presence and absence of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, pith, mesophyll cells and stone cells. (author)

  1. Mobilization of the rectum: anatomic concepts and the bookshelf revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Pierre; Bokey, Les; Fahrer, Marius; Sinclair, Gael; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2002-01-01

    Sound surgical technique is based on accurate anatomic knowledge. In surgery for cancer, the anatomy of the perirectal fascia and the retrorectal plane is the basis for correct mobilization of the rectum to ensure clear surgical margins and to minimize the risk of local recurrence. This review of the literature on the perirectal fascia is based on a translation of the original description by Thoma Jonnesco and a later account by Wilhelm Waldeyer. The Jonnesco description, first published in 1896 in French, is compared with the German account of 1899. These were critically analyzed in the context of our own and other techniques of mobilizing the rectum. Mobilization of the rectum for cancer can be performed along anatomic planes with minimal blood loss, preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerves and a low prevalence of local recurrence. Different techniques including total mesorectal excision are based on the same anatomic principles, however, popular words have been used to replace accepted, established terminology. In particular, the description of total mesorectal excision has been confusing because of its emphasis on the words "total" and "mesorectum." The use of the word "mesorectum" anatomically is inaccurate and the implication that total excision of all the perirectal fat contained within the perirectal fascia "en bloc" in all patients with rectal cancer will minimize local recurrence remains contentious.

  2. Beyond Anatomical Dolls: Professionals' Use of Other Play Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    1992-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 Boston-area professionals who work with child victims of sexual abuse. Questions concerned use of anatomical dolls and other techniques and behavioral indicators of sexual abuse. Results indicated that mental health professionals used significantly more techniques than did law enforcement professionals.…

  3. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  4. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  5. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Effect of anatomical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Tischenko, O.; Kheddache, S.; Vikgren, J.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The image background resulting from imaged anatomy can be divided into those components that are meaningful to the observers, in the sense that they are recognised as separate structures, and those that are not. These latter components (referred to as anatomical noise) can be removed using a method developed within the RADIUS group. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the removal of the anatomical noise results in images where lung nodules with lower contrast can be detected. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was therefore conducted using two types of images: clinical chest images and chest images in which the anatomical noise had been removed. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. The contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, C0.8, was used as a measure of detectability (a low value of C0.8 represents a high delectability). Five regions of the chest X ray were investigated and it was found that in all regions the removal of anatomical noise led to images with lower C0.8 than the original images. On average, C0.8 was 20% higher in the original images, ranging from 7% (the lateral pulmonary regions) to 41% (the upper mediastinal regions). (authors)

  6. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  7. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  8. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  9. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  10. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  11. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  12. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  14. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  15. Brachial plexus lesions: Anatomical knowledge as an essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This clinical feature was in conformity with a lesion of inferior primary trunk. All diagnoses were made based on the clinical findings. These cases demonstrate the significance of a through anatomical knowledge in the clinical examination if one has to avoid confusing the signs of terminal nerves lesion with the trunk's lesion.

  16. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  17. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  18. Anatomical planes: are we teaching accurate surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sarah L; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Anatomical planes used in clinical practice and teaching anatomy are largely derived from cadaver studies. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of common anatomical planes in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. CT scans of the trunk in supine adults at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the anatomy of five anatomical planes: sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal, and the plane of the pubic crest. Patients with kyphosis, scoliosis, or abnormal lordosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. Among 153 thoracic CT scans (mean age 63 years, 53% female), the sternal angle was most common at T4 (females) or T4/5 (males) vertebral level, and the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and pulmonary trunk were most often below this plane. In 108 abdominal CT scans (mean age 60 years, 59% female), the subcostal and supracristal planes were most often at L2 (58%) and L4 (69%), respectively. In 52 thoracoabdominal CT scans (mean age 61 years, 56% female), the transpyloric plane was between lower L1 and upper L2 (75%); in this plane were the superior mesenteric artery (56%), formation of the portal vein (53%), tip of the ninth rib (60%), and the left renal hilum (54%), but the right renal hilum and gallbladder fundus were more often below. The surface anatomy of anatomical planes needs revising in the light of results from living subjects using modern imaging techniques. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  1. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  2. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  3. Connecting imaging mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance imaging-based anatomical atlases for automated anatomical interpretation and differential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Nico; Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Monika J M; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Caprioli, Richard M; Van de Plas, Raf

    2017-07-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular imaging technology that can measure thousands of biomolecules concurrently without prior tagging, making it particularly suitable for exploratory research. However, the data size and dimensionality often makes thorough extraction of relevant information impractical. To help guide and accelerate IMS data analysis, we recently developed a framework that integrates IMS measurements with anatomical atlases, opening up opportunities for anatomy-driven exploration of IMS data. One example is the automated anatomical interpretation of ion images, where empirically measured ion distributions are automatically decomposed into their underlying anatomical structures. While offering significant potential, IMS-atlas integration has thus far been restricted to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (AMBA) and mouse brain samples. Here, we expand the applicability of this framework by extending towards new animal species and a new set of anatomical atlases retrieved from the Scalable Brain Atlas (SBA). Furthermore, as many SBA atlases are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, a new registration pipeline was developed that enables direct non-rigid IMS-to-MRI registration. These developments are demonstrated on protein-focused FTICR IMS measurements from coronal brain sections of a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model. The measurements are integrated with an MRI-based rat brain atlas from the SBA. The new rat-focused IMS-atlas integration is used to perform automated anatomical interpretation and to find differential ions between healthy and diseased tissue. IMS-atlas integration can serve as an important accelerator in IMS data exploration, and with these new developments it can now be applied to a wider variety of animal species and modalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Anatomical Cystocele Recurrence: Development and Internal Validation of a Prediction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeldt, Tineke F M; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Notten, Kim J B; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Weemhoff, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    To develop a prediction model that estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence after surgery. The databases of two multicenter prospective cohort studies were combined, and we performed a retrospective secondary analysis of these data. Women undergoing an anterior colporrhaphy without mesh materials and without previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery filled in a questionnaire, underwent translabial three-dimensional ultrasonography, and underwent staging of POP preoperatively and postoperatively. We developed a prediction model using multivariable logistic regression and internally validated it using standard bootstrapping techniques. The performance of the prediction model was assessed by computing indices of overall performance, discriminative ability, calibration, and its clinical utility by computing test characteristics. Of 287 included women, 149 (51.9%) had anatomical cystocele recurrence. Factors included in the prediction model were assisted delivery, preoperative cystocele stage, number of compartments involved, major levator ani muscle defects, and levator hiatal area during Valsalva. Potential predictors that were excluded after backward elimination because of high P values were age, body mass index, number of vaginal deliveries, and family history of POP. The shrinkage factor resulting from the bootstrap procedure was 0.91. After correction for optimism, Nagelkerke's R and the Brier score were 0.15 and 0.22, respectively. This indicates satisfactory model fit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 71.6% (95% confidence interval 65.7-77.5). After correction for optimism, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69.7%. This prediction model, including history of assisted delivery, preoperative stage, number of compartments, levator defects, and levator hiatus, estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence.

  5. Anatomical knowledge retention in third-year medical students prior to obstetrics and gynecology and surgery rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F; Krapf, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an anatomical knowledge deficit are lacking, as are specifics as to what content should be reinforced. This study identifies baseline areas of strength and weakness in the surgical anatomy knowledge of medical students entering surgical rotations. Third-year medical students completed a 20-25-question test at the beginning of the General Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology rotations. Knowledge of inguinal anatomy (45.3%), orientation in abdominal cavity (38.8%), colon (27.7%), and esophageal varices (12.8%) was poor. The numbers in parentheses are the percentage of questions answered correctly per topic. In comparing those scores to matched test items from this cohort as first-year students in the anatomy course, the drop in retention overall was very significant (P = 0.009) from 86.9 to 51.5%. Students also scored lower in questions relating to pelvic organs (46.7%), urogenital development (54.0%), pulmonary development (17.8%), and pregnancy (17.8%). These data showed that indeed, knowledge of surgical anatomy is poor for medical students entering surgical clerkships. These data collected will be utilized to create interactive learning modules, aimed at improving clinically relevant anatomical knowledge retention. These modules, which will be available to students during their inpatient surgical rotations, connect basic anatomy principles to clinical cases, with the ultimate goal of closing the anatomical knowledge gap. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  7. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  8. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval; Ramos, Laura Filgueiras Mourao; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  9. The current and ideal state of anatomic pathology patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen Spencer

    2014-01-01

    An anatomic pathology diagnostic error may be secondary to a number of active and latent technical and/or cognitive components, which may occur anywhere along the total testing process in clinical and/or laboratory domains. For the pathologist interpretive steps of diagnosis, we examine Kahneman's framework of slow and fast thinking to explain different causes of error in precision (agreement) and in accuracy (truth). The pathologist cognitive diagnostic process involves image pattern recognition and a slow thinking error may be caused by the application of different rationally-constructed mental maps of image criteria/patterns by different pathologists. This type of error is partly related to a system failure in standardizing the application of these maps. A fast thinking error involves the flawed leap from image pattern to incorrect diagnosis. In the ideal state, anatomic pathology systems would target these cognitive error causes as well as the technical latent factors that lead to error.

  10. Cardiac Conduction System: Delineation of Anatomic Landmarks With Multidetector CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Saremi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Major components of the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node (SAN, atrioventricular node (AVN, the His Bundle, and the right and left bundle branches are too small to be directly visualized by multidetector CT (MDCT given the limited spatial resolution of current scanners. However, the related anatomic landmarks and variants of this system a well as the areas with special interest to electrophysiologists can be reliably demonstrated by MDCT. Some of these structures and landmarks include the right SAN artery, right atrial cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch triangle, AVN artery, interatrial muscle bundles, and pulmonary veins. In addition, MDCT has an imperative role in demarcating potential arrhythmogenic structures. The aim of this review will be to assess the extent at which MDCT can outline the described anatomic landmarks and therefore provide crucial information used in clinical practice.

  11. Anatomical and ethological changes in poultry affected by osteopetrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimira Uzunova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral veterinary hygiene survey in a farm rearing stock layers, 4 months of age, has been performed to throw light on the unknown etiology of sporadic osteopetrosis outbreaks. Observations (ethological and anatomical were conducted to evidence the development of the disease. The welfare of affected birds was assessed as poor after detailed analysis of all elements of housing environment. This was the cause for the development of the severe illness regardless of the fact that birds were preliminary vaccinated.

  12. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  13. Anatomical kinematic constraints: consequences on muscular forces and joint reactions

    OpenAIRE

    MOISSENET, F; CHEZE, L; DUMAS, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to determine musculo-tendon forces and joint reactions during gait, using a 3D right leg model with 5 DoFs: spherical joint at the hip and parallel mechanisms at both knee and ankle. A typical set of natural coordinates is used to obtain the dynamic equations. First, using a global optimization method, "anatomical" kinematic constraints (i.e., parallel mechanisms) are applied on the kinematics obtained from motion capture data. Consistent derivatives are computed ...

  14. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  15. An interactive 3D framework for anatomical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Götzelmann, Timo; Hartmann, Knut; Nürnberger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Object: This paper presents a 3D framework for Anatomy teaching. We are mainly concerned with the proper understanding of human anatomical 3D structures. Materials and methods: The main idea of our approach is taking an electronic book such as Henry Gray’s Anatomy of the human body, and a set of 3D models properly labeled, and constructing the correct linking that allows users to perform mutual searches between both media. Results: We implemented a system where learners can intera...

  16. The maxillary second molar - anatomical variations (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-01-01

    To be acquainted with dental anatomical specificity is of great importance for dental endodontic treatment algorithm. The subject of present publication is 2 clinical cases of upper second molars, detailed characterization of, which is considered very important for enrichment of anatomical knowledge about dental anatomical variations. In one case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 38-year-old woman was complains as of esthetic character as well as functional misbalance (disturbance of chewing function due to the damage of orthopedic construction). The patient indicated to the existence of coronary defects of large size aesthetic discomforts, damage and discolouration of old orthopedic construction (denture) in maxillary right molar area. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified as a result of incomplete endodontic treatment. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified, tooth 17 with 2 roots and 2 canals. In the second clinical case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 39-year-old woman was severe pain in the upper right molar area. The patient indicated to the caries on the tooth 17. After completion of proper survey clinical and visiographical examinations, acute pulpitis (K04.00) - with three roots and 4 canals was diagnosed. In both cases after the proper examinations and agreement with the patients a treatment plan envisaging: 17 teeth endodontic treatment, filling of caries defects and their preparation on one hand for orthopedic construction (denture) and on the other hand for restoration of anatomical integrity by light-cured composite, was scheduled. The present study is designed to prevent complications of endodontic treatment of the second molar, to optimize diagnosis and treatment algorithm, once again proving reliable information indicating to the

  17. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  18. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  19. The Microscope against Cell Theory: Cancer Research in Nineteenth-Century Parisian Anatomical Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the reception of cell theory in the field of French anatomical pathology. This reception is studied under the lens of the concept of the cancer cell, which was developed in Paris in the 1840s. In the medical field, cell theory was quickly accessible, understood, and discussed. In the wake of research by Hermann Lebert, the cancer cell concept was supported by a wealth of high-quality microscopic observations. The concept was constructed in opposition to cell theory, which appears retrospectively paradoxical and surprising. Indeed, the biological atomism inherent in cell theory, according to which the cell is the elementary unit of all organs of living bodies, appeared at the time incompatible with the possible existence of pathological cells without equivalent in healthy tissues. Thus, the postulate of atomism was used as an argument by Parisian clinicians who denied the value of the cancer cell. This study shows that at least in the field of anatomical pathology, cell theory did not directly result from the use of the microscope but was actually hindered by it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Rufus of Ephesus and his contribution to the development of anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus, a famous ancient physician, lived about the years 80 - 150 CE. His theories stressed the importance of anatomy and he preferred pragmatic approach to diagnosis and treatment. In his work "On the Names of the Parts of the Human Body", he put in pragmatic effort to make a lexicon of anatomy for his pupils. In the introduction, he described it as a manual for the students of medical art which relied on demonstration in teaching; visible (outer) parts of the body were shown on a demonstrator and invisible (inner) parts were shown on a dissected monkey. The brief explanation of the anatomical terms includes position, shape, and functions of organs, and this is what makes his work a pioneering effort to explain the anatomy clearly, systematically, and using consistent terminology. Rufus stressed the importance of exact nomenclature to prevent misunderstandings in medical practice. This anatomy manual had a major influence on the development of anatomical terminology. It is an important contribution to the history of teaching. The other essential contribution of Rufus' lexicon (also known for its briefer title Onomastikon) is that the author recognised and critically reviewed the knowledge and views of his predecessors, physicians of the pre-Galenic period. No less important was his teaching to anatomists and physicians who followed, as they often cited or paraphrased Rufus in their own works (Galen, Oribasius). Many fragments of Rufus' work have been preserved by medieval Arabic medical writers, especially by Rhazes.

  1. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Laser technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Huerta, Laura; Hernandez, Adan; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Silva, Adriana B.; Khotiaintsev, Konstantin S.; Svirid, Vladimir A.; Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.

    1999-05-01

    The brain represents one of the most complex systems that we know yet. In its study, non-destructive methods -- in particular, behavioral studies play an important role. By alteration of brain functioning (e.g. by pharmacological means) and observation of consequent behavior changes an important information on brain organization and functioning is obtained. For inducing local alterations, permanent brain lesions are employed. However, for correct results this technique has to be quasi-non-destructive, i.e. not to affect the normal brain function. Hence, the lesions should be very small, accurate and applied precisely over the structure (e.g. the brain nucleus) of interest. These specifications are difficult to meet with the existing techniques for brain lesions -- specifically, neurotoxical, mechanical and electrical means because they result in too extensive damage. In this paper, we present new laser technique for quasi-non- destructive anatomical-functional mapping in vivo of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the rat. The technique is based on producing of small-size, well-controlled laser- induced lesions over some areas of the MPFC. The anesthetized animals are subjected to stereotactic surgery and certain points of the MPFC are exposed the confined radiation of the 10 W cw CO2 laser. Subsequent behavioral changes observed in neonatal and adult animals as well as histological data prove effectiveness of this technology for anatomical- functional studies of the brain by areas, and as a treatment method for some pathologies.

  3. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Estimating anatomical wrist joint motion with a robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chad G; Kann, Claudia K; Deshpande, Ashish D; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    Robotic exoskeletons can provide the high intensity, long duration targeted therapeutic interventions required for regaining motor function lost as a result of neurological injury. Quantitative measurements by exoskeletons have been proposed as measures of rehabilitative outcomes. Exoskeletons, in contrast to end effector designs, have the potential to provide a direct mapping between human and robot joints. This mapping rests on the assumption that anatomical axes and robot axes are aligned well, and that movement within the exoskeleton is negligible. These assumptions hold well for simple one degree-of-freedom joints, but may not be valid for multi-articular joints with unique musculoskeletal properties such as the wrist. This paper presents an experiment comparing robot joint kinematic measurements from an exoskeleton to anatomical joint angles measured with a motion capture system. Joint-space position measurements and task-space smoothness metrics were compared between the two measurement modalities. The experimental results quantify the error between joint-level position measurements, and show that exoskeleton kinematic measurements preserve smoothness characteristics found in anatomical measures of wrist movements.

  5. Systematic significance of anatomical characterization in some euphorbiaceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels. (author)

  6. Visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzadi, B.; Rizvi, S.F.; Latif, K.; Naz, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (IERM) surgery. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Layton Rehmatulla Benevolent Trust (L.R.B.T), Free Base Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Thirty eyes of thirty patients affected with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane stage 2 were enrolled in this study. They subsequently underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with epiretinal membrane removal without internal limiting membrane peeling. The visual outcome was measured as improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of at least two or more lines on ETDRS chart as compared to preoperative BCVA. The anatomical outcome was measured as decrease in foveal thickness on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Patients were followed for a period of 06 months. Results: At the end of follow-ups, 23 (76%) eyes out of 30 gained 2 or more lines of vision. In 05 (16%) eyes, BCVA remained same and only 02 (6.6%) eyes showed worsening of vision. Mean preoperative foveal thickness was 392 ± 20 micro m, whereas mean postoperative thickness was 305 ± 16 micro m with an average decrease of 87 micro m, in foveal thickness. Recurrence of ERM was found to be the most frequent complication. Conclusion: IERM surgery is a safe procedure and beneficial in achieving significant visual acuity improvement and anatomical recovery in the majority of cases. (author)

  7. Alterations in Anatomical Covariance in the Prematurely Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty R; Schneider, Karen C; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2017-01-01

    Preterm (PT) birth results in long-term alterations in functional and structural connectivity, but the related changes in anatomical covariance are just beginning to be explored. To test the hypothesis that PT birth alters patterns of anatomical covariance, we investigated brain volumes of 25 PTs and 22 terms at young adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. Using regional volumetrics, seed-based analyses, and whole brain graphs, we show that PT birth is associated with reduced volume in bilateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes, left caudate, left fusiform, and posterior cingulate for prematurely born subjects at young adulthood. Seed-based analyses demonstrate altered patterns of anatomical covariance for PTs compared with terms. PTs exhibit reduced covariance with R Brodmann area (BA) 47, Broca's area, and L BA 21, Wernicke's area, and white matter volume in the left prefrontal lobe, but increased covariance with R BA 47 and left cerebellum. Graph theory analyses demonstrate that measures of network complexity are significantly less robust in PTs compared with term controls. Volumes in regions showing group differences are significantly correlated with phonological awareness, the fundamental basis for reading acquisition, for the PTs. These data suggest both long-lasting and clinically significant alterations in the covariance in the PTs at young adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Studies of the anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Indian population for setting up a Reference Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D. Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents Indian data on various human characteristics such as physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic parameters. The knowledge of these parameters is required for dosimetric purposes and for developing, secondary radiation standards for occupational workers and the general public. The data reported are for the adult population, as well as for the younger population at the ages newborn, and 1, 5, 10 and 15 years. On the basis of the collection, collation and generation of the above data, the characteristics of the Reference Indian Man are proposed. The comparison of Indian data with that for ICRP Reference Man (representing the Caucasian population) shows that most of the physical, physiological and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population are smaller. The weights of a few smaller organs such as thyroid, testes, etc. are comparable and the daily intake of drinking water, the sweat rate and urine excretion rate etc. are higher than those for ICRP Reference man. (author)

  9. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The ligament of Parks as a key anatomical structure for safer hemorrhoidectomy: Anatomic study and a simple surgical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Zoulamoglou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhoids are a common anal disorder which affects both men and women of all ages. One out of ten patients with hemorrhoidal disease, requires surgical treatment. Unfortunately though, hemorrhoidectomy is closely related to complications that can be present early or late postoperatively. In the present manuscript, the safe surgical technique which emphasizes to the identification of the key anatomical structure of the ligament of Parks (Trietz's muscle is adequately described. A total of 200 patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, underwent Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson's hemorrhoidectomy. The mucosal ligament of Parks was identified to all patients and was used as a key anatomical structure through the excision of the hemorrhoids. Its identification guides surgeons during the operation and reduces the major problem of postoperative complications. Finally, since the mucosal ligament of Parks represents a constantly identifiable landmark, it allows simple and reliable identification of the internal sphincter muscle and minimizes the probability of postoperative complications.

  11. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  12. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse: Experience at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information was recorded after a detailed history, physical examination and completion of a self-administered symptom questionnaire. ... due to anatomical restoration of prolapse in ..... of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic.

  13. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  14. Did pterosaurs feed by skimming? Physical modelling and anatomical evaluation of an unusual feeding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Humphries

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarities between the anatomies of living organisms are often used to draw conclusions regarding the ecology and behaviour of extinct animals. Several pterosaur taxa are postulated to have been skim-feeders based largely on supposed convergences of their jaw anatomy with that of the modern skimming bird, Rynchops spp. Using physical and mathematical models of Rynchops bills and pterosaur jaws, we show that skimming is considerably more energetically costly than previously thought for Rynchops and that pterosaurs weighing more than one kilogram would not have been able to skim at all. Furthermore, anatomical comparisons between the highly specialised skull of Rynchops and those of postulated skimming pterosaurs suggest that even smaller forms were poorly adapted for skim-feeding. Our results refute the hypothesis that some pterosaurs commonly used skimming as a foraging method and illustrate the pitfalls involved in extrapolating from limited morphological convergence.

  15. Quantitative anatomical basis for a model of micromechanical frequency tuning in the Tokay gecko, Gekko gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, C; Authier, S

    1995-01-01

    The basilar papilla of the Tokay gecko was studied with standard light- and scanning electron microscopy methods. Several parameters thought to be of particular importance for the mechanical response properties of the system were quantitatively measured, separately for the three different hair-cell areas that are typical for this lizard family. In the basal third, papillar structure was very uniform. The apical two-thirds are subdivided into two hair-cell areas running parallel to each other along the papilla and covered by very different types of tectorial material. Both of those areas showed prominent gradients in hair-cell bundle morphology, i.e., in the height of the stereovillar bundles and the number of stereovilli per bundle, as well as in hair cell density and the size of their respective tectorial covering. Based on the direction of the observed anatomical gradients, a 'reverse' tonotopic organization is suggested, with the highest frequencies represented at the apical end.

  16. Core components of a comprehensive quality assurance program in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2009-11-01

    In this article the core components of a comprehensive quality assurance and improvement plan are outlined. Quality anatomic pathology work comes with focus on accurate, timely, and complete reports. A commitment to continuous quality improvement and a systems approach with a persistent effort helps to achieve this end. Departments should have a quality assurance and improvement plan that includes a risk assessment of real and potential problems facing the laboratory. The plan should also list the individuals responsible for carrying out the program with adequate resources, a defined timetable, and annual assessment for progress and future directions. Quality assurance monitors should address regulatory requirements and be organized by laboratory division (surgical pathology, cytology, etc) as well as 5 segments (preanalytic, analytic, postanalytic phases of the test cycle, turn-around-time, and customer satisfaction). Quality assurance data can also be used to evaluate individual pathologists using multiple parameters with peer group comparison.

  17. Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Reference Asian Man in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor A. Atta; Perveen Akhter; Malik, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    A research programme was initiated in collaboration with IAEA/RCA to establish local sex specific data and latter on to contribute to define a reference Asian man/woman in the age ran-e of 5, 10, 15, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 20-50 years in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure of the country. Physical data on height, weight, chest and head circumference and food consumption data of reference Pakistani man/women were collected from various socioeconomic strata residing at different ecological areas of Pakistan. The present study revealed that our daily nutritional status and all the physical parameters are significantly lower than ICRP reference man of Caucasian origin except the standing height of male. Since the anatomical organs are roughly proportional to body size so approximation can be made for internal dosimetry purposes with the same ratio as defined by those countries who experimentally established their values. (author)

  18. Reference values for basic human anatomical and physiological characteristics for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    A new publication prepared by the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values, is focused on those human characteristics that are important for dosimetric calculations. Moving from the past emphasis on a Reference Man. the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages - newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 y, and adult. In selecting reference values, the task group has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The reference values for height and body mass are higher than those reported for various Asian populations. However, the reported masses of individual organs and tissues, particularly for China and Japan, are similar to the reference values. (author)

  19. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  20. THE AZYGOS VENOUS SYSTEM AND ITS ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiki Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Azygos veins are important cavocaval and portacaval junctions, which form a collateral circulation in caval vein occlusion and in portal hypertension, cirrhosis of liver. The unpaired azygos venous system consists of azygos vein, hemiazygos vein and accessory azygos vein. This system of veins, along with its mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal tributaries drains most of the body wall of trunk, namely posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. Anatomical variations of this unpaired azygos venous system are clinically important. AIMS To study and report the occurrence of anatomical variations of the unpaired azygos venous system in the region of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (India. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS & RF, Amalapuram and G.S.L. Medical College, Rajahmundry over a period of 2 years. The present study was conducted on 60 cadavers (irrespective of age and sex. The entire course of the azygos venous system in these 60 cadavers was carefully observed and documented. RESULTS Anatomical variations were present in 16.66% of cases, out of which three distinct types were identified. 6.6% exhibited two separate azygos venous systems with no communications, 5% with communication between the left brachiocephalic vein and the azygos vein and 5% presence of post-aortic venous channels. CONCLUSION Variations of azygos venous system may be wrongly dubbed as aneurysm, lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities while reporting a CT scan of mediastinum. Venous anomalies are also detected only during surgery. The most troublesome intraoperative hazard is haemorrhage, which is mainly of venous origin. To avoid such situations is to have an awareness and knowledge of the expected venous anomalies.

  1. Extra-anatomical complications of antegrade double-J insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion of a double-J (JJ stent is a common procedure often carried out in the retrograde route by the urologists and the antegrade route by the radiologists. Reported complications include stent migration, encrustation, and fracture. Extra-anatomic placement of an antegrade JJ stent is a rare but infrequently recognized complication. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of 165 antegrade JJ stent insertions performed over three consecutive years by a single interventional radiologist. All renal units were hydronephrotic at the time of nephrostomy. All procedures were performed under local anaesthetic with antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Antegrade stent insertion was carried out simultaneously at the time of nephrostomy in 55 of the 165 cases (33%. The remainder were inserted at a mean of 2 weeks following decompression. In five (3% patients, who had delayed antegrade stenting following nephrostomy, the procedure was complicated by silent ureteric perforation and an extra-anatomic placement of the stent. These complications had delayed manifestations, which included two retroperitoneal abscesses, a pelvic urinoma, a case each of ureterorectal fistula, and ureterovaginal fistula. Risk factors for ureteric perforation include previous pelvic malignancy, pelvic surgery, pelvic radiation, and a history of ureteric manipulation. Conclusion: Antegrade ureteric JJ stenting is a procedure not without complications. Extra-anatomic placement of the antegrade stent is a hitherto the infrequently reported complication but needs a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed. Risk factors for ureteric perforation at the time of stent insertion have to be considered to prevent this potential complication.

  2. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  3. Unilateral Duplication Of Parotid Duct. A Rare Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paired parotid glands are the largest of the major salivary glands and produces mainly serous secretions. The secretion of this gland reaches the oral cavity through single parotid duct (Stensen’s duct. The parotid duct begins at the anterior border of the gland, crosses the masseter muscle, and then pierces the buccinator muscle to reach the mucosa lining the mouth at the level of the cheek. The purpose of this study is determine the morphologic features of the parotid duct and describe an anatomical variation until now unreported. Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers were used for this study in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. In a cadaver were findings: The main parotid duct originated two conducts: Left superior parotid duct and Left inferior parotid duct, is observed the criss-cross of the ducts, and then perforated the buccinator muscle and entered the oral cavity at a double parotid papilla containing a double opening, separated from each other in 0,98 mm. In the remaining  33 parotid regions (97.06% the parotid duct is conformed to the classical descriptions given in anatomical textbooks. Conclusions: The parotid duct anatomy is important for duct endoscopy, lithotripsy, sialography and trans-ductal facial nerve stimulation in the early stage of facial palsy in some cases. The anatomical variations also has clinical importance for parotid gland surgery and facial cosmetic surgery. To keep in mind the parotid duct variation will reduce iatrogenic injury risks and improve diagnosis of parotid duct injury.

  4. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images

  5. Does EMS Perceived Anatomic Injury Predict Trauma Center Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Roberts, Jennifer; Guse, Clare E.; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Brasel, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the predictive value of the anatomic step of the 2011 Field Triage Decision Scheme for identifying trauma center need. Methods EMS providers caring for injured adults transported to regional trauma centers in 3 midsized communities were interviewed over two years. Patients were included, regardless of injury severity, if they were at least 18 years old and were transported by EMS with a mechanism of injury that was an assault, motor vehicle or motorcycle crash, fall, or pedestrian or bicyclist struck. The interview was conducted upon ED arrival and collected physiologic condition and anatomic injury data. Patients who met the physiologic criteria were excluded. Trauma center need was defined as non-orthopedic surgery within 24 hours, intensive care unit admission, or death prior to hospital discharge. Data were analyzed by calculating descriptive statistics including positive likelihood ratios (+LR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 11,892 interviews were conducted. One was excluded because of missing outcome data and 1,274 were excluded because they met the physiologic step. EMS providers identified 1,167 cases that met the anatomic criteria, of which 307 (26%) needed the resources of a trauma center (38% sensitivity, 91% specificity, +LR 4.4; CI: 3.9 - 4.9). Criteria with a +LR ≥5 were flail chest (9.0; CI: 4.1 - 19.4), paralysis (6.8; CI: 4.2 - 11.2), two or more long bone fractures (6.3; CI: 4.5 - 8.9), and amputation (6.1; CI: 1.5 - 24.4). Criteria with a +LR >2 and <5 were penetrating injury (4.8; CI: 4.2 - 5.6), and skull fracture (4.8; CI: 3.0 - 7.7). Only pelvic fracture (1.9; CI: 1.3 - 2.9) had a +LR less than 2. Conclusions The anatomic step of the Field Triage Guidelines as determined by EMS providers is a reasonable tool for determining trauma center need. Use of EMS perceived pelvic fracture as an indicator for trauma center need should be re-evaluated. PMID:23627418

  6. Aortic anatomic severity grade correlates with resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Khurram; Cullen, John P; Seaman, Matthew J; Messing, Susan; Ellis, Jennifer L; Glocker, Roan J; Doyle, Adam J; Stoner, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Potential cost effectiveness of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compared with open aortic repair (OAR) is offset by the use of intraoperative adjuncts (components) or late reinterventions. Anatomic severity grade (ASG) can be used preoperatively to assess abdominal aortic aneurysms, and provide a quantitative measure of anatomic complexity. The hypothesis of this study is that ASG is directly related to the use of intraoperative adjuncts and cost of aortic repair. Patients who undergo elective OAR and EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified over a consecutive 3-year period. ASG scores were calculated manually using three-dimensional reconstruction software by two blinded reviewers. Statistical analysis of cost data was performed using a log transformation. Regression analyses, with a continuous or dichotomous outcome, used a generalized estimating equations approach with the sandwich estimator, being robust with respect to deviations from model assumptions. One hundred forty patients were identified for analysis, n = 33 OAR and n = 107 EVAR. The mean total cost (± standard deviation) for OAR was per thousand (k) $38.3 ± 49.3, length of stay (LOS) 13.5 ± 14.2 days, ASG score 18.13 ± 3.78; for EVAR, mean total cost was k $24.7 ± 13.0 (P = .016), LOS 3.0 ± 4.4 days (P = .012), ASG score 15.9 ± 4.13 (P = .010). In patients who underwent EVAR, 25.2% required intraoperative adjuncts, and analysis of this group revealed a mean total cost of k $31.5 ± 15.9, ASG score 18.48 ± 3.72, and LOS 3.9 ± 4.5, which were significantly greater compared with cases without adjunctive procedures. An ASG score of ≥15 correlated with an increased propensity for requirement of intraoperative adjuncts; odds ratio, 5.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.82-18.19). ASG >15 was also associated with chronic kidney disease, end stage renal disease, hypertension, female sex, increased cost, and use of adjunctive procedures. Complex aneurysm anatomy correlates with increased

  7. Imaging of hand injuries. Anatomic and radiodiagnostic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Imaging recommendations for assessing injuries of the forearm, wrist, metacarpus and the digits are given with respect to anatomic considerations. Furthermore, dedicated algorithms of advanced imaging are introduced with radiography as the primary diagnostic tool. High-resolution CT is used for detecting and staging the complex fractures of the radius and the wrist, whereas contrast-enhanced MRI serves for depicting the injured soft tissues. At the wrist, tears of the intrinsic ligaments and the TFCC are assessed with high accuracy when applying MR arthrography or CT arthrography. Dedicated radiologic tools as well as comprehensive reports are suggested in the management of the various hand injuries. (orig.)

  8. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed.

  9. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  10. Anatomical basics and variations of the scapula in Turkish adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskan, Nigar; Demirel, Bahadir M.; Sindel, M.; Karaali, Kamil; Cevikol, C.

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the anatomical basis of the scapula, acromion, os acromiale, coracoid process, coraco-acromial arch, and glenoid cavity in Turkish adults.We performed the study at the Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Turkey between January 2004 and December 2005. A total of 90 dry bones of the scapula from human cadavers were randomly selected. The length, width, and anterior thickness of the acromion and the acromial facet of the acromioclavicular joint were measured with an electronic caliber and was examined visually. For the radiological evaluation, the posterior anterior and the lateral shoulder radiographs of 90 consecutive adult patients with normal findings were used. These films were evaluated and grouped according to the acromial arch morphology.The distribution of the acromial morphologic types according to slope was type I (flat) 10%, type II (curved) 73%, type III (hooked) 17%. Type I was seen in 11%, type II 66%, type III 23% of the specimens. The morphological shape of the tip of the acromion was 31% cobra shaped, 13% square shaped, and 56% intermediate type. The scapulas, coracoid process and the coraco acromial arch were measured. In 72% of the specimen, the glenoid notch of the scapulas were absent and oval shaped, whereas in 28% the notch was well expressed and the glenoid cavity was pear shaped. The mean vertical length of the glenoid cavity was 36.3 +/- 3 mm, and the mean transverse length was 24.6 +/- 2.5 mm. Os acromiale is a rare anatomical condition. Its incidence has been documented in radiographic and anatomical studies to be between 1-15%. The presence of os acromiale was 1% in shoulder radiographs (os pre-acromiale), and in dry bones (os meta-acromiale). We reported the exact morphological measurements of the bone structures of the scapula in Turkish adult population. Our results present an instructive figures of anatomical preparations and radiological cases that can be used to make a more precise radiological and a differential

  11. Seasonal variability in physiological and anatomical traits contributes to invasion success of Prosopis juliflora in tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marciel T; Souza, Gustavo M; Pereira, Silvia; Oliveira, Deborah A S; Figueiredo-Lima, Karla V; Arruda, Emília; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P. juliflora exhibited higher response in net photosynthetic rate to that of the native species between seasons. Higher values of water potential of the invasive species than those of the native species in the dry season indicate a more efficient mechanism for water regulation in the invasive species. The invasive species exhibits a thicker cuticle and trichomes, which can reduce transpiration. In combination, the increased epidermal thickness and the decreased thickness of the parenchyma in the dry season may contribute to water saving. Our data suggest a higher variability in anatomical traits in the invasive species as a response to seasonality, whereas physiological traits did not present a clear pattern of response. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Introducing 3-Dimensional Printing of a Human Anatomic Pathology Specimen: Potential Benefits for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Anatomic Pathology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amr; Bennett, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a rapidly advancing technology, is widely applied in fields such as mechanical engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional printing has been introduced recently into medical practice in areas such as reconstructive surgery, as well as in clinical research. Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic and autopsy pathology specimens can be used for demonstrating pathology entities to undergraduate medical, dental, and biomedical students, as well as for postgraduate training in examination of gross specimens for anatomic pathology residents and pathology assistants, aiding clinicopathological correlation at multidisciplinary team meetings, and guiding reconstructive surgical procedures. To apply 3D printing in anatomic pathology for teaching, training, and clinical correlation purposes. Multicolored 3D printing of human anatomic pathology specimens was achieved using a ZCorp 510 3D printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina) following creation of a 3D model using Autodesk 123D Catch software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, California). Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic pathology specimens created included pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) and radical nephrectomy specimens. The models accurately depicted the topographic anatomy of selected specimens and illustrated the anatomic relation of excised lesions to adjacent normal tissues. Three-dimensional printing of human anatomic pathology specimens is achievable. Advances in 3D printing technology may further improve the quality of 3D printable anatomic pathology specimens.

  13. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Frith, Chris D

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H 2 15 O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of

  14. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Paulesu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain

  15. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A.; Stuart, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: 1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  16. Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures through posterior approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Unstable intertrochanteric fractures continue to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons due to the functional limitations it results in the postoperative period. Anatomical reconstruction of the posteromedial fragment becomes difficult through conventional lateral approach, leading to excessive fracture collapse and limping. Materials and Methods: prospective, nonrandomized study was done with 40 patients. They were operated in prone position through posterior approach. Cancellous screws or SS-wires were used to fix the greater or lesser trochanteric fragments and dynamic hip screw (DHS or dynamic condylar screw (DCS for the main two fragments. Bone grafts were used to pack cavities at the posterior trochanteric regions. Results: Fracture healing occurred earlier compared to conventional lateral approach without excessive fracture collapse in majority of cases (average time to achieve union was 13.8 weeks; range: 10–18 weeks. Good functional recovery was noted with 75% 'Good' or 'Excellent' Harris Hip Scores at 24 weeks. Conclusion: Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures becomes easier through posterior approach with earlier and better functional recovery.

  17. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoum Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  18. Teaching of anatomical sciences: A blended learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2018-04-01

    Blended learning is the integration of different learning approaches, new technologies, and activities that combine traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online methodologies. Although advances in educational technology have helped to expand the selection of different pedagogies, the teaching of anatomical sciences has been challenged by implementation difficulties and other limitations. These challenges are reported to include lack of time, costs, and lack of qualified teachers. Easy access to online information and advances in technology make it possible to resolve these limitations by adopting blended learning approaches. Blended learning strategies have been shown to improve students' academic performance, motivation, attitude, and satisfaction, and to provide convenient and flexible learning. Implementation of blended learning strategies has also proved cost effective. This article provides a theoretical foundation for blended learning and proposes a validated framework for the design of blended learning activities in the teaching and learning of anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 31:323-329, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anatomical and Functional Results of Lamellar Macular Holes Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D; Donati, G; Mangioris, G; Pournaras, C J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the long-term surgical findings and outcomes after vitrectomy for symptomatic lamellar macular holes. We studied 28 patients with lamellar macular holes and central visual loss or distortion. All interventions were standard 25 G vitrectomy with membranectomy of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), peeling and gas tamponade with SF6 20 %. Operations were performed by a single experienced surgeon within the last 3 years. Best corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography appearance were determined preoperatively and postoperatively. Following the surgical procedure, all macular holes were closed; however, in 3 eyes, significant foveal thinning was associated with changes in the retinal pigment epithelium changes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved postoperatively in the majority of the patients (n: 21, mean 0.3 logMAR), stabilised in 4 patients and decreased in 3 patients (mean 0.4 logMAR). Spectral Domain-Optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed resolution of the lamellar lesion and improved macular contour in all cases. We demonstrated improvement in postoperative vision and the anatomical reconstruction of the anatomical contour of the fovea in most eyes with symptomatic lamellar holes. These findings indicate that vitrectomy, membranectomy and ILM peeling with gas tamponade is a beneficial treatment of symptomatic lamellar macular holes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  1. Anatomical study of the proximal origin of hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Nimura, Akimoto; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Akita, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    It is relatively well accepted that the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus both originate from the ischial tuberosity as a common tendon. However, it is also widely known that the biceps femoris is consistently injured more than the semitendinosus. The purpose of this study was to examine the origins of the hamstring muscles, to find an anatomic basis for diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the posterior thigh regions. Twenty-eight hips of fourteen adult Japanese cadavers were used in this study. In twenty hips of ten cadavers, the positional relationships among the origins on the ischial tuberosity were examined. In eight hips of four cadavers, histological examination of the origins of the hamstrings was also performed. The origin of the long head of the biceps femoris adjoined that of the semitendinosus. In the proximal regions of these muscles, the long head consisted of the tendinous part; however, the semitendinosus mainly consisted of the muscular part. Some of the fibers of the biceps tendon extended to fuse with the sacrotuberous ligament. The semimembranosus muscle broadly originated from the lateral surface of the ischial tuberosity. The origins of the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus are found to be almost independent, and the tendon of the long head is partly fused with the sacrotuberous ligament. The high incidence of injuries to the long head of the biceps femoris could be explained by these anatomical configurations.

  2. Rare anatomical variation of the musculocutaneous nerve - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The clinical and surgical importance of anatomical knowledge of the musculocutaneous nerve and its variations is due to the fact that one of the complications in many upper-limb surgical procedures involves injury to this nerve. During routine dissection of the right upper limb of a male cadaver, we observed an anatomical variation of this nerve. The musculocutaneous nerve originated in the lateral cord and continued laterally, passing under the coracobrachialis muscle and then continuing until its first branch to the biceps brachialis muscle. Just after this, it supplied another two branches, i.e. the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and a branch to the brachialis muscle, and then it joined the median nerve. The median nerve followed the arm medially to the region of the cubital fossa and then gave rise to the anterior intermediate nerve of the forearm. The union between the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve occurred approximately at the midpoint of the arm and the median nerve. Given that either our example is not covered by the classifications found in the literature or that it fits into more than one variation proposed, without us finding something truly similar, we consider this variation to be rare.

  3. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-31

    A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill.

  4. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Schmitt Cavalheiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. METHOD: 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. RESULTS: Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9; type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis (n = 2; type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4; type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5; type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5; and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable.

  5. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore M Bücking

    Full Text Available Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  6. Medical students call for national standards in anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D

    2014-11-01

    The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Grafting the alar rim: application as anatomical graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Fox, Paige; Peled, Anne; Belek, Kyle A

    2014-12-01

    Alar rim contour and alar rim grafts have become essential components of rhinoplasty. Ideally, grafts of the nose should be anatomical in shape. So doing might make grafts of the alar rim more robust. The authors considered doing that by applying the graft as a continuous extension of the lateral crus. Twelve patients (two men and 10 women) constituted the study group (seven primary and five secondary cases). Of those, there were five concave rims, two concave rims with rim retraction, two boxy tips, and three cephalically oriented lateral crura. Surgical technique included the following: (1) an open approach was used; (2) a marginal incision that ignored the caudal margin of the lateral crus (the incision went straight posteriorly to a point 5 to 6 mm from the rim margin) was used; (3) a triangular graft was made to cover the exposed vestibular skin; (4) it was secured end to end to the caudal border of the lateral crus; and (5) the poster end was allowed to sit in a small subcutaneous pocket. Follow-up was 11 to 19 months. All 12 patients exhibited good rims as judged by a blinded panel. Rim retraction was not fully corrected in one patient, but no further treatment was required. One patient did require a secondary small rim graft for residual rim concavity. The concept of grafting the alar rim is strongly supported by the authors' results. The modifications the authors applied by designing the graft to be anatomical in shape has been a technical help.

  8. Anatomical Basis for Safe and Effective Volumization of the Temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Andrew D; Jones, Derek H; Braz, Andre; Narins, Rhoda; Weinkle, Susan

    2015-12-01

    One of the earliest but often unaddressed signs of facial aging is volume loss in the temple. Treatment of the area can produce satisfying results for both patient and practitioner. Safe injection requires explicit knowledge of the anatomy to avoid complications related to the multitude of vessels that course throughout the region at various depths. The authors aim to detail the anatomy of the area and provide a safe and easy-to-follow method for injection. The authors review the relevant anatomy of the temporal region and its application to cosmetic filler injections. The authors describe an easy-to-follow approach for a safe and effective injection window based on numerous anatomical studies. Injection in this area is not without risk, including potential blindness. The authors review the potential complications and their treatments. Hollowing of the temple is an early sign of aging that, when corrected, can lead to significant patient and practitioner satisfaction. Proper anatomically knowledge is required to avoid potentially severe complications. In this study, the authors present a reliable technique to safely and effectively augment this often undertreated area of the aging face.

  9. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheyriat, A.; Lissac, M.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Bonmartin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm 3 ) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3 ) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm 3 ) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  10. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  11. Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Crossing Anatomic Barriers-Transplantation of a Kidney with 5 Arteries, Duplication of the Pyelocalyceal System, and Double Ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachul, Piotr J; Osuch, Czesław; Chang, Ea-Sle; Bętkowska-Prokop, Alina; Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Mirosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2017-10-01

    During the time of organ harvest, it is crucial for the kidney procurement team to consider significant vascular anatomical variations. Multiple renal arteries are not uncommon, and unintentional injury can result in an irreversibly damaged kidney graft that needs to be discarded. We present a kidney graft with 5 renal arteries and a single vein that was successfully procured and implanted with good graft function at discharge and at 4-yr follow-up. According to the literature, additional renal arteries can be found in about 33% of kidneys. This is the first study on a kidney with 5 arteries in the published literature, especially in the context of transplantation.

  14. Explorable three-dimensional digital model of the female pelvis, pelvic contents, and perineum for anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimée; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using cryosection images obtained from the Visible Human Project, in conjunction with a general-purpose three-dimensional segmentation and surface-rendering program. Anatomical areas of interest were identified and labeled on consecutive images. Each 2D slice was reassembled, forming a three-dimensional model. The model includes the pelvic girdle, organs of the pelvic cavity, surrounding musculature, the perineum, neurovascular structures, and the peritoneum. Each structure can be controlled separately (e.g. added, subtracted, made transparent) to reveal organization and/or relationships between structures. The model can be manipulated and/or projected stereoscopically to visualize structures and relationships from different angles with excellent spatial perception. Because of its ease of use and versatility, we expect this model may provide a powerful teaching tool for learning in the classroom or in the laboratory. (c) 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. MRI anatomical mapping and direct stereotactic targeting in the subthalamic region: functional and anatomical correspondence in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jerome; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Hemm, Simone; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Durif, Franck; Siadoux, Severine; Gabrillargues, Jean; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Object Relationships between clinical effects, anatomy, and electrophysiology are not fully understood in DBS of the subthalamic region in Parkinson's disease. We proposed an anatomic study based on direct image-guided stereotactic surgery with a multiple source data analysis. Materials and Methods A manual anatomic mapping was realized on coronal 1.5-Tesla MRI of 15 patients. Biological data were collected under local anesthesia: the spontaneous neuron activities and the clinical efficiency and the appearance of adverse effects. They were related to relevant current values (mA), the benefit threshold (bt, minimal current leading an clear efficiency), the adverse effect threshold (at, minimal current leading an adverse effect) and the stimulation margin (sm = at - bt); they were matched with anatomy. Results We found consistent relationships between anatomy and biological data. The optimal stimulation parameters (low bt + high sm) were noted in the dorsolateral STN. The highest spontaneous neuron activity was found in the ventromedial STN. Dorsolateral (sensorimotor) STN seems the main DBS effector. The highest spontaneous neuron activity seems related to the anterior (rostral) ventromedial (limbic) STN. Conclusion 1.5 Tesla images provide sufficiently detailed subthalamic anatomy for image-guided stereotactic surgery and may aid in understanding DBS mechanisms. (orig.)

  16. Anatomía quirúrgica de las arritmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Sánchez-Quintana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El interés por la anatomía cardíaca se ha visto incrementado con la utilización de las técnicas de ablación mediante catéter para el tratamiento de las taquiarritmias en el corazón humano. La cardiología intervencionista vuelve a estudiar la morfología macroscópica y las características estructurales del corazón. En suma, una onda nueva ha nacido para revisitar la anatomía cardíaca dado que la información de que disponíamos hasta el momento era incompleta o llanamente errónea. Como resultado de este interés, recientes estudios han revelado las características anatómicas, aspectos arquitectónicos y detalles histológicos de ciertos componentes del corazón que son de interés para el entendimiento del sustrato de las arritmias y su ablación. El propósito de este estudio ha sido revisar detalles de la morfología cardíaca tales como el istmo inferior o istmo cavotricuspídeo, la región sinoatrial y la cresta terminal, el triángulo de Koch y su contenido, los orificios de las venas pulmonares y su vecindad con la aurícula izquierda, la arquitectura de la unión venoatrial y de la pared auricular posterior. En resumen, describimos la anatomía y arquitectura de la orejuela izquierda y de la cresta lateral izquierda, la vena de Marshall y el seno coronario, así como la inervación autónoma de las aurículas y su relación con el esófago y los nervios frénicos. Finalmente, estudiamos las características anatómicas de los ventrículos derecho e izquierdo.

  17. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  18. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Posttransplant Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S; Newhouse, Jeffrey H; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J; Carroll, Maureen A; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Hardy, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and posttransplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. We analyzed 96 live kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from computerized tomography angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renography. Implantation biopsies at time 0 were semiquantitatively scored. A comprehensive model using donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at 1 year were 2.04 mL/kg and 60.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Volume and split ratios between 2 donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r = 0.79, P 10%) were not different (P = 0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m (odds ratio, 8.94, 95% CI 2.47-32.25, P = 0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year [receiver operating curve (ROC curve), 0.78, 95% CI, 0.68-0.89]. In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at 1 year after transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function.

  19. Histological-subtypes and anatomical location correlated in meningeal brain tumors (meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Not enough literature is available to suggest a link between the histological subtypes of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called ′meningiomas′ and their location of origin. Aim: The evidence of correlation between the anatomical location of the intracranial meningiomas and the histopathological grades will facilitate specific diagnosis and accurate treatment. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in a single high-patient-inflow Neurosurgical Center, under a standard and uniform medical protocol, over a period of 30 years from December 1982 to December 2012. The records of all the operated 729 meningiomas were analyzed from the patient files in the Medical Records Department. The biodata, x-rays, angiography, computed tomography (CT scans, imaging, histopathological reports, and mortality were evaluated and results drawn. Results: The uncommon histopathological types of meningiomas (16.88% had common locations of origin in the sphenoid ridge, posterior parafalcine, jugular foramen, peritorcular and intraventricular regions, cerebellopontine angle, and tentorial and petroclival areas. The histopathological World Health Organization (WHO Grade I (Benign Type meningiomas were noted in 89.30%, WHO Grade II (Atypical Type in 5.90%, and WHO Grade III (Malignant Type in 4.80% of all meningiomas. Meningiomas of 64.60% were found in females, 47.32% were in the age group of 41-50 years, and 3.43% meningiomas were found in children. An overall mortality of 6.04% was noted. WHO Grade III (malignant meningiomas carried a high mortality (25.71% and the most common sites of meningiomas with high mortality were: The cerebellopontine angles, intraventricular region, sphenoid ridge, tuberculum sellae, and the posterior parafalcine areas. Conclusion: The correlation between the histological subtypes and the anatomical location of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called meningiomas, is evident, but further research is

  20. Anatomical alterations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. mature leaves irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Arena, C; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of higher plants in Space involves not only the development of new agro-technologies for the design of ecologically closed Space greenhouses, but also understanding of the effects of Space factors on biological systems. Among Space factors, ionising radiation is one of the main constraints to the growth of organisms. In this paper, we analyse the effect of low-LET radiation on leaf histology and cytology in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants subjected to increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy). Leaves irradiated at tissue maturity were compared with not-irradiated controls. Semi-thin sections of leaves were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis was applied to quantify anatomical parameters, with a specific focus on the occurrence of signs of structural damage as well as alterations at subcellular level, such as the accumulation of phenolic compounds and chloroplast size. Results showed that even at high levels of radiation, general anatomical structure was not severely perturbed. Slight changes in mesophyll density and cell enlargement were detected at the highest level of radiation. However, at 100 Gy, higher levels of phenolic compounds accumulated along chloroplast membranes: this accompanied an increase in number of chloroplasts. The reduced content of chlorophylls at high levels of radiation was associated with reduced size of the chloroplasts. All data are discussed in terms of the possible role of cellular modifications in the maintenance of high radioresistance and photosynthetic efficiency. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Studying the history of medical education helps teach us that medicine is a social activity that occurs in the context of social mores and customs. In 1971, a major new anatomy textbook aimed at first-year medical students was published. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice, written by Professors R. Frederick Becker, James S. W. Wilson, and John A. Gehweiler, emphasized surface anatomy, embryology, and radiographic anatomy. At multiple places in the text, the authors used sexually suggestive and "cheeky" comments about women. A small fraction of the illustrations were stylized, posed female nude photographs purchased from California photographer Peter Gowland. These photographs, of a type typically seen in Playboy centerfolds or "pin-up girl" calendars, produced a firestorm of controversy. The book was criticized in the press and in reviews in scholarly journals, and a boycott was organized by the Association of Women in Science. The publisher received negative feedback from consumers, and the book was withdrawn from the market. The book is now a minor collector's item. Professors Becker and Wilson vigorously responded. They laid blame for the debacle on the publisher and also claimed they were the victims of a witch hunt by feminists. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice appeared as the women's movement became part of the American popular consciousness. It was also an era in which the public began to grapple with how to define pornography. Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women.

  2. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  3. Physical and anatomical data, and part of physiological and metabolic data for normal Japanese with special reference to establishing Reference Asian Man model for the anatomical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on the physical, anatomical, and partial metabolic as well as physiological characteristics on Reference Japanese Man were undertaken to establish reference values for use in internal dose assessment and to assign annual limits on intakes of radionuclides for Japanese workers and members of the general public. Secular trends in, and/or probable influences of nutritional conditions on the organ mass were examined by comparing the present results with the other normal Japanese data. The average height of male and female adults (20-50 y) were 168 and 155 cm, respectively. The body weights for males and females, 20-50 y, were - 64 and 52 kg. The data on the weight and size of twelve organs in normal males and eleven in normal females were obtained from autopsy, 12 to 24 h after sudden death. The per caput intake of foodstuffs and principal nutrients were taken from the annual report of the National nutrition Survey for households in the urban and rural areas in all districts of Japan. Determination of elemental intake was made by collecting, one full day of meals for adult males from 31 prefectures in practically all districts of Japan. Pulmonary function parameters studied include total lung capacity, vital capacity, minute volume and 8 h working volume at various levels of exertion - resting, light and heavy activity. The subjects were healthy, normal Japanese males and females. Water balance data were obtained for 9 males and 6 females in Tokyo, under conditions of controlled energy and salt intake. The lengths of the study period were 6 and 10 days, respectively. Daily intakes of energy and salt were determined for the male student athletes for whom an indoor physical training was assigned. (author)

  4. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  5. Variation in Anatomical Characteristics of Bamboo, Bambusa rigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing-Yan, H.; Jin-Qiu, Q.; Jiu-Long, X.; Jian-Feng, H.; Bai-Dong, Q.; Si-Min, C.

    2015-01-01

    The culms of bamboo Bambusa rigida ranging from 1, 3 and 5 year old were obtained and investigated for anatomical characteristics in different ages, heights and zones in radial direction of culm wall thickness. The vascular bundles were denser and smaller at the top portion and outer zone of all age groups. No significant differences in vascular bundle frequency and size were found among the tree age groups. Metaxylem vessels did not vary significantly among ages. Fibre and parenchyma were longer in the middle portion of the height and middle zone in radial direction of culms wall. No significant differences in fibre and parenchyma length were observed in all age groups. The wall thicknesses of fibre and parenchyma were thicker in the top portion and outer zone. Furthermore, the wall thicknesses of fibre and parenchyma increased significantly from 1 to 3 year, showing that there is a maturing progress from 1 to 3 year. (author)

  6. Novel anatomic variation: heptafurcation of the celiac trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Manta, B A

    2018-04-01

    We report here anatomic variants which were found during a retrospective study of a male patient, 54 years old, evaluated in computed tomography: heptafurcation of the celiac trunk (CT) and bilateral double renal arteries. The seven branches of the heptafurcated CT were the (1) left and (2) right inferior phrenic arteries, the (3) splenic and (4) left gastric artery, the (5) common hepatic artery, further sending off the (a) proper, continued as left, hepatic artery and (b) the gastroduodenal artery, (6) a replaced right hepatic artery and (7) the dorsal pancreatic artery. To our knowledge, heptafurcation of the CT was not reported previously. The arterial variants have great importance during various surgical and interventional procedures and should be documented prior to respective procedures.

  7. Different Digitalization Techniques for 3D Printing of Anatomical Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugidos Lozano, M T; Blaya Haro, F; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Manzoor, S; Nuere Menendez-Pidal, S; Juanes Méndez, J A

    2018-01-25

    The use of different technological devices that allow the creation of three-dimensional models is in constant evolution, allowing a greater application of these technologies in different fields of health sciences and medical training. The equipment for digitalization is becoming increasingly sophisticated allowing obtaining three-dimensional which are more defined and similar to real image and original object. In this work, different modalities of designing 3D anatomical models of bone pieces are presented, for use by students of different disciplines in Health Sciences. To do this we digitalized bone pieces, with different models of scanners, producing images that can be transformed for 3D printing, with a Colido X 3045 printer by digital treatment with different software.

  8. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  9. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants.

  10. Altered cortical anatomical networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bin; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Li, Wenjing; Dai, Dai; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes with focal seizures generated in the left or right temporal lobes. With the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many evidences have demonstrated that the abnormalities in hippocampal volume and the distributed atrophies in cortical cortex. However, few studies have investigated if TLE patients have the alternation in the structural networks. In the present study, we used the cortical thickness to establish the morphological connectivity networks, and investigated the network properties using the graph theoretical methods. We found that all the morphological networks exhibited the small-world efficiency in left TLE, right TLE and normal groups. And the betweenness centrality analysis revealed that there were statistical inter-group differences in the right uncus region. Since the right uncus located at the right temporal lobe, these preliminary evidences may suggest that there are topological alternations of the cortical anatomical networks in TLE, especially for the right TLE.

  11. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  12. [Aging of the respiratory system: anatomical changes and physiological consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

    2012-10-01

    The respiratory system undergoes progressive involution with age, resulting in anatomical and functional changes that are exerted on all levels. The rib cage stiffens and respiratory muscles weaken. Distal bronchioles have reduced diameter and tend to be collapsed. Mobilized lung volumes decrease with age while residual volume increases. Gas exchanges are modified with a linear decrease of PaO(2) up to the age of 70 years and a decreased diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia and exercise decrease in the elderly. Knowledge of changes in the respiratory system related to advancing age is a medical issue of great importance in order to distinguish the effects of aging from those of diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The scala vestibuli for cochlear implantation. An anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, A J; Steenerson, R L

    1996-02-01

    Traditionally, cochlear implantation has used the scala tympani (ST) for electrode insertion. When faced with ST ossification, the surgeon may elect to drill out the cochlea to accomplish partial electrode insertion. Theoretically, another option in this situation is to insert the electrode into the scala vestibuli (SV). To determine whether or not the dimensions of the SV are sufficient to accommodate an electrode array so as to assess the feasibility of SV cochlear implantation. The study of 20 normal human temporal bones, comparing the maximum diameter and surface area of the ST with those of the combined SV and scala media. The dimensions of the SV and scala media were comparable to those of the ST and appeared sufficient to accommodate a cochlear implant electrode array. It appears that the combination of SV and scala media is a viable alternative route for electrode insertion, at least on the basis of anatomic dimensions, in those cases in which the ST is obliterated.

  14. [ADVANCES IN ANATOMICAL REPAIR OF CHRONIC LATERAL ANKLE INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Xiaojun

    2016-12-08

    To summarize the current status and progress of the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). The literature about the anatomical repair of CLAI at home and abroad was reviewed and summarized. Broström and its modified operations are the most common surgical treatment of CLAI. The operations showed satisfactory clinical outcomes in the short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up and low complication rate. Suture anchor technique and arthroscopic techniques are gradually used in Broström and its modified operations with satisfactory short-term effectiveness, but long-term effectiveness needs further observation because of the limitation of the short clinical application time. Broström and its modified operations are effective, convenient, and safe to treat CLAI. Based on the researches of biomechanics and dynamic anatomy, the more personalized design of the rehabilitation program is the further research direction.

  15. Reassessing the Anatomic Origin of the Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Parmar, Hemant A; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Mukherji, Suresh K

    A modern imaging review is necessary to further define the anatomic origin of the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. After institutional review board approval, a search from January 1998 to January 2013 yielded 33 male patients (aged 10-23 years) with pathologically proven juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma lesions, as well as pretreatment computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involvement was assessed in the following regions: sphenopalatine foramen, pterygopalatine fossa, vidian canal, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, sphenoid sinus, choana, pterygomaxillary fissure/masticator space, orbit, and sphenoid bone. The choana and nasopharynx were involved in all 33 patients. In contrast, only 22 lesions involved the pterygopalatine fossa, 24 lesions involved the sphenopalatine foramen, and 28 lesions involved the vidian canal. Our results suggest that the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma origin is in the region of the choana and nasopharynx rather than the sphenopalatine foramen or pterygopalatine fossa.

  16. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  17. Facial reconstruction--anatomical art or artistic anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury.

  18. Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Thuesen, Betina H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations are associated with severe and early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, few studies have investigated anatomical patterns of dermatitis and none has been conducted in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of dermatitis...... by use of questionnaires. Participants were genotyped for common FLG mutations. A history of AD was defined by the United Kingdom Working Party's diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of foot dermatitis in the general population was associated with FLG genotype (P = .014). However, when...... stratification of FLG genotype and AD was performed, we found that FLG mutations increased the prevalence (odds ratios) of foot dermatitis (odds ratio 10.41; 95% confidence interval 5.27-20.60) and persistent hand dermatitis (odds ratio 17.57; 95% confidence interval 8.60-35.89) only in participants with AD...

  19. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  20. Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1997-08-01

    There is a need for a schematic eye that models vision accurately under various conditions such as refractive surgical procedures, contact lens and spectacle wear, and near vision. Here we propose a new model eye close to anatomical, biometric, and optical realities. This is a finite model with four aspheric refracting surfaces and a gradient-index lens. It has an equivalent power of 60.35 D and an axial length of 23.95 mm. The new model eye provides spherical aberration values within the limits of empirical results and predicts chromatic aberration for wavelengths between 380 and 750 nm. It provides a model for calculating optical transfer functions and predicting optical performance of the eye.

  1. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R

    2002-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice

  2. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, Andrew L [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Meadors, A Ken [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Silverman, Robert W [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2002-12-21

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  3. Wood anatomical characteristics of Durio Adans. (malvaceae - helicteroideae: Durioneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahlia, A. S.; Noraini, T.; Chung, R. C. K.; Nadiah, I.; Lim, S. C.; Norazahana, A.; Noorsolihani, S.

    2016-11-01

    A wood anatomy study was carried out on 10 Durio species. Three species, namely D. griffithii, D. grandiflorus and D. excelsus were included, and these species were previously placed in the genus Boschia. Findings have shown presence of prismatic crystals in chambered and non-chambered axial parenchyma in seven Durio species studied, whilst silica was absent. However, in the other three species (D. griffithii, D. grandiflorus and D. excelsus) silica was present, whilst crystal was absent. The presence of this mineral inclusion in these three species was not good taxonomic character at generic level and cannot be used to distinguish Boschia from Durio. Therefore, Durio is suggested to be maintained based on findings in this study. There is no diagnostic wood anatomical characteristic that can be used to differentiate species in Durio. As a conclusion the wood anatomy alone does not aid in delimiting species in Durio.

  4. Body symmetry and asymmetry in early Greek anatomical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2008-05-01

    This historical note focuses on some of the earliest reports of human anatomy found in Greek medical literature. These passages testify the initial steps taken by Greek scientists in building a theoretical model of the human body. In these excerpts, one finds erroneous anatomical descriptions, which shed light on the epistemological approach used by these intellectual pioneers. Because of the lack of systematic dissection, it appears that early Greek anatomists developed a somewhat stylized idea of the human body that used a certain degree of symmetry. Overcoming the concept of a strict left-right bilateral parallelism in human body architecture was a challenging intellectual task that required prolonged observation of dissected corpses. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Galen and his anatomic eponym: vein of Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Cagatay

    2004-09-01

    Galen or Galenus was born at Pergamum (now Bergama in Turkey) in 129 A.D., and died in the year 200 A.D. He was a 2nd century Greek philosopher-physician who switched to the medical profession after his father dreamt of this calling for his son. Galen's training and experiences brought him to Alexandria and Rome and he rose quickly to fame with public demonstrations of anatomical and surgical skills. He became physician to emperor Marcus Aurelius and the emperor's ambitious son, Commodus. He wrote prodigiously and was able to preserve his medical research in 22 volumes of printed text, representing half of all Greek medical literature that is available to us today. The structures, the great cerebral vein and the communicating branch of the internal laryngeal nerve, bear his eponym.

  6. Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  8. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda; Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  9. Dissection of lung parenchyma using electrocautery is a safe and acceptable method for anatomical sublobar resection

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuka, Takashi; Goto, Taichiro; Anraku, Masaki; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Izumi, Yotaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Nomori, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anatomic sublobar resection is being assessed as a substitute to lobectomy for primary lung cancers. However, persistent air leak after anatomic sublobar resection is prevalent and increasing surgical morbidity and costs. The use of electrocautery is being popularized recently in anatomic sublobar resection. We have retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of intersegmental plane dissection using electrocautery. Methods Between April 2009 to September 2010, 47 pat...

  10. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  11. Global tractography with embedded anatomical priors for quantitative connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia eLemkaddem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main assumption of fiber-tracking algorithms is that fiber trajectories are represented by paths of highest diffusion, which is usually accomplished by following the principal diffusion directions estimated in every voxel from the measured diffusion MRI data. The state-of-the-art approaches, known as global tractography, reconstruct all the fiber tracts of the whole brain simultaneously by solving a global energy minimization problem. The tractograms obtained with these algorithms outperform any previous technique but, unfortunately, the price to pay is an increased computational cost which is not suitable in many practical settings, both in terms of time and memory requirements. Furthermore, existing global tractography algorithms suffer from an important shortcoming that is crucial in the context of brain connectivity analyses. As no anatomical priors are used during in the reconstruction process, the recovered fiber tracts are not guaranteed to connect cortical regions and, as a matter of fact, most of them stop prematurely in the white matter. This does not only unnecessarily slow down the estimation procedure and potentially biases any subsequent analysis but also, most importantly, prevents the de facto quantification of brain connectivity. In this work, we propose a novel approach for global tractography that is specifically designed for connectivity analysis applications by explicitly enforcing anatomical priors of the tracts in the optimization and considering the effective contribution of each of them, i.e. volume, to the acquired diffusion MRI image. We evaluated our approach on both a realistic diffusion MRI phantom and in-vivo data, and also compared its performance to existing tractography aloprithms.

  12. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  13. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  14. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Tom; Compton, Tim; Stringer, Chris; Jacobi, Roger; Shapiro, Beth; Trinkaus, Erik; Chandler, Barry; Gröning, Flora; Collins, Chris; Hillson, Simon; O'Higgins, Paul; FitzGerald, Charles; Fagan, Michael

    2011-11-02

    The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  15. Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Kędzia, Wojciech; Kędzia, Emilia; Kędzia, Alicja; Derkowski, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length-CRL (V-TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size-age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz's I and II and von Bertalanffy's function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz's models.

  16. Current visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kaushal M; Roth, Daniel B; Prenner, Jonathan L

    2007-10-01

    To assess current visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic retinopexy (PR) for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Retrospective chart review of 150 patients who underwent PR for RD between January 2000 and February 2005. Patients with a history of scleral buckling, Lincoff balloon, or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the same eye were excluded. Successful reattachment was achieved in 76.7% with a single procedure and 98.7% after additional procedures. A total of 17.3% underwent a subsequent procedure for a new or persistent tear. The success rate remained consistent in pseudophakic and aphakic eyes, and eyes with traumatic detachments, macular detachment, multiple breaks, poor preoperative visual acuity (VA) (lattice degeneration, >or=6 clock hours of detachment, and prior pars plana vitrectomy. A total of 2.7% of eyes underwent a second additional procedure for RD. A total of 32% of males versus 15.3% of females underwent an additional procedure for RD (P = 0.07). Final VA >or=20/50 was achieved in 80.8% of macula-on and 73.6% of macula-off RDs. Of eyes that underwent an additional procedure, final VA >or=20/50 was achieved in 63.2% of macula-on and 43.8% of macula-off RDs, and those with macula-on RD lost a mean of 1.79 (+/-4.9) lines of Snellen VA, while those with macula-off RD gained a mean of 5.6 (+/-4.6) lines (P = 0.00006). : PR had a high anatomic success rate in eyes with a wide variety of complicated RDs. Male sex may be a risk factor for failed PR. Careful monitoring and treatment of postoperative tears is important in preventing redetachment.

  17. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  18. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  19. Visualisation of bony and vascular structures via digital subtraction images upon the amount of anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, A.; Scholz, A.; Zwicker, C.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the loss of contrast leaving a part of the anatomic background in digital subtraction angiography by visual analysis and densitometry. We observed a greater loss of the quality at the representation of the bone below than above an amount of anatomic background of 60%. The loss of quality at the representation of the vessels decreases more above than below an anatomical background of 45%. We think that, depending on the clinical problem, an anatomical background between 15 and 30% should be left. (orig.) [de

  20. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  1. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Gary E.; Carlson, Blake; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Yin Pen; Grigsby, Perry W.; Nguyen, Kim; Dempsey, James F; Lerma, Fritz A.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Vannier, Michael W.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-dimensional voxel-to-voxel transformations, derived from continuum mechanics models of the underlying pelvic tissues, can be used to register computed tomography (CT) serial examinations into a single anatomic frame of reference for cumulative dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Three patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were treated with CT-compatible intracavitary (ICT) applicators. Each patient underwent five volumetric CT examinations: before initiating treatment, and immediately before and after the first and second ICT insertions, respectively. Each serial examination was rigidly registered to the patient's first ICT examination by aligning the bony anatomy. Detailed nonrigid alignment for organs (or targets) of interest was subsequently achieved by deforming the CT exams as a viscous-fluid, described by the Navier-Stokes equation, until the coincidence with the corresponding targets on CT image was maximized. In cases where ICT insertion induced very large and topologically complex rearrangements of pelvic organs, e.g., extreme uterine canal reorientation following tandem insertion, a viscous-fluid-landmark transformation was used to produce an initial registration. Results: For all three patients, reasonable registrations for organs (or targets) of interest were achieved. Fluid-landmark initialization was required in 4 of the 11 registrations. Relative to the best rigid bony landmark alignment, the viscous-fluid registration resulted in average soft-tissue displacements from 2.8 to 28.1 mm, and improved organ coincidence from the range of 5.2% to 72.2% to the range of 90.6% to 100%. Compared to the viscous-fluid transformation, global registration of bony anatomy mismatched 5% or more of the contoured organ volumes by 15-25 mm. Conclusion: Pelvic soft-tissue structures undergo large deformations and displacements during the external-beam and multiple-ICT course of radiation therapy for locally advanced cervix

  2. Slice-based supine-to-standing posture deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results with wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Tan, L.; Shao, Q.; Li, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhao, C.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Standing Chinese adult anatomical models are obtained from supine-postured cadaver slices. This paper presents the dosimetric differences between the supine and the standing postures over wide band frequencies and various incident configurations. Both the body level and the tissue/organ level differences are reported for plane wave and the 3T magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. The influence of posture on the whole body specific absorption rate and tissue specified specific absorption rate values is discussed. . (authors)

  3. Anatomical variations of hepatic arterial system, coeliac trunk and renal arteries: an analysis with multidetector CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurel, M S; Battal, B; Bozlar, U; Nural, M S; Tasar, M; Ors, F; Saglam, M; Karademir, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine the anatomical variations in the coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system and the renal arteries in patients who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta for various reasons. A total of 100 patients were analysed retrospectively. The coeliac trunk, hepatic arterial system and renal arteries were analysed individually and anatomical variations were recorded. Statistical analysis of the relationship between hepatocoeliac variations and renal artery variations was performed using a chi(2) test. There was a coeliac trunk trifurcation in 89% and bifurcation in 8% of the cases. Coeliac trunk was absent in 1%, a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk was seen in 1% and a splenomesenteric trunk was present in 1%. Hepatic artery variation was present in 48% of patients. Coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arterial variation was present in 23 (39.7%) of the 58 patients with normal renal arteries, and in 27 (64.3%) of the 42 patients with accessory renal arteries. There was a statistically significant correlation between renal artery variations and coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system variations (p = 0.015). MDCT angiography permits a correct and detailed evaluation of hepatic and renal vascular anatomy. The prevalence of variations in the coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arteries is increased in people with accessory renal arteries. For that reason, when undertaking angiographic examinations directed towards any single organ, the possibility of variations in the vascular structure of other organs should be kept in mind.

  4. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Honegger, Katharina; Zefferer, Marcel; Neufeld, Esra; Oberle, Michael; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Kainz, Wolfgang; Guag, Joshua W [US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Hahn, Eckhart G; Rascher, Wolfgang; Janka, Rolf; Bautz, Werner [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Chen, Ji; Shen, Jianxiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Kiefer, Berthold; Schmitt, Peter; Hollenbach, Hans-Peter [Siemens Healthcare, MR-Application Development, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Kam, Anthony [Department of Imaging, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-01-21

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  5. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Andreas; Honegger, Katharina; Zefferer, Marcel; Neufeld, Esra; Oberle, Michael; Szczerba, Dominik; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Guag, Joshua W; Hahn, Eckhart G; Rascher, Wolfgang; Janka, Rolf; Bautz, Werner; Chen, Ji; Shen, Jianxiang; Kiefer, Berthold; Schmitt, Peter; Hollenbach, Hans-Peter; Kam, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  6. Characterization of Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations in Cassytha filiformis L.—An Advanced Obligate Hemiparasite on Morinda tinctoria Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balasubramanian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the host-parasite relationship in terms of anatomical and physiological adaptations in Morinda tinctoria Roxb. and Cassytha filiformis L. Anatomically the haustorium of Cassytha is found to have two parts, the upper haustorium and the endophyte. The former is the portion of a haustorium that lies external to the host organ, whereas the endophyte is the portion of a haustorium that penetrates host tissues. It was also observed that the host organ triggers the dedifferentiation of cortical parenchyma to develop dense cytoplasm, conspicuous nuclei and numerous starch grains and these cells are found to serve as the initials of upper haustorium. The level of Chl b was lower than Chl a and xanthophylls in Cassytha when compared to Morinda. The photosynthetic activity was measured in intact leaves/stems of both the host and parasitic plant using Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics, which revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency was very low in the infected sample as well as in the parasite stem. Over all, the reduction in the photosynthetic efficiency was correlated to the poorly developed PS II complex.

  7. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  8. An Anatomic and Biomechanical Comparison of Bankart Repair Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Christopher H; Voss, Andreas; Obopilwe, Elifho; Dyrna, Felix; Arciero, Robert A; Shea, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Suture anchor repair for anterior shoulder instability can be performed using a number of different repair techniques, but none has been proven superior in terms of anatomic and biomechanical properties. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the anatomic footprint coverage and biomechanical characteristics of 4 different Bankart repair techniques: (1) single row with simple sutures, (2) single row with horizontal mattress sutures, (3) double row with sutures, and (4) double row with labral tape. The hypotheses were as follows: (1) double-row techniques would improve the footprint coverage and biomechanical properties compared with single-row techniques, (2) horizontal mattress sutures would increase the footprint coverage compared with simple sutures, and (3) repair techniques with labral tape and sutures would not show different biomechanical properties. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were dissected. The native labrum was removed and the footprint marked and measured. Repair for each of the 4 groups was performed, and the uncovered footprint was measured using a 3-dimensional digitizer. The strength of the repair sites was assessed using a servohydraulic testing machine and a digital video system to record load to failure, cyclic displacement, and stiffness. The double-row repair techniques with sutures and labral tape covered 73.4% and 77.0% of the footprint, respectively. These percentages were significantly higher than the footprint coverage achieved by single-row repair techniques using simple sutures (38.1%) and horizontal mattress sutures (32.8%) ( P row and double-row groups or between the simple suture and horizontal mattress suture techniques. Likewise, there was no difference in the biomechanical properties of the double-row repair techniques with sutures versus labral tape. Double-row repair techniques provided better coverage of the native footprint of the labrum but did not provide superior

  9. Physician supply and demand in anatomical pathology in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2011-02-01

    Anatomical pathology was not popular in Taiwan a few decades ago, with a severe shortage of pathologists. However, there has been a steady increase in recent years, and now there is a threat of oversupply We evaluated supply and demand over the past three decades and compared the findings with other countries. We collected the enrollment data of pathologists and physicians from the Taiwan Society of Pathology, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, and Taiwan Medical Association, and analyzed equivalent data from other countries. We sent questionnaires to pathology chiefs to inquire about future job vacancies. The number of pathologists has increased at an annual rate of 4.93% between 2004 and 2008, in contrast to 3.7% for all physicians. There has been a net annual increase of 12 pathologists in the past 13 years. The estimated average number of consultant posts per year was nine, which was only one-third of the average number of first-year residents (R1s). The number of pathologists/million population in Taiwan was 14.83, which was comparable to that in Japan and South Korea but much smaller than that in Canada and the United States. The ratio of pathologists to physicians in Taiwan was 0.97%, which was higher than that in Japan (0.68%) and South Korea (0.64%), but lower than in Canada (1.32%) and the United States (1.46%). On average, 1.79% of medical graduates chose pathology for their R1 training in Taiwan, which was higher than that in the United States (1.50%) and Canada (1.10-1.20%). Anatomical pathology is no longer a specialty that is facing a physician shortage in Taiwan, and there is now a relatively high pathologist/physician ratio among Asian countries. We suggest that a decrease in the number of R1s in pathology is needed to maintain a balance between supply and demand. Copyright © 2011 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one ... anatomical models for surgery planning, and design and construction ... production of implants, particularly to replace bony structures, is ... Manufactured organs are, however, an elusive goal.

  11. Relapse and stability of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, an anatomical biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Schulten, A.J.M.; van der Wal, K.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This anatomic biomechanical study was undertaken to gain insight into the underlining mechanism of tipping of the maxillary segments during transverse expansion using tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices. Materials and Methods: An anatomic biomechanical study was performed on 10

  12. Influence of the different anteromedial portal on femoral tunnel orientation during anatomic ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Moon

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: In anatomic ACL reconstruction, a mal-positioned AM portal can cause abnormal tunnel orientation, which may lead to mechanical failure during ACL reconstruction. Therefore, it is important to select accurate AM portal positioning, and possibly using an AAM portal by measuring an accurate position when drilling a femoral tunnel in anatomic ACL reconstruction.

  13. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  14. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-04-01

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation: short-term anatomic and functional results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Mannaerts, G.H.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term anatomic and functional outcomes and safety of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of women undergoing laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy between 2004 and 2009. Anatomic

  16. Anatomical entity recognition with a hierarchical framework augmented by external resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available References to anatomical entities in medical records consist not only of explicit references to anatomical locations, but also other diverse types of expressions, such as specific diseases, clinical tests, clinical treatments, which constitute implicit references to anatomical entities. In order to identify these implicit anatomical entities, we propose a hierarchical framework, in which two layers of named entity recognizers (NERs work in a cooperative manner. Each of the NERs is implemented using the Conditional Random Fields (CRF model, which use a range of external resources to generate features. We constructed a dictionary of anatomical entity expressions by exploiting four existing resources, i.e., UMLS, MeSH, RadLex and BodyPart3D, and supplemented information from two external knowledge bases, i.e., Wikipedia and WordNet, to improve inference of anatomical entities from implicit expressions. Experiments conducted on 300 discharge summaries showed a micro-averaged performance of 0.8509 Precision, 0.7796 Recall and 0.8137 F1 for explicit anatomical entity recognition, and 0.8695 Precision, 0.6893 Recall and 0.7690 F1 for implicit anatomical entity recognition. The use of the hierarchical framework, which combines the recognition of named entities of various types (diseases, clinical tests, treatments with information embedded in external knowledge bases, resulted in a 5.08% increment in F1. The resources constructed for this research will be made publicly available.

  17. Anatomical contributions to plant taxonomy II. The affinities of Hua Pierre and Afrostyrax Perkins et Gilg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1972-01-01

    Vegetative anatomy, fruit and seed structure, and pollen morphology of Hua and Afrostyrax (tropical West and Central Africa) are described in detail. The two genera have many anatomical characters in common (see anatomical family diagnosis on p. 182) but are sufficiently different from other

  18. A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciana Diez-Roux

    Full Text Available Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org, consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

  19. Predicting Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification of Drugs by Integrating Chemical-Chemical Interactions and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zeng, Wei-Ming; Cai, Yu-Dong; Feng, Kai-Yan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, recommended by the World Health Organization, categories drugs into different classes according to their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. For a set of query compounds, how can we identify which ATC-class (or classes) they belong to? It is an important and challenging problem because the information thus obtained would be quite useful for drug development and utilization. By hybridizing the informations of chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-chemical similarities, a novel method was developed for such purpose. It was observed by the jackknife test on a benchmark dataset of 3,883 drug compounds that the overall success rate achieved by the prediction method was about 73% in identifying the drugs among the following 14 main ATC-classes: (1) alimentary tract and metabolism; (2) blood and blood forming organs; (3) cardiovascular system; (4) dermatologicals; (5) genitourinary system and sex hormones; (6) systemic hormonal preparations, excluding sex hormones and insulins; (7) anti-infectives for systemic use; (8) antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents; (9) musculoskeletal system; (10) nervous system; (11) antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents; (12) respiratory system; (13) sensory organs; (14) various. Such a success rate is substantially higher than 7% by the random guess. It has not escaped our notice that the current method can be straightforwardly extended to identify the drugs for their 2nd-level, 3rd-level, 4th-level, and 5th-level ATC-classifications once the statistically significant benchmark data are available for these lower levels. PMID:22514724

  20. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  1. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  2. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F

    2015-01-09

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  3. Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.

  4. Anatomical Variations of the Circulus Arteriosus in Cadaveric Human Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnal, S. A.; Farooqui, M. S.; Wabale, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Circulus arteriosus/circle of Willis (CW) is a polygonal anastomotic channel at the base of the brain which unites the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system. It maintains the steady and constant supply to the brain. The variations of CW are seen often. The Aim of the present work is to find out the percentage of normal pattern of CW, and the frequency of variations of the CW and to study the morphological and morphometric aspects of all components of CW. Methods. Circulus arteriosus of 150 formalin preserved brains were dissected. Dimensions of all the components forming circles were measured. Variations of all the segments were noted and well photographed. The variations such as aplasia, hypoplasia, duplication, fenestrations, and difference in dimensions with opposite segments were noted. The data collected in the study was analyzed. Results. Twenty-one different types of CW were found in the present study. Normal and complete CW was found in 60%. CW with gross morphological variations was seen in 40%. Maximum variations were seen in the PCoA followed by the ACoA in 50% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion. As it confirms high percentage of variations, all surgical interventions should be preceded by angiography. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures. PMID:24891951

  5. Femoral rotational asymmetry is a common anatomical variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christopher R; Walter, William L; Talbot, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The sulcus line (SL) is a three-dimensional landmark that corrects for individual variation in the coronal alignment of the trochlear groove in contrast to the traditional Whiteside's line (WL). Femoral rotational asymmetry (FRA) is an anatomical variation in which the posterior condyles and trochlear groove are not perpendicular to each other. This study aims to measure the SL and assess its reliability relative to WL, in addition to measuring and classifying the FRA. A retrospective analysis of a series of 191 CT scans of nonarthritic knees was performed. Measurements were taken of rotational landmarks in three-dimensional reconstructions. The variability and outlier rate of SL was less than WL (P  0.05), however it decreased the rate of change of the rotational alignment of the trochlear groove between the native knee and the prosthetic knee from 31% to 5% (P 5° in 56/191 (29%) of cases. The SL technique is more accurate than WL for determining the rotational alignment of the trochlear groove. Nonarthritic femora have a high rate of rotational asymmetry. Identifying and classifying FRA in individual cases allows the femoral component to be inserted in a position which gives the best possible match to both the native posterior condyles and trochlear groove. Clin. Anat. 31:551-559, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anatomical variation of human thoracic rib in dry bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nalini Konkani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ribs are essential structure of osseous thorax and provide information that aids in the interpretation of radiologic images. The purpose of this study to investigate variations in thoracic rib and its morphological & clinical importance. So, In present study attempted to find out additional intercostal spaces due to bifurcation of ribs, less intercostal space due to fusion of ribs, variation of the normal ribs like, gap in the rib, fusion of one rib to another at a shaft of rib. Congenital abnormalities of the ribs are usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.Material & Method: The study was carried out in Bone Store of Department of Anatomy, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Study was carried out on 500 human dried ribs. And the variations in the ribs are studied. We got variation in the human ribs and studied. Result : Variations were seen like out of 500 ribs, Bifid rib having two ends 9(1.8%, rib having bifid space 2(0.4%, fusion rib at the level of shaft 1(0.2%, fusion of first rib and second rib 1(0.2%,first rib having two ends 1(0.2%. Conclusion: Bifid rib is an anatomical variant where the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. So we can rule out mesodermal abnormalities, parenchymal lung disease, chest wall tumor or costal fracture.

  7. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caixian; Liu Jun; Jin Ying; Wang Jian; Zhong Jin; Wang Jinyue; Zhu Miao; Cheng Jinbao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  8. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies with [ 3 H]estradiol-17β in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population. (Auth.)

  9. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.S.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA))

    1981-12-28

    Autoradiographic studies with (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17..beta.. in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population.

  10. The Functional Angiosome: Clinical Implications of the Anatomical Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G Ian; Corlett, Russell J; Ashton, Mark W

    2017-10-01

    The angiosome is a three-dimensional block of tissue supplied by a source vessel with its boundary outlined either by an anastomotic perimeter of reduced-caliber choke vessels or by true anastomoses with no reduction of vessel caliber. This article focuses on the role of these anastomotic vessels in defining flap survival or the necrotic pattern seen in fulminating meningococcal septicemia. Experiments in pigs, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits over the past 46 years were reviewed, focusing on the necrosis line of flaps, the effects of various toxins in vivo, and correlating these results in the clinical setting. Experimentally, choke anastomoses are functional and control flow between perforator angiosomes. They (1) permit capture of an adjacent angiosome when the flap is raised on a cutaneous perforator in 100 percent of cases, with the necrosis line occurring usually in the next interperforator connection; (2) confine flow to the territory of the involved artery when a toxin is introduced by spasm around its perimeter; and (3) lose this property of spasm when choke vessels are converted to true anastomoses following surgical delay, or where true anastomoses occur naturally, thereby allowing unimpeded blood flow and capture of additional angiosome territories. Clinical experience supports these observations. The functional angiosome is the volume of tissue that clinically can be isolated on a source vessel. The area extends beyond its anatomical territory to capture an adjacent territory if connections are by choke anastomoses, or more if they are by true anastomoses.

  11. Anatomic relationship of intrahepatic bile ducts to portal veins revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, P.M.; Stempel, J.; Atri, M.; Lough, J.O.; Illescas, F.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is well accepted that intrahepatic bile ducts lie in front of corresponding portal vein branches. Since the authors' clinical experience with US was different, they studied 18 normal necropsy cadaver livers. The common bile duct, main portal vein, and hepatic artery were cannulated and injected respectively with air, dilute contrast medium, and mineral oil. The livers were then examined in anatomic position with CT. In the left lobe of the liver, the bile ducts were anterior to the portal vein in seven cases, posterior in seven cases, and were tortuous both anterior and posterior in three cases. In the right lobe, the bile ducts were anterior in nine cases, posterior in five cases, tortuous in one case, and not seen in two cases. In the porta hepatis, the bile ducts were anterior in eight cases, posterior in one case, tortuous in five cases, and not seen in three cases. Histologic specimens confirmed the anterior and posterior location of the bile ducts relative to the portal veins. In conclusion, intrahepatic bile ducts can be either anterior or posterior to the corresponding portal vein branches

  12. Anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A Katherine; Gonzalez, Florencia; Brody, Fred

    2009-11-01

    Currently, surgeons implant a variety of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands. However, there is little data to guide the selection process. This study aims to determine the relationship between a patient's body mass index (BMI), height, and weight and the anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery. A total of 67 morbidly obese patients undergoing LAGB surgery were studied. Intraoperative measurements of the gastric cardia were obtained. The relative circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia were measured along with the patient's height, weight, and BMI. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between the circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia and the BMI, height, and weight. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation exists between a patient's BMI or weight and the circumference or diameter of the gastric cardia. A correlation exists between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia (p = 0.02). Of note, there is a correlation between the relative circumference and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia for each patient (p = 0.05). Our unique data show no significant correlation between a patient's BMI and weight and the measurements of the gastric cardia. There was a correlation between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia. These intraoperative measurements may help surgeons objectively select the appropriate band for each respective patient undergoing LAGB surgery. This may potentially decrease postoperative dysphagia.

  13. Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell

    2005-09-01

    New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.

  14. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  15. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  16. [Anatomic rationale for clinical efficacy of intraosseous mental nerve anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S A; Vasil'ev, Yu L; Kuzin, A N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prove the anatomical and clinical effectiveness of the modified anesthesia of mental nerve. The effectiveness of conductive anesthesia near the mental foramen was objectively evaluated using the electric pulp test (EPT) in 100 volunteers of both sexes, aged 35-43 years. Wet anterior mandible preparations obtained from 350 cadavers aged 18-74 years were also studied. EPT value after local mental anesthesia conducted according to Malamed C. using 4% articain solution of local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor concentration of 1:200.000 after 2 minutes was 93±0.82 mA, after 4 minutes - 188±1.26 mA. Yield variability indicators of intraosseous mental nerve anesthesia was slightly higher varying from 94.11 mA to 96.61 mA after 2 minutes and from 197.4 to 199.92 mA after 4 minutes survey. The study showed the efficiency and predictability of intraosseous anesthesia of the mental nerve.

  17. An altar in honor of the anatomical gift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Bolt, Sophie; van der Straaten, Joop; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2010-01-01

    On All Saints Day 2009 a monument for body donors was unveiled by the Department of Anatomy, at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (RUNMC). Although body donation to medical science contributes substantially to the quality of medical education, the ceremony was only the first time that the RUNMC publicly reciprocated the anatomical gift. By means of the monument the department of Anatomy endeavors to express gratitude for the gift of body donors and raise awareness among students to value the gift and treat donor bodies with the proper respect. Furthermore, the large attendance of bereaved at the unveiling ceremony, revealed another equally important meaning of the monument, which is the significance of the monument to the donor kin. The wish of a body donor has large implications for the way bereaved can take leave of the donor; there is limited time to bade the deceased farewell, the body will not be available for a funeral, and the donor kin stay behind empty handed without even a grave or ashes. Therefore the monument can be meaningful by facilitating the bereaved with a place of commemoration. The design of the monument anticipates on these multiple meanings and symbolisms by placing an old marble dissection table in the shape of an altar and fixing a bronze sculpture of a phoenix as symbol of imperishableness.

  18. Tools to analyse and display variations in anatomical delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Martin A.; McDermott, L.N.; Haworth, A; Van der Wath, E.; Hooton, B.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in anatomical delineation, principally due to a combination of inter-observer contributions and image-specificity, remain one of the most significant impediments to geometrically-accurate radiotherapy. Quantification of spatial variability of the delineated contours comprising a structure can be made with a variety of metrics, and the availability of software tools to apply such metrics to data collected during inter-observer or repeat-imaging studies would allow their validation. A suite of such tools have been developed which use an Extensible Markup Language format for the exchange of delineated 3D structures with radiotherapy planning or review systems. These tools provide basic operations for manipulating and operating on individual structures and related structure sets, and for deriving statistics on spatial variations of contours that can be mapped onto the surface of a reference structure. Use of these tools on a sample dataset is demonstrated together with import and display of results in the SWAN treatment plan review system.

  19. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 ± 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 ± 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm ± 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm ± 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm ± 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  20. Calcaneocuboid joint instability: a novel operative technique for anatomic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Arentz, Sabine

    2004-05-01

    A case history of a 13-year-old female national top-level gymnast, suffering from calcaneocuboid joint instability, is presented. The procedure was done as an anatomic repair by capsular reefing, which was augmented using a local periosteal flap. Initially, the athlete twisted her ankle. Clinical investigation revealed no sign of a lateral ankle ligament injury, but following this initial examination, recurrent giving-way of the foot occurred. She additionally felt significant but diffuse pain on the lateral side of the foot during loading in training and competition. For 2 months she was unable to run and conservative treatment failed. Diagnosis of a calcaneocuboid instability was established 4 months after the initial lesion by clinical and x-ray stress examination of the calcaneocuboid joint. Open surgery was successfully performed. Early functional posttreatment was done and the patient returned to full high-level gymnastics ability 16 weeks after surgery. Two years later, a similar injury occurred to the opposite calcaneocuboid joint and the same operative procedure again led to full sports ability.

  1. TVT-S in the U position--anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Martan, Alois; Grim, Milos; Zvarova, Jana; Masata, Jaromir

    2011-02-01

    The objective is to describe the anatomical position of tension-free vaginal tape Secur (TVT-S) in the U position regarding possible injury and fixation site. We placed TVT-S inserters bilaterally in 13 embalmed and five fresh frozen female bodies. After dissection, we measured distances from the obturator bundle. In embalmed bodies, the mean distance of TVT-S from the obturator bundle was 2.83 cm (standard deviation (SD) 0.87 cm) on the left, 2.92 cm (SD 1.24 cm) on the right. Perforation of the fascia of obturator internus muscle occurred in 38.5%. In fresh frozen bodies, results were fundamentally similar (p > 0.05). There is a risk of injury to the obturator bundle and urinary bladder during TVT-S; however, there is a significant risk of inserting the TVT-S inserter outside the obturator internus muscle (into the lesser pelvis). The position of TVT-S does not change significantly after legs mal-positioning.

  2. Introducing a Virtual Reality Experience in Anatomic Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Emilio; Prajapati, Shyam; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C

    2016-10-01

    A proper examination of surgical specimens is fundamental in anatomic pathology (AP) education. However, the resources available to residents may not always be suitable for efficient skill acquisition. We propose a method to enhance AP education by introducing high-definition videos featuring methods for appropriate specimen handling, viewable on two-dimensional (2D) and stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) platforms. A stereo camera system recorded the gross processing of commonly encountered specimens. Three edited videos, with instructional audio voiceovers, were experienced by nine junior residents in a crossover study to assess the effects of the exposure (2D vs 3D movie views) on self-reported physiologic symptoms. A questionnaire was used to analyze viewer acceptance. All surveyed residents found the videos beneficial in preparation to examine a new specimen type. Viewer data suggest an improvement in specimen handling confidence and knowledge and enthusiasm toward 3D technology. None of the participants encountered significant motion sickness. Our novel method provides the foundation to create a robust teaching library. AP is inherently a visual discipline, and by building on the strengths of traditional teaching methods, our dynamic approach allows viewers to appreciate the procedural actions involved in specimen processing. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P

    2015-09-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; da Cunha, Rafael Martins; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley; Cunha, Rafael Martins da; Rodrigues, Amanda Karine Barros; Ramos, Fernando Wagner da Silva; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers' popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomic study of the pterion in Nigerian dry human skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukoha, U; Oranusi, C K; Okafor, J I; Udemezue, O O; Anyabolu, A E; Nwamarachi, T C

    2013-01-01

    The pterion is a point of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The site is an important landmark in surgical approaches to the anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was designed to determine the frequency of pterion types and anatomic positions of the pterion in dry human skulls of Nigerians in the South Eastern Zone. Specific measurements were taken on both sides of 56 Nigerian human skulls of unknown sex, obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria. All the four types of the pterion were present, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate, and epipteric. The study showed that the sphenoparietal type was 75% on the right side, 76% on the left side, the frontotemporal type was 19.6% on both sides, the stellate type was 1.8% on the right side and absent on the left side. The epipteric type was 3.6% on both sides. The distances from the centre of pterion to the frontozygomatic suture were 2.74 ± 0.07 cm on the right side and 2.74 ± 0.06 cm on the left side. The pterion was 4.02 ± 0.05 and 4.01 ± 0.03 cm above the midpoint of the zygomatic arch on the right and left sides, respectively. These findings are important for the surgeon as the pterion junction is a common extracranial landmark in neurosurgical and surgical approaches.

  8. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability.We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI.Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas.Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  9. An Anatomic Morphological Study of Occipital Spurs in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Asghar, Adil; Srivastava, Nitya Nand; Gupta, Nandkishore; Jain, Anuj; Verma, Jayant

    2018-01-01

    Occipital spurs are quite common; however, they are also the source of frequent discomfort to the patients. Their role has been implicated in causation of pain at the base of skull, which may extend to shoulder limiting the movement of the shoulder and neck. The present was carried out to find out the prevalence of occipital spur in human skull and to find out the anatomic morphological characteristics of occipital spur. A total of 30 cadaveric skulls were examined in the Department of Anatomy, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, for the presence of occipital spur. These skulls were the part of boneset obtained as a part of undergraduate training in the department. All the measurements were taken using a digital Vernier Caliper after taking all necessary precaution to avoid any damage to these spurs. The prevalence of occipital spur in the present study was 10%. The mean width recorded in the present study was 13.40 mm (±6.7) and the mean length recorded was 13.45 mm (±1.05). Similarly, mean thickness noted was 2.43 mm (±0.43). Thus, the present study concludes that occipital spurs are the frequent source of discomfort to patients. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to neurosurgeons, sports physicians, and radiologists for the diagnosis of such discomfort.

  10. Anatomical study of the pigs temporal bone by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leandro de Borborema; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    Initial study of the pig`s temporal bone anatomy in order to enable a new experimental model in ear surgery. Dissection of five temporal bones of Sus scrofa pigs obtained from UNIFESP - Surgical Skills Laboratory, removed with hole saw to avoid any injury and stored in formaldehyde 10% for better conservation. The microdissection in all five temporal bone had the following steps: inspection of the outer part, external canal and tympanic membrane microscopy, mastoidectomy, removal of external ear canal and tympanic membrane, inspection of ossicular chain and middle ear. Anatomically it is located at the same position than in humans. Some landmarks usually found in humans are missing. The tympanic membrane of the pig showed to be very similar to the human, separating the external and the middle ear. The middle ear`s appearance is very similar than in humans. The ossicular chain is almost exactly the same, as well as the facial nerve, showing the same relationship with the lateral semicircular canal. The temporal bone of the pigs can be used as an alternative for training in ear surgery, especially due the facility to find it and its similarity with temporal bone of the humans.

  11. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  12. Body plan of turtles: an anatomical, developmental and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Kawashima-Ohya, Yoshie; Narita, Yuichi; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    The evolution of the turtle shell has long been one of the central debates in comparative anatomy. The turtle shell consists of dorsal and ventral parts: the carapace and plastron, respectively. The basic structure of the carapace comprises vertebrae and ribs. The pectoral girdle of turtles sits inside the carapace or the rib cage, in striking contrast to the body plan of other tetrapods. Due to this topological change in the arrangement of skeletal elements, the carapace has been regarded as an example of evolutionary novelty that violates the ancestral body plan of tetrapods. Comparing the spatial relationships of anatomical structures in the embryos of turtles and other amniotes, we have shown that the topology of the musculoskeletal system is largely conserved even in turtles. The positional changes seen in the ribs and pectoral girdle can be ascribed to turtle-specific folding of the lateral body wall in the late developmental stages. Whereas the ribs of other amniotes grow from the axial domain to the lateral body wall, turtle ribs remain arrested axially. Marginal growth of the axial domain in turtle embryos brings the morphologically short ribs in to cover the scapula dorsocaudally. This concentric growth appears to be induced by the margin of the carapace, which involves an ancestral gene expression cascade in a new location. These comparative developmental data allow us to hypothesize the gradual evolution of turtles, which is consistent with the recent finding of a transitional fossil animal, Odontochelys, which did not have the carapace but already possessed the plastron.

  13. Anatomical variations of the iliolumbar vein with application to the anterior retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Camp, Christopher L; Zietlow, Scott P; Huddleston, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Objectives of this study include identification of lumbosacral venous variations, designation of a critical area of dissection for surgical exposure, and comparison between both male/female and right/left-sided anatomy. Attempts were made to provide anatomic nomenclature that accurately describes these structures. Thirty-eight iliolumbar venous systems in 20 cadavers (11 females/9 males) were dissected. Each system was identified as one of three patterns of variation: common venous trunk (combining ascending lumbar and iliolumbar venous systems) with distal veins, common venous trunk without distal veins, and venous systems without a common venous trunk. Dimensions including distances to the inferior vena cava (IVC) confluence, the obturator nerve, and the lumbosacral trunk, and venous stem length were obtained to aid surgical dissection. Differences between males and females and those between right and left sides were compared. Anterior lumbosacral venous variations could be organized into three groups. A Type 1 venous system (common venous trunk with distal veins) was most common (53% of systems). The anatomical name "lateral lumbosacral veins" adequately describes the anatomical location of these veins and does not assume a direction of venous flow or the lack of individual distal veins. A critical area bordered by the obturator nerve anteriorly, the psoas muscle laterally, the spinal column medially, and sacrum posteriorly within 8.2 cm of the IVC confluence should be defined to adequately dissect the lateral lumbosacral veins. Differences in male and female lateral lumbosacral venous anatomy do not alter surgeon's approach to the anterior lumbar spine. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. An anatomical study of the parasacral block using magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Maeve

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The parasacral approach to sciatic blockade is reported to be easy to learn and perform, with a high success rate and few complications. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the accuracy of a simulated needle (perpendicular to skin) in contacting the sacral plexus with this approach in 10 volunteers. Intrapelvic structures encountered during the simulated parasacral blocks were also recorded. RESULTS: The sacral plexus was contacted by the simulated needle in 4 of the 10 volunteers, and the sciatic nerve itself in one volunteer. The plexus was accurately located adjacent to a variety of visceral structures, including small bowel, blood vessels, and ovary. In the remaining five volunteers (in whom the plexus was not contacted on first needle pass), small bowel, rectum, blood vessels, seminal vesicles, and bony structures were encountered. Historically, when plexus is not encountered, readjustment of the needle insertion point more caudally has been recommended. We found that such an adjustment resulted in simulated perforation of intrapelvic organs or the perianal fossa. CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the reliability of the anatomical landmarks of the parasacral block and raise the possibility of frequent visceral puncture using this technique.

  15. [State and developmental trends of urogenital tuberculosis--20 years clinical and pathologic-anatomical experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, H; Haenselt, V; Endmann, P

    1978-10-01

    On the basis of own experiences of twenty years and taking into consideration the knowledge of other authors the developmental tendency in the treatment of the urogenital tuberculosis is demonstrated, the indications to nephrectomy, resection of the kidney, and epididymectomy are reified as well as kind and sequelae of errors in chemotherapy analysed. From 1958 to 1977 2,868 patients with urogenital tuberculosis were hospitalized in the Central Clinic Bad Berka. Of them about 41% had to undergo an operation. A decrease of the quantity of operations can be observed only in the renal resections, whereas the nephrectomy rate is unchangedly high (16.3% of the own patients) and even shows an increasing tendency since 1975. Comparative examinations show that the pathologo-anatomical picture of the ectomized kidneys has not changed during the period of observation. The knowledge of the symptom-poor course obliges also further on differential-diagnostically to take into consideration the urogenital tuberculosis. Only on this way the still large number of organ endangering complications may be encountered in time.

  16. Anatomical and histological characteristics of teeth in agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane C. Baia da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The agouti species Dasyprocta prymnolopha (D. prymnolopha is a medium-sized rodent, diurnal, and characteristic of northeastern Brazil, south of the Amazon. Several studies have been made on these rodents. However, there is a lack of analysis of masticatory system, in particular morphology of the teeth. Thus, this research seeks to describe anatomical and histological aspects of the agouti teeth. For this purpose, we used adult agouti, in which measurements and descriptions of teeth and dental tissues were made. It was observed that the dental arch of D. prymnolopha comprises of twenty teeth, evenly distributed in the upper and lower arch, being inferior teeth larger than their corresponding higher. The incisors are larger, and between the posterior premolars and molars, there is a gradual increase in length in the anterior-posterior arch. In microscopic examination, a prismatic appearance was observed consisting of enamel prisms arranged in different directions, behind the enamel and dentin with standard tubular dentinal tubules with variable diameter and far between, also showing a sinuous path from the inner portion to the junction with more superficial enamel. Morphological analysis of dental tissues showed that an enamel with structural organization adapted to the act of chewing and high impact dentin compatible with standard tubular function resilience and mechanical damping of masticatory forces, as found in larger animals, confirming the understanding of eating habits that define much of its ecological functions within the ecosystem they inhabit.

  17. The Thalamocortical Projection Systems in Primate: An Anatomical Support for Multisensory and Sensorimotor Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Morel, Anne; Barone, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Multisensory and sensorimotor integrations are usually considered to occur in superior colliculus and cerebral cortex, but few studies proposed the thalamus as being involved in these integrative processes. We investigated whether the organization of the thalamocortical (TC) systems for different modalities partly overlap, representing an anatomical support for multisensory and sensorimotor interplay in thalamus. In 2 macaque monkeys, 6 neuroanatomical tracers were injected in the rostral and caudal auditory cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PE/PEa in area 5), and dorsal and ventral premotor cortical areas (PMd, PMv), demonstrating the existence of overlapping territories of thalamic projections to areas of different modalities (sensory and motor). TC projections, distinct from the ones arising from specific unimodal sensory nuclei, were observed from motor thalamus to PE/PEa or auditory cortex and from sensory thalamus to PMd/PMv. The central lateral nucleus and the mediodorsal nucleus project to all injected areas, but the most significant overlap across modalities was found in the medial pulvinar nucleus. The present results demonstrate the presence of thalamic territories integrating different sensory modalities with motor attributes. Based on the divergent/convergent pattern of TC and corticothalamic projections, 4 distinct mechanisms of multisensory and sensorimotor interplay are proposed. PMID:19150924

  18. Return of the cadaver: Key role of anatomic dissection for plastic surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-07-01

    Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the tensor vastus intermedius: A topographic study based on anatomical dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Gascho, Dominic; Ackland, Timothy; Gilbey, Helen; Fretz, Christian; Kuster, Markus S

    2017-11-01

    The tensor of the vastus intermedius (TVI) is a newly described component of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appearance of the TVI on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and its association with the adjacent vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and to compare these findings with the corresponding anatomy. MR images were analyzed from a cadaveric thigh where the TVI, as part of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint, had been dissected. The course of the TVI in relation to the adjacent VL and VI was studied. The anatomic dissection and MR imaging revealed a multilayered organization of the lateral extensor apparatus of the knee joint. The TVI is an intervening muscle between the VL and VI that combined into a broad flat aponeurosis in the midthigh and merged into the quadriceps tendon. Dorsally, the muscle fibers of the TVI joined those of the VL and VI and blended into the attachment at the lateral lip of the linea aspera. In this area, distinguishing between these three muscles was not possible macroscopically or virtually by MR imaging. In the dorsal aspect, the onion-like muscle layers of the VL, TVI, and VI fuse to a hardly separable muscle mass indicating that these muscles work in conjunction to produce knee extension torque when knee joint action is performed. Clin. Anat. 30:1096-1102, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-20

    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field.

  1. A novel 3D shape descriptor for automatic retrieval of anatomical structures from medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L. S.; Bergamasco, Leila C. C.; Delmondes, Pedro H.; Valverde, Miguel A. G.; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2017-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) aims at retrieving from a database objects that are similar to an object provided by a query, by taking into consideration a set of extracted features. While CBIR has been widely applied in the two-dimensional image domain, the retrieval of3D objects from medical image datasets using CBIR remains to be explored. In this context, the development of descriptors that can capture information specific to organs or structures is desirable. In this work, we focus on the retrieval of two anatomical structures commonly imaged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) techniques, the left ventricle of the heart and blood vessels. Towards this aim, we developed the Area-Distance Local Descriptor (ADLD), a novel 3D local shape descriptor that employs mesh geometry information, namely facet area and distance from centroid to surface, to identify shape changes. Because ADLD only considers surface meshes extracted from volumetric medical images, it substantially diminishes the amount of data to be analyzed. A 90% precision rate was obtained when retrieving both convex (left ventricle) and non-convex structures (blood vessels), allowing for detection of abnormalities associated with changes in shape. Thus, ADLD has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of a wide range of vascular and cardiac diseases.

  2. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  3. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic generation of anatomic characteristics from cerebral aneurysm surface models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M; Lawonn, K; Beuing, O; Preim, B

    2013-03-01

    Computer-aided research on cerebral aneurysms often depends on a polygonal mesh representation of the vessel lumen. To support a differentiated, anatomy-aware analysis, it is necessary to derive anatomic descriptors from the surface model. We present an approach on automatic decomposition of the adjacent vessels into near- and far-vessel regions and computation of the axial plane. We also exemplarily present two applications of the geometric descriptors: automatic computation of a unique vessel order and automatic viewpoint selection. Approximation methods are employed to analyze vessel cross-sections and the vessel area profile along the centerline. The resulting transition zones between near- and far- vessel regions are used as input for an optimization process to compute the axial plane. The unique vessel order is defined via projection into the plane space of the axial plane. The viewing direction for the automatic viewpoint selection is derived from the normal vector of the axial plane. The approach was successfully applied to representative data sets exhibiting a broad variability with respect to the configuration of their adjacent vessels. A robustness analysis showed that the automatic decomposition is stable against noise. A survey with 4 medical experts showed a broad agreement with the automatically defined transition zones. Due to the general nature of the underlying algorithms, this approach is applicable to most of the likely aneurysm configurations in the cerebral vasculature. Additional geometric information obtained during automatic decomposition can support correction in case the automatic approach fails. The resulting descriptors can be used for various applications in the field of visualization, exploration and analysis of cerebral aneurysms.

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  6. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saenz-Frances

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center in relation to the corneal apex.METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT, minimum corneal thickness (MT and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD and PT (PD were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference determined:point of minimum thickness (MC and point of central thickness (PC depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant. PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI:-0.043 to -0.004. No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC.CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  7. Anatomical and functional asymmetry of the planum temporale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Fujita, Hideaki; Inugami, Atsushi; Tabata, Kenichi; Higano, Shuichi; Shishido, Fumio; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1989-01-01

    The anatomical and functional asymmetry of the planum temporale was studied by means of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The subjects were 74 cases of normal CTs and 24 cases of normal PETs. Fifty of the 74 cases of normal CT were randomly picked from 36,545 cases studied from June 1983 to January 1988, while the remaining 24 cases were obtained as normal volunteers for PET. The 24 cases of PET were studied as normal volunteers who did not have any neurological abnormalities. All of the CT scans were obtained by means of a GE CT/T 9800 scanner, with 10-mm or 7.5-mm collimation parallel to the orbitomeatal plane (+15). On the CT, the anterior margin of the superior temporal gyrus sloped backward on the left in 62.2 percent of the cases and on the right in 4.1 percent. The lateral end of the anterior margin of the left superior temporal gyrus lay posterior to the corresponding point on the right in 73.0 percent of the cases. PET was obtained with a HEADTOME III scanner, with a spatial resolution of 10 mm. PET scans were taken parallel to the orbitomeatal plane (+15) and at 7.5-mm intervals. The cerebral blood flow (CBF), the metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), the oxygen-extraction fraction (OEF), and the blood volume (CBV) were measured by the 15 O-steady state method, while the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc) was measured using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. The PET measurements exhibited that the mean CBF and CMRO 2 of the left superior temporal gyrus were significantly higher than those of the right (CBF; p 2 ; p 2 obtained by PET indicated the functional dominance for language on the left. (author)

  8. Strategies for a Successful Anatomic Pathology Subspecialty Workgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1990 to present, 14 liver pathologists and 2 clinical hepatologists from 9 countries have met annually to hold thematic 2.5-day meetings centered on case-based discussion. The goal of these meetings has been to identify gaps in knowledge in our field and fuel scholarly effort to address these gaps. The founding principles were worldwide representation, good representation of women, compatibility of participants, commitment to stable membership and regular attendance, mutual education and friendship, and free exchange of ideas. A summary report of the 2.5-day meeting constituted an enduring document that captured the free flow of ideas discussed. These ideas were open to all participants for the pursuit of scholarship back at their home institutions. However, any idea borne out of an Elves meeting merits open invitation for other Elves to participate in, using established standards for meaningful coauthorship. Over 26 consecutive meetings (1990-2015, themes covered the breadth of liver pathology. With retirement of 2 individuals, resignation of 3, and death of 1, six new members were nominated and voted into membership. Over these same 26 years, active members published 2025 articles indexed in PubMEd Central under the topic “liver;” 3% of these articles represented collaborations between members. This international group represents a successful model in a subspecialty of anatomic pathology for open exchange of ideas, mutual education, and generation of topics worthy of scholarly investigation. We conclude that a self-selected group of subspecialty pathologists can meet successfully over 26 years, maintain a high state of engagement through each annual meeting, self-renew as a result of retirement or resignation, and provide a creative stimulus for highly productive academic careers.

  9. Long-term survivorship of stemless anatomical shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sascha; Beck, Verena; Wegner, Alexander; Dudda, Marcel; Patsalis, Theodor; Jäger, Marcus

    2018-01-24

    Like in many other joints, current shoulder replacement designs aim at bone preservation. According to the literature available, stemless total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) compares favourably with stemmed designs in terms of function and survivorship of the implant. However, long-term results of stemless shoulder arthroplasty are still missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term results of stemless anatomical TSA. Between 2006 and 2009, 51 shoulders in 46 patients were resurfaced using the Biomet Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS). Thirty-one shoulders in 26 patients who were aged 66.7 ± 10.0 (range 34-82) years were available for review at a mean follow-up of 94.7 ± 11.3 (76-124) months. The implant survival rate was 93.5% at eight years. The overall revision rate of the TESS implant was 9.7%. Radiolucent lines were found on the glenoid side of the TESS arthroplasty in 90.9% of the cases. All stemless humeral corolla implants showed solid fixation at follow-up. Clinical scores significantly improved at long-term follow-up (VAS from 8.1 ± 0.9 to 1.0 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Quick-DASH from 67.9 ± 13.5 to 18.7 ± 16.5, p < 0.001 and Constant score from 14.7 ± 6.1 to 68.8 ± 13.2, p < 0.001). Stemless TSA has stood the test of time at eight years in terms of clinical scores, radiographic loosening, complication rates and implant survivorship.

  10. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any interspecies variability was found between their trunk vessels diameter. However, a significant ... are discharged in the sea, releasing like this toxic organic ...... Water. Discharge on nutrient contamination of mangrove soils and plants.

  11. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Robert Chase; Christley, Scott; Chang, Eugene; An, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC) resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC), which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  12. Construction of a 3-D anatomical model for teaching temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Wilson, Timothy D

    2012-06-01

    Although we live and work in 3 dimensional space, most of the anatomical teaching during medical school is done on 2-D (books, TV and computer screens, etc). 3-D spatial abilities are essential for a surgeon but teaching spatial skills in a non-threatening and safe educational environment is a much more difficult pedagogical task. Currently, initial anatomical knowledge formation or specific surgical anatomy techniques, are taught either in the OR itself, or in cadaveric labs; which means that the trainee has only limited exposure. 3-D computer models incorporated into virtual learning environments may provide an intermediate and key step in a blended learning approach for spatially challenging anatomical knowledge formation. Specific anatomical structures and their spatial orientation can be further clinically contextualized through demonstrations of surgical procedures in the 3-D digital environments. Recordings of digital models enable learner reviews, taking as much time as they want, stopping the demonstration, and/or exploring the model to understand the anatomical relation of each structure. We present here how a temporal lobectomy virtual model has been developed to aid residents and fellows conceptualization of the anatomical relationships between different cerebral structures during that procedure. We suggest in comparison to cadaveric dissection, such virtual models represent a cost effective pedagogical methodology providing excellent support for anatomical learning and surgical technique training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Transcriptome tomography for brain analysis in the web-accessible anatomical space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Okamura-Oho

    Full Text Available Increased information on the encoded mammalian genome is expected to facilitate an integrated understanding of complex anatomical structure and function based on the knowledge of gene products. Determination of gene expression-anatomy associations is crucial for this understanding. To elicit the association in the three-dimensional (3D space, we introduce a novel technique for comprehensive mapping of endogenous gene expression into a web-accessible standard space: Transcriptome Tomography. The technique is based on conjugation of sequential tissue-block sectioning, all fractions of which are used for molecular measurements of gene expression densities, and the block- face imaging, which are used for 3D reconstruction of the fractions. To generate a 3D map, tissues are serially sectioned in each of three orthogonal planes and the expression density data are mapped using a tomographic technique. This rapid and unbiased mapping technique using a relatively small number of original data points allows researchers to create their own expression maps in the broad anatomical context of the space. In the first instance we generated a dataset of 36,000 maps, reconstructed from data of 61 fractions measured with microarray, covering the whole mouse brain (ViBrism: http://vibrism.riken.jp/3dviewer/ex/index.html in one month. After computational estimation of the mapping accuracy we validated the dataset against existing data with respect to the expression location and density. To demonstrate the relevance of the framework, we showed disease related expression of Huntington's disease gene and Bdnf. Our tomographic approach is applicable to analysis of any biological molecules derived from frozen tissues, organs and whole embryos, and the maps are spatially isotropic and well suited to the analysis in the standard space (e.g. Waxholm Space for brain-atlas databases. This will facilitate research creating and using open-standards for a molecular

  15. Application of a uniform anatomic grading system to measure disease severity in eight emergency general surgical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie L; Agarwal, Suresh; Muskat, Peter; Ross, Steven; Savage, Stephanie; Schuster, Kevin; Tominaga, Gail T; Shafi, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Emergent general surgical diseases encompass a broad spectrum of anatomy and pathophysiology, creating challenges for outcomes assessment, research, and surgical training. The goal of this study was to measure anatomic disease severity for eight emergent general surgical diseases using the uniform grading system of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Committee on Patient Assessment and Outcomes of AAST applied the previously developed uniform grading system to eight emergent general surgical diseases using a consensus of experts. It was then reviewed and approved by the Board of Managers of AAST. Severity grades for eight commonly encountered emergent general surgical conditions were created: breast abscess, esophageal perforation, infectious colitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, perirectal abscess, pleural space infections, soft tissue infections, and surgical site infections. The range of grades from I through V, reflect progression from mild disease, limited to within the organ itself, to widespread severe disease. This article provides a uniform grading system for measuring anatomic severity of eight emergent general surgical diseases. Consistent adoption of these grades could improve standardization for quality assurance, outcomes research, and surgical training.

  16. A 3D imaging system integrating photoacoustic and fluorescence orthogonal projections for anatomical, functional and molecular assessment of rodent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Hans P.; Ivanov, Vassili; Dumani, Diego S.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a preclinical 3D imaging instrument integrating photoacoustic tomography and fluorescence (PAFT) addressing known deficiencies in sensitivity and spatial resolution of the individual imaging components. PAFT is designed for simultaneous acquisition of photoacoustic and fluorescence orthogonal projections at each rotational position of a biological object, enabling direct registration of the two imaging modalities. Orthogonal photoacoustic projections are utilized to reconstruct large (21 cm3 ) volumes showing vascularized anatomical structures and regions of induced optical contrast with spatial resolution exceeding 100 µm. The major advantage of orthogonal fluorescence projections is significant reduction of background noise associated with transmitted or backscattered photons. The fluorescence imaging component of PAFT is used to boost detection sensitivity by providing low-resolution spatial constraint for the fluorescent biomarkers. PAFT performance characteristics were assessed by imaging optical and fluorescent contrast agents in tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo. The proposed PAFT technology will enable functional and molecular volumetric imaging using fluorescent biomarkers, nanoparticles, and other photosensitive constructs mapped with high fidelity over robust anatomical structures, such as skin, central and peripheral vasculature, and internal organs.

  17. Analysis of anatomical variations of the main arteries branching from the abdominal aorta, with 64-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornafel, O.; Baran, B.; Pawlikowska, I.; Laszczynski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Great variability in the vasculature of the abdominal organs makes the pre-operative evaluation of arterial anatomical conditions extremely important and helpful. The aim of our study was to establish the prevalence of anatomical variations of the arteries branching from the abdominal aorta and to compare the results with the ones presented in the literature. Material/Methods: The material included computed tomography angiographies (CTA) of 201 patients (91 women and 110 men) performed between September 2007 and December 2008. The CTA examinations were conducted with a 64-detector CT scanner at the Department of Radiology of University Hospital in Wroclaw. Images were obtained during the arterial phase and were analyzed for the presence of potential anomalies of the branches of the abdominal aorta. Results: In 88 patients (43.8%), there were anatomical variations of the arteries branching from the abdominal aorta. Variations of the renal arteries were observed in 83 (41.3%) patients, anomalies of the celiac trunk in 9 patients (4.5%), including variations of the superior mesenteric artery in 4 (2%) patients. No anatomical anomalies of the inferior mesenteric artery were shown in this study. The most frequent anomaly of the renal vasculature was the presence of at least one additional renal artery, observed in 65 (32.3%) patients. This concerned the inferior renal polar artery mainly - in 30 (14.9%) patients. Presence of bilateral additional renal arteries was visualized in 10% (20/201) of the cases. The most frequent anomalies of the celiac trunk were the celiacmesenteric trunk (in 3 patients - 1.5%) and the hepatosplenic trunk (in 3 patients - 1.5%). The celiac-mesenteric trunk was also the most frequent variation of the superior mesenteric artery in our material. Conclusions: A large part of population - 43.8% of our patients - demonstrated variations of arteries branching from the abdominal aorta. The anomalies were significantly more often found

  18. Evaluation of polynomial image deformation for matching of 3D- abdominal MR-images using anatomical landmarks and for atlas construction

    CERN Document Server

    Kimiaei, S; Jonsson, E; Crafoord, J; Maguire, G Q

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the potential usability of linear and non-linear (polynomial) 3D-warping for constructing an atlas by matching abdominal MR-images from a number of different individuals using manually picked anatomical landmarks. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it illustrates the potential to use polynomial matching at a local or organ level. This is a necessary requirement for constructing an atlas and for fine intra-patient image matching and fusion. Finally 3D-image warping using anatomical landmark for inter-patient intra-modality image co-registration and fusion was found to be a very powerful and robust method. Additionally it can be used for intra-patient inter- modality image matching.

  19. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of testicular development in Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M

    2018-07-01

    In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  1. Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okahara, Mika; Kiyosue, Hiro; Mori, Hiromu; Tanoue, Shuichi; Sainou, Michihumi; Nagatomi, Hirohumi

    2002-01-01

    In the embryonic period, several developmental anomalies of the cerebral arteries occur. The knowledge of these anatomic variations of the cerebral artery is important to avoid the unnecessary surgery and to undergo surgery or interventional radiology with safety. We reviewed 3000 MR angiographies and 700 cerebral angiographies of the previous 5 years to assess cerebral arterial system, and to illustrate the embryological development, imaging findings, occurrence, and clinical significance of the anatomic variation of the cerebral arteries. The normal development and variations of the cerebral arteries are depicted. Knowledge of the anatomic variations is important since it can influence surgical and interventional procedure. (orig.)

  2. Outcomes of anatomical versus functional testing for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R; Mark, Daniel B; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J; Fordyce, Christopher B; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H; Udelson, James E; Velazquez, Eric J; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S; Lee, Kerry L

    2015-04-02

    Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P=0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P=0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  3. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.M.; Young, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZE TM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human Project TM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  4. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys

  5. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  6. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...

  7. Correlation of CliniCal data, anatomiCal site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-01

    Jun 1, 2008 ... Objective: to evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage .... the tumour was palpable on digital rectal examination .... colorectal and breast cancer in urban and rural areas. Brit.

  8. Fetal position in Alzheimer’s disease. An anatomic body remodelling due to retrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory TSOUCALAS

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired fetal position by patients in end stage Alzheimer’s disease is a quite common sign. The theory of retrogenesis was proposed to explain this anatomic remodelling of the human body.

  9. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Goor, H. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Broek, R.P. ten

    2017-01-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving.

  10. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that lower infundibular length and width are significant anatomical factors in determining stone clearance following ESWL treatment of lower calyceal stones and these should be assessed before planning the treatment for lower calyceal stones.

  11. Automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezan, M.I.; Tekalp, A.M.; Schaetzing, R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors propose a technique for automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm is applied to the image histogram to automatically determine a gray-level threshold between the lung and mediastinum fields. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter that varied asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast

  12. The clinical importance of the anatomic variations in the paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, Francisco Ribeiro; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Madeira, Ivana Andrade; Diniz, Renata Furletti; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval

    2008-01-01

    The anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses are common findings. The importance of such variations predisposing disease through the obstruction of the drainage pathway has been discussed by several authors, although it is not yet a matter of agreement. The literature was reviewed and a iconographic assay was prepared aiming the discussion of the importance of the main anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses. The prevalence of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses varies largely amongst studies and its role in sinus disease is controversial. In this article, it is described the different variations associated to paranasal disease and how they relate to pathologic conditions. Most studies confirm the concept that anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses are related to disease when they obstruct the drainage pathways. The knowledge of such alterations and its relations to pathologic conditions is expected from the general radiologist. (author)

  13. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  14. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  15. Distribution of major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg in the various anatomical parts of Fadama crops in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined in plant organs (bud, flowers, fruit, seed, leaves, stems, roots, cobs, styles, shaft, grains and efflorescences of three Fadama farms located in Ifaki-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti and Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The highest levels of Mg, K, Na and Ca were obtained in the bud of Hibiscus esculentus with respective values (ppm dry weight, ppm DW of 4397, 2983, 3928 and 1622; this was closely followed by their levels in Lycopersicon esculentum root: Mg (2734, K (1079, Na (2111 and Ca (678. The levels of all the elements were highly varied in the anatomical parts of each plant and between the various plants. The index of bioaccumulation (ratio in plants/soil was recorded for all the elements with all values falling within 1-101 showing that the degree of accumulation was intensive. The overall levels of the elements were Mg > Na > K > Ca.

  16. The development of medical museums in the antebellum American South: slave bodies in networks of anatomical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the American Civil War, museums were enthusiastically promoted in the annual circulars of southern medical colleges as valuable aids to medical education. Using case history narratives, medical college circulars, and announcements, this article examines the social origins of the region's collections of anatomical and pathological specimens and explores the professional agents and organizations responsible for their maintenance and development. The article is also concerned with exploring the racial framework in which these bodies and specimens were sourced and displayed. The social relations embodied in natural history and medical museum collections, and the emerging specialism of "negro medicine," were all elements of a context that subordinated and objectified blackness, as well as permitting and legitimizing the exploitation of black bodies. Medical museums function as a key case study for examining power relations among physicians, slaves, and slave owners, as well as underscoring southern medicine's dependence on slavery for its development.

  17. An examination of Aikido's Fourth Teaching: an anatomical study of the tissues of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G D; Seitz, F C

    1990-12-01

    One of the basic teachings of Aikido is known as Yonkyo (Fourth Teaching) or Tekubi-Osae (Wrist Securing). According to some Aikido master teachers, Yonkyo is designed to attack the opponent's weak points. This investigation focused on examining this teaching with the purpose of describing the anatomical tissues involved in the etiology of pain when this teaching is applied precisely. Particular focus was placed on the anatomical locations/sources of pain associated with the application of this teaching.

  18. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  19. A stem anatomical investigation of Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae species in Khorassan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Vaezi

    2014-04-01

    C. epithymum, C. pedicellata, C. lehmanniana var. lehmanniana and C. babylonica var. babylonica distributed in Khorassan provinces were investigated using the blue toluidine staining. Cross sections were provided by hand. Results showed that anatomical characters including stem diameter, position and distribution of vessels, number and size of vessels and number of parenchymatous layers were effective traits to taxonomically separate the species under study. Furthermore, the anatomical relationship between parasite and its host plant was examined.

  20. A Body Of Knowledge: The Wellcome Ayurvedic Anatomical Man And His Sanskrit Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wujastyk, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    A widely-known painting currently in the Wellcome Library (Iconographic 574912i) depicts an anatomical view of the male human body according to the tenets of classical Indian medicine, or ayurveda. The painting is surrounded by text passages in the Sanskrit language on medical and anatomical topics. In this paper, the Sanskrit texts are identified, edited, translated and assessed. I establish a terminus a quo for the painting, and explore the relationship of text and image.

  1. An Application of Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) Technology to Anatomic Dental Charting

    OpenAIRE

    Bartling, William C.; Schleyer, Titus K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Historically, an anatomic dental chart is a compilation of color-coded symbols and numbers used within a template, either paper or computerized, to create a graphic record of a patient’s oral health status. This poster depicts how Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology can be used to create an accurate, current anatomic dental chart that contains detailed information not present in current charting systems.

  2. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric; Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  3. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  4. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  5. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Červený, Č.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs

  6. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Červený, Č. [Vysoka Skola Veterinarni, Brno, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1985-06-15

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs.

  7. A quantitative comparison of the electrical and anatomical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Florian; Kühne, Michael; Reichlin, Tobias; Osswald, Stefan; Sticherling, Christian; Knecht, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Anatomically guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, the position where to confirm electrical isolation is ill-defined. The aim of the current study was to quantify the relationship between the anatomical and electrical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium. We analyzed 20 patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing PVI using radiofrequency energy and an electroanatomical mapping system. The anatomical ostium was defined based on the geometry obtained from preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The electrical ostium was defined at the position with a far-field atrial signal preceding a sharp pulmonary vein (PV) signal without any isoelectric interval in between. The electrically defined ostia were 8.4 ± 4.7 mm more distal in the PV compared to the anatomically defined ostia. The distances varied considerably between the four PVs and were 10.5 ± 6.5 mm, 7.4 ± 4.3 mm, 5.3 ± 4.0 mm, and 8.3 ± 3.4 mm for the left superior, left inferior, right superior, and right inferior PVs, respectively (P  =  0.009). The position of the electrical and anatomical ostium differs markedly. The site of the electrical ostium is variable within the PV but always more distal in the PV compared to the site of the anatomical ostium. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  9. Anatomic humeral head replacement with a press-fit prosthesis: An in vivo radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Vopat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful total shoulder arthroplasty is, in part, dependent on anatomic reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-operative anatomy of total shoulder arthroplasty with an anatomic implant design in patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis and compare it to published normative anatomic measurements. Fifty-one patients (56 shoulders with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis were treated with a press-fit humeral component as part of a total shoulder arthroplasty (Aequalis, Tornier, Edina, Minnesota. Analysis of postoperative true anterior posterior radiographs was performed with use of a custom software algorithm. The mean humeral inclination (head-shaft angle, mean humeral implant anatomical humeral axis, mean greater tuberosity height, and mean humeral head center offset (medial offset were 135.4±5.1°, 1.73±1.7°, 6.9±2.4 mm, and 3.8±1.8 mm, respectively. All parameters were within the ranges reported in the literature for normal shoulders except the mean humeral head center offset, which was less than reported in the literature. Anatomic parameters of a total shoulder arthroplasty can be achieved with an anatomically designed, modular adaptable press-fit design. Reduced medial humeral head center offset was likely dependent upon implant specific design parameters.

  10. Development of a patient-specific anatomical foot model from structured light scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Samuel J; Huissoon, Jan P; Bedi, Sanjeev S

    2014-01-01

    The use of anatomically accurate finite element (FE) models of the human foot in research studies has increased rapidly in recent years. Uses for FE foot models include advancing knowledge of orthotic design, shoe design, ankle-foot orthoses, pathomechanics, locomotion, plantar pressure, tissue mechanics, plantar fasciitis, joint stress and surgical interventions. Similar applications but for clinical use on a per-patient basis would also be on the rise if it were not for the high costs associated with developing patient-specific anatomical foot models. High costs arise primarily from the expense and challenges of acquiring anatomical data via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) and reconstructing the three-dimensional models. The proposed solution morphs detailed anatomy from skin surface geometry and anatomical landmarks of a generic foot model (developed from CT or MRI) to surface geometry and anatomical landmarks acquired from an inexpensive structured light scan of a foot. The method yields a patient-specific anatomical foot model at a fraction of the cost of standard methods. Average error for bone surfaces was 2.53 mm for the six experiments completed. Highest accuracy occurred in the mid-foot and lowest in the forefoot due to the small, irregular bones of the toes. The method must be validated in the intended application to determine if the resulting errors are acceptable.

  11. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  12. Comparative epidermal anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis Swart in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fajuke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis; N. biserrata, N. cordifolia, N. exaltata (i & (ii, N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata were carried out with a view to identify anatomic characters of taxonomic values. Both qualitative and quantitative anatomical studies were carried out. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Anatomical characters studied include venation patterns, trichome types, presence and absence of stomata and values of the stomatal index which are valuable in delimiting the species. The overall results showed overlaps in the quantitative anatomical attributes of the Nephrolepis taxa studied suggesting that they belong to the same genus. Qualitative anatomical attributes that separated the genus into distinct taxa are the presence of simple multicellular glandular trichomes in N. biserrata and simple multicellular non-glandular trichomes in N. exaltata (i and N. exalta (ii while N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata have simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes and absence of trichome in N. cordifolia. Presence of anisocytic, diacytic or anomocytic stomata were of diagnostic important in the six taxa.

  13. Changes of wood anatomical characters of selected species of Araucaria- during artificial charring - implications for palaeontology

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    Isa Carla Osterkamp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Charcoal is widely accepted as evidence of the occurrence of palaeo-wildfire. Although fossil charcoal remains have been used in many studies, investigation into the anatomical changes occurring during charring are few. The present study analyses changes in selected anatomical characters during artificial charring of modern wood of three species of the genus Araucaria (i.e. Araucaria angustifolia, Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria columnaris. Wood samples of the studied species was charred under controlled conditions at varying temperatures. Measurements of anatomical features of uncharred wood and artificial charcoal were statistically analysed. The anatomical changes were statistically correlated with charring temperatures and most of the parameters showed marked decreases with increasing charring temperature. Compared to the intrinsic variability in anatomical features, both within and between growth rings of an individual plant, the changes induced by temperature account only for a comparatively small percentage of the observed variability. Regarding Araucaria charcoal, it seems possible that at least general taxonomic and palaeoenvironmental implications can be drawn from such material. However, it is not clear so far whether these results and interpretations based on only three taxa, can be generalized for the entire family and anatomically similar fossil taxa or not.

  14. Spinning Gland Transcriptomics from Two Main Clades of Spiders (Order: Araneae) - Insights on Their Molecular, Anatomical and Behavioral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Bittencourt, Daniela; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Kirst, Matias; Motta, Paulo C.; Rech, Elibio L.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae) and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade). Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily) were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i) anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii) behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution. PMID:21738742

  15. Spinning gland transcriptomics from two main clades of spiders (order: Araneae--insights on their molecular, anatomical and behavioral evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    Full Text Available Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade. Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution.

  16. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  17. Sinonasal anatomical variations: their relationship with chronic rhinosinusitis and effect on the severity of disease-a computerized tomography assisted anatomical and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Ahmet; Haksever, Mehmet; Akduman, Davut; Aslan, Sündüs; Sayar, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    The anatomy of the sinonasal area has a very wide rage of anatomical variations. The significance of these anatomical variations in pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis, which is the commonest disease in the region, is still unclear. The aims of the study were to compare the rate of sinonasal anatomical variations with development and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. CT scan of paranasal sinuses images of 99 individuals were retrospectively reviewed. 65 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (study group) who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery were compared with 34 cases without chronic rhinosinusitis (control group). Also in study group Lund-Mackay score of the sinus disease were calculated and compared to the rate of related anatomical variations. There were 74 (74.7 %) males and 25 (25.2 %) females with ages ranging from 13 to 70 years (mean 32.2 years). The anatomical variations recorded were: Septal deviation 47 (72.3) in study and 25 (73.5 %) in control group, concha bullosa 27 (41.5 %) in study and 18 (52.9 %) in control group, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla 17 (26.1 %) in study and 14 (41.1 %) in control group, pneumatized uncinate 3 (4.6 %) in study and 3 (8.8 %) in control group, agger nasi 42 (64.6 %) in study and 19 (55.8 %) in control group, paradoxical middle turbinates 9 (13.8 %) in study and 4 (11.7 %) in control group, Onodi cell 6 (9.2 %) in study and 2 (5.8 %) in control group, Haller's cells (infraorbital ethmoid cell) 9 (13.8 %) in study and 7 (20.5 %) in control group. None of these results were statistically significant between study and control group (p > 0.05). Lund-Mackay score (which was assumed to show the severity of the disease) of the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinus were calculated and compared to rate of septal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi cells. No significant correlation was conducted (p > 0.05). The results of study showed no statistically significant correlation between sinonasal anatomical

  18. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. Method: The study was conducted by dissection of human cadavers’ popliteal fossa, fixed in 10% formalin, from the Laboratory of Human Anatomy and Morphology Departments of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas and Universidade de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas. Access to the sciatic nerve was obtained. Results: 44 popliteal fossa were analyzed. The bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in relation to the apex of the fossa was observed. There was bifurcation in: 67.96% below the apex, 15.90% above the apex, 11.36% near the apex, and 4.78% in the gluteal region. Conclusions: The sciatic nerve bifurcation to its branches occurs at various levels, and the chance to succeed when the needle is placed between 5 and 7 cm above the popliteal is 95.22%. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: Recentemente a feitura de bloqueio do nervo isquiático tem sido revista devido ao potencial benéfico para analgesia pós-operatória e satisfação dos pacientes após o advento da ultrassonografia. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as relações anatômicas do nervo isquiático na fossa poplítea para determinar a distância ideal em que a agulha deve ser posicionada para a feitura do bloqueio anestésico do nervo isquiático anterior a sua bifurcação em nervo tibial e fibular comum. Método: O trabalho foi feito por meio de dissecção de fossa poplítea de cadáveres humanos, fixados em formol a 10%, provenientes do Laboratório de Anatomia Humana dos departamentos de Morfologia da

  19. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  20. Anatomical and physical characteristics for Asian Reference Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro.

    1993-07-01

    Asian Reference Man was proposed that might represent people who inhabit Asia and are North, South East Mongoloid and South Caucasoid. They live in the region of average temperature, 10-30degC and live primarily on foods of plant-origin. Reference values were proposed for dimensions (body height, chest girth, sitting height and upper and lower limbs, etc.), masses (body weight, weight of internal organs and tissues) and body composition (body lipid, LBM, mineral, protein, body water) in relation to growth and maturation. Six age groups of interest in current radiation protection were taken, i.e. 0, 1 (infant), 5, 10 (child), 15 (adolescent or teen) and 20-50 years (adult). Some data were also given to the fetus. For females, however, data on masses of organs were somewhat limited. (author)

  1. The Molecular Differentiation of Anatomically Paired Left and Right Mantles of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Yuzhi; Cai, Zhongqiang; Yu, Wenchao; He, Cheng; Jiang, Qiuyun; Xu, Xiqiang; Guo, Wen; Wang, Xiaotong

    2018-03-28

    Left-right (L-R) asymmetry is controlled by gene regulation pathways for the L-R axis, and in vertebrates, the gene Pitx2 in TGF-β signaling pathway plays important roles in the asymmetrical formation of organs. However, less is known about the asymmetries of anatomically identical paired organs, as well as the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the gene Pitx in invertebrates. Here, we report the molecular biological differences between the left and right mantles of an invertebrate, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and propose one possible mechanism underlying those differences. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that the paired organs showed different gene expression patterns, suggesting possible functional differences in shell formation, pheromone signaling, nerve conduction, the stress response, and other physiological processes. RNA-seq and real-time qPCR analysis indicated high right-side expression of the Pitx homolog (cgPitx) in oyster mantle, supporting a conserved role for Pitx in controlling asymmetry. Methylation-dependent restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (MethylRAD) identified a methylation site in the promoter region of cgPitx and showed significantly different methylation levels between the left and right mantles. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of such a difference in methylation in spiralians, and it was further confirmed in 18 other individuals by using a pyrosequencing assay. The miRNome analysis and the TGF-β receptor/Smad inhibition experiment further supported that several genes in TGF-β signaling pathway may be related with the L/R asymmetry of oyster mantles. These results suggested that the molecular differentiation of the oyster's paired left and right mantles is significant, TGF-β signaling pathway could be involved in establishing or maintaining the asymmetry, and the cgPitx gene as one of genes in this pathway; the different methylation levels in its promoter regions between L/R mantles was

  2. Anatomical robust optimization to account for nasal cavity filling variation during intensity-modulated proton therapy: a comparison with conventional and adaptive planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Steven; Albertini, Francesca; Weber, Damien C.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lomax, Antony J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an anatomical robust optimization method for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that accounts for interfraction variations in nasal cavity filling, and to compare it with conventional single-field uniform dose (SFUD) optimization and online plan adaptation. We included CT data of five patients with tumors in the sinonasal region. Using the planning CT, we generated for each patient 25 ‘synthetic’ CTs with varying nasal cavity filling. The robust optimization method available in our treatment planning system ‘Erasmus-iCycle’ was extended to also account for anatomical uncertainties by including (synthetic) CTs with varying patient anatomy as error scenarios in the inverse optimization. For each patient, we generated treatment plans using anatomical robust optimization and, for benchmarking, using SFUD optimization and online plan adaptation. Clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) doses were assessed by recalculating the treatment plans on the synthetic CTs, evaluating dose distributions individually and accumulated over an entire fractionated 50 GyRBE treatment, assuming each synthetic CT to correspond to a 2 GyRBE fraction. Treatment plans were also evaluated using actual repeat CTs. Anatomical robust optimization resulted in adequate CTV doses (V95%  ⩾  98% and V107%  ⩽  2%) if at least three synthetic CTs were included in addition to the planning CT. These CTV requirements were also fulfilled for online plan adaptation, but not for the SFUD approach, even when applying a margin of 5 mm. Compared with anatomical robust optimization, OAR dose parameters for the accumulated dose distributions were on average 5.9 GyRBE (20%) higher when using SFUD optimization and on average 3.6 GyRBE (18%) lower for online plan adaptation. In conclusion, anatomical robust optimization effectively accounted for changes in nasal cavity filling during IMPT, providing substantially improved CTV and

  3. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.).

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    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Functional and anatomical correlates of word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo eInubushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In both vocal and sign languages, we can distinguish word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in terms of hierarchical processes, which integrate various elements into another higher level of constructs. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to test three language tasks in Japanese Sign Language (JSL: word-level (Word, sentence-level (Sent, and discourse-level (Disc decision tasks. We analyzed cortical activity and gray matter volumes of Deaf signers, and clarified three major points. First, we found that the activated regions in the frontal language areas gradually expanded in the dorso-ventral axis, corresponding to a difference in linguistic units for the three tasks. Moreover, the activations in each region of the frontal language areas were incrementally modulated with the level of linguistic integration. These dual mechanisms of the frontal language areas may reflect a basic organization principle of hierarchically integrating linguistic information. Secondly, activations in the lateral premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus were left-lateralized. Direct comparisons among the language tasks exhibited more focal activation in these regions, suggesting their functional localization. Thirdly, we found significantly positive correlations between individual task performances and gray matter volumes in localized regions, even when the ages of acquisition of JSL and Japanese were factored out. More specifically, correlations with the performances of the Word and Sent tasks were found in the left precentral/postcentral gyrus and insula, respectively, while correlations with those of the Disc task were found in the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. The unification of functional and anatomical studies would thus be fruitful for understanding human language systems from the aspects of both universality and individuality.

  5. Spatial Relation Between Left Atrial Anatomical Contact Areas and Circular Activation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Hori, Yuichi; Anjo, Naofumi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Komatsu, Takaaki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Fukui, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Taguchi, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Atrial low-voltage zones (LVZs) may be related to maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). The influence of left atrial (LA) contact areas (CoAs) on reentrant or rotor-like sources maintaining AF has not been investigated. Forty patients with persistent AF (PsAF) were analyzed. Three representative CoA regions in the LA (ascending aorta: anterior wall; descending aorta: left inferior pulmonary vein; and vertebrae: posterior wall) were visualized by enhanced CT. Using circular catheters, the LVZs (80% of the mean AF cycle length. A pivot was defined as the core of the localized circular activation. Anterior (39/40 patients, 98%), left pulmonary vein antrum (27/40, 68%), and posterior (19/40, 48%) CoAs were identified, and 80% (68/85) of those sites were overlapped by or close (<3 mm) to LVZs. Thirty-six (90%) patients demonstrated circular activation (3.1±1.7 sites/patients) along with significantly higher organized dominant frequencies (6.3 ± 0.5 Hz, regularity-index: 0.26 [0.23-0.41]) within the LA, and the average electrogram amplitude of those pivots was 0.30 mV (0.18-0.52). Of those sites, 55% (66/120) were located at or close to CoA regions. Catheter ablation including of LVZs neighboring CoAs terminated AF in 9 (23%) patients. External anatomical structures contacting the LA may be related to unique conduction properties in diseased myocardium necessary for PsAF maintenance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Head to head: The role of academic competition in undergraduate anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Roach, Victoria A; Wilson, Timothy D; Belliveau, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Competition is a key element in many educational games and is often adopted by educators in an effort to motivate and excite their students. Yet, the use of academic competition in educational institutions remains the subject of much debate. Opponents argue that academic competition causes an increase in student anxiety and divides their attention. However, if the contexts of academic competition are defined, could the inclusion of a game-like competition in a university course be a viable and beneficial method of engaging students? Students (n = 67) were recruited from an undergraduate human anatomy course at Western University. Using a crossover design, students were exposed to a competitive tournament either at the time of their first term test or second term test. The anatomical knowledge of participating students was assessed prior to the start of the study using a baseline anatomy test. Following treatment with an online competitive anatomy tournament, student's term test grades and final course grades were analyzed. Both the second term test scores (F(2,64) = 3.743, P = 0.029) and overall course grades (F(2,64) = 3.356, P = 0.041) were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) for individuals in the competitive group when compared to their non-competing peers. As suggested by the literature where organized competition in the classroom correlates to improved academic performance, this study uncovered significant results pertaining to increased academic performance resulting from participating in tournament-based competition. In light of these positive results, further exploration of the effects of academic competition on student performance across age brackets and disciplines is warranted. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  8. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  9. Anatomically preserved "strobili" and leaves from the Permian of China (Dorsalistachyaceae, fam. nov.) broaden knowledge of Noeggerathiales and constrain their possible taxonomic affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Jun; Bateman, Richard M; Spencer, Alan R T; Wang, Jun; Shao, Longyi; Hilton, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Noeggerathiales are an extinct group of heterosporous shrubs and trees that were widespread and diverse during the Pennsylvanian-Permian Epochs (323-252 Ma) but are of controversial taxonomic affinity. Groups proposed as close relatives include leptosporangiate ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, or the extant eusporangiate fern Tmesipteris. Previously identified noeggerathialeans lacked anatomical preservation, limiting taxonomic comparisons to their external morphology and spore structure. We here document from the upper Permian of China the first anatomically preserved noeggerathialeans, which enhance the perceived distinctiveness of the group and better indicate its systematic affinity. We describe in detail the newly discovered, anatomically preserved heterosporous strobilus Dorsalistachya quadrisegmentorum, gen. et sp. nov., and redescribe its suspected foliar correlate, the pinnate leaf Plagiozamites oblongifolius. Plagiozamites possesses an omega (Ω)-shaped vascular trace and prominent cortical secretory cavities-a distinctive anatomical organization that is echoed in the newly discovered strobili. Dorsalistachya strobili bear highly dissected sporophylls alternately in two vertical rows, suggesting that they are homologs of leaf pinnae. If so, the "strobilus" is strictly a pseudostrobilus and consists of sporangium-bearing units that are one hierarchical level below true sporophylls. The "sporophylls" bear four microsporangia on the lower (abaxial) surface, occasionally interspersed with short longitudinal rows of megasporangia. A single functional megaspore develops within each winged megasporangium, suggesting adaptation for dispersal as a single unit. Dorsalistachya presents a unique combination of reproductive features that amply justifies establishment of a new family, Dorsalistachyaceae. Noeggerathiales represent a distinct taxonomic Order of free-sporing plants that most resembles early-divergent eusporangiate ferns and the more derived among the

  10. Renal mass anatomic characteristics and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivian, Matvey; Ulusoy, Said; Abern, Michael; Wandel, Ayelet; Sidi, A Ami; Tsivian, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Anatomic parameters determining renal mass complexity have been used in a number of proposed scoring systems despite lack of a critical analysis of their independent contributions. We sought to assess the independent contribution of anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Preoperative imaging studies were reviewed for 147 consecutive patients undergoing LPN for a single renal mass. Renal mass anatomy was recorded: Size, growth pattern (endo-/meso-/exophytic), centrality (central/hilar/peripheral), anterior/posterior, lateral/medial, polar location. Multivariable models were used to determine associations of anatomic parameters with warm ischemia time (WIT), operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), intra- and postoperative complications, as well as renal function. All models were adjusted for the learning curve and relevant confounders. Median (range) tumor size was 3.3 cm (1.5-11 cm); 52% were central and 14% hilar. While 44% were exophytic, 23% and 33% were mesophytic and endophytic, respectively. Anatomic parameters did not uniformly predict perioperative outcomes. WIT was associated with tumor size (P=0.068), centrality (central, P=0.016; hilar, P=0.073), and endophytic growth pattern (P=0.017). OT was only associated with tumor size (Panatomic parameter predicted EBL. Tumor centrality increased the odds of overall and intraoperative complications, without reaching statistical significance. Postoperative renal function was not associated with any of the anatomic parameters considered after adjustment for baseline function and WIT. Learning curve, considered as a confounder, was independently associated with reduced WIT and OT as well as reduced odds of intraoperative complications. This study provides a detailed analysis of the independent impact of renal mass anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes. Our findings suggest diverse independent contributions of the anatomic parameters to the

  11. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  12. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  13. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  14. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  15. ArthroBroström Lateral Ankle Stabilization Technique: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Ortiz, Cristian; Golano, Pau; Nery, Caio

    2015-10-01

    Arthroscopic ankle lateral ligament repair techniques have recently been developed and biomechanically as well as clinically validated. Although there has been 1 anatomic study relating suture and anchor proximity to anatomic structures, none has evaluated the ArthroBroström procedure. To evaluate the proximity of anatomic structures for the ArthroBroström lateral ankle ligament stabilization technique and to define ideal landmarks and "safe zones" for this repair. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric ankle specimens (5 matched pairs) were screened for the study. All specimens underwent arthroscopic lateral ligament repair according to the previously described ArthroBroström technique with 2 suture anchors in the fibula. Three cadaveric specimens were used to test the protocol, and 7 were dissected to determine the proximity of anatomic structures. Several distances were measured, including those of different anatomic structures to the suture knots, to determine the "safe zones." Measurements were obtained by 2 separate observers, and statistical analysis was performed. None of the specimens revealed entrapment by either of the suture knots of the critical anatomic structures, including the superficial peroneal nerve (SPN), sural nerve, peroneus tertius tendon, peroneus brevis tendon, or peroneus longus tendon. The internervous safe zone between the intermediate branch of the SPN and sural nerve was a mean of 51 mm (range, 39-64 mm). The intertendinous safe zone between the peroneus tertius and peroneus brevis was a mean of 43 mm (range, 37-49 mm). On average, a 20-mm (range, 8-36 mm) safe distance was maintained from the most medial suture to the intermediate branch of the SPN. The amount of inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) grasped by either suture knot varied from 0 to 12 mm, with 86% of repairs including the retinaculum. The results indicate that there is a relatively wide internervous and intertendinous safe zone when performing the Arthro

  16. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  17. Anatomical sciences: A foundation for a solid learning experience in dental technology and dental prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Thompson, C Mark; Massadiq, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Basic science courses are extremely important as a foundation for scaffolding knowledge and then applying it in future courses, clinical situations as well as in a professional career. Anatomical sciences, which include tooth morphology, oral histology, oral embryology, and head and neck anatomy form a core part of the preclinical courses in dental technology programs. In this article, the importance and relevance of anatomical sciences to dental personnel with no direct contact with patients (dental technicians) and limited discipline related contact with patients (dental prosthetists) is highlighted. Some light is shed on the role of anatomical sciences in the pedagogical framework and its significance in the educational process and interprofessional learning of dental technicians and prosthetists using oral biology as an example in the dental curriculum. To conclude, anatomical sciences allow dental technicians and prosthetists to a gain a better insight of how tissues function, leading to a better understanding of diagnosis, comprehensive treatment planning and referrals if needed. Patient communication and satisfaction also increases as a result of this deep understanding of oral tissues. Anatomical sciences bridge the gap between basic science, preclinical, and clinical courses, which leads to a holistic approach in patient management. Finally, treatment outcomes are positively affected due to the appreciation of the macro and micro structure of oral tissues. Anat Sci Educ 10: 395-404. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  19. Anatomical image-guided fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction using kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhao, Yue; Fite, Brett Z.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an important in vivo imaging modality to visualize physiological and pathological processes in small animals. However, FMT reconstruction is ill-posed and ill-conditioned due to strong optical scattering in deep tissues, which results in poor spatial resolution. It is well known that FMT image quality can be improved substantially by applying the structural guidance in the FMT reconstruction. An approach to introducing anatomical information into the FMT reconstruction is presented using the kernel method. In contrast to conventional methods that incorporate anatomical information with a Laplacian-type regularization matrix, the proposed method introduces the anatomical guidance into the projection model of FMT. The primary advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require segmentation of targets in the anatomical images. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments have been performed to demonstrate the proposed approach’s feasibility. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed kernel method can separate two FMT targets with an edge-to-edge distance of 1 mm and is robust to false-positive guidance and inhomogeneity in the anatomical image. For the phantom experiments with two FMT targets, the kernel method has reconstructed both targets successfully, which further validates the proposed kernel method. PMID:28464120

  20. Comparison of leaf anatomical characteristics of hibiscus rosa-sinensis grown in faisalabad region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, A.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, T.; Iftikhar, T.; Mahmeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder's white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder's white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments. (author)

  1. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  2. X-ray pathological-anatomical diagnosis of bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone tumors is particularly difficult and requires specific knowledge and experience. This is done not only of clinical workers and X-ray specialists but also of pathologists, who are mostly unable to gather enough experience because those diseases are relatively rare. The specialities of the diagnosis of bone tumors are pointed out and the indispensable co-operation between the fields of work of clinical specialists, radiologists and pathologists is emphasized. Bone growths are classified according to the proposals of the World Health Organization, forming the basis for the subsequent therapy. An absolute pre-requisite for an exact diagnosis in the synopsis of the X-ray structures and the histologic findings. In various cases the dignity of a bone tumor cannot be determined; in such instances radical removal is recommended to preclude recidivation and possible malignity. In difficult cases a reference centre for bone tumors should be consulted. (orig.) [de

  3. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  4. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media Organization Fermilab Organization Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Line Organization LBNF Project Director LCLS-II

  5. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy; Creation et utilisation d'atlas anatomiques numeriques pour la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commowick, O

    2007-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  6. A team-based approach to autopsy education: integrating anatomic and clinical pathology at the rotation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Tiffany Michele; Maleki, Sara; Vasovic, Ljiljana V; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Steinberg, Jacob J; Prystowsky, Michael B

    2014-03-01

    Pathology residency training programs should aim to teach residents to think beyond the compartmentalized data of specific rotations and synthesize data in order to understand the whole clinical picture when interacting with clinicians. To test a collaborative autopsy procedure at Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York), linking residents and attending physicians from anatomic and clinical pathology in the autopsy process from the initial chart review to the final report. Residents consult with clinical pathology colleagues regarding key clinical laboratory findings during the autopsy. This new procedure serves multiple functions: creating a team-based, mutually beneficial educational experience; actively teaching consultative skills; and facilitating more in-depth analysis of the clinical laboratory findings in autopsies. An initial trial of the team-based autopsy system was done from November 2010 to December 2012. Residents were then surveyed via questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and perceived usefulness of clinical pathology autopsy consultations. Senior residents were the most frequent users of clinical pathology autopsy consultation. The most frequently consulted services were microbiology and chemistry. Eighty-nine percent of the residents found the clinical pathology consultation to be useful in arriving at a final diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation. The team-based autopsy is a novel approach to integration of anatomic and clinical pathology curricula at the rotation level. Residents using this approach develop a more holistic approach to pathology, better preparing them for meaningful consultative interaction with clinicians. This paradigm shift in training positions us to better serve in our increasing role as arbiters of outcomes measures in accountable care organizations.

  7. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats...

  8. Diagnosis and management of piriformis syndrome: a rare anatomic variant analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Ro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon condition that causes significant pain in the posterior lower buttocks and leg due to entrapment of the sciatic nerve at the level of the piriformis muscle. In the typical anatomical presentation, the sciatic nerve exits directly ventral and inferior to the piriformis muscle and continues down the posterior leg. Several causes that have been linked to this condition include trauma, differences in leg length, hip arthroplasty, inflammation, neoplastic mass effect, and anatomic variations. A female presented with left-sided lower back and buttock pain with radiation down the posterior leg. After magnetic resonance imaging was performed, an uncommon sciatic anatomical form was identified. Although research is limited, surgical intervention shows promising results for these conditions. Accurate diagnosis and imaging modalities may help in the appropriate management of these patients.

  9. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  10. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sun Young; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; Suh, Sang Gyung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  11. Extractive and anatomical wood structure effects on mechanical properties of Caoba wood (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo Fuentes Rosven Libardo; Hernandez Roger

    2008-01-01

    The compression tangential to grain of samples of mahogany wood from Peru was examined at different relative humidity levels at 25 Celsius degrade to determine the influence of both extractives and anatomical structure. Matched samples were used to assess the percentage of extractive components by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and hot water. Additionally, fourteen anatomical parameters were determined by image analysis. Stepwise regression analysis concluded that mainly anatomical features, such as rays and vessels, rather than extractives, affect the mechanical behaviour of mahogany. These findings are agree with earlier results showing a negative effect of large and multiseriate rays on the mechanical properties of wood when loaded perpendicularly to their long axis. The influence of lumen located extracts soluble in dichloromethane might disallow deformations. Finally, it is postulated that hot water extracts may play a plasticizing role in this species.

  12. Laparoscopic Cryoablation Of Small Renal Tumors – Does Anatomical Tumor Complexity Affect Treatment Outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Andersen, Gratien

    risk in relation to nephron sparing surgery, but they may also be useful when planning cryoablation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented by a high PADUA-score (≥10), carried a higher risk of residual unablated tumor...... compared to patients with a less anatomical complex tumor when treated with laparoscopic cryoablation. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 120 patients with a single biopsy-verified pT1a renal tumor, treated with primary laparoscopic cryoablation between....... This relative risk of 2.9 (95%CI 1.1;7.6) was statistically significant (p=0.03). The mean follow-up time from treatment to diagnosis of treatment failure was 13 months (95%CI 8;18), which was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented...

  13. Laparoscopic Cryoablation Of Small Renal Tumors – Does Anatomical Tumor Complexity Effect Treatment Outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Andersen, Gratien

    risk in relation to nephron sparing surgery, but they may also be useful when planning cryoablation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented by a high PADUA-score (≥10), carried a higher risk of residual unablated tumor...... compared to patients with a less anatomical complex tumor when treated with laparoscopic cryoablation. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 120 patients with a single biopsy-verified pT1a renal tumor, treated with primary laparoscopic cryoablation between....... This relative risk of 2.9 (95%CI 1.1;7.6) was statistically significant (p=0.03). The mean follow-up time from treatment to diagnosis of treatment failure was 13 months (95%CI 8;18), which was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented...

  14. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  15. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Feleppa, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  16. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  17. The oblique occipital sinus: anatomical study using bone subtraction 3D CT venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Choi, Dae Seob; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Jeong Yeol; Park, SungEun

    2017-06-01

    An occipital sinus draining into the sigmoid sinus has been termed the oblique occipital sinus (OOS). The frequency, anatomical features, patterns, and relationship with the transverse sinus of the oblique occipital sinus were analyzed in this study. The study included 1805 patients who underwent brain CT angiography during a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. CT examinations were performed using a 64-slice MDCT system. The OOS was identified in 41 patients (2.3%). There were many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinuses. A hypoplastic or aplastic TS was seen in 31 (75.6%) of the 41 patients with OOS. Many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinus can be seen on CT venography. Some OOSs function as the main drainage route of the intracranial veins instead of the TS. Thus, careful examination is essential for preoperative evaluation in posterior fossa lesions.

  18. Anatomic study of celiac ganglia using CT in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qionghui; Zhang Xiaoming; Zeng Nanlin; Cai Changping; Xie Xingguo; Li Chengjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the celiac ganglia in cadavers by using current CT techniques, and to facilitate its identification in vivo by CT. Methods: Fifty cadavers were dissected, moving peritoneal organs such as liver and stomach to expose the celiac ganglia. The location, morphology, and dimensions of celiac ganglia, and their relationship to abutting structures, were noted. The celiac ganglia in 6 of the 50 cadavers without peripancreatic diseases and with clear anatomy were isolated and marked with yellow dye and Iohexol injection. In these 6 cadavers, the moved organs were relocated, the abdomen was closed, and CT was performed. CT derived measurements of celiac ganglia were compared with those from cadavers study. Results: The celiac ganglia of 47 of 50 cadavers (94%) were located between T12-L1, and those of 3 cadavers (6%) were located between T11-12. The superior-inferior diameter of the right ganglia was (25.01 ±6.09) mm, long (left-right) diameter was (13.18 ± 3.62) mm, and short (thickness) diameter was (1.40 ± 0.55) mm. In the left ganglia, these three diameters were (22.74 ± 5.70) mm, (15.07 ± 4.35) mm, and (2.00 ± 0.71 ) mm, respectively. On the CT images of 6 cadavers, the right and left ganglia were all identified and were hyperdense relative to viscus, such as liver and spleen. The long and short diameters on CT images were (15.20 ± 1.64) mm and (1.53 ± 0.52) mm for the right ganglia and (16.25 ± 1.73 ) mm and (2.20 ± 0.73) mm for the left ganglia. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ganglia measured on CT images and by dissection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current CT techniques can demonstrate accurately the celiac ganglia in cadavers. This can be a reference for identifying the celiac plexus in vivo. (authors)

  19. Prevalence of anatomical variations in maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepjyoti K Mudgade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maxillary sinuses (MS are of particular importance to dentist because of their close proximity to the teeth and their associated structures, so increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with periapical abscess, periodontal diseases, dental trauma, tooth extraction, and implant placement. Complications of MS are related to its anatomic and pathologic variations. Thus, study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anatomic variations in MS by using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT. Aims and Objectives: To determine different anatomical variations in MS by using CBCT. Materials and Methods: CBCT scans of 150 subjects were collected between the age group of 18 years to 70 years and were analyzed for MS anatomical variation. Statistical Analysis: The distribution of age, sex, reasons for CBCT, and dimensions of sinus calculated using descriptive statistics and distribution of other anatomic findings using Chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of obstructed ostium is 23.3% and septa is 66.7%. Average height, width, and antero-posterior (A-P dimensions for right MS are 34.13 mm, 26.09 mm, 37.39 mm and that of left MS are 33.24 mm, 26.11 mm, 37.72 mm respectively. Average distance between lower border of ostium to sinus