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Sample records for cortical source localization

  1. Evaluation of Electroencephalography Source Localization Algorithms with Multiple Cortical Sources.

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    Bradley, Allison; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Jules; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Source localization algorithms often show multiple active cortical areas as the source of electroencephalography (EEG). Yet, there is little data quantifying the accuracy of these results. In this paper, the performance of current source density source localization algorithms for the detection of multiple cortical sources of EEG data has been characterized. EEG data were generated by simulating multiple cortical sources (2-4) with the same strength or two sources with relative strength ratios of 1:1 to 4:1, and adding noise. These data were used to reconstruct the cortical sources using current source density (CSD) algorithms: sLORETA, MNLS, and LORETA using a p-norm with p equal to 1, 1.5 and 2. Precision (percentage of the reconstructed activity corresponding to simulated activity) and Recall (percentage of the simulated sources reconstructed) of each of the CSD algorithms were calculated. While sLORETA has the best performance when only one source is present, when two or more sources are present LORETA with p equal to 1.5 performs better. When the relative strength of one of the sources is decreased, all algorithms have more difficulty reconstructing that source. However, LORETA 1.5 continues to outperform other algorithms. If only the strongest source is of interest sLORETA is recommended, while LORETA with p equal to 1.5 is recommended if two or more of the cortical sources are of interest. These results provide guidance for choosing a CSD algorithm to locate multiple cortical sources of EEG and for interpreting the results of these algorithms.

  2. Sparse cortical source localization using spatio-temporal atoms.

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    Korats, Gundars; Ranta, Radu; Le Cam, Steven; Louis-Dorr, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of sparse localization of cortical sources from scalp EEG recordings. Localization algorithms use propagation model under spatial and/or temporal constraints, but their performance highly depends on the data signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this work we propose a dictionary based sparse localization method which uses a data driven spatio-temporal dictionary to reconstruct the measurements using Single Best Replacement (SBR) and Continuation Single Best Replacement (CSBR) algorithms. We tested and compared our methods with the well-known MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC algorithms on simulated realistic data. Tests were carried out for different noise levels. The results show that our method has a strong advantage over MUSIC-type methods in case of synchronized sources.

  3. A Space-Time-Frequency Dictionary for Sparse Cortical Source Localization.

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    Korats, Gundars; Le Cam, Steven; Ranta, Radu; Louis-Dorr, Valerie

    2016-09-01

    Cortical source imaging aims at identifying activated cortical areas on the surface of the cortex from the raw electroencephalogram (EEG) data. This problem is ill posed, the number of channels being very low compared to the number of possible source positions. In some realistic physiological situations, the active areas are sparse in space and of short time durations, and the amount of spatio-temporal data to carry the inversion is then limited. In this study, we propose an original data driven space-time-frequency (STF) dictionary which takes into account simultaneously both spatial and time-frequency sparseness while preserving smoothness in the time frequency (i.e., nonstationary smooth time courses in sparse locations). Based on these assumptions, we take benefit of the matching pursuit (MP) framework for selecting the most relevant atoms in this highly redundant dictionary. We apply two recent MP algorithms, single best replacement (SBR) and source deflated matching pursuit, and we compare the results using a spatial dictionary and the proposed STF dictionary to demonstrate the improvements of our multidimensional approach. We also provide comparison using well-established inversion methods, FOCUSS and RAP-MUSIC, analyzing performances under different degrees of nonstationarity and signal to noise ratio. Our STF dictionary combined with the SBR approach provides robust performances on realistic simulations. From a computational point of view, the algorithm is embedded in the wavelet domain, ensuring high efficiency in term of computation time. The proposed approach ensures fast and accurate sparse cortical localizations on highly nonstationary and noisy data.

  4. Linear distributed source modeling of local field potentials recorded with intra-cortical electrode arrays.

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    Rikkert Hindriks

    Full Text Available Planar intra-cortical electrode (Utah arrays provide a unique window into the spatial organization of cortical activity. Reconstruction of the current source density (CSD underlying such recordings, however, requires "inverting" Poisson's equation. For inter-laminar recordings, this is commonly done by the CSD method, which consists in taking the second-order spatial derivative of the recorded local field potentials (LFPs. Although the CSD method has been tremendously successful in mapping the current generators underlying inter-laminar LFPs, its application to planar recordings is more challenging. While for inter-laminar recordings the CSD method seems reasonably robust against violations of its assumptions, is it unclear as to what extent this holds for planar recordings. One of the objectives of this study is to characterize the conditions under which the CSD method can be successfully applied to Utah array data. Using forward modeling, we find that for spatially coherent CSDs, the CSD method yields inaccurate reconstructions due to volume-conducted contamination from currents in deeper cortical layers. An alternative approach is to "invert" a constructed forward model. The advantage of this approach is that any a priori knowledge about the geometrical and electrical properties of the tissue can be taken into account. Although several inverse methods have been proposed for LFP data, the applicability of existing electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG inverse methods to LFP data is largely unexplored. Another objective of our study therefore, is to assess the applicability of the most commonly used EEG/MEG inverse methods to Utah array data. Our main conclusion is that these inverse methods provide more accurate CSD reconstructions than the CSD method. We illustrate the inverse methods using event-related potentials recorded from primary visual cortex of a macaque monkey during a motion discrimination task.

  5. A cortical source localization analysis of resting EEG data after remifentanil infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodayari-Rostamabad, Ahmad; Graversen, Carina; Malver, Lasse P

    2015-01-01

    in several brain areas including inferior frontal gyrus and insula at frontal lobe oscillated more strongly after remifentanil infusion compared to placebo. Furthermore, the source activity at delta band was correlated with continuous reaction time index. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that alterations...... in brain oscillations during remifentanil are mostly localized to frontal, fronto-temporal and fronto-central lobes and related to cognitive function. SIGNIFICANCE: The approach offers the potential to be used for understanding the underlying mechanism of action of remifentanil on brain activity....

  6. Hybrid MEG (Magnetoencephalography) source characterization by cortical remapping and imaging of parametric source models

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    Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Jerbi, K. (Karim); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    Reliable estimation of the local spatial extent of neural activity is a key to the quantitative analysis of MEG sources across subjects and conditions. In association with an understanding of the temporal dynamics among multiple areas, this would represent a major advance in electrophysiological source imaging. Parametric current dipole approaches to MEG (and EEG) source localization can rapidly generate a physical model of neural current generators using a limited number of parameters. However, physiological interpretation of these models is often difficult, especially in terms of the spatial extent of the true cortical activity. In new approaches using multipolar source models [3, 5], similar problems remain in the analysis of the higher-order source moments as parameters of cortical extent. Image-based approaches to the inverse problem provide a direct estimate of cortical current generators, but computationally expensive nonlinear methods are required to produce focal sources [1,4]. Recent efforts describe how a cortical patch can be grown until a best fit to the data is reached in the least-squares sense [6], but computational considerations necessitate that the growth be seeded in predefined regions of interest. In a previous study [2], a source obtained using a parametric model was remapped onto the cortex by growing a patch of cortical dipoles in the vicinity of the parametric source until the forward MEG or EEG fields of the parametric and cortical sources matched. The source models were dipoles and first-order multipoles. We propose to combine the parametric and imaging methods for MEG source characterization to take advantage of (i) the parsimonious and computationally efficient nature of parametric source localization methods and (ii) the anatomical and physiological consistency of imaging techniques that use relevant a priori information. By performing the cortical remapping imaging step by matching the multipole expansions of the original parametric

  7. Electrophysiological Data and the Biophysical Modelling of Local Cortical Circuits

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    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-03-01

    empirical MEG data and looked for potential determinants of the spectral properties of an individual's gamma response, and how they relate to underlying visual cortex microcircuitry and excitation/inhibition balance. We found correlations between peak gamma frequency and cortical inhibition (parameterized by the excitatory drive to inhibitory cell populations over subjects. This constitutes a compelling illustration of how non-invasive data can provide quantitative estimates of the spatial properties of neural sources and explain systematic variations in the dynamics those sources generate. Furthermore, the conclusions fitted comfortably with studies of contextual interactions and orientation discrimination suggesting that local contextual interactions in V1 are weaker in individuals with a large V1 area [13, 14]. Finally, we will use dynamic causal modeling and neural fields to test specific hypotheses about precision and gain control based on predictive coding formulations of neuronal processing. We exploited finely sampled electrophysiological responses from awake-behaving monkeys and an experimental manipulation (the contrast of visual stimuli to look at changes in the gain and balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences. Our results suggest that increasing contrast effectively increases the sensitivity or gain of superficial pyramidal cells to inputs from spiny stellate populations. Furthermore, they are consistent with intriguing results showing that the receptive fields of V1 units shrinks with increasing visual contrast. The approach we will illustrate in this paper rests on neural field models that are optimized in relation to observed gamma responses from the visual cortex and are – crucially – compared in terms of their evidence. This provides a principled way to address questions about cortical structure, function and the architectures that underlie neuronal computations.

  8. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Friberg, L

    1985-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the....... The activation of the right midtemporal cortex was attributed to the retrieval of the nonverbal auditory memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...... study was taken with the subjects at rest. Then the rCBF was measured during three different simple algorithm tasks, each consisting of retrieval of a specific memory followed by a simple operation on the retrieved information. Once started, the information processing went on in the brain without any......CBF increases extended over a few square centimeters of the cortex. The activation of the superior prefrontal cortex was attributed to the organization of thinking. The activation of the angular cortex in 50-3 thinking was attributed to the retrieval of the numerical memory and memory for subtractions...

  9. Cortical sources of Vernier acuity in the human visual system: An EEG-source imaging study

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    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Verghese, Preeti

    2017-01-01

    Vernier acuity determines the relative position of visual features with a precision better than the sampling resolution of cone receptors in the retina. Because Vernier displacement is thought to be mediated by orientation-tuned mechanisms, Vernier acuity is presumed to be processed in striate visual cortex (V1). However, there is considerable evidence suggesting that Vernier acuity is dependent not only on structures in V1 but also on processing in extrastriate cortical regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging–informed electroencephalogram source imaging to localize the cortical sources of Vernier acuity in observers with normal vision. We measured suprathreshold and near-threshold responses to Vernier onset/offset stimuli at different stages of the visual cortical hierarchy, including V1, hV4, lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and middle temporal cortex (hMT+). These responses were compared with responses to grating on/off stimuli, as well as to stimuli that control for lateral motion in the Vernier task. Our results show that all visual cortical regions of interest (ROIs) responded to both suprathreshold Vernier and grating stimuli. However, thresholds for Vernier displacement (Vernier acuity) were lowest in V1 and LOC compared with hV4 and hMT+, whereas all visual ROIs had identical thresholds for spatial frequency (grating acuity) and for relative motion. The cortical selectivity of sensitivity to Vernier displacement provides strong evidence that LOC, in addition to V1, is involved in Vernier acuity processing. The robust activation of LOC might be related to the sensitivity to the relative position of features, which is common to Vernier displacement and to some kinds of texture segmentation. PMID:28586896

  10. Cortical sources of awake scalp EEG in eating disorders.

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    Rodriguez, Guido; Babiloni, Claudio; Brugnolo, Andrea; Del Percio, Claudio; Cerro, Fabrizio; Gabrielli, Filippo; Girtler, Nicola; Nobili, Flavio; Murialdo, Giovanni; Rossini, Paolo M; Rossi, Davide Sebastiano; Baruzzi, Chiara; Ferro, Antonio Maria

    2007-06-01

    To investigate quantitative EEG (qEEG) in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in comparison with healthy controls. Resting EEG was recorded in 30 healthy females (age: 27.1+/-5.5), 16-AN females (age: 26.4+/-9.5) and 12-BN females (age: 27.0+/-6.3). Cortical EEG sources (delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2) were modeled by LORETA solutions. The statistical analysis was performed considering the factors Group, power Band, and region of interest (central, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic). Alpha 1 sources in central, parietal, occipital and limbic areas showed a greater amplitude in Controls versus AN and BN groups. Alpha 2 sources in parietal, occipital and limbic areas showed a greater amplitude in Controls than in both AN and BN groups. Alpha 1 sources in temporal area showed a greater amplitude in Controls compared to both the BN and AN groups as well as in the BN group compared to AN group. Central alpha 1 source correlated significantly with BMI in patients. These results support the hypothesis that eating disorders are related to altered mechanisms of cortical neural synchronization, especially in rolandic alpha rhythms. To our knowledge this is the first study by LORETA able to detect modifications of cortical EEG activity in eating disorders.

  11. Localization of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Coherence

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    P. Sovka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a method based on coherence analysis and scalp mapping of coherence suitable for more accurate localization of cortical oscillations induced by electric stimulation of the dorsal spinal cord (SCS, which were previously detected using spectral analysis. While power spectral density shows the increase of power during SCS only at small number of electrodes, coherence extends this area and sharpens its boundary simultaneously. Parameters of the method were experimentally optimized to maximize its reliability. SCS is applied to suppress chronic, intractable pain by patients, whom pharmacotherapy does not relieve. In our study, the pain developed in lower back and lower extremity as the result of unsuccessful vertebral discotomy, which is called failed-back surgery syndrome (FBSS. Our method replicated the results of previous analysis using PSD and extended them with more accurate localization of the area influenced by SCS.

  12. Cortical localization of cognitive function by regression of performance on event-related potentials.

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    Montgomery, R W; Montgomery, L D; Guisado, R

    1992-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a new method of mapping cortical localization of cognitive function, using electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Cross-subject regression analyses are used to identify cortical sites and post-stimulus latencies where there is a high correlation between subjects' performance and their cognitive event-related potential (ERP) amplitude. The procedure was tested using a mental arithmetic task and was found to identify essentially the same cortical regions that have been associated with such tasks on the basis of research with patients suffering localized cortical lesions. Thus, it appears to offer an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for exploring the dynamics of localization in neurologically normal subjects.

  13. Cortical localization of cognitive function by regression of performance on event-related potentials

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    Montgomery, R. W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Guisado, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new method of mapping cortical localization of cognitive function, using electroencephalographic data. Cross-subject regression analyses are used to identify cortical sites and post-stimulus latencies where there is a high correlation between subjects' performance and their cognitive event-related potential amplitude. The procedure was tested using a mental arithmetic task and was found to identify essentially the same cortical regions that have been associated with such tasks on the basis of research with patients suffering localized cortical lesions. Thus, it appears to offer an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for exploring the dynamics of localization in neurologically normal subjects.

  14. Trends in EEG source localization.

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    Koles, Z J

    1998-02-01

    The concepts underlying the quantitative localization of the sources of the EEG inside the brain are reviewed along with the current and emerging approaches to the problem. The concepts mentioned include monopolar and dipolar source models and head models ranging from the spherical to the more realistic based on boundary and finite elements. The forward and inverse problems in electroencephalography are discussed, including the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem. The approaches to the solution of the inverse problem described include single and multiple time-slice localization, equivalent dipole localization and the weighted minimum norm. The multiple time-slice localization approach is highlighted as probably the best available at this time and is discussed in terms of the spatiotemporal model of the EEG. The effect of noise corruption, artifacts and the number of recording electrodes on the accuracy of source localization is also mentioned. It is suggested that the main appeal of the minimum norm is that it does not assume a model for the sources and provides an estimate of the current density everywhere in the three dimensional volume of the head.

  15. Multidrug Resistance-Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Function and Localization Depend on Cortical Actin

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    Hummel, Ina; Klappe, Karin; Ercan, Cigdem; Kok, Jan Willem

    MRP1 (ABCC1) is known to be localized in lipid rafts. Here we show in two different cell lines that localization of Mrp1/MRP1 (Abcc1/ABCC1) in lipid rafts and its function as an efflux pump are dependent on cortical actin. Latrunculin B disrupts both cortical actin and actin stress fibers. This

  16. [Visualization of local cortical defects in Charcot foot using microcomputed tomography].

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    Senck, S; Plank, B; Kastner, J; Ramadani, F; Trieb, K; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy (Charcot's foot) fractures cause chronic destruction of soft tissue and bone structure. To improve an early diagnosis of Charcot foot, modern diagnostic imaging is mainly based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for example in relation to the detection of cortical bone fractures. In this study we investigated the cortical microstructure in cases of Charcot foot with respect to fractures and porosity in order to visualize local cortical defects. This may substantiate recent efforts in a reclassification based on MRI. Using microcomputed tomography (microCT) we investigated bone parameters, such as cortical thickness and porosity in order to quantify the local metatarsal microstructure in cases of Charcot foot. All bone samples showed a high degree of cortical porosity including pores that perforated the cortical bone. The data suggest that areas with reduced cortical thickness coincide with large cortical pores that may serve as initial points for fractures. Whether the detected microfractures are physiological or artefacts of preparation could not be determined. By means of microCT we were able to visualize and quantify the extent of cortical porosity for the first time in high resolution. The data suggest that both cortical fractures and cortical porosity play an important role in the pathogenesis in cases of Charcot foot.

  17. Automatic localization of cerebral cortical malformations using fractal analysis

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    De Luca, A.; Arrigoni, F.; Romaniello, R.; Triulzi, F. M.; Peruzzo, D.; Bertoldo, A.

    2016-08-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) encompass a variety of brain disorders affecting the normal development and organization of the brain cortex. The relatively low incidence and the extreme heterogeneity of these disorders hamper the application of classical group level approaches for the detection of lesions. Here, we present a geometrical descriptor for a voxel level analysis based on fractal geometry, then define two similarity measures to detect the lesions at single subject level. The pipeline was applied to 15 normal children and nine pediatric patients affected by MCDs following two criteria, maximum accuracy (WACC) and minimization of false positives (FPR), and proved that our lesion detection algorithm is able to detect and locate abnormalities of the brain cortex with high specificity (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  96%), sensitivity (WACC  =  83%, FPR  =  63%) and accuracy (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  90%). The combination of global and local features proves to be effective, making the algorithm suitable for the detection of both focal and diffused malformations. Compared to other existing algorithms, this method shows higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  18. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

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    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  19. Localized cortical bone sclerosis and intramedullar linear sclerosis in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuur, E.; Hjarbaek, J.; Teisen, H.

    1988-01-01

    A case of localised cortical bone sclerosis of the left tibia and intramedullar linear sclerosis in the left femur, in association with neurofibromatosis in a 25-year-old female, is presented. The differential diagnostic problems in relation to bone tumours are emphasised. (orig.) [de

  20. Real-Time MEG Source Localization Using Regional Clustering.

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    Dinh, Christoph; Strohmeier, Daniel; Luessi, Martin; Güllmar, Daniel; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2015-11-01

    With its millisecond temporal resolution, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is well suited for real-time monitoring of brain activity. Real-time feedback allows the adaption of the experiment to the subject's reaction and increases time efficiency by shortening acquisition and off-line analysis. Two formidable challenges exist in real-time analysis: the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limited time available for computations. Since the low SNR reduces the number of distinguishable sources, we propose an approach which downsizes the source space based on a cortical atlas and allows to discern the sources in the presence of noise. Each cortical region is represented by a small set of dipoles, which is obtained by a clustering algorithm. Using this approach, we adapted dynamic statistical parametric mapping for real-time source localization. In terms of point spread and crosstalk between regions the proposed clustering technique performs better than selecting spatially evenly distributed dipoles. We conducted real-time source localization on MEG data from an auditory experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed real-time method localizes sources reliably in the superior temporal gyrus. We conclude that real-time source estimation based on MEG is a feasible, useful addition to the standard on-line processing methods, and enables feedback based on neural activity during the measurements.

  1. Cortical cholinergic innervation: Distribution and source in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, R.G.; Cork, L.C.; Coyle, J.T.; Lehmann, J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Price, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its late-life variant, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), the predominant neurochemical abnormalities are marked decrements in the activities of ChAT and AChE, the high affinity uptake of tritium-choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine. Two studies are undertaken to delineate more clearly the variability of cortical cholinergic innervation and the contribution of the Ch system, particularly the Ch4, to this cholinergic innervation. In the first study, ChAT activity was assessed in multiple samples of neocortex from seven normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the second study, the nbM was lesioned in order to determine the contribution of the Ch system to cortical cholinergic innervation

  2. Escaping "localisms" in IT sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mola, L.; Carugati, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are limited in their choices by the institutional environment in which they operate. This is particularly true for IT sourcing decisions that go beyond cost considerations and are constrained by traditions, geographical location, and social networks. This article investigates how...

  3. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal ...

  4. Clinical and imaging characteristics of localized megalencephaly: a retrospective comparison of diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahashi, Masumi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, Noriko; Ota, Miho [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Yagishita, Akira [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Yoshiaki; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Child Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Natsume, Jun [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Hemimegalencephaly is a well-known congenital malformation. However, localized megalencephaly, which may be one of the subtypes of hemimegalencephaly, has not been separately investigated. In the present study, we attempted to characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of localized megalencephaly in comparison with ordinary diffuse hemimegalencephaly and multilobar cortical dysplasia. MR findings for 43 patients with hemimegalencephaly and ten with multilobar cortical dysplasia, which is the differential diagnosis of localized megalencephaly, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings such as the onset and severity of seizures and imaging findings including the affected area of the brain, structures outside of the hemisphere, and interval morphological changes were examined. Of the 43 patients, 11 showed signs of localized megalencephaly (25.6%). Localized megalencephaly was predominantly seen on the left side (72.7%) and had a tendency toward severe-grade seizures compared to multilobar cortical dysplasia. The frequencies of the extracerebral abnormalities in the diffuse hemimegalencephaly, localized megalencephaly, and multilobar cortical dysplasia groups were 84.4%, 36.4%, and 0.0%, respectively. There were three localized megalencephaly patients whose affected areas shrank and whose images were similar to those of multilobar cortical dysplasia. Localized megalencephaly accounts for one quarter of all hemimegalencephaly cases in this study. The incidence of extracerebral abnormalities in patients with localized hemimegalencephaly was almost half that of patients with diffuse hemimegalencephaly. Extracerebral abnormalities were absent in patients with multilobar cortical dysplasia. Associated extracerebral abnormalities may be a clue to differentiating localized megalencephaly from multilobar cortical dysplasia. (orig.)

  5. Stochastic resonance modulates neural synchronization within and between cortical sources.

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    Lawrence M Ward

    Full Text Available Neural synchronization is a mechanism whereby functionally specific brain regions establish transient networks for perception, cognition, and action. Direct addition of weak noise (fast random fluctuations to various neural systems enhances synchronization through the mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR. Moreover, SR also occurs in human perception, cognition, and action. Perception, cognition, and action are closely correlated with, and may depend upon, synchronized oscillations within specialized brain networks. We tested the hypothesis that SR-mediated neural synchronization occurs within and between functionally relevant brain areas and thus could be responsible for behavioral SR. We measured the 40-Hz transient response of the human auditory cortex to brief pure tones. This response arises when the ongoing, random-phase, 40-Hz activity of a group of tuned neurons in the auditory cortex becomes synchronized in response to the onset of an above-threshold sound at its "preferred" frequency. We presented a stream of near-threshold standard sounds in various levels of added broadband noise and measured subjects' 40-Hz response to the standards in a deviant-detection paradigm using high-density EEG. We used independent component analysis and dipole fitting to locate neural sources of the 40-Hz response in bilateral auditory cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus. We found that added noise enhanced the 40-Hz response in all these areas. Moreover, added noise also increased the synchronization between these regions in alpha and gamma frequency bands both during and after the 40-Hz response. Our results demonstrate neural SR in several functionally specific brain regions, including areas not traditionally thought to contribute to the auditory 40-Hz transient response. In addition, we demonstrated SR in the synchronization between these brain regions. Thus, both intra- and inter-regional synchronization of neural

  6. G protein regulator 1 (GPR-1) localizes to cortical sites of artificial mechanical indentation in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes.

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    Bringmann, Henrik

    2012-10-01

    Cytokinesis and spindle positioning require the cortical force regulator G Protein Regulator 1/2 (GPR-1/2). GPR-1/2 is thought to localize to sites of cortical force generation. Does GPR-1/2 also act as a sensor for mechanical stimulation? I mechanically stimulated the cortex by indenting it with a glass needle and observed the cortical localization of a YFP::GPR-1 transgene. I found that cortical YFP::GPR-1 accumulated at the site of mechanical indentation. This phenomenon occurred on most of the cortical areas except the site of prospective cytokinesis furrow formation. This result suggests that GPR-1/2 can sense mechanical properties of the cortex, which may be important for GPR-1/2 function regulating spindle positioning and cytokinesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Eigenbeamforming array systems for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    Microphone array technology has been widely used for the localization of sound sources. In particular, beamforming is a well-established signal processing method that maps the position of acoustic sources by steering the array transducers toward different directions electronically. The present Ph...... scatterer is recommended instead. A better visualization in the entire frequency range can be achieved with deconvo- lution methods, as they allow the recovery of the sound source distribution from a given beamformed map. Three efficient methods based on spectral procedures, originally conceived for planar...

  8. Mapping the signal-to-noise-ratios of cortical sources in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography.

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    Goldenholz, Daniel M; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Sharon, Dahlia; Ishitobi, Mamiko; Vaina, Lucia M; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2009-04-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been available for decades, their relative merits are still debated. We examined regional differences in signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) of cortical sources in MEG and EEG. Data from four subjects were used to simulate focal and extended sources located on the cortical surface reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images. The SNR maps for MEG and EEG were found to be complementary. The SNR of deep sources was larger in EEG than in MEG, whereas the opposite was typically the case for superficial sources. Overall, the SNR maps were more uniform for EEG than for MEG. When using a noise model based on uniformly distributed random sources on the cortex, the SNR in MEG was found to be underestimated, compared with the maps obtained with noise estimated from actual recorded MEG and EEG data. With extended sources, the total area of cortex in which the SNR was higher in EEG than in MEG was larger than with focal sources. Clinically, SNR maps in a patient explained differential sensitivity of MEG and EEG in detecting epileptic activity. Our results emphasize the benefits of recording MEG and EEG simultaneously. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Acoustic source localization : Exploring theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jelmer

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, noise pollution became an important issue in modern society. This has led to an increased effort in the industry to reduce noise. Acoustic source localization methods determine the location and strength of the vibrations which are the cause of sound based onmeasurements of

  10. Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Houston, Douglas W

    2009-09-01

    Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized mRNA, trim36, and characterize its function through maternal loss-of-function experiments. We find that trim36 is expressed in the germ plasm and encodes a ubiquitin ligase of the Tripartite motif-containing (Trim) family. Depletion of maternal trim36 using antisense oligonucleotides results in ventralized embryos and reduced organizer gene expression. We show that injection of wnt11 mRNA rescues this effect, suggesting that Trim36 functions upstream of Wnt/beta-catenin activation. We further find that vegetal microtubule polymerization and cortical rotation are disrupted in trim36-depleted embryos, in a manner dependent on Trim36 ubiquitin ligase activity. Additionally, these embryos can be rescued by tipping the eggs 90 degrees relative to the animal-vegetal axis. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Trim36 in controlling the stability of proteins regulating microtubule polymerization during cortical rotation, and subsequently axis formation.

  11. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  12. Elastic passive source localization using rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; van der Baan, Mirko

    2017-11-01

    As a complement to traditional particle velocity recordings, rotational motion provides information on the spatial gradient of particle displacement motion which aids in imaging passive sources using elastic waves. Event localization is for instance important in earthquake seismology and detection of microseismic events during hydraulic fracturing treatments of hydrocarbon reservoirs or injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted reservoirs. We propose an elastic reverse time extrapolation technique for passive event localization incorporating a new representation-theorem-based expression that explicitly uses recordings from rotational and particle velocity sensors either simultaneously or separately, leading to enhanced imaging results. We also introduce a novel focusing criterion based on the energy flux which is insensitive to polarity reversals due to non-isotropic source mechanisms. Energy flux combined with the Hough transform leads to a convenient and stable criterion for automatically detecting both event locations and origin times.

  13. Electroencephalographic Resting-State Networks: Source Localization of Microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custo, Anna; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Wells, William M; Tomescu, Miralena I; Brunet, Denis; Michel, Christoph M

    2017-12-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG) to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) is nontrivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting-state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting-state topographies explaining the EEG data set with k-means clustering (N = 164, 256 electrodes). Using a method specifically designed to localize the sources of broadband EEG scalp topographies by matching sensor and source space temporal patterns, we demonstrated that we can estimate the EEG RSNs reliably by measuring the reproducibility of our findings. After subtracting their mean from the seven EEG RSNs, we identified seven state-specific networks. The mean map includes regions known to be densely anatomically and functionally connected (superior frontal, superior parietal, insula, and anterior cingulate cortices). While the mean map can be interpreted as a "router," crosslinking multiple functional networks, the seven state-specific RSNs partly resemble and extend previous functional magnetic resonance imaging-based networks estimated as the hemodynamic correlates of four canonical EEG microstates.

  14. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

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    Reto Huber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  15. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate (Qo 2 ) and 86 Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive Qo 2 or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K 0.5 ) of 5 x 10 -7 M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 ± 1.5% at 10 -4 M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 and 86 Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na + -K + -ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner

  16. Statistical maps for EEG dipolar source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénar, Christian G; Gunn, Roger N; Grova, Christophe; Champagne, Benoît; Gotman, Jean

    2005-03-01

    We present a method that estimates three-dimensional statistical maps for electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization. The maps assess the likelihood that a point in the brain contains a dipolar source, under the hypothesis of one, two or three activated sources. This is achieved by examining all combinations of one to three dipoles on a coarse grid and attributing to each combination a score based on an F statistic. The probability density function of the statistic under the null hypothesis is estimated nonparametrically, using bootstrap resampling. A theoretical F distribution is then fitted to the empirical distribution in order to allow correction for multiple comparisons. The maps allow for the systematic exploration of the solution space for dipolar sources. They permit to test whether the data support a given solution. They do not rely on the assumption of uncorrelated source time courses. They can be compared to other statistical parametric maps such as those used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results are presented for both simulated and real data. The maps were compared with LORETA and MUSIC results. For the real data consisting of an average of epileptic spikes, we observed good agreement between the EEG statistical maps, intracranial EEG recordings, and fMRI activations.

  17. A Novel Visualization Method for Sleep Spindles Based on Source Localization of High Density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soohyun; Kim, Seunghwan; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Equivalent dipole source localization is a well-established approach to localizing the electrical activity in electroencephalogram (EEG). So far, source localization has been used primarily in localizing the epileptic source in human epileptic patients. Currently, source localization techniques have been applied to account for localizing epileptic source among the epileptic patients. Here, we present the first application of source localization in the field of sleep spindle in mouse brain. The spatial distribution of cortical potential was obtained by high density EEG and then the anterior and posterior sleep spindles were classified based on the K-mean clustering algorithm. To solve the forward problem, a realistic geometry brain model was produced based on boundary element method (BEM) using mouse MRI. Then, we applied four different source estimation algorithms (minimum norm, eLORETA, sLORETA, and LORETA) to estimate the spatial location of equivalent dipole source of sleep spindles. The estimated sources of anterior and posterior spindles were plotted in a cine-mode that revealed different topographic patterns of spindle propagation. The characterization of sleep spindles may be better be distinguished by our novel visualization method.

  18. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  19. Three-dimensional localization of cortical electrodes with respect to brain gyral anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzeszczuk, R.; Tan, K.K.; Levin, D.N.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Spiere, J.P.; Towle, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on biplanar radiographs and MR imaging-derived 3D models of the brain to localize cortical electrodes. A 3D model of each subject's brain surface was constructed from MR data. Then, six or more lead markers were placed on the subject's head, their 3D locations were digitized, and biplanar skull radiographs were acquired. The imaged and digitized marker coordinates were used to derive the transformation between the radiographs and the subject. The transformation between the MR and subject coordinate systems was derived by using a retrospective surface-fitting program to register the MR data with a digitized representation of the subject's scalp. These two transformations were combined to map electrode locations from the radiographs onto the 3D models

  20. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle.

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    Takuya Isomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect--a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker's voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes' principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle.

  1. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1988-10-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate ({dot Q}o{sub 2}) and {sup 86}Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K{sub 0.5}) of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 {plus minus} 1.5% at 10{sup {minus}4}M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} and {sup 86}Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner.

  2. Localization of Fibrinogen in the Vasculo-Astrocyte Interface after Cortical Contusion Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Muradashvili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides causing neuronal damage, traumatic brain injury (TBI is involved in memory reduction, which can be a result of alterations in vasculo-neuronal interactions. Inflammation following TBI is involved in elevation of blood content of fibrinogen (Fg, which is known to enhance cerebrovascular permeability, and thus, enhance its deposition in extravascular space. However, the localization of Fg in the extravascular space and its possible interaction with nonvascular cells are not clear. The localization of Fg deposition in the extravascular space was defined in brain samples of mice after cortical contusion injury (CCI and sham-operation (control using immunohistochemistry and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Memory changes were assessed with new object recognition and Y-maze tests. Data showed a greater deposition of Fg in the vascular and astrocyte endfeet interface in mice with CCI than in control animals. This effect was accompanied by enhanced neuronal degeneration and reduction in short-term memory in mice with CCI. Thus, our results suggest that CCI induces increased deposition of Fg in the vasculo-astrocyte interface, and is accompanied by neuronal degeneration, which may result in reduction of short-term memory.

  3. Increased Expression and Cellular Localization of P2X7R in Cortical Lesions of Patients With Focal Cortical Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; Guo, Wei; Sun, Fei-Ji; Fu, Wan-Lei; Zheng, Da-Hai; Chen, Xin; Li, Song; Zang, Zhen-Le; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Liu, Shi-Yong; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are major brain malformations that commonly lead to medically intractable epilepsy. The purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an atypical P2X subtype that gates calcium and sodium ions. Previous animal studies have suggested that P2X7R is a contributing factor in epileptogenesis. This study aimed to define the distribution and expression of P2X7R in 35 FCD patient-surgical-resection specimens relative to autopsy control samples (n = 8). Immunohistochemical colocalization assays revealed that P2X7R was primarily expressed in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. In FCD samples, P2X7R protein levels were increased in abnormal cell types such as dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells, which are characteristic of FCD. By real-time PCR and Western blotting, P2X7R mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated in FCD patient samples vs control samples; P2X7R expression was also higher in FCDII vs FCDIa patient samples. Because interleukin-1β is a downstream factor of the P2X7R signaling pathway, we determined that there was also moderate-to-strong interleukin-1β expression in the dysmorphic neurons, balloon cells, and microglia in FCD patient lesions. These results indicate that increasing P2X7R levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of human FCD and that P2X7R represents a potential anti-epileptogenic target.

  4. MEG Source Localization of Spatially Extended Generators of Epileptic Activity: Comparing Entropic and Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm2 to 30 cm2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered. PMID:23418485

  5. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  6. Local pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of the myosin 2A motor in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Michelle A.; Billington, Neil; Wang, Aibing; Adelstein, Robert S.; Sellers, James R.; Fischer, Robert S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) pulsatile dynamics in generating contractile forces required for developmental morphogenesis has been characterized, but whether these pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of all actomyosin networks is not known. Here we used live-cell fluorescence imaging to show that transient, local assembly of NM2A “pulses” occurs in the cortical cytoskeleton of single adherent cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and sarcoma origin, independent of developmental signaling cues and cell–cell or cell–ECM interactions. We show that pulses in the cortical cytoskeleton require Rho-associated kinase– or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity, increases in cytosolic calcium, and NM2 ATPase activity. Surprisingly, we find that cortical cytoskeleton pulses specifically require the head domain of NM2A, as they do not occur with either NM2B or a 2B-head-2A-tail chimera. Our results thus suggest that pulsatile contractions in the cortical cytoskeleton are an intrinsic property of the NM2A motor that may mediate its role in homeostatic maintenance of tension in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells. PMID:27881665

  7. Local pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of the myosin 2A motor in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Michelle A; Billington, Neil; Wang, Aibing; Adelstein, Robert S; Sellers, James R; Fischer, Robert S; Waterman, Clare M

    2017-01-15

    The role of nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) pulsatile dynamics in generating contractile forces required for developmental morphogenesis has been characterized, but whether these pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of all actomyosin networks is not known. Here we used live-cell fluorescence imaging to show that transient, local assembly of NM2A "pulses" occurs in the cortical cytoskeleton of single adherent cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and sarcoma origin, independent of developmental signaling cues and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions. We show that pulses in the cortical cytoskeleton require Rho-associated kinase- or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity, increases in cytosolic calcium, and NM2 ATPase activity. Surprisingly, we find that cortical cytoskeleton pulses specifically require the head domain of NM2A, as they do not occur with either NM2B or a 2B-head-2A-tail chimera. Our results thus suggest that pulsatile contractions in the cortical cytoskeleton are an intrinsic property of the NM2A motor that may mediate its role in homeostatic maintenance of tension in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells. © 2017 Baird et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Local sources of black walnut recommended for planting in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas Little; Calvin F. Bey; Daniel McConaughy

    1974-01-01

    After 5 years, local black walnut seedlings were taller than those of 12 out-of-state sources in a Maryland planting. Seedlings from south-of-local sources out grew trees from northern sources. Genetic influence on height was expressed early--with little change in ranking of sources after the third year.

  9. Spiking cortical model based non-local means method for despeckling multiframe optical coherence tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yameng; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are severely degraded by speckle noise. Existing methods for despeckling multiframe OCT data cannot deliver sufficient speckle suppression while preserving image details well. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM) based non-local means (NLM) method has been proposed in this letter. In the proposed method, the considered frame and two neighboring frames are input into three SCMs to generate the temporal series of pulse outputs. The normalized moment of inertia (NMI) of the considered patches in the pulse outputs is extracted to represent the rotational and scaling invariant features of the corresponding patches in each frame. The pixel similarity is computed based on the Euclidean distance between the NMI features and used as the weight. Each pixel in the considered frame is restored by the weighted averaging of all pixels in the pre-defined search window in the three frames. Experiments on the real multiframe OCT data of the pig eye demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over the frame averaging method, the multiscale sparsity based tomographic denoising method, the wavelet-based method and the traditional NLM method in terms of visual inspection and objective metrics such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and cross-correlation (XCOR).

  10. Sensory information in local field potentials and spikes from visual and auditory cortices: time scales and frequency bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitski, Andrei; Panzeri, Stefano; Magri, Cesare; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Studies analyzing sensory cortical processing or trying to decode brain activity often rely on a combination of different electrophysiological signals, such as local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity. Understanding the relation between these signals and sensory stimuli and between different components of these signals is hence of great interest. We here provide an analysis of LFPs and spiking activity recorded from visual and auditory cortex during stimulation with natural stimuli. In particular, we focus on the time scales on which different components of these signals are informative about the stimulus, and on the dependencies between different components of these signals. Addressing the first question, we find that stimulus information in low frequency bands (50 Hz), in contrast, is scale dependent, and is larger when the energy is averaged over several hundreds of milliseconds. Indeed, combined analysis of signal reliability and information revealed that the energy of slow LFP fluctuations is well related to the stimulus even when considering individual or few cycles, while the energy of fast LFP oscillations carries information only when averaged over many cycles. Addressing the second question, we find that stimulus information in different LFP bands, and in different LFP bands and spiking activity, is largely independent regardless of time scale or sensory system. Taken together, these findings suggest that different LFP bands represent dynamic natural stimuli on distinct time scales and together provide a potentially rich source of information for sensory processing or decoding brain activity.

  11. Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: analyzing induced EEG gamma-band responses in brain's source space.

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    Gernot G Supp

    Full Text Available The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz elicited by familiar (meaningful objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object representations. As analytically power increase is just a property of a single location, phase-synchrony was introduced to investigate the formation of large-scale networks between spatially distant brain sites. However, classical phase-synchrony reveals symmetric, pair-wise correlations and is not suited to uncover the directionality of interactions. Here, we investigated the neural mechanism of visual object processing by means of directional coupling analysis going beyond recording sites, but rather assessing the directionality of oscillatory interactions between brain areas directly. This study is the first to identify the directionality of oscillatory brain interactions in source space during human object recognition and suggests that familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects engage widespread reciprocal information flow. Directionality of cortical information-flow was calculated based upon an established Granger-Causality coupling-measure (partial-directed coherence; PDC using autoregressive modeling. To enable comparison with previous coupling studies lacking directional information, phase-locking analysis was applied, using wavelet-based signal decompositions. Both, autoregressive modeling and wavelet analysis, revealed an augmentation of iGBRs during the presentation of familiar objects relative to unfamiliar controls, which was localized to inferior-temporal, superior-parietal and frontal brain areas by means of distributed source reconstruction. The multivariate analysis of PDC evaluated each possible direction of brain interaction and revealed widespread reciprocal information-transfer during familiar

  12. Cortical Local Field Potential Power Is Associated with Behavioral Detection of Near-threshold Stimuli in the Rat Whisker System: Dissociation between Orbitofrontal and Somatosensory Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Rachel E; Young, Andrew M J; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that ongoing brain oscillations may represent a key regulator of attentional processes and as such may contribute to behavioral performance in psychophysical tasks. OFC appears to be involved in the top-down modulation of sensory processing; however, the specific contribution of ongoing OFC oscillations to perception has not been characterized. Here we used the rat whiskers as a model system to further characterize the relationship between cortical state and tactile detection. Head-fixed rats were trained to report the presence of a vibrotactile stimulus (frequency = 60 Hz, duration = 2 sec, deflection amplitude = 0.01-0.5 mm) applied to a single vibrissa. We calculated power spectra of local field potentials preceding the onset of near-threshold stimuli from microelectrodes chronically implanted in OFC and somatosensory cortex. We found a dissociation between slow oscillation power in the two regions in relation to detection probability: Higher OFC but not somatosensory delta power was associated with increased detection probability. Furthermore, coherence between OFC and barrel cortex was reduced preceding successful detection. Consistent with the role of OFC in attention, our results identify a cortical network whose activity is differentially modulated before successful tactile detection.

  13. Matrix-dependent local retention of secretory vesicle cargo in cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.; Toonen, R.F.G.; Verhage, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons secrete many diffusible signals from synaptic and other secretory vesicles. We characterized secretion of guidance cues, neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and proteases from single secretory vesicles using pHluorin-tagged cargo in cortical neurons. Stimulation triggered transient and persistent

  14. Localization of endogenous amyloid-β to the coeruleo-cortical pathway: consequences of noradrenergic depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Reyes, Beverly A S; Thomas, Steven A; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2018-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system is an understudied circuit in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases involving catecholamine neurotransmitters. Understanding the expression and distribution of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, a primary component of AD, under basal conditions and under conditions of NE perturbation within the coeruleo-cortical pathway may be important for understanding its putative role in pathological states. Thus, the goal of this study is to define expression levels and the subcellular distribution of endogenous Aβ with respect to noradrenergic profiles in the rodent LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and, further, to determine the functional relevance of NE in modulating endogenous Aβ 42 levels. We report that endogenous Aβ 42 is localized to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive somatodendritic profiles of the LC and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) immunoreactive axon terminals of the infralimbic mPFC (ILmPFC). Male and female naïve rats have similar levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage products demonstrated by western blot, as well as similar levels of endogenous Aβ 42 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two models of NE depletion, DSP-4 lesion and DβH knockout (KO) mice, were used to assess the functional relevance of NE on endogenous Aβ 42 levels. DSP-4 lesioned rats and DβH-KO mice show significantly lower levels of endogenous Aβ 42 . Noradrenergic depletion did not change APP-cleavage products resulting from β-secretase processing. Thus, resultant decreases in endogenous Aβ 42 may be due to decreased neuronal activity of noradrenergic neurons, or, by decreased stimulation of adrenergic receptors which are known to contribute to Aβ 42 production by enhancing γ-secretase processing under normal physiological conditions.

  15. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  16. Using Distant Sources in Local Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Bruce; Foulgr, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    Seismic tomography methods such as the 'ACH' method of Aki, Christoffersson & Husebye (1976, 1977) are subject to significant bias caused by the unknown wave-speed structure outside the study volume, whose effects are mathematically of the same order as the local-structure effects being studied. Computational experiments using whole-mantle wave-speed models show that the effects are also of comparable numerical magnitude (Masson & Trampert, 1997). Failure to correct for these effects will significantly corrupt computed local structures. This bias can be greatly reduced by solving for additional parameters defining the shapes, orientations, and arrival times of the incident wavefronts. The procedure is exactly analogous to solving for hypocentral locations in local-earthquake tomography. For planar incident wavefronts, each event adds three free parameters and the forward problem is surprisingly simple: The first-order change in the theoretical arrival time at observation point B resulting from perturbations in the incident-wave time t0 and slowness vector s is δtB ≡ δt0 + δs · rA = δtA, the change in the time of the plane wave at the point A where the un-perturbed ray enters the study volume (Julian and Foulger, submitted). This consequence of Fermat's principle apparently has not previously been recognized. In addition to eliminating the biasing effect of structure outside the study volume, this formalism enables us to combine data from local and distant events in studies of local structure, significantly improving resolution of deeper structure, particularly in places such as volcanic and geothermal areas where seismicity is confined to shallow depths. Many published models that were derived using ACH and similar methods probably contain significant artifacts and are in need of re-evaluation.

  17. Source localization using acoustic vector sensors: a music approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jelmer; Tijs, Emiel; de Bree, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, a large array of microphones is used to localize multiple far field sources in acoustics. We present a sound source localization technique that requires far less channels and measurement locations (affecting data channels, setup times and cabling issues). This is achieved by using an

  18. Source Localization of Eeg Signals during Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Z.; Yao, Bing; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Karakasis, Chris; Brown, Robert W.; Yue, Guang H.

    2003-10-01

    In this study we determined sources of EEG signals during a fatigue process involving intermittent maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). In the fatigue motor task, subjects consecutively performed 200 trials of handgrip MVCs, each lasted 2 s, followed by a 5-s rest. In the control task, subjects performed the same task but the rest time was 28 s, and there was also a 5-min rest after each 40 trials so that fatigue effect was minimized. EEG signals were recorded along with handgrip force and EMG data. Current dipole model was applied to determine the signal sources in a three-sphere homogeneous head frame. Effects of fatigue on the signal source were determined. The results showed no significant changes in dipole strength and orientation but significant larger movement ranges in the dipole location during the fatigue process than during the control, indicating fatigue-related rotation of the center of cortical activation.

  19. Evaluation of parasitic contamination from local sources of drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-borne parasitic infections have become a source of concern in recent times due to the contamination of various drinking-water sources. A survey on the parasitic contamination of drinking-water sources was carried out in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, south-east Nigeria. This is to evaluate the ...

  20. [The use of somatosensory evoked potentials for cortical localization during surgical operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E

    Identification of the cortical areas of Roland, by means of anatomical references seen on craniotomy, with a view to their conservation during surgical operations, is found to be associated with a high rate of error which may reach 50% with experienced surgeons. Somatosensory evoked potentials (PESS) following stimulation of the median nerve may easily be recorded using electrodes situated directly over the cerebral cortex of patients under general anaesthesia. To obtain this recording, a bipolar set-up of a series of between 6 and 10 electrodes in line one centimetre apart allows identification, by means of phase opposition, of the cortical zones, usually the parietal zone adjacent to the sulcus of Roland, where these potentials are generated. Identification of motor sites (area 4) can be obtained by electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex, although we have rejected this type of exploration because of its technical difficulty and possible undesirable effects. We consider that, when at surgical operation the cortical area corresponding to the median nerve is identified, and care taken not to damage the cortex 2 cm rostrally, excellent results may be obtained, reducing the sequelae which may occur with this type of surgery.

  1. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  2. Localization of multiple acoustic sources in a room environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.V.; Yu, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Bryden, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Direction estimation of multiple acoustic sources in a room environment. • A new method was tested and implemented to reduce source direction ambiguity. • Suppression of undesired cross-correlation between different signals. • Localization of multiple acoustic sources in a room environment. • Effectiveness of hyperbolic position location algorithm for multiple sources. - Abstract: Combustion systems results in high pollution and low performance due to lack of uniform thermal and chemical behavior in the entire reactor zone. Localization of multiple acoustic sources using an array of microphones and time difference of arrival (TDOA) method is examined. Adaptations of such a scheme into high speed jet flows, combustors or reactors can help assist in the identification of local acoustic sources in a system to seek improved performance of the system. Linear microphones can be used for acoustic source localization in a practical room environment using time delay estimation. Hyperbolic position algorithm based on TDOA provides good localization of a single acoustic in both two dimensional and three dimensional space. The time delay between the signals acquired by two microphones is obtained from maximum of cross-correlation between the two signals. Noise and reverberation effects can introduce ambiguity in the time delay estimation from multiple peaks in the delay estimator. In addition directional incidence from multiple sources can result in cross talk between different sources to degrade localization accuracy. CPSP (Cross-power spectral phase analysis) is examined here for localization of multiple sound sources present in a room environment. The CPSP method localizes a sound source as a crossing point of sound directions estimated using different microphone pairs but it degrades due to cross-correlation between different sound sources. A new method based on averaging of CPSP coefficients has been examined here to reduce the directional

  3. Optimal localization of diffusion sources in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao-Long; Han, Xiao; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2017-04-01

    Locating sources of diffusion and spreading from minimum data is a significant problem in network science with great applied values to the society. However, a general theoretical framework dealing with optimal source localization is lacking. Combining the controllability theory for complex networks and compressive sensing, we develop a framework with high efficiency and robustness for optimal source localization in arbitrary weighted networks with arbitrary distribution of sources. We offer a minimum output analysis to quantify the source locatability through a minimal number of messenger nodes that produce sufficient measurement for fully locating the sources. When the minimum messenger nodes are discerned, the problem of optimal source localization becomes one of sparse signal reconstruction, which can be solved using compressive sensing. Application of our framework to model and empirical networks demonstrates that sources in homogeneous and denser networks are more readily to be located. A surprising finding is that, for a connected undirected network with random link weights and weak noise, a single messenger node is sufficient for locating any number of sources. The framework deepens our understanding of the network source localization problem and offers efficient tools with broad applications.

  4. Astrometric and Timing Effects of Gravitational Waves from Localized Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Schafer, Gerhard; Gwinn, Carl R.; Eubanks, T. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    A consistent approach for an exhaustive solution of the problem of propagation of light rays in the field of gravitational waves emitted by a localized source of gravitational radiation is developed in the first post-Minkowskian and quadrupole approximation of General Relativity. We demonstrate that the equations of light propagation in the retarded gravitational field of an arbitrary localized source emitting quadrupolar gravitational waves can be integrated exactly. The influence of the gra...

  5. Local anesthetics: comparison of effects on batrachotoxin-elicited sodium flux and phosphoinositide breakdown in guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Y; Gusovsky, F; Daly, J W

    1988-11-01

    Local anesthetics inhibited the sodium influx and the inositol phosphate accumulation elicited by the sodium channel activator batrachotoxin in guinea pig cortical synaptoneurosomes. Inhibitory effects of local anesthetics on sodium influx correlated with inhibitory effects on binding of a tritiated batrachotoxin analog to sodium channels in synaptoneurosomes. There was also a correlation between inhibitory effects on sodium influx and on inositol phosphate accumulation; most local anesthetics inhibited sodium influx at concentrations similar to those required for inhibition of inositol phosphate accumulation. Indeed, euprocin, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and certain analogs were nearly equipotent with respect to inhibition of sodium influx and inositol phosphate accumulation. Local anesthetics also inhibited inositol phosphate accumulation that was induced by carbamylcholine through both a tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathway. Certain local anesthetics, such as dibucaine, inhibited the tetrodotoxin-sensitive pathway with higher potency than for the tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathway, while others, such as quinacrine, inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathways with equal potency. Diphenhydramine and chlorpromazine appeared to inhibit carbamylcholine-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown through blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors rather than because of local anesthetic activity of inhibitory effects on phospholipase C.

  6. Localization of sound sources in a room with one microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peić Tukuljac, Helena; Lissek, Hervé; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Estimation of the location of sound sources is usually done using microphone arrays. Such settings provide an environment where we know the difference between the received signals among different microphones in the terms of phase or attenuation, which enables localization of the sound sources. In our solution we exploit the properties of the room transfer function in order to localize a sound source inside a room with only one microphone. The shape of the room and the position of the microphone are assumed to be known. The design guidelines and limitations of the sensing matrix are given. Implementation is based on the sparsity in the terms of voxels in a room that are occupied by a source. What is especially interesting about our solution is that we provide localization of the sound sources not only in the horizontal plane, but in the terms of the 3D coordinates inside the room.

  7. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Lee, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed

  8. Local knowledge as a source of community resilience | Shava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local knowledge can serve a source of local community resilience that provides an enabling capacity for people to sustain their livelihoods and adapt to environmental changes or new environments. This knowledge was evidenced as capable of resurfacing when contingent opportunities arise. This contribution draws upon ...

  9. Nondeterministic Sound Source Localization with Smartphones in Crowdsensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Viet Duc, Duc Viet; Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Le, Viet Duc; Le Viet Duc, L Duc

    The proliferation of smartphones nowadays has enabled many crowd assisted applications including audio-based sensing. In such applications, detected sound sources are meaningless without location information. However, it is challenging to localize sound sources accurately in a crowd using only

  10. Efficient localization of synchronous EEG source activities using a modified RAP-MUSIC algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Schimpf, Paul H

    2006-04-01

    Synchronization across different brain regions is suggested to be a possible mechanism for functional integration. Noninvasive analysis of the synchronization among cortical areas is possible if the electrical sources can be estimated by solving the electroencephalography inverse problem. Among various inverse algorithms, spatio-temporal dipole fitting methods such as RAP-MUSIC and R-MUSIC have demonstrated superior ability in the localization of a restricted number of independent sources, and also have the ability to reliably reproduce temporal waveforms. However, these algorithms experience difficulty in reconstructing multiple correlated sources. Accurate reconstruction of correlated brain activities is critical in synchronization analysis. In this study, we modified the well-known inverse algorithm RAP-MUSIC to a multistage process which analyzes the correlation of candidate sources and searches for independent topographies (ITs) among precorrelated groups. Comparative studies were carried out on both simulated data and clinical seizure data. The results demonstrated superior performance with the modified algorithm compared to the original RAP-MUSIC in recovering synchronous sources and localizing the epileptiform activity. The modified RAP-MUSIC algorithm, thus, has potential in neurological applications involving significant synchronous brain activities.

  11. Localization from near-source quasi-static electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, John Compton [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A wide range of research has been published on the problem of estimating the parameters of electromagnetic and acoustical sources from measurements of signals measured at an array of sensors. In the quasi-static electromagnetic cases examined here, the signal variation from a point source is relatively slow with respect to the signal propagation and the spacing of the array of sensors. As such, the location of the point sources can only be determined from the spatial diversity of the received signal across the array. The inverse source localization problem is complicated by unknown model order and strong local minima. The nonlinear optimization problem is posed for solving for the parameters of the quasi-static source model. The transient nature of the sources can be exploited to allow subspace approaches to separate out the signal portion of the spatial correlation matrix. Decomposition techniques are examined for improved processing, and an adaptation of MUtiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) is presented for solving the source localization problem. Recent results on calculating the Cramer-Rao error lower bounds are extended to the multidimensional problem here. This thesis focuses on the problem of source localization in magnetoencephalography (MEG), with a secondary application to thunderstorm source localization. Comparisons are also made between MEG and its electrical equivalent, electroencephalography (EEG). The error lower bounds are examined in detail for several MEG and EEG configurations, as well as localizing thunderstorm cells over Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center. Time-eigenspectrum is introduced as a parsing technique for improving the performance of the optimization problem.

  12. Localization of acoustic sources using a decentralized particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstoft Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the decentralized localization of an acoustic source in a (wireless sensor network based on the underlying partial differential equation (PDE. The PDE is transformed into a distributed state-space model and augmented by a source model. Inferring the source state amounts to a non-linear non-Gaussian Bayesian estimation problem for whose solution we implement a decentralized particle filter (PF operating within and across clusters of sensor nodes. The aggregation of the local posterior distributions from all clusters is achieved via an enhanced version of the maximum consensus algorithm. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance of our scheme.

  13. Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuykendall, Tawny N.; Houston, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized m...

  14. Pain Modulation in Waking and Hypnosis in Women: Event-Related Potentials and Sources of Cortical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  15. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3, middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24. Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32, while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22, middle (BA37, inferior temporal (BA19 gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7. Hypnotic hypoalgesia in

  16. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  17. Localization of gravitational wave sources with networks of advanced detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, S.; Mitselmakher, G.; Pankow, C.; Vedovato, G.; Drago, M.; Prodi, G.; Mazzolo, G.; Salemi, F.; Re, V.; Yakushin, I.

    2011-01-01

    Coincident observations with gravitational wave (GW) detectors and other astronomical instruments are among the main objectives of the experiments with the network of LIGO, Virgo, and GEO detectors. They will become a necessary part of the future GW astronomy as the next generation of advanced detectors comes online. The success of such joint observations directly depends on the source localization capabilities of the GW detectors. In this paper we present studies of the sky localization of transient GW sources with the future advanced detector networks and describe their fundamental properties. By reconstructing sky coordinates of ad hoc signals injected into simulated detector noise, we study the accuracy of the source localization and its dependence on the strength of injected signals, waveforms, and network configurations.

  18. Localization of Point Sources for Poisson Equation using State Observers

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2016-08-09

    A method based On iterative observer design is presented to solve point source localization problem for Poisson equation with riven boundary data. The procedure involves solution of multiple boundary estimation sub problems using the available Dirichlet and Neumann data from different parts of the boundary. A weighted sum of these solution profiles of sub-problems localizes point sources inside the domain. Method to compute these weights is also provided. Numerical results are presented using finite differences in a rectangular domain. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of localized photon source in space of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a three-dimensional photon transport problem in an interstellar cloud, with a localized photon source inside. The problem is solved indirectly, by defining the adjoint of an operator acting on an appropriate space of continuous functions. By means of sun-adjoint semi groups theory of operators in a Banach space of regular Borel measures, we prove existence and uniqueness of the solution of the problem. A possible approach to identify the localization of the photon source is finally proposed.

  20. Robust iterative observer for source localization for Poisson equation

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-05

    Source localization problem for Poisson equation with available noisy boundary data is well known to be highly sensitive to noise. The problem is ill posed and lacks to fulfill Hadamards stability criteria for well posedness. In this work, first a robust iterative observer is presented for boundary estimation problem for Laplace equation, and then this algorithm along with the available noisy boundary data from the Poisson problem is used to localize point sources inside a rectangular domain. The algorithm is inspired from Kalman filter design, however one of the space variables is used as time-like. Numerical implementation along with simulation results is detailed towards the end.

  1. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic signaling plays key roles in mediating many of the reproductive and social behaviors of anurans (frogs and toads). Moreover, acoustic signaling often occurs at night, in structurally complex habitats, such as densely vegetated ponds, and in dense breeding choruses characterized by high...... levels of background noise and acoustic clutter. Fundamental to anuran behavior is the ability of the auditory system to determine accurately the location from where sounds originate in space (sound source localization) and to assign specific sounds in the complex acoustic milieu of a chorus...... to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla...

  2. Independent Component Analysis and Source Localization on Mobile EEG Data Can Identify Increased Levels of Acute Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Schlink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile electroencephalography (EEG is a very useful tool to investigate the physiological basis of cognition under real-world conditions. However, as we move experimentation into less-constrained environments, the influence of state changes increases. The influence of stress on cortical activity and cognition is an important example. Monitoring of modulation of cortical activity by EEG measurements is a promising tool for assessing acute stress. In this study, we test this hypothesis and combine EEG with independent component analysis and source localization to identify cortical differences between a control condition and a stressful condition. Subjects performed a stationary shooting task using an airsoft rifle with and without the threat of an experimenter firing a different airsoft rifle in their direction. We observed significantly higher skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol levels (p < 0.05 for both during the stressful conditions, indicating that we had successfully induced an adequate level of acute stress. We located independent components in five regions throughout the cortex, most notably in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region previously shown to be affected by increased levels of stress. This area showed a significant decrease in spectral power in the theta and alpha bands less than a second after the subjects pulled the trigger. Overall, our results suggest that EEG with independent component analysis and source localization has the potential of monitoring acute stress in real-world environments.

  3. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  4. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaoliang [KC Science and Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL 60565 (United States); Xu, Bobby [Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Aurora, IL 60506 (United States); He Bin [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  5. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoliang; Xu, Bobby; He Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist

  6. Source localization with an advanced gravitational wave detector network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhurst, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We derive an expression for the accuracy with which sources can be localized using a network of gravitational wave detectors. The result is obtained via triangulation, using timing accuracies at each detector and is applicable to a network with any number of detectors. We use this result to investigate the ability of advanced gravitational wave detector networks to accurately localize signals from compact binary coalescences. We demonstrate that additional detectors can significantly improve localization results and illustrate our findings with networks comprised of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and LCGT. In addition, we evaluate the benefits of relocating one of the advanced LIGO detectors to Australia.

  7. Blind source separation and localization using microphone arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Longji

    The blind source separation and localization problem for audio signals is studied using microphone arrays. Pure delay mixtures of source signals typically encountered in outdoor environments are considered. Our proposed approach utilizes the subspace methods, including multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms, to estimate the directions of arrival (DOAs) of the sources from the collected mixtures. Since audio signals are generally considered broadband, the DOA estimates at frequencies with the large sum of squared amplitude values are combined to obtain the final DOA estimates. Using the estimated DOAs, the corresponding mixing and demixing matrices are computed, and the source signals are recovered using the inverse short time Fourier transform. Subspace methods take advantage of the spatial covariance matrix of the collected mixtures to achieve robustness to noise. While the subspace methods have been studied for localizing radio frequency signals, audio signals have their special properties. For instance, they are nonstationary, naturally broadband and analog. All of these make the separation and localization for the audio signals more challenging. Moreover, our algorithm is essentially equivalent to the beamforming technique, which suppresses the signals in unwanted directions and only recovers the signals in the estimated DOAs. Several crucial issues related to our algorithm and their solutions have been discussed, including source number estimation, spatial aliasing, artifact filtering, different ways of mixture generation, and source coordinate estimation using multiple arrays. Additionally, comprehensive simulations and experiments have been conducted to examine various aspects of the algorithm. Unlike the existing blind source separation and localization methods, which are generally time consuming, our algorithm needs signal mixtures of only a short duration and

  8. Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in early- and adulthood-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L; Xu, Y; Zhu, X-T; Yang, Z; Li, H-J; Zuo, X-N

    2015-05-12

    Schizophrenia is increasingly thought of as a brain network or connectome disorder and is associated with neurodevelopmental processes. Previous studies have suggested the important role of anatomical distance in developing a connectome with optimized performance regarding both the cost and efficiency of information processing. Distance-related disturbances during development have not been investigated in schizophrenia. To test the distance-related miswiring profiles of connectomes in schizophrenia, we acquired resting-state images from 20 adulthood-onset (AOS) and 26 early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients, as well as age-matched healthy controls. All patients were drug naive and had experienced their first psychotic episode. A novel threshold-free surface-based analytic framework was developed to examine local-to-remote functional connectivity profiles in both AOS and EOS patients. We observed consistent increases of local connectivity across both EOS and AOS patients in the right superior frontal gyrus, where the connectivity strength was correlated with a positive syndrome score in AOS patients. In contrast, EOS but not AOS patients exhibited reduced local connectivity within the right postcentral gyrus and the left middle occipital cortex. These regions' remote connectivity with their interhemispheric areas and brain network hubs was altered. Diagnosis-age interactions were detectable for both local and remote connectivity profiles. The functional covariance between local and remote homotopic connectivity was present in typically developing controls, but was absent in EOS patients. These findings suggest that a distance-dependent miswiring pattern may be one of the key neurodevelopmental features of the abnormal connectome organization in schizophrenia.

  9. Detection and localization of multiple wideband intermittent acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Hedley, R.; Taylor, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We have been interested in the analytical and experimental study of real-life bird song sources for several years. Bird sources are characterized by either a single or multiple bird vocalizations independent of each other or in response to others. The sources may be physically-stationary or exhibit movements and the signals are wide-band in frequency and often intermittent with pauses and possibly restarting with repeating previously used songs or with new songs. Thus, the detection, classification, and 2D or 3D localization of these birds pose challenging signal and array problems. Due to the fact that some birds can mimic other birds, time-domain waveform characterization may not be sufficient for determining the number of birds. Similarly, due to the intermittent nature of the vocalizations, data collected over a long period cannot be used naively. Thus, it is necessary to use short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to fully exploit the intricate natures of the time and frequency properties of these sources and displayed on a spectrogram. Various dominant spectral data over the relevant frames are used to form sample covariance matrices. Eigenvectors associated with the decompositions of these matrices for these spectral indices can be used to provide 2D/3D DOA estimations of the sources over different frames for intermittent sources. Proper cluttering of these data can be used to perform enhanced detection, classification, and localization of multiple bird sources. Two sets of collected bird data will be used to demonstrate these claims.

  10. Extraction of Tantalum from locally sourced Tantalite using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of polyethylene glycol solution to extract tantalum from locally sourced tantalite ore was studied. The amount of tantalum pentoxide extracted increased with increase in concentration of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution from 28.08% to 60.23%. However, the amount of niobium pentoxide extracted increased from ...

  11. The Study of Water Quality of Several Local Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ábrám Zoltán; Tarcea Monica; Finta Hajnal; Moldovan H; Moldovan Geanina; Nădășan V

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the water quality of several local sources from the Toplița-Deda region, as well as from the Gheorgheni basin, in order to inform the population about the water quality and about the importance of the drinking water control.

  12. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  13. Localization of microbarom sources using the IMS infrasound network

    Science.gov (United States)

    LandèS, Matthieu; Ceranna, Lars; Le Pichon, Alexis; Matoza, Robin S.

    2012-03-01

    Multiyear continuous infrasound monitoring with the global International Monitoring System (IMS) demonstrates that microbaroms, generated by nonlinear interaction of opposing oceanic surface waves, are globally observed at equatorial, middle, and high latitudes. Direction of arrival of microbarom signals are systematically estimated at all IMS infrasound stations. Using a cross-bearing method, we perform a monthly localization of worldwide microbarom sources. At most stations, microbarom detections show clear seasonal trends, driven by stratospheric wind reversals and source effects. Five-year averaging of the detections provides global and statistical observations of seasonal source variations. Our microbarom source locations represent a first attempt to infer ocean swell characteristics from global and long-term measurements. We show that the monthly averaged source locations exhibit clear seasonal switching between the northern and southern hemispheres. Such an approach can help with evaluating the network detection capability, and provides new insights into quantitative relationships between infrasonic observables, atmospheric specifications, and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  14. MEG source localization using invariance of noise space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junpeng; Raij, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Matti; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    We propose INvariance of Noise (INN) space as a novel method for source localization of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The method is based on the fact that modulations of source strengths across time change the energy in signal subspace but leave the noise subspace invariant. We compare INN with classical MUSIC, RAP-MUSIC, and beamformer approaches using simulated data while varying signal-to-noise ratios as well as distance and temporal correlation between two sources. We also demonstrate the utility of INN with actual auditory evoked MEG responses in eight subjects. In all cases, INN performed well, especially when the sources were closely spaced, highly correlated, or one source was considerably stronger than the other.

  15. MEG source localization using invariance of noise space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available We propose INvariance of Noise (INN space as a novel method for source localization of magnetoencephalography (MEG data. The method is based on the fact that modulations of source strengths across time change the energy in signal subspace but leave the noise subspace invariant. We compare INN with classical MUSIC, RAP-MUSIC, and beamformer approaches using simulated data while varying signal-to-noise ratios as well as distance and temporal correlation between two sources. We also demonstrate the utility of INN with actual auditory evoked MEG responses in eight subjects. In all cases, INN performed well, especially when the sources were closely spaced, highly correlated, or one source was considerably stronger than the other.

  16. Induction of calcium-dependent, localized cortical granule breakdown in sea-urchin eggs by voltage pulsation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, D P; Decker, G L; Lennarz, W J; Tsong, T Y; Teissie, J

    1983-12-19

    A technique that employs a high-voltage pulses to produce pores in cell membranes (Kinosita and Tsong (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 1923) has been used to investigate the role of Ca2+ in the early events of activation of sea-urchin eggs. Exposure of eggs to a voltage pulse of 1 kV/cm for 100 microseconds resulted in localized exocytosis of the contents of cortical granules and development of a partial fertilization envelope. This effect was triggered by entrance of Ca2+ through the voltage-induced pores. In a medium containing 100 microM Ca2+ and 45Ca2+ tracer, the voltage-treated eggs admitted 3.6 +/- 0.3 fmol Ca2+/egg within a few seconds. Untreated eggs took up only 1.0 +/- 0.2 fmol/egg after minutes of incubation. Furthermore, depletion of Ca2+ or the presence of EGTA in the external medium prevented elevation of the fertilization envelope by the voltage pulsation. Delay in Ca2+ addition after the voltage pulsation reduced the fraction of eggs that developed partial fertilization envelope. Loss of essential cytoplasmic components during the delay period is judged unlikely, since these eggs were viable, could form partial fertilization envelopes if re-pulsed in the presence of Ca2+, and could develop to normal blastula stage embryos upon fertilization with sperm. Thus, we interpret this effect as due to a resealing of pores; the half-life of pores being 20 s. The elevation of partial fertilization envelopes occurred only at the loci facing the anode, and multiple pulses with mixing resulted in the formation of multiple fertilization envelopes. These envelopes were stable for up to several hours; further propagation (wave spreading) was not observed. The above results indicate that a primary reaction in the sequence of steps in fertilization envelope formation involves Ca2+ to trigger cortical granule breakdown and formation of the fertilization envelope.

  17. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  18. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Pertilä

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  19. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertilä Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  20. Acoustic Source Localization and Beamforming: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joe C.; Yao, Kung; Hudson, Ralph E.

    2003-12-01

    We consider the theoretical and practical aspects of locating acoustic sources using an array of microphones. A maximum-likelihood (ML) direct localization is obtained when the sound source is near the array, while in the far-field case, we demonstrate the localization via the cross bearing from several widely separated arrays. In the case of multiple sources, an alternating projection procedure is applied to determine the ML estimate of the DOAs from the observed data. The ML estimator is shown to be effective in locating sound sources of various types, for example, vehicle, music, and even white noise. From the theoretical Cramér-Rao bound analysis, we find that better source location estimates can be obtained for high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals. In addition, large range estimation error results when the source signal is unknown, but such unknown parameter does not have much impact on angle estimation. Much experimentally measured acoustic data was used to verify the proposed algorithms.

  1. Acoustic Source Localization and Beamforming: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Joe C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the theoretical and practical aspects of locating acoustic sources using an array of microphones. A maximum-likelihood (ML direct localization is obtained when the sound source is near the array, while in the far-field case, we demonstrate the localization via the cross bearing from several widely separated arrays. In the case of multiple sources, an alternating projection procedure is applied to determine the ML estimate of the DOAs from the observed data. The ML estimator is shown to be effective in locating sound sources of various types, for example, vehicle, music, and even white noise. From the theoretical Cramér-Rao bound analysis, we find that better source location estimates can be obtained for high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals. In addition, large range estimation error results when the source signal is unknown, but such unknown parameter does not have much impact on angle estimation. Much experimentally measured acoustic data was used to verify the proposed algorithms.

  2. Decoding of Ankle Flexion and Extension from Cortical Current Sources Estimated from Non-invasive Brain Activity Recording Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mejia Tobar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of ankle movements from non-invasive brain recordings can be applied to a brain-computer interface (BCI to control exoskeletons, prosthesis, and functional electrical stimulators for the benefit of patients with walking impairments. In this research, ankle flexion and extension tasks at two force levels in both legs, were classified from cortical current sources estimated by a hierarchical variational Bayesian method, using electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recordings. The hierarchical prior for the current source estimation from EEG was obtained from activated brain areas and their intensities from an fMRI group (second-level analysis. The fMRI group analysis was performed on regions of interest defined over the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the somatosensory area, which are well-known to contribute to movement control. A sparse logistic regression method was applied for a nine-class classification (eight active tasks and a resting control task obtaining a mean accuracy of 65.64% for time series of current sources, estimated from the EEG and the fMRI signals using a variational Bayesian method, and a mean accuracy of 22.19% for the classification of the pre-processed of EEG sensor signals, with a chance level of 11.11%. The higher classification accuracy of current sources, when compared to EEG classification accuracy, was attributed to the high number of sources and the different signal patterns obtained in the same vertex for different motor tasks. Since the inverse filter estimation for current sources can be done offline with the present method, the present method is applicable to real-time BCIs. Finally, due to the highly enhanced spatial distribution of current sources over the brain cortex, this method has the potential to identify activation patterns to design BCIs for the control of an affected limb in patients with stroke, or BCIs from motor imagery

  3. Source localization using recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Signal and Image Processing Inst.

    1998-03-01

    A new method for source localization is described that is based on a modification of the well known multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. In classical MUSIC, the array manifold vector is projected onto an estimate of the signal subspace, but errors in the estimate can make location of multiple sources difficult. Recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC uses each successively located source to form an intermediate array gain matrix, and projects both the array manifold and the signal subspace estimate into its orthogonal complement. The MUSIC projection is then performed in this reduced subspace. Using the metric of principal angles, the authors describe a general form of the RAP-MUSIC algorithm for the case of diversely polarized sources. Through a uniform linear array simulation, the authors demonstrate the improved Monte Carlo performance of RAP-MUSIC relative to MUSIC and two other sequential subspace methods, S and IES-MUSIC.

  4. Localization of sources of the hyperinsulinism through the image methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abath, C.G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic insulinomas are small tumours, manifested early by the high hormonal production. Microscopic changes, like islet cell hyperplasia or nesidioblastosis, are also sources of hyperinsulinism. The pre-operative localization of the lesions is important, avoiding unnecessary or insufficient blind pancreatectomies. It is presented the experience with 26 patients with hyperinsulinism, of whom six were examined by ultrasound, nine by computed tomography, 25 by angiography and 16 by pancreatic venous sampling for hormone assay, in order to localize the lesions. Percutaneous transhepatic portal and pancreatic vein catheterization with measurement of insuline concentrations was the most reliable and sensitive method for detecting the lesions, including those non-palpable during the surgical exploration (author)

  5. Broadband source localization using horizontal-beam acoustic intensity striations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Altan; Orr, Marshall; Rouseff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Waveguide invariant theory is applied to horizontal line array (HLA) beamformer output to localize moving broadband noise sources from measured acoustic intensity striation patterns. Acoustic signals emitted by ships of opportunity (merchant ships) were simultaneously recorded on a HLA and three hydrophones separated by 10 km during the RAGS03 (relationship between array gain and shelf-break fluid processes) experiment. Hough transforms are used to estimate both the waveguide invariant parameter "beta" and the ratio of source range at the closest point of approach to source speed from the observed striation patterns. Broadband (50-150-Hz) acoustic data-sets are used to demonstrate source localization capability as well as inversion capability of waveguide invariant parameter beta. Special attention is paid to bathymetric variability since the acoustic intensity striation patterns seem to be influenced by range-dependent bathymetry of the experimental area. The Hough transform method is also applied to the HLA beam-time record data and to the acoustic intensity data from three distant receivers to validate the estimation results from HLA beamformer output. Good agreement of the results from all three approaches suggests the feasibility of locating broadband noise sources and estimating waveguide invariant parameter beta in shallow waters.

  6. Spatio-temporal EEG source localization using a three-dimensional subspace FINE approach in a realistic geometry inhomogeneous head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; He, Bin

    2006-09-01

    The subspace source localization approach, i.e., first principle vectors (FINE), is able to enhance the spatial resolvability and localization accuracy for closely-spaced neural sources from EEG and MEG measurements. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the FINE algorithm in an inhomogeneous realistic geometry head model under a variety of conditions. The source localization abilities of FINE were examined at different cortical regions and at different depths. The present computer simulation results indicate that FINE has enhanced source localization capability, as compared with MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC, when sources are closely spaced, highly noise-contaminated, or inter-correlated. The source localization accuracy of FINE is better, for closely-spaced sources, than MUSIC at various noise levels, i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) from 6 dB to 16 dB, and RAP-MUSIC at relatively low noise levels, i.e., 6 dB to 12 dB. The FINE approach has been further applied to localize brain sources of motor potentials, obtained during the finger tapping tasks in a human subject. The experimental results suggest that the detailed neural activity distribution could be revealed by FINE. The present study suggests that FINE provides enhanced performance in localizing multiple closely spaced, and inter-correlated sources under low SNR, and may become an important alternative to brain source localization from EEG or MEG.

  7. Source Localization using Stochastic Approximation and Least Squares Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyoun, Samir S.; Djouadi, Seddik M.; Qi, Hairong; Drira, Anis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to locate the source of a chemical plume; Nonlinear Least Squares and Stochastic Approximation (SA) algorithms. Concentration levels of the chemical measured by special sensors are used to locate this source. Non-linear Least Squares technique is applied at different noise levels and compared with the localization using SA. For a noise corrupted data collected from a distributed set of chemical sensors, we show that SA methods are more efficient than Least Squares method. SA methods are often better at coping with noisy input information than other search methods.

  8. Synaptic Conductance Estimates of the Connection Between Local Inhibitor Interneurons and Pyramidal Neurons in Layer 2/3 of a Cortical Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jochen H.O.; Meyer, H. S.; Schmitt, Arno C.; Straehle, Jakob; Weitbrecht, Trinh; Sakmann, Bert; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of a principal whisker yields sparse action potential (AP) spiking in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in a cortical column of rat barrel cortex. The low AP rates in pyramidal neurons could be explained by activation of interneurons in L2/3 providing inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. L2/3 interneurons classified as local inhibitors based on their axonal projection in the same column were reported to receive strong excitatory input from spiny neurons in L4, which are also the main source of the excitatory input to L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Here, we investigated the remaining synaptic connection in this intracolumnar microcircuit. We found strong and reliable inhibitory synaptic transmission between intracolumnar L2/3 local-inhibitor-to-L2/3 pyramidal neuron pairs [inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) amplitude −0.88 ± 0.67 mV]. On average, 6.2 ± 2 synaptic contacts were made by L2/3 local inhibitors onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons at 107 ± 64 µm path distance from the pyramidal neuron soma, thus overlapping with the distribution of synaptic contacts from L4 spiny neurons onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons (67 ± 34 µm). Finally, using compartmental simulations, we determined the synaptic conductance per synaptic contact to be 0.77 ± 0.4 nS. We conclude that the synaptic circuit from L4 to L2/3 can provide efficient shunting inhibition that is temporally and spatially aligned with the excitatory input from L4 to L2/3. PMID:25761638

  9. The local internal stress in ferromagnetic alloys: SB theory and the local internal stress source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Zhou Bangxin

    2003-01-01

    The local internal stress theory concerning the damping mechanisms of ferromagnetic alloys is thoroughly analyzed and the local internal stress is characterized by the amplitude, discontinuity and distribution. The influences of various crystal defects on the irreversible movements of magnetic domain walls are summarized and the solute atom model for local internal stress source is proposed. With this new model, by the experimental results of which the damping capacity (internal friction) of ferromagnetic alloys increasing with rising annealing temperature can be explained quite well

  10. Localizing gravitational wave sources with single-baseline atom interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Jung, Sunghoon

    2018-02-01

    Localizing sources on the sky is crucial for realizing the full potential of gravitational waves for astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology. We show that the midfrequency band, roughly 0.03 to 10 Hz, has significant potential for angular localization. The angular location is measured through the changing Doppler shift as the detector orbits the Sun. This band maximizes the effect since these are the highest frequencies in which sources live for several months. Atom interferometer detectors can observe in the midfrequency band, and even with just a single baseline they can exploit this effect for sensitive angular localization. The single-baseline orbits around the Earth and the Sun, causing it to reorient and change position significantly during the lifetime of the source, and making it similar to having multiple baselines/detectors. For example, atomic detectors could predict the location of upcoming black hole or neutron star merger events with sufficient accuracy to allow optical and other electromagnetic telescopes to observe these events simultaneously. Thus, midband atomic detectors are complementary to other gravitational wave detectors and will help complete the observation of a broad range of the gravitational spectrum.

  11. Brain source localization using a fourth-order deflation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, Laurent; Ferréol, Anne; Cosandier-Rimélé, Delphine; Merlet, Isabel; Wendling, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution method for solving potentially ill-posed inverse problems is proposed. This method named FO-D-MUSIC allows for localization of brain current sources with unconstrained orientations from surface electro- or magnetoencephalographic data using spherical or realistic head geometries. The FO-D-MUSIC method is based on i) the separability of the data transfer matrix as a function of location and orientation parameters, ii) the Fourth Order (FO) virtual array theory, and iii) the deflation concept extended to FO statistics accounting for the presence of potentially but not completely statistically dependent sources. Computer results display the superiority of the FO-D-MUSIC approach in different situations (very closed sources, small number of electrodes, additive Gaussian noise with unknown spatial covariance, …) compared to classical algorithms. PMID:18269984

  12. EEG and MEG source localization using recursively applied (RAP) MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Signal and Image Processing Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) algorithm locates multiple asynchronous dipolar sources from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A signal subspace is estimated from the data, then the algorithm scans a single dipole model through a three-dimensional head volume and computes projections onto this subspace. To locate the sources, the user must search the head volume for local peaks in the projection metric. Here we describe a novel extension of this approach which we refer to as RAP (Recursively APplied) MUSIC. This new procedure automatically extracts the locations of the sources through a recursive use of subspace projections, which uses the metric of principal correlations as a multidimensional form of correlation analysis between the model subspace and the data subspace. The dipolar orientations, a form of `diverse polarization,` are easily extracted using the associated principal vectors.

  13. A Unique Egg Cortical Granule Localization Motif Is Required for Ovastacin Sequestration to Prevent Premature ZP2 Cleavage and Ensure Female Fertility in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monospermic fertilization is mediated by the extracellular zona pellucida composed of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Sperm bind to the N-terminus of ZP2 which is cleaved after fertilization by ovastacin (encoded by Astl exocytosed from egg cortical granules to prevent sperm binding. AstlNull mice lack the post-fertilization block to sperm binding and the ability to rescue this phenotype with AstlmCherry transgenic mice confirms the role of ovastacin in providing a definitive block to polyspermy. During oogenesis, endogenous ovastacin traffics through the endomembrane system prior to storage in peripherally located cortical granules. Deletion mutants of ovastacinmCherry expressed in growing oocytes define a unique 7 amino acid motif near its N-terminus that is necessary and sufficient for cortical granule localization. Deletion of the 7 amino acids by CRISPR/Cas9 at the endogenous locus (AstlΔ prevents cortical granule localization of ovastacin. The misdirected enzyme is present within the endomembrane system and ZP2 is prematurely cleaved. Sperm bind poorly to the zona pellucida of AstlΔ/Δ mice with partially cleaved ZP2 and female mice are sub-fertile.

  14. The Effect of Head Model Simplification on Beamformer Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Neugebauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Beamformers are a widely-used tool in brain analysis with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG. For the construction of the beamformer filters realistic head volume conductor modeling is necessary for accurately computing the EEG and MEG leadfields, i.e., for solving the EEG and MEG forward problem. In this work, we investigate the influence of including realistic head tissue compartments into a finite element method (FEM model on the beamformer's localization ability. Specifically, we investigate the effect of including cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter distinction, as well as segmenting the skull bone into compacta and spongiosa, and modeling white matter anisotropy. We simulate an interictal epileptic measurement with white sensor noise. Beamformer filters are constructed with unit gain, unit array gain, and unit noise gain constraint. Beamformer source positions are determined by evaluating power and excess sample kurtosis (g2 of the source-waveforms at all source space nodes. For both modalities, we see a strong effect of modeling the cerebrospinal fluid and white and gray matter. Depending on the source position, both effects can each be in the magnitude of centimeters, rendering their modeling necessary for successful localization. Precise skull modeling mainly effected the EEG up to a few millimeters, while both modalities could profit from modeling white matter anisotropy to a smaller extent of 5–10 mm. The unit noise gain or neural activity index beamformer behaves similarly to the array gain beamformer when noise strength is sufficiently high. Variance localization seems more robust against modeling errors than kurtosis.

  15. Enhanced Burst-Suppression and Disruption of Local Field Potential Synchrony in a Mouse Model of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Exhibiting Spike-Wave Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1. Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old followed by 24 h cortical EEG recordings. Results indicated that FL animals exhibit a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs, predominately during sleep (EEG, and an increase in the incidence of hyper-excitable burst/suppression activity under general anesthesia (extracellular recordings, 0.5-3.0% isoflurane. Brief periods of burst activity in the local field potential (LFP typically presented as an arrhythmic pattern of increased theta-alpha spectral peaks (4-12 Hz on a background of low-amplitude delta activity (1-4 Hz, were associated with an increase in spontaneous spiking of cortical neurons, and were highly synchronized in control animals across recording sites in both cortical and subcortical layers (average cross-correlation values ranging from +0.73 to +1.0 with minimal phase shift between electrodes. However, in FL animals, cortical vs. subcortical burst activity was strongly out of phase with significantly lower cross-correlation values compared to controls (average values of -0.1 to +0.5, P<0.05 between groups. In particular, a marked reduction in the level of synchronous burst activity was observed the closer the recording electrodes were to the malformation (Pearson’s Correlation = 0.525, P<0.05. In a subset of FL animals (3/9, burst activity also included a spike or spike-wave pattern similar to the SWDs observed in unanesthetized animals. In summary, neonatal FLs increased the hyperexcitable pattern of burst activity induced by anesthesia and disrupted field

  16. Strategies for statistical thresholding of source localization maps in magnetoencephalography and estimating source extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymenko, Kostiantyn; Giusiano, Bernard; Roehri, Nicolas; Bénar, Christian-G; Badier, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography allows defining non-invasively the spatio-temporal activation of brain networks thanks to source localization algorithms. A major difficulty of MNE and beamforming methods, two classically used techniques, is the definition of proper thresholds that allow deciding the extent of activated cortex. We investigated two strategies for computing a threshold, taking into account the difficult multiple comparison issue. The strategies were based either on parametric statistics (Bonferroni, FDR correction) or on empirical estimates (local FDR and a custom measure based on the survival function). We found thanks to the simulations that parametric methods based on the sole estimation of H 0 (Bonferroni, FDR) performed poorly, in particular in high SNR situations. This is due to the spatial leakage originating from the source localization methods, which give a 'blurred' reconstruction of the patch extension: the higher the SNR, the more this effect is visible. Adaptive methods such as local FDR or our proposed 'concavity threshold' performed better than Bonferroni or classical FDR. We present an application to real data originating from auditory stimulation in MEG. In order to estimate source extent, adaptive strategies should be preferred to parametric statistics when dealing with 'leaking' source reconstruction algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammers, Jürgen, E-mail: J.Dammers@fz-juelich.de; Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jon Shah, N. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA)—Translational Brain Medicine, Jülich (Germany)

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  18. Three-dimensional tomosynthetic image restoration for brachytherapy source localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, Timothy M.

    2001-01-01

    Tomosynthetic image reconstruction allows for the production of a virtually infinite number of slices from a finite number of projection views of a subject. If the reconstructed image volume is viewed in toto, and the three-dimensional (3D) impulse response is accurately known, then it is possible to solve the inverse problem (deconvolution) using canonical image restoration methods (such as Wiener filtering or solution by conjugate gradient least squares iteration) by extension to three dimensions in either the spatial or the frequency domains. This dissertation presents modified direct and iterative restoration methods for solving the inverse tomosynthetic imaging problem in 3D. The significant blur artifact that is common to tomosynthetic reconstructions is deconvolved by solving for the entire 3D image at once. The 3D impulse response is computed analytically using a fiducial reference schema as realized in a robust, self-calibrating solution to generalized tomosynthesis. 3D modulation transfer function analysis is used to characterize the tomosynthetic resolution of the 3D reconstructions. The relevant clinical application of these methods is 3D imaging for brachytherapy source localization. Conventional localization schemes for brachytherapy implants using orthogonal or stereoscopic projection radiographs suffer from scaling distortions and poor visibility of implanted seeds, resulting in compromised source tracking (reported errors: 2-4 mm) and dosimetric inaccuracy. 3D image reconstruction (using a well-chosen projection sampling scheme) and restoration of a prostate brachytherapy phantom is used for testing. The approaches presented in this work localize source centroids with submillimeter error in two Cartesian dimensions and just over one millimeter error in the third

  19. Survey on the Performance of Source Localization Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, José Manuel; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel; Stewart, Brian G

    2017-11-18

    The localization of emitters using an array of sensors or antennas is a prevalent issue approached in several applications. There exist different techniques for source localization, which can be classified into multilateration, received signal strength (RSS) and proximity methods. The performance of multilateration techniques relies on measured time variables: the time of flight (ToF) of the emission from the emitter to the sensor, the time differences of arrival (TDoA) of the emission between sensors and the pseudo-time of flight (pToF) of the emission to the sensors. The multilateration algorithms presented and compared in this paper can be classified as iterative and non-iterative methods. Both standard least squares (SLS) and hyperbolic least squares (HLS) are iterative and based on the Newton-Raphson technique to solve the non-linear equation system. The metaheuristic technique particle swarm optimization (PSO) used for source localisation is also studied. This optimization technique estimates the source position as the optimum of an objective function based on HLS and is also iterative in nature. Three non-iterative algorithms, namely the hyperbolic positioning algorithms (HPA), the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and Bancroft algorithm, are also presented. A non-iterative combined algorithm, MLE-HLS, based on MLE and HLS, is further proposed in this paper. The performance of all algorithms is analysed and compared in terms of accuracy in the localization of the position of the emitter and in terms of computational time. The analysis is also undertaken with three different sensor layouts since the positions of the sensors affect the localization; several source positions are also evaluated to make the comparison more robust. The analysis is carried out using theoretical time differences, as well as including errors due to the effect of digital sampling of the time variables. It is shown that the most balanced algorithm, yielding better results than the

  20. Audio Source Localization using a Network of Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANGU, L.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a problem of audio source localization is solved, using a network of embedded devices. The intensive computing procedures (such as the crosscorrelation functions are performed by the embedded devices, which have enough speed and memory for this task. A central computer computes the position in a fast procedure, using the data transmitted by the network nodes, and plays the role of operator interface. The paper also contains the description of the embedded devices, which are designed and manufactured by the authors. They prove to be suited for this kind of application, as they perform fast computation and require low power and small space for installing.

  1. Insulin in the brain: sources, localization and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Haeri, Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2013-02-01

    Historically, insulin is best known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, and insulin signaling in the brain has received less attention. Insulin-independent brain glucose uptake has been the main reason for considering the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ. However, recent findings showing a high concentration of insulin in brain extracts, and expression of insulin receptors (IRs) in central nervous system tissues have gathered considerable attention over the sources, localization, and functions of insulin in the brain. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge of the peripheral and central sources of insulin in the brain, site-specific expression of IRs, and also neurophysiological functions of insulin including the regulation of food intake, weight control, reproduction, and cognition and memory formation. This review also considers the neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects of insulin, resulting in proliferation, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth, introducing insulin as an attractive tool for neuroprotection against apoptosis, oxidative stress, beta amyloid toxicity, and brain ischemia.

  2. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Sparse EEG Source Localization Using Bernoulli Laplacian Priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Facundo; Batatia, Hadj; Chaari, Lotfi; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-01

    Source localization in electroencephalography has received an increasing amount of interest in the last decade. Solving the underlying ill-posed inverse problem usually requires choosing an appropriate regularization. The usual l2 norm has been considered and provides solutions with low computational complexity. However, in several situations, realistic brain activity is believed to be focused in a few focal areas. In these cases, the l2 norm is known to overestimate the activated spatial areas. One solution to this problem is to promote sparse solutions for instance based on the l1 norm that are easy to handle with optimization techniques. In this paper, we consider the use of an l0 + l1 norm to enforce sparse source activity (by ensuring the solution has few nonzero elements) while regularizing the nonzero amplitudes of the solution. More precisely, the l0 pseudonorm handles the position of the nonzero elements while the l1 norm constrains the values of their amplitudes. We use a Bernoulli-Laplace prior to introduce this combined l0 + l1 norm in a Bayesian framework. The proposed Bayesian model is shown to favor sparsity while jointly estimating the model hyperparameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique. We apply the model to both simulated and real EEG data, showing that the proposed method provides better results than the l2 and l1  norms regularizations in the presence of pointwise sources. A comparison with a recent method based on multiple sparse priors is also conducted.

  5. Assessing and improving the spatial accuracy in MEG source localization by depth-weighted minimum-norm estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2006-05-15

    Cerebral currents responsible for the extra-cranially recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data can be estimated by applying a suitable source model. A popular choice is the distributed minimum-norm estimate (MNE) which minimizes the l2-norm of the estimated current. Under the l2-norm constraint, the current estimate is related to the measurements by a linear inverse operator. However, the MNE has a bias towards superficial sources, which can be reduced by applying depth weighting. We studied the effect of depth weighting in MNE using a shift metric. We assessed the localization performance of the depth-weighted MNE as well as depth-weighted noise-normalized MNE solutions under different cortical orientation constraints, source space densities, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in multiple subjects. We found that MNE with depth weighting parameter between 0.6 and 0.8 showed improved localization accuracy, reducing the mean displacement error from 12 mm to 7 mm. The noise-normalized MNE was insensitive to depth weighting. A similar investigation of EEG data indicated that depth weighting parameter between 2.0 and 5.0 resulted in an improved localization accuracy. The application of depth weighting to auditory and somatosensory experimental data illustrated the beneficial effect of depth weighting on the accuracy of spatiotemporal mapping of neuronal sources.

  6. Acoustic sources of opportunity in the marine environment - Applied to source localization and ocean sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Christopher M.

    Controlled acoustic sources have typically been used for imaging the ocean. These sources can either be used to locate objects or characterize the ocean environment. The processing involves signal extraction in the presence of ambient noise, with shipping being a major component of the latter. With the advent of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) which provides accurate locations of all large commercial vessels, these major noise sources can be converted from nuisance to beacons or sources of opportunity for the purpose of studying the ocean. The source localization method presented here is similar to traditional matched field processing, but differs in that libraries of data-derived measured replicas are used in place of modeled replicas. In order to account for differing source spectra between library and target vessels, cross-correlation functions are compared instead of comparing acoustic signals directly. The library of measured cross-correlation function replicas is extrapolated using waveguide invariant theory to fill gaps between ship tracks, fully populating the search grid with estimated replicas allowing for continuous tracking. In addition to source localization, two ocean sensing techniques are discussed in this dissertation. The feasibility of estimating ocean sound speed and temperature structure, using ship noise across a drifting volumetric array of hydrophones suspended beneath buoys, in a shallow water marine environment is investigated. Using the attenuation of acoustic energy along eigenray paths to invert for ocean properties such as temperature, salinity, and pH is also explored. In each of these cases, the theory is developed, tested using numerical simulations, and validated with data from acoustic field experiments.

  7. Localization of epileptogenic zones in Lennox–Gastaut syndrome using frequency domain source imaging of intracranial electroencephalography: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Heung Dong; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Although intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been widely used to localize epileptogenic zones in epilepsy, visual inspection of iEEG recordings does not always result in a favorable surgical outcome, especially in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Various computational iEEG analysis methods have recently been introduced to confirm the visual inspection results. Of these methods, high gamma oscillation in iEEG has attracted interest because a series of studies have reported a close relationship between epileptogenic zones and cortical areas with high gamma oscillation. Meanwhile, frequency domain source imaging of EEG and MEG oscillations has proven to be a useful auxiliary tool for identifying rough locations of epileptogenic zones. To the best of our knowledge, however, frequency domain source imaging of high gamma iEEG oscillations has not been studied. In this study, we investigated whether the iEEG-based frequency domain source imaging of high gamma oscillation (60–100 Hz) would be a useful supplementary tool for identifying epileptogenic zones in patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. The method was applied to three successfully operated on LGS patients, whose iEEG contained some ictal events with distinct high gamma oscillations before seizure onset. The resultant cortical source distributions were compared with surgical resection areas and with high gamma spectral power distributions on the intracranial sensor plane. While the results of the sensor-level analyses contained many spurious activities, the results of frequency domain source imaging coincided better with the surgical resection areas, suggesting that the frequency domain source imaging of iEEG high gamma oscillations might help enhance the accuracy of pre-surgical evaluations of patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. (paper)

  8. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saillard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007 is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics

  9. How to Manual: How to Update and Enhance Your Local Source Water Protection Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes opportunities for improving source water assessments performed under the Safe Drinking Water Act 1453. It includes: local delineations, potential contaminant source inventories, and susceptibility determinations of source water assessment.

  10. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Gabi, Mariana; Mota, Bruno; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José M.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Leite, Renata E. P.; Filho, Wilson J.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex) the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are distributed across their gray matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non-occipital areas. PMID

  11. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  12. Properties of primary motor cortical local field potentials in the leg and trunk representations during arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaa, Adil A; Best, Matthew D; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2016-08-01

    Large, spatially-distributed populations of motor cortical neurons are recruited during upper limb movements. Here, we examined how beta attenuation, a mesoscopic reflection of unit engagement, varies across a spatially expansive sampling of primary motor cortex in a non-human primate (macaca mulatta). We found that electrodes in both the trunk and leg representation of motor cortex exhibit qualitatively similar behavior to electrodes in the arm representation during a planar reaching task, despite the fact that there were no overt movements of the trunk or leg. These findings are interpreted in the context of a state-based brain machine interface.

  13. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): Implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm’s Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson’s source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the “cortical dipole” into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  14. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Yoichi; Takechi, Rumi; Iizuka, Haku; Omodaka, Takuya; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination.

  15. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  16. Localizing Event-Related Potentials Using Multi-source Minimum Variance Beamformers: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Anthony T; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs

    2018-02-15

    Adaptive and non-adaptive beamformers have become a prominent neuroimaging tool for localizing neural sources of electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data. In this study, we investigated single-source and multi-source scalar beamformers with respect to their performances in localizing and reconstructing source activity for simulated and real EEG data. We compared a new multi-source search approach (multi-step iterative approach; MIA) to our previous multi-source search approach (single-step iterative approach; SIA) and a single-source search approach (single-step peak approach; SPA). In order to compare performances across these beamformer approaches, we manipulated various simulated source parameters, such as the amount of signal-to-noise ratio (0.1-0.9), inter-source correlations (0.3-0.9), number of simultaneously active sources (2-8), and source locations. Results showed that localization performance followed the order of MIA > SIA > SPA regardless of the number of sources, source correlations, and single-to-noise ratios. In addition, SIA and MIA were significantly better than SPA at localizing four or more sources. Moreover, MIA was better than SIA and SPA at identifying the true source locations when signal characteristics were at their poorest. Source waveform reconstructions were similar between MIA and SIA but were significantly better than that for SPA. A similar trend was also found when applying these beamformer approaches to a real EEG dataset. Based on our findings, we conclude that multi-source beamformers (MIA and SIA) are an improvement over single-source beamformers for localizing EEG. Importantly, our new search method, MIA, had better localization performance, localization precision, and source waveform reconstruction as compared to SIA or SPA. We therefore recommend its use for improved source localization and waveform reconstruction of event-related potentials.

  17. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  19. Open Source Communities in Technical Writing: Local Exigence, Global Extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill

    2011-01-01

    By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…

  20. Improving the efficiency of deconvolution algorithms for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lylloff, Oliver Ackermann; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    of the unknown acoustic source distribution and the beamformer's response to a point source, i.e., point-spread function. A significant limitation of deconvolution is, however, an additional computational effort compared to beamforming. In this paper, computationally efficient deconvolution algorithms...

  1. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of ...

  2. Acoustic Source Localization in Aircraft Interiors Using Microphone Array Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklanka, Bernard J.; Tuss, Joel R.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Williams, Earl G.; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Using three microphone array configurations at two aircraft body stations on a Boeing 777-300ER flight test, the acoustic radiation characteristics of the sidewall and outboard floor system are investigated by experimental measurement. Analysis of the experimental data is performed using sound intensity calculations for closely spaced microphones, PATCH Inverse Boundary Element Nearfield Acoustic Holography, and Spherical Nearfield Acoustic Holography. Each method is compared assessing strengths and weaknesses, evaluating source identification capability for both broadband and narrowband sources, evaluating sources during transient and steady-state conditions, and quantifying field reconstruction continuity using multiple array positions.

  3. Active Chemical Sampling System for Underwater Chemical Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Takemura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of active water sampling to enhance chemical reception for small underwater robots. The search for a chemical source in a stagnant water environment is not an easy task because the chemical solution released from the source stays in the close vicinity of the source. No signal is obtained even if a robot with chemical sensors is placed a few centimeters from the chemical source. In the system under study, four electrochemical sensors are aligned in front of a suction pipe that draws water samples from the surroundings. Owing to the smooth laminar flow converging to the suction port, the streak of the chemical solution drawn to the sensors is shaped into a thin filamentous form. To prevent the chemical solution from passing between the sensors without touching their surfaces, slits are placed in front of the sensors to guide the incoming chemical solution from different directions to the corresponding sensors. A chemical source can be located by moving the system in the direction of the sensor showing the largest response. It is also shown that the chemical reception at the sensors can be significantly enhanced when the system is wobbled to introduce disturbances.

  4. Cortical Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, James A; Wilson, Stuart P

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another. We show how these data are generally well explained by the theory of input-driven self-organization, with a family of computational models of cortical maps offering a parsimonious account for a wide range of map-related phenomena. We then discuss important challenges to this explanation, with respect to the maps present at birth, maps present under activity blockade, the limits of adult plasticity, and the lack of some maps in rodents. Because there is not at present another credible general theory for cortical map development, we conclude by proposing key experiments to help uncover other mechanisms that might also be operating during map development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. An iterative method for the localization of a neutron source in a large box (container)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinski, S.; Presler, O.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2007-01-01

    The localization of an unknown neutron source in a bulky box was studied. This can be used for the inspection of cargo, to prevent the smuggling of neutron and α emitters. It is important to localize the source from the outside for safety reasons. Source localization is necessary in order to determine its activity. A previous study showed that, by using six detectors, three on each parallel face of the box (460x420x200 mm 3 ), the location of the source can be found with an average distance of 4.73 cm between the real source position and the calculated one and a maximal distance of about 9 cm. Accuracy was improved in this work by applying an iteration method based on four fixed detectors and the successive iteration of positioning of an external calibrating source. The initial positioning of the calibrating source is the plane of detectors 1 and 2. This method finds the unknown source location with an average distance of 0.78 cm between the real source position and the calculated one and a maximum distance of 3.66 cm for the same box. For larger boxes, localization without iterations requires an increase in the number of detectors, while localization with iterations requires only an increase in the number of iteration steps. In addition to source localization, two methods for determining the activity of the unknown source were also studied

  6. Magnetic source localization of early visual mismatch response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susac, A.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Huonker, R.; Supek, S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a visual analogue of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) response that is based on sensory memory. The neural generators and attention dependence of the visual MMN (vMMN) still remain unclear. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and spatio-temporal source

  7. Comparison of EEG and MEG in source localization of induced human gamma-band oscillations during visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, K G; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Heute, U; Muthuraman, M

    2015-08-01

    High frequency gamma oscillations are indications of information processing in cortical neuronal networks. Recently, non-invasive detection of these oscillations have become one of the main research areas in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies. The aim of this study, which is a continuation of our previous MEG study, is to compare the capability of the two modalities (EEG and MEG) in localizing the source of the induced gamma activity due to a visual stimulus, using a spatial filtering technique known as dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS). To do this, the brain activity was recorded using simultaneous MEG and EEG measurement and the data were analyzed with respect to time, frequency, and location of the strongest response. The spherical head modeling technique, such as, the three-shell concentric spheres and an overlapping sphere (local sphere) have been used as a forward model to calculate the external electromagnetic potentials and fields recorded by the EEG and MEG, respectively. Our results from the time-frequency analysis, at the sensor level, revealed that the parieto-occipital electrodes and sensors from both modalities showed a clear and sustained gamma-band activity throughout the post-stimulus duration and that both modalities showed similar strongest gamma-band peaks. It was difficult to interpret the spatial pattern of the gamma-band oscillatory response on the scalp, at the sensor level, for both modalities. However, the source analysis result revealed that MEG3 sensor type, which measure the derivative along the longitude, showed the source more focally and close to the visual cortex (cuneus) as compared to that of the EEG.

  8. land as a source of revenue mobilisation for local authorities in ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    In Ghana, the Local Government Act, 1993 (Act 462) lists ten main sources of revenue for local authorities. The sub-heads under these sources .... inflation making land attractive as an investment and spawning land speculation. e). Land is a means of ... direction and rate of growth in the urban area. It also serves to enhance ...

  9. Binaural Hearing-Human Ability of Sound Source Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Parhizkari, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this project is to desig a systematical method in order to measure human directionality ability in horizontal plane with a single sound source. A completely virtual auditory model has been created in Matlab. The project consists of modeling binaural cues, designing digital filters, designing a test workbench, measuring listener's directionality and analyzing the data. The head related transfer function (HRTF) is computed by calculating the two most important binau...

  10. Radioactive point source localization in a bulky volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presler, O.; German, U.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2005-01-01

    When using two detectors to measure the emission of gamma rays from a bulky sample, the count rates ratio of the detectors can be used to locate a radioactive source in a bulky volume. This process may be needed for locating a source in a scrap or waste container. Simple functions for location determination can be developed for the non-absorbing and pure-absorbing media, but for the general case, a more sophisticated method must be used. A simple and practical algorithm was developed, which can predict the location of a point source in a bulk volume quite accurately, with an average possible deviation of up to about 1cm, except for extreme combinations of dimension and absorption coefficient, but also in this case the maximal expected deviations are not more than several centimeters. The algorithm was checked experimentally for several bulk volumes with length of up to about 50cm and with different length/absorption coefficient combinations. The experimental validation was performed for a great range of absorption coefficients (from μ=0.0001 to 0.2cm -1 ), covering the practical range of waste containers compositions

  11. Differential regulation of disheveled in a novel vegetal cortical domain in sea urchin eggs and embryos: implications for the localized activation of canonical Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChiehFu Jeff Peng

    Full Text Available Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg's vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized "activation" of Disheveled (Dsh. To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily

  12. Differential Regulation of Disheveled in a Novel Vegetal Cortical Domain in Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos: Implications for the Localized Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg’s vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized “activation” of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  13. Differential regulation of disheveled in a novel vegetal cortical domain in sea urchin eggs and embryos: implications for the localized activation of canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg's vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized "activation" of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  14. Acoustic source localization in anisotropic plates with "Z" shaped sensor clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shenxin; Cui, Zhiwen; Kundu, Tribikram

    2018-03-01

    A new sensor cluster orientation is proposed to localize an acoustic source in a plate from the time difference of arrival (TDOA) with the help of only four to eight sensors. This technique requires neither a priori knowledge of the plate material properties nor a dense array of sensors to localize the acoustic source in isotropic as well as anisotropic plates. It is achieved by placing four sensors in a cluster in the shape of letter "Z" over a small region of the plate and a second Z-shaped cluster at another location of the plate. Experimental results show that it is possible to accurately localize the acoustic source with this new configuration. It reduces the number of sensors required for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate. Although one cluster in principle is capable of localizing the acoustic source in absence of any experimental error for accurate source localization in presence of experimental error two such Z-shaped clusters are needed. In the currently available technique three L-shaped clusters having a total of 9 sensors are needed to achieve the same level of confidence in the acoustic source localization. Thus, the proposed new technique reduces the number of sensors by 1 (from 9 to 8) for confidently and accurately predicting the acoustic source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  16. Localizing Near and Far Field Acoustic Sources with Distributed Microhone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    of an acoustic source using a recently proposed method, based on a 4D parameter space defined by the 3D location of the source, and the TDOA. The performance of the proposed method for acoustic source localization is compared to generalized cross-correlation with phase transform (GCC-PHAT), and a method based...

  17. Matrix kernels for MEG and EEG source localization and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The most widely used model for electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) assumes a quasi-static approximation of Maxwell`s equations and a piecewise homogeneous conductor model. Both models contain an incremental field element that linearly relates an incremental source element (current dipole) to the field or voltage at a distant point. The explicit form of the field element is dependent on the head modeling assumptions and sensor configuration. Proper characterization of this incremental element is crucial to the inverse problem. The field element can be partitioned into the product of a vector dependent on sensor characteristics and a matrix kernel dependent only on head modeling assumptions. We present here the matrix kernels for the general boundary element model (BEM) and for MEG spherical models. We show how these kernels are easily interchanged in a linear algebraic framework that includes sensor specifics such as orientation and gradiometer configuration. We then describe how this kernel is easily applied to ``gain`` or ``transfer`` matrices used in multiple dipole and source imaging models.

  18. Matrix kernels for MEG and EEG source localization and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The most widely used model for electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) assumes a quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations and a piecewise homogeneous conductor model. Both models contain an incremental field element that linearly relates an incremental source element (current dipole) to the field or voltage at a distant point. The explicit form of the field element is dependent on the head modeling assumptions and sensor configuration. Proper characterization of this incremental element is crucial to the inverse problem. The field element can be partitioned into the product of a vector dependent on sensor characteristics and a matrix kernel dependent only on head modeling assumptions. We present here the matrix kernels for the general boundary element model (BEM) and for MEG spherical models. We show how these kernels are easily interchanged in a linear algebraic framework that includes sensor specifics such as orientation and gradiometer configuration. We then describe how this kernel is easily applied to ''gain'' or ''transfer'' matrices used in multiple dipole and source imaging models

  19. Functional adaptation to mechanical loading in both cortical and cancellous bone is controlled locally and is confined to the loaded bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2010-02-01

    In order to validate whether bones' functional adaptation to mechanical loading is a local phenomenon, we randomly assigned 21 female C57BL/6 mice at 19 weeks of age to one of three equal numbered groups. All groups were treated with isoflurane anesthesia three times a week for 2 weeks (approximately 7 min/day). During each anaesthetic period, the right tibiae/fibulae in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group were subjected to a peak dynamic load of 11.5 N (40 cycles with 10-s intervals between cycles) superimposed upon a static "pre-load" of 2.0 N. This total load of 13.5 N engendered peak longitudinal strains of approximately 1400 microstrain on the medial surface of the tibia at a middle/proximal site. The right tibiae/fibulae in the STATIC group received the static "pre-load" alone while the NOLOAD group received no artificial loading. After 2 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and both tibiae, fibulae, femora, ulnae and radii analyzed by three-dimensional high-resolution (5 mum) micro-computed tomography (microCT). In the DYNAMIC+STATIC group, the proximal trabecular percent bone volume and cortical bone volume at the proximal and middle levels of the right tibiae as well as the cortical bone volume at the middle level of the right fibulae were markedly greater than the left. In contrast, the left bones in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group showed no differences compared to the left or right bones in the NOLOAD or STATIC group. These microCT data were confirmed by two-dimensional examination of fluorochrome labels in bone sections which showed the predominantly woven nature of the new bone formed in the loaded bones. We conclude that the adaptive response in both cortical and trabecular regions of bones subjected to short periods of dynamic loading, even when this response is sufficiently vigorous to stimulate woven bone formation, is confined to the loaded bones and does not involve changes in other bones that are adjacent, contra-lateral or remote to them. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc

  20. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2011-02-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting.

  1. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M; Pai, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting

  2. An Amphiphysin-Like Domain in Fus2p Is Required for Rvs161p Interaction and Cortical Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell–cell fusion fulfils essential roles in fertilization, development and tissue repair. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion between two haploid cells of opposite mating type generates the diploid zygote. Fus2p is a pheromone-induced protein that regulates cell wall removal during mating. Fus2p shuttles from the nucleus to localize at the shmoo tip, bound to Rvs161p, an amphiphysin. However, Rvs161p independently binds a second amphiphysin, Rvs167p, playing an essential role in endocytosis. To understand the basis of the Fus2p–Rvs161p interaction, we analyzed Fus2p structural domains. A previously described N-terminal domain (NTD is necessary and sufficient to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking of Fus2p. The Dbl homology domain (DBH binds GTP-bound Cdc42p; binding is required for cell fusion, but not localization. We identified an approximately 200 amino acid region of Fus2p that is both necessary and sufficient for Rvs161p binding. The Rvs161p binding domain (RBD contains three predicted alpha-helices; structural modeling suggests that the RBD adopts an amphiphysin-like structure. The RBD contains a 13-amino-acid region, conserved with Rvs161p and other amphiphysins, which is essential for binding. Mutations in the RBD, predicted to affect membrane binding, abolish cell fusion without affecting Rvs161p binding. We propose that Fus2p/Rvs161p form a novel heterodimeric amphiphysin required for cell fusion. Rvs161p binding is required but not sufficient for Fus2p localization. Mutations in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Fus2p block localization, but not Rvs161p binding, causing a significant defect in cell fusion. We conclude that the Fus2p CTD mediates an additional, Rvs161p-independent interaction at the shmoo tip.

  3. Spatiotemporal dipole source localization of face processing ERPs in adolescents: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlonan Grainne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive investigation of the neural systems for face perception and emotion recognition in adults and young children in the past, the precise temporal activation of brain sources specific to the processing of emotional facial expressions in older children and adolescents is not well known. This preliminary study aims to trace the spatiotemporal dynamics of facial emotion processing during adolescence and provide a basis for future developmental studies and comparisons with patient populations that have social-emotional deficits such as autism. Methods We presented pictures showing happy, angry, fearful, or neutral facial expressions to healthy adolescents (aged 10–16 years and recorded 128-channel event-related potentials (ERPs while they performed an emotion discrimination task. ERP components were analyzed for effects of age and emotion on amplitude and latency. The underlying cortical sources of scalp ERP activity were modeled as multiple equivalent current dipoles using Brain Electrical Source Analysis (BESA. Results Initial global/holistic processing of faces (P1 took place in the visual association cortex (lingual gyrus around 120 ms post-stimulus. Next, structural encoding of facial features (N170 occurred between 160–200 ms in the inferior temporal/fusiform region, and perhaps early emotion processing (Vertex Positive Potential or VPP in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, cognitive analysis of facial expressions (P2 in the prefrontal cortex and emotional reactions in somatosensory areas were observed from about 230 ms onwards. The temporal sequence of cortical source activation in response to facial emotion processing was occipital, prefrontal, fusiform, parietal for young adolescents and occipital, limbic, inferior temporal, and prefrontal for older adolescents. Conclusion This is a first report of high-density ERP dipole source analysis in healthy adolescents which traces the sequence of

  4. Binaural sound source localization using the frequency diversity of the head-related transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, Dumidu S; Zhang, Wen; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kamineni, Abhilash

    2014-03-01

    The spectral localization cues contained in the head-related transfer function are known to play a contributory role in the sound source localization abilities of humans. However, existing localization techniques are unable to fully exploit this diversity to accurately localize a sound source. The availability of just two measured signals complicates matters further, and results in front to back confusions and poor performance distinguishing between the source locations in a vertical plane. This study evaluates the performance of a source location estimator that retains the frequency domain diversity of the head-related transfer function. First, a method for extracting the directional information in the subbands of a broadband signal is described, and a composite estimator based on signal subspace decomposition is introduced. The localization performance is experimentally evaluated for single and multiple source scenarios in the horizontal and vertical planes. The proposed estimator's ability to successfully localize a sound source and resolve the ambiguities in the vertical plane is demonstrated, and the impact of the source location, knowledge of the source and the effect of reverberation is discussed.

  5. Bayesian Inference for Neural Electromagnetic Source Localization: Analysis of MEG Visual Evoked Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Wood, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neural electromagnetic (MEG/EEG) data that can incorporate or fuse information from other imaging modalities and addresses the ill-posed inverse problem by sarnpliig the many different solutions which could have produced the given data. From these samples one can draw probabilistic inferences about regions of activation. Our source model assumes a variable number of variable size cortical regions of stimulus-correlated activity. An active region consists of locations on the cortical surf ace, within a sphere centered on some location in cortex. The number and radi of active regions can vary to defined maximum values. The goal of the analysis is to determine the posterior probability distribution for the set of parameters that govern the number, location, and extent of active regions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to generate a large sample of sets of parameters distributed according to the posterior distribution. This sample is representative of the many different source distributions that could account for given data, and allows identification of probable (i.e. consistent) features across solutions. Examples of the use of this analysis technique with both simulated and empirical MEG data are presented

  6. Vector-Sensor MUSIC for Polarized Seismic Sources Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme I. Mars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of high-resolution polarized source detection and introduces a new eigenstructure-based algorithm that yields direction of arrival (DOA and polarization estimates using a vector-sensor (or multicomponent-sensor array. This method is based on separation of the observation space into signal and noise subspaces using fourth-order tensor decomposition. In geophysics, in particular for reservoir acquisition and monitoring, a set of Nx-multicomponent sensors is laid on the ground with constant distance Δx between them. Such a data acquisition scheme has intrinsically three modes: time, distance, and components. The proposed method needs multilinear algebra in order to preserve data structure and avoid reorganization. The data is thus stored in tridimensional arrays rather than matrices. Higher-order eigenvalue decomposition (HOEVD for fourth-order tensors is considered to achieve subspaces estimation and to compute the eigenelements. We propose a tensorial version of the MUSIC algorithm for a vector-sensor array allowing a joint estimation of DOA and signal polarization estimation. Performances of the proposed algorithm are evaluated.

  7. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet

    2016-10-26

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  8. PADF electromagnetic source localization using extremum seeking control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa A.; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a significant technology attracting considerable research interest. Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensors that are small in size and communicate over short distances. Most WSN applications require knowing or measuring locations of thousands of sensors accurately. For example, sensing data without knowing the sensor location is often meaningless. Locations of sensor nodes are fundamental to providing location stamps, locating and tracking objects, forming clusters, and facilitating routing. This research focused on the modeling and implementation of distributed, mobile radar sensor networks. In particular, we worked on the problem of Position-Adaptive Direction Finding (PADF), to determine the location of a non- collaborative transmitter, possibly hidden within a structure, by using a team of cooperative intelligent sensor networks. Position-Adaptive radar concepts have been formulated and investigated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) within the past few years. In this paper, we present the simulation performance analysis on the application aspect. We apply Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) schemes by using the swarm seeking problem, where the goal is to design a control law for each individual sensor that can minimize the error metric by adapting the sensor positions in real-time, thereby minimizing the unknown estimation error. As a result we achieved source seeking and collision avoidance of the entire group of the sensor positions.

  9. Reconstruction of lightning channel geometry by localizing thunder sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhika, J. A. P.; Dharmarathna, W. G. D.; Fernando, Mahendra; Cooray, Vernon

    2013-09-01

    Thunder is generated as a result of a shock wave created by sudden expansion of air in the lightning channel due to high temperature variations. Even though the highest amplitudes of thunder signatures are generated at the return stroke stage, thunder signals generated at other events such as preliminary breakdown pulses also can be of amplitudes which are large enough to record using a sensitive system. In this study, it was attempted to reconstruct the lightning channel geometry of cloud and ground flashes by locating the temporal and spatial variations of thunder sources. Six lightning flashes were reconstructed using the recorded thunder signatures. Possible effects due to atmospheric conditions were neglected. Numerical calculations suggest that the time resolution of the recorded signal and 10 ms-1error in speed of sound leads to 2% and 3% errors, respectively, in the calculated coordinates. Reconstructed channel geometries for cloud and ground flashes agreed with the visual observations. Results suggest that the lightning channel can be successfully reconstructed using this technique.

  10. Evaluation of Public Service Advertising Messages with Local and Non-Local Source Attribution: A Controlled Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.; Gagnard, Alice

    A study was conducted to examine message evaluations of selected public service advertisements (PSAs) by a young adult population and to test whether local and nonlocal source attribution would influence those evaluations. In addition, the study investigated the extent to which audience characteristics such as fatalism (the degree to which a…

  11. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  12. MR-based source localization for MR-guided HDR brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, E; Moerland, M A; Zijlstra, F; Viergever, M A; Lagendijk, J J W; Seevinck, P R

    2018-04-05

    For the purpose of MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method for real-time localization of an HDR brachytherapy source was developed, which requires high spatial and temporal resolutions. MR-based localization of an HDR source serves two main aims. First, it enables real-time treatment verification by determination of the HDR source positions during treatment. Second, when using a dummy source, MR-based source localization provides an automatic detection of the source dwell positions after catheter insertion, allowing elimination of the catheter reconstruction procedure. Localization of the HDR source was conducted by simulation of the MR artifacts, followed by a phase correlation localization algorithm applied to the MR images and the simulated images, to determine the position of the HDR source in the MR images. To increase the temporal resolution of the MR acquisition, the spatial resolution was decreased, and a subpixel localization operation was introduced. Furthermore, parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding) was applied to further decrease the MR scan time. The localization method was validated by a comparison with CT, and the accuracy and precision were investigated. The results demonstrated that the described method could be used to determine the HDR source position with a high accuracy (0.4-0.6 mm) and a high precision (⩽0.1 mm), at high temporal resolutions (0.15-1.2 s per slice). This would enable real-time treatment verification as well as an automatic detection of the source dwell positions.

  13. MR-based source localization for MR-guided HDR brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, E.; Moerland, M. A.; Zijlstra, F.; Viergever, M. A.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Seevinck, P. R.

    2018-04-01

    For the purpose of MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method for real-time localization of an HDR brachytherapy source was developed, which requires high spatial and temporal resolutions. MR-based localization of an HDR source serves two main aims. First, it enables real-time treatment verification by determination of the HDR source positions during treatment. Second, when using a dummy source, MR-based source localization provides an automatic detection of the source dwell positions after catheter insertion, allowing elimination of the catheter reconstruction procedure. Localization of the HDR source was conducted by simulation of the MR artifacts, followed by a phase correlation localization algorithm applied to the MR images and the simulated images, to determine the position of the HDR source in the MR images. To increase the temporal resolution of the MR acquisition, the spatial resolution was decreased, and a subpixel localization operation was introduced. Furthermore, parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding) was applied to further decrease the MR scan time. The localization method was validated by a comparison with CT, and the accuracy and precision were investigated. The results demonstrated that the described method could be used to determine the HDR source position with a high accuracy (0.4–0.6 mm) and a high precision (⩽0.1 mm), at high temporal resolutions (0.15–1.2 s per slice). This would enable real-time treatment verification as well as an automatic detection of the source dwell positions.

  14. "Closing the Loop": Overcoming barriers to locally sourcing food in Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a focal point for many communities in recent years, and restaurants are seeking creative ways to become more sustainable. As many chefs realize, sourcing food locally is an important step towards sustainability and towards building a healthy, resilient community. Review of literature on sustainability in restaurants and the local food movement revealed that chefs face many barriers to sourcing their food locally, but that there are also many solutions for overcoming these barriers that chefs are in the early stages of exploring. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify barriers to local sourcing and investigate how some restaurants are working to overcome those barriers in the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. To do this, interviews were conducted with four subjects who guide purchasing decisions for restaurants in Fort Collins. Two of these restaurants have created successful solutions and are able to source most of their food locally. The other two are interested in and working towards sourcing locally but have not yet been able to overcome barriers, and therefore only source a few local items. Findings show that there are four barriers and nine solutions commonly identified by each of the subjects. The research found differences between those who source most of their food locally and those who have not made as much progress in local sourcing. Based on these results, two solution flowcharts were created, one for primary barriers and one for secondary barriers, for restaurants to assess where they are in the local food chain and how they can more successfully source food locally. As there are few explicit connections between this research question and climate change, it is important to consider the implicit connections that motivate and justify this research. The question of whether or not greenhouse gas emissions are lower for locally sourced food is a topic of much debate, and while there are major developments

  15. Design Considerations When Accelerating an FPGA-Based Digital Microphone Array for Sound-Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microphone arrays for sound-source localization is a well-researched topic. The response of such sensor arrays is dependent on the quantity of microphones operating on the array. A higher number of microphones, however, increase the computational demand, making real-time response challenging. In this paper, we present a Filter-and-Sum based architecture and several acceleration techniques to provide accurate sound-source localization in real-time. Experiments demonstrate how an accurate sound-source localization is obtained in a couple of milliseconds, independently of the number of microphones. Finally, we also propose different strategies to further accelerate the sound-source localization while offering increased angular resolution.

  16. Toward more versatile and intuitive cortical brain machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Richard A.; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Aflalo, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Brain machine interfaces have great potential in neuroprosthetic applications to assist patients with brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. One type of BMI is a cortical motor prosthetic which is used to assist paralyzed subjects. Motor prosthetics to date have typically used the motor cortex as a source of neural signals for controlling external devices. The review will focus on several new topics in the arena of cortical prosthetics. These include using 1) recordings from cortical areas outside motor cortex; 2) local field potentials (LFPs) as a source of recorded signals; 3) somatosensory feedback for more dexterous control of robotics; and 4) new decoding methods that work in concert to form an ecology of decode algorithms. These new advances hold promise in greatly accelerating the applicability and ease of operation of motor prosthetics. PMID:25247368

  17. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN ALTERNATIVE FOR NEW FUNDING SOURCES OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Petru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.

  18. 3D source localization of interictal spikes in epilepsy patients with MRI lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Lei; Worrell, Gregory A; Lagerlund, Terrence D; He Bin

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to accurately localize epileptogenic regions which are responsible for epileptic activities in epilepsy patients by means of a new subspace source localization approach, i.e. first principle vectors (FINE), using scalp EEG recordings. Computer simulations were first performed to assess source localization accuracy of FINE in the clinical electrode set-up. The source localization results from FINE were compared with the results from a classic subspace source localization approach, i.e. MUSIC, and their differences were tested statistically using the paired t-test. Other factors influencing the source localization accuracy were assessed statistically by ANOVA. The interictal epileptiform spike data from three adult epilepsy patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy and well-defined symptomatic MRI lesions were then studied using both FINE and MUSIC. The comparison between the electrical sources estimated by the subspace source localization approaches and MRI lesions was made through the coregistration between the EEG recordings and MRI scans. The accuracy of estimations made by FINE and MUSIC was also evaluated and compared by R 2 statistic, which was used to indicate the goodness-of-fit of the estimated sources to the scalp EEG recordings. The three-concentric-spheres head volume conductor model was built for each patient with three spheres of different radii which takes the individual head size and skull thickness into consideration. The results from computer simulations indicate that the improvement of source spatial resolvability and localization accuracy of FINE as compared with MUSIC is significant when simulated sources are closely spaced, deep, or signal-to-noise ratio is low in a clinical electrode set-up. The interictal electrical generators estimated by FINE and MUSIC are in concordance with the patients' structural abnormality, i.e. MRI lesions, in all three patients. The higher R 2 values achieved by FINE than MUSIC

  19. 3D source localization of interictal spikes in epilepsy patients with MRI lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Worrell, Gregory A.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; He, Bin

    2006-08-01

    The present study aims to accurately localize epileptogenic regions which are responsible for epileptic activities in epilepsy patients by means of a new subspace source localization approach, i.e. first principle vectors (FINE), using scalp EEG recordings. Computer simulations were first performed to assess source localization accuracy of FINE in the clinical electrode set-up. The source localization results from FINE were compared with the results from a classic subspace source localization approach, i.e. MUSIC, and their differences were tested statistically using the paired t-test. Other factors influencing the source localization accuracy were assessed statistically by ANOVA. The interictal epileptiform spike data from three adult epilepsy patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy and well-defined symptomatic MRI lesions were then studied using both FINE and MUSIC. The comparison between the electrical sources estimated by the subspace source localization approaches and MRI lesions was made through the coregistration between the EEG recordings and MRI scans. The accuracy of estimations made by FINE and MUSIC was also evaluated and compared by R2 statistic, which was used to indicate the goodness-of-fit of the estimated sources to the scalp EEG recordings. The three-concentric-spheres head volume conductor model was built for each patient with three spheres of different radii which takes the individual head size and skull thickness into consideration. The results from computer simulations indicate that the improvement of source spatial resolvability and localization accuracy of FINE as compared with MUSIC is significant when simulated sources are closely spaced, deep, or signal-to-noise ratio is low in a clinical electrode set-up. The interictal electrical generators estimated by FINE and MUSIC are in concordance with the patients' structural abnormality, i.e. MRI lesions, in all three patients. The higher R2 values achieved by FINE than MUSIC

  20. 3D source localization of interictal spikes in epilepsy patients with MRI lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Lei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church Street, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Worrell, Gregory A [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Lagerlund, Terrence D [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church Street, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-08-21

    The present study aims to accurately localize epileptogenic regions which are responsible for epileptic activities in epilepsy patients by means of a new subspace source localization approach, i.e. first principle vectors (FINE), using scalp EEG recordings. Computer simulations were first performed to assess source localization accuracy of FINE in the clinical electrode set-up. The source localization results from FINE were compared with the results from a classic subspace source localization approach, i.e. MUSIC, and their differences were tested statistically using the paired t-test. Other factors influencing the source localization accuracy were assessed statistically by ANOVA. The interictal epileptiform spike data from three adult epilepsy patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy and well-defined symptomatic MRI lesions were then studied using both FINE and MUSIC. The comparison between the electrical sources estimated by the subspace source localization approaches and MRI lesions was made through the coregistration between the EEG recordings and MRI scans. The accuracy of estimations made by FINE and MUSIC was also evaluated and compared by R{sup 2} statistic, which was used to indicate the goodness-of-fit of the estimated sources to the scalp EEG recordings. The three-concentric-spheres head volume conductor model was built for each patient with three spheres of different radii which takes the individual head size and skull thickness into consideration. The results from computer simulations indicate that the improvement of source spatial resolvability and localization accuracy of FINE as compared with MUSIC is significant when simulated sources are closely spaced, deep, or signal-to-noise ratio is low in a clinical electrode set-up. The interictal electrical generators estimated by FINE and MUSIC are in concordance with the patients' structural abnormality, i.e. MRI lesions, in all three patients. The higher R{sup 2} values achieved by FINE

  1. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...... is more annoying if the source position can be localized; lightweight structures have a more localized radiation than heavy structures. For the heavy structures the reverberant vibration field is dominant, therefore having a distributed radiation. A listening test is used to assess the subjective...... annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  2. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...... is more annoying if the source position can be localized; lightweight structures have a more localized radiation than heavy structures. For the heavy structures the reverberant vibration field is dominant, therefore having a distributed radiation. A listening test is used to assess the subjective...... annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  3. SoundCompass: a distributed MEMS microphone array-based sensor for sound source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-23

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass's hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  4. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer Tiete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA. This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  5. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field. PMID:24463431

  6. 3D source localization derived from subdural strip and grid electrodes: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dümpelmann, Matthias; Fell, Jürgen; Wellmer, Jörg; Urbach, Horst; Elger, Christian E

    2009-06-01

    Little experience exists in the application of source reconstruction methods to recordings from subdural strip and grid electrodes. This study addressed the question, whether reliable and accurate 3D source localization is possible from the Electrocorticogram (ECoG). The accuracy of source reconstruction was investigated by simulations and a case study. Simulated sources were used to compute potentials at the electrode positions derived from the MRI of a patient with subdural electrodes. Used procedures were the linear estimation (minimum norm) algorithm and the MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) scan. Maxima of linear estimation were attracted to adjacent electrodes. Reliable localization with a localization error 15 mm was only achieved for about 35% of the original source positions. Maxima of the MUSIC metric were identical to original positions for simulations without noise. Noise reduced the percentage of reliable solutions down to a 79.0%. Electrode contacts distant to the source had small influence on localization accuracy. The case study supported simulation results. Reliable source reconstruction derived from ECoG can be achieved by the application of the MUSIC algorithm. Linear estimation needs additional compensation mechanisms. MUSIC based 3D localization based on ECoG has the potential improving epilepsy diagnosis and cognitive research.

  7. Pitch and TDOA-Based Localization of Acoustic Sources with Distributed Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a method for acoustic source localization using distributed microphone arrays based on time-differences of arrival (TDOAs) is presented. The TDOAs are used to estimate the location of an acoustic source using a recently proposed method, based on a 4D parameter space defined by the 3D...

  8. Autonomous Micro-Air-Vehicle Control Based on Visual Sensing for Odor Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Kurotsuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel control method for autonomous-odor-source localization using visual and odor sensing by micro air vehicles (MAVs. Our method is based on biomimetics, which enable highly autonomous localization. Our method does not need any instruction signals, including even global positioning system (GPS signals. An experimenter simply blows a whistle, and the MAV will then start to hover, to seek an odor source, and to keep hovering near the source. The GPS-signal-free control based on visual sense enables indoor/underground use. Moreover, the MAV is light-weight (85 grams and does not cause harm to others even if it accidentally falls. Experiments conducted in the real world were successful in enabling odor source localization using the MAV with a bio-inspired searching method. The distance error of the localization was 63 cm, more accurate than the target distance of 120 cm for individual identification. Our odor source localization is the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system. These localization experiments were the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system to enable a safer and more secure society.

  9. Tori of confusion: binaural localization cues for sources within reach of a listener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, B G; Santarelli, S; Kopco, N

    2000-03-01

    To a first-order approximation, binaural localization cues are ambiguous: many source locations give rise to nearly the same interaural differences. For sources more than a meter away, binaural localization cues are approximately equal for any source on a cone centered on the interaural axis (i.e., the well-known "cone of confusion"). The current paper analyzes simple geometric approximations of a head to gain insight into localization performance for nearby sources. If the head is treated as a rigid, perfect sphere, interaural intensity differences (IIDs) can be broken down into two main components. One component depends on the head shadow and is constant along the cone of confusion (and covaries with the interaural time difference, or ITD). The other component depends only on the relative path lengths from the source to the two ears and is roughly constant for a sphere centered on the interaural axis. This second factor is large enough to be perceptible only when sources are within one or two meters of the listener. Results are not dramatically different if one assumes that the ears are separated by 160 deg along the surface of the sphere (rather than diametrically opposite one another). Thus for nearby sources, binaural information should allow listeners to locate sources within a volume around a circle centered on the interaural axis on a "torus of confusion." The volume of the torus of confusion increases as the source approaches the median plane, degenerating to a volume around the median plane in the limit.

  10. Acoustic Source Localization via Subspace Based Method Using Small Aperture MEMS Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small aperture microphone arrays provide many advantages for portable devices and hearing aid equipment. In this paper, a subspace based localization method is proposed for acoustic source using small aperture arrays. The effects of array aperture on localization are analyzed by using array response (array manifold. Besides array aperture, the frequency of acoustic source and the variance of signal power are simulated to demonstrate how to optimize localization performance, which is carried out by introducing frequency error with the proposed method. The proposed method for 5 mm array aperture is validated by simulations and experiments with MEMS microphone arrays. Different types of acoustic sources can be localized with the highest precision of 6 degrees even in the presence of wind noise and other noises. Furthermore, the proposed method reduces the computational complexity compared with other methods.

  11. Predicting infant cortical surface development using a 4D varifold-based learning framework and local topography-based shape morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging analysis methods have remarkably advanced our understanding of early postnatal brain development. However, learning predictive models to trace forth the evolution trajectories of both normal and abnormal cortical shapes remains broadly absent. To fill this critical gap, we pioneered the first prediction model for longitudinal developing cortical surfaces in infants using a spatiotemporal current-based learning framework solely from the baseline cortical surface. In this paper, we detail this prediction model and even further improve its performance by introducing two key variants. First, we use the varifold metric to overcome the limitations of the current metric for surface registration that was used in our preliminary study. We also extend the conventional varifold-based surface registration model for pairwise registration to a spatiotemporal surface regression model. Second, we propose a morphing process of the baseline surface using its topographic attributes such as normal direction and principal curvature sign. Specifically, our method learns from longitudinal data both the geometric (vertices positions) and dynamic (temporal evolution trajectories) features of the infant cortical surface, comprising a training stage and a prediction stage. In the training stage, we use the proposed varifold-based shape regression model to estimate geodesic cortical shape evolution trajectories for each training subject. We then build an empirical mean spatiotemporal surface atlas. In the prediction stage, given an infant, we select the best learnt features from training subjects to simultaneously predict the cortical surface shapes at all later timepoints, based on similarity metrics between this baseline surface and the learnt baseline population average surface atlas. We used a leave-one-out cross validation method to predict the inner cortical surface shape at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age from the baseline cortical surface shape at birth. Our

  12. RSS-based localization of isotropically decaying source with unknown power and pathloss factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shunyuan; Sun, Li; Ding, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the localization of an isotropically decaying source based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements that are collected from nearby active sensors that are position-known and wirelessly connected, and it propose a novel iterative algorithm for RSS-based source localization in order to improve the location accuracy and realize real-time location and automatic monitoring for hospital patients and medical equipment in the smart hospital. In particular, we consider the general case where the source power and pathloss factor are both unknown. For such a source localization problem, we propose an iterative algorithm, in which the unknown source position and two other unknown parameters (i.e. the source power and pathloss factor) are estimated in an alternating way based on each other, with our proposed sub-optimum initial estimate on source position obtained based on the RSS measurements that are collected from a few (closest) active sensors with largest RSS values. Analysis and simulation study show that our proposed iterative algorithm guarantees globally convergence to the least-squares (LS) solution, where for our suitably assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) zero-mean Gaussian RSS measurement errors the converged localization performance achieves the optimum that corresponds to the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB).

  13. Acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate without knowing its material properties - A new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Hyun; Packo, Pawel; Kundu, Tribikram

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic source localization (ASL) in a highly anisotropic plate is a challenging task. The basic assumption in many of the currently available techniques is that the wave propagates along a straight line from the source to the receiving sensor. However, waves in anisotropic solids propagate along curved lines and form non-circular wave fronts. As a result, for a highly anisotropic solid the acoustic source localization techniques that assume straight line propagation of waves from the source to the receiver are bound to produce a significant error. In this paper a new technique is introduced for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate by dealing with non-circular shape of wave fronts. Direction vectors of the wave fronts are computed from the Time-Difference-Of-Arrivals (TDOA) at three sensors placed in a cluster, then they are cast into a geometric vector analysis or an optimization process to accurately obtain the acoustic source location. Two common wave front shapes in highly anisotropic plates, rhombus and ellipse, are analyzed. Following this analysis, the acoustic source could be successfully localized without knowing the material properties of the plate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional localization of low activity gamma-ray sources in real-time scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive source localization plays an important role in tracking radiation threats in homeland security tasks. Its real-time application requires computationally efficient and reasonably accurate algorithms even with limited data to support detection with minimum uncertainty. This paper describes a statistic-based grid-refinement method for backtracing the position of a gamma-ray source in a three-dimensional domain in real-time. The developed algorithm used measurements from various known detector positions to localize the source. This algorithm is based on an inverse-square relationship between source intensity at a detector and the distance from the source to the detector. The domain discretization was developed and implemented in MATLAB. The algorithm was tested and verified from simulation results of an ideal case of a point source in non-attenuating medium. Subsequently, an experimental validation of the algorithm was performed to determine the suitability of deploying this scheme in real-time scenarios. Using the measurements from five known detector positions and for a measurement time of 3 min, the source position was estimated with an accuracy of approximately 53 cm. The accuracy improved and stabilized to approximately 25 cm for higher measurement times. It was concluded that the error in source localization was primarily due to detection uncertainties. In verification and experimental validation of the algorithm, the distance between 137 Cs source and any detector position was between 0.84 m and 1.77 m. The results were also compared with the least squares method. Since the discretization algorithm was validated with a weak source, it is expected that it can localize the source of higher activity in real-time. It is believed that for the same physical placement of source and detectors, a source of approximate activity 0.61–0.92 mCi can be localized in real-time with 1 s of measurement time and same accuracy. The accuracy and computational

  15. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  16. Source localization analysis using seismic noise data acquired in exploration geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, P.; Corciulo, M.; Campillo, M.; Dubuq, D.

    2011-12-01

    Passive monitoring using seismic noise data shows a growing interest at exploration scale. Recent studies demonstrated source localization capability using seismic noise cross-correlation at observation scales ranging from hundreds of kilometers to meters. In the context of exploration geophysics, classical localization methods using travel-time picking fail when no evident first arrivals can be detected. Likewise, methods based on the intensity decrease as a function of distance to the source also fail when the noise intensity decay gets more complicated than the power-law expected from geometrical spreading. We propose here an automatic procedure developed in ocean acoustics that permits to iteratively locate the dominant and secondary noise sources. The Matched-Field Processing (MFP) technique is based on the spatial coherence of raw noise signals acquired on a dense array of receivers in order to produce high-resolution source localizations. Standard MFP algorithms permits to locate the dominant noise source by matching the seismic noise Cross-Spectral Density Matrix (CSDM) with the equivalent CSDM calculated from a model and a surrogate source position that scans each position of a 3D grid below the array of seismic sensors. However, at exploration scale, the background noise is mostly dominated by surface noise sources related to human activities (roads, industrial platforms,..), which localization is of no interest for the monitoring of the hydrocarbon reservoir. In other words, the dominant noise sources mask lower-amplitude noise sources associated to the extraction process (in the volume). Their location is therefore difficult through standard MFP technique. The Multi-Rate Adaptative Beamforming (MRABF) is a further improvement of the MFP technique that permits to locate low-amplitude secondary noise sources using a projector matrix calculated from the eigen-value decomposition of the CSDM matrix. The MRABF approach aims at cancelling the contributions of

  17. Multiple Dipole Sources Localization from the Scalp EEG Using a High-resolution Subspace Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; He, Bin

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new algorithm, FINE, to enhance the spatial resolution and localization accuracy for closely-spaced sources, in the framework of the subspace source localization. Computer simulations were conducted in the present study to evaluate the performance of FINE, as compared with classic subspace source localization algorithms, i.e. MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC, in a realistic geometry head model by means of boundary element method (BEM). The results show that FINE could distinguish superficial simulated sources, with distance as low as 8.5 mm and deep simulated sources, with distance as low as 16.3 mm. Our results also show that the accuracy of source orientation estimates from FINE is better than MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC for closely-spaced sources. Motor potentials, obtained during finger movements in a human subject, were analyzed using FINE. The detailed neural activity distribution within the contralateral premotor areas and supplemental motor areas (SMA) is revealed by FINE as compared with MUSIC. The present study suggests that FINE has excellent spatial resolution in imaging neural sources.

  18. Underwater Broadband Source Localization Based on Modal Filtering and Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Fattaccioli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive source localization is a crucial issue in underwater acoustics. In this paper, we focus on shallow water environment (0 to 400 m and broadband Ultra-Low Frequency acoustic sources (1 to 100 Hz. In this configuration and at a long range, the acoustic propagation can be described by normal mode theory. The propagating signal breaks up into a series of depth-dependent modes. These modes carry information about the source position. Mode excitation factors and mode phases analysis allow, respectively, localization in depth and distance. We propose two different approaches to achieve the localization: multidimensional approach (using a horizontal array of hydrophones based on frequency-wavenumber transform (F-K method and monodimensional approach (using a single hydrophone based on adapted spectral representation (FTa method. For both approaches, we propose first complete tools for modal filtering, and then depth and distance estimators. We show that adding mode sign and source spectrum informations improves considerably the localization performance in depth. The reference acoustic field needed for depth localization is simulated with the new realistic propagation modelMoctesuma. The feasibility of both approaches, F-K and FTa, are validated on data simulated in shallow water for different configurations. The performance of localization, in depth and distance, is very satisfactory.

  19. Underwater Broadband Source Localization Based on Modal Filtering and Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristol Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive source localization is a crucial issue in underwater acoustics. In this paper, we focus on shallow water environment (0 to 400 m and broadband Ultra-Low Frequency acoustic sources (1 to 100 Hz. In this configuration and at a long range, the acoustic propagation can be described by normal mode theory. The propagating signal breaks up into a series of depth-dependent modes. These modes carry information about the source position. Mode excitation factors and mode phases analysis allow, respectively, localization in depth and distance. We propose two different approaches to achieve the localization: multidimensional approach (using a horizontal array of hydrophones based on frequency-wavenumber transform ( method and monodimensional approach (using a single hydrophone based on adapted spectral representation ( method. For both approaches, we propose first complete tools for modal filtering, and then depth and distance estimators. We show that adding mode sign and source spectrum informations improves considerably the localization performance in depth. The reference acoustic field needed for depth localization is simulated with the new realistic propagation modelMoctesuma. The feasibility of both approaches, and , are validated on data simulated in shallow water for different configurations. The performance of localization, in depth and distance, is very satisfactory.

  20. Joint Inversion of Earthquake Source Parameters with local and teleseismic body waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Ni, S.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    In the classical source parameter inversion algorithm of CAP (Cut and Paste method, by Zhao and Helmberger), waveform data at near distances (typically less than 500km) are partitioned into Pnl and surface waves to account for uncertainties in the crustal models and different amplitude weight of body and surface waves. The classical CAP algorithms have proven effective for resolving source parameters (focal mechanisms, depth and moment) for earthquakes well recorded on relatively dense seismic network. However for regions covered with sparse stations, it is challenging to achieve precise source parameters . In this case, a moderate earthquake of ~M6 is usually recorded on only one or two local stations with epicentral distances less than 500 km. Fortunately, an earthquake of ~M6 can be well recorded on global seismic networks. Since the ray paths for teleseismic and local body waves sample different portions of the focal sphere, combination of teleseismic and local body wave data helps constrain source parameters better. Here we present a new CAP mothod (CAPjoint), which emploits both teleseismic body waveforms (P and SH waves) and local waveforms (Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves) to determine source parameters. For an earthquake in Nevada that is well recorded with dense local network (USArray stations), we compare the results from CAPjoint with those from the traditional CAP method involving only of local waveforms , and explore the efficiency with bootstraping statistics to prove the results derived by CAPjoint are stable and reliable. Even with one local station included in joint inversion, accuracy of source parameters such as moment and strike can be much better improved.

  1. A Survey of Sound Source Localization Methods in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Cobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs are formed by a distributed group of acoustic-sensing devices featuring audio playing and recording capabilities. Current mobile computing platforms offer great possibilities for the design of audio-related applications involving acoustic-sensing nodes. In this context, acoustic source localization is one of the application domains that have attracted the most attention of the research community along the last decades. In general terms, the localization of acoustic sources can be achieved by studying energy and temporal and/or directional features from the incoming sound at different microphones and using a suitable model that relates those features with the spatial location of the source (or sources of interest. This paper reviews common approaches for source localization in WASNs that are focused on different types of acoustic features, namely, the energy of the incoming signals, their time of arrival (TOA or time difference of arrival (TDOA, the direction of arrival (DOA, and the steered response power (SRP resulting from combining multiple microphone signals. Additionally, we discuss methods not only aimed at localizing acoustic sources but also designed to locate the nodes themselves in the network. Finally, we discuss current challenges and frontiers in this field.

  2. Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio I; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Brunetti, Antonio; Lizio, Roberta; Tattoli, Giacomo; Cassano, Fabio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Barulli, Maria R; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Orzi, Francesco; Buttinelli, Carla; Giubilei, Franco; Del Percio, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification.

  3. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... are expressed as the evolution of the population intake fraction through inhalation and ingestion as a function of the distance from sources. For substances with atmospheric half-lives longer than a week, less than 20% of the global population intake through inhalation (median of 126 emission scenarios) can...

  4. Comparison of imaging modalities and source-localization algorithms in locating the induced activity during deep brain stimulation of the STN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, K G; Singh, A; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Schmidt, G; Muthuraman, M

    2016-08-01

    One of the most commonly used therapy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Identifying the most optimal target area for the placement of the DBS electrodes have become one of the intensive research area. In this study, the first aim is to investigate the capabilities of different source-analysis techniques in detecting deep sources located at the sub-cortical level and validating it using the a-priori information about the location of the source, that is, the STN. Secondly, we aim at an investigation of whether EEG or MEG is best suited in mapping the DBS-induced brain activity. To do this, simultaneous EEG and MEG measurement were used to record the DBS-induced electromagnetic potentials and fields. The boundary-element method (BEM) have been used to solve the forward problem. The position of the DBS electrodes was then estimated using the dipole (moving, rotating, and fixed MUSIC), and current-density-reconstruction (CDR) (minimum-norm and sLORETA) approaches. The source-localization results from the dipole approaches demonstrated that the fixed MUSIC algorithm best localizes deep focal sources, whereas the moving dipole detects not only the region of interest but also neighboring regions that are affected by stimulating the STN. The results from the CDR approaches validated the capability of sLORETA in detecting the STN compared to minimum-norm. Moreover, the source-localization results using the EEG modality outperformed that of the MEG by locating the DBS-induced activity in the STN.

  5. Olfactory source localization in the open field using one or both nostrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge-Lussen, A; Looser, G L; Westermann, B; Hummel, T

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to examine humans ́ abilities to localize odorants within the open field. Young participants were tested on a localization task using a relatively selective olfactory stimulus (2-phenylethyl-alcohol, PEA) and cineol, an odorant with a strong trigeminal component. Participants were blindfolded and had to localize an odorant source at 2 m distance (far-field condition) and a 0.4 m distance (near-field condition) with either two nostrils open or only one open nostril. For the odorant with trigeminal properties, the number of correct trials did not differ when one or both nostrils were used, while more PEA localization trials were correctly completed with both rather than one nostril. In the near-field condition, correct localization was possible in 72-80% of the trials, irrespective of the odorant and the number of nostrils used. Localization accuracy, measured as spatial deviation from the olfactory source, was significantly higher in the near-field compared to the far-field condition, but independent of the odorant being localized. Odorant localization within the open field is difficult, but possible. In contrast to the general view, humans seem to be able to exploit the two-nostril advantage with increasing task difficulty.

  6. Multicompare tests of the performance of different metaheuristics in EEG dipole source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Vargas, Diana Irazú; Lopez-Arevalo, Ivan; Gutiérrez, David

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of nonparametric multicompare statistical tests on the performance of simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE), when used for electroencephalographic (EEG) source localization. Such task can be posed as an optimization problem for which the referred metaheuristic methods are well suited. Hence, we evaluate the localization's performance in terms of metaheuristics' operational parameters and for a fixed number of evaluations of the objective function. In this way, we are able to link the efficiency of the metaheuristics with a common measure of computational cost. Our results did not show significant differences in the metaheuristics' performance for the case of single source localization. In case of localizing two correlated sources, we found that PSO (ring and tree topologies) and DE performed the worst, then they should not be considered in large-scale EEG source localization problems. Overall, the multicompare tests allowed to demonstrate the little effect that the selection of a particular metaheuristic and the variations in their operational parameters have in this optimization problem.

  7. Combined Laser-Doppler Flowmetry and Spectrophotometry: Feasibility Study of a Novel Device for Monitoring Local Cortical Microcirculation during Aneurysm Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Björn; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Bischoff, Barbara; Wolf, Dennis; Schmitt, Hubert; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Wiendieck, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Background  Monitoring of cortical cerebral perfusion is essential, especially in neurovascular surgery. Study Aims  To test a novel noninvasive laser-Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry device for feasibility during elective cerebral aneurysm surgery. Material and Methods  In this prospective single-institution nonrandomized trial, we studied local cerebral microcirculation using the noninvasive laser-Doppler spectrophotometer "Oxygen-to-see" (O2C) in 20 consecutive patients (15 female, 5 male; median age: 60.5 ± 11.7 years) who were operated on for incidental cerebral aneurysms. Capillary-venous oxygenation (oxygen saturation ["SO 2 "]), postcapillary venous filling pressures (relative hemoglobin content ["rHb"]), blood cell velocity ("velo"), and blood flow ("flow") were measured in 7-mm tissue depth using a subdural fiberoptic probe. Results  Representative recordings were acquired immediately after dural opening over a median time span of 88 ± 21.8 seconds (range: 60-128 seconds) before surgical manipulation. Baseline values (median ± 2 standard deviations) of brain perfusion as measured with the O2C device were SO 2 , 39 ± 16.6%; rHb, 53 ± 18.6 arbitrary units (AU); velo, 60 ± 20.4 AU; and flow, 311 ± 72.8 AU. Placement of the self-retaining retractor led to a decrease in SO 2 of 17% ± 29% ( p  < .05) and flow of 10% ± 11% ( p  < .01); rHb increased by 18% ± 20% ( p  < .01), and velo remained unchanged. Retractor removal caused the opposite with an increased flow of 10% ± 7% ( p  < 0.001) and velo (3% ± 6%, p  = 0.11), but a decrease in SO 2 of 24% ± 33% ( p  = 0.09) and rHb of 12% ± 20% ( p =0.18). No neurologic or surgical complications occurred. Conclusion  Using this novel noninvasive system, we were able to measure local cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery. Our data indicate that this device is able to detect changes during routine

  8. A probabilistic framework for single-sensor acoustic emission source localization in thin metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Tracking edge-reflected acoustic emission (AE) waves can allow the localization of their sources. Specifically, in bounded isotropic plate structures, only one sensor may be used to perform these source localizations. The primary goal of this paper is to develop a three-step probabilistic framework to quantify the uncertainties associated with such single-sensor localizations. According to this framework, a probabilistic approach is first used to estimate the direct distances between AE sources and the sensor. Then, an analytical model is used to reconstruct the envelope of edge-reflected AE signals based on the source-to-sensor distance estimations and their first arrivals. Finally, the correlation between the probabilistically reconstructed envelopes and recorded AE signals are used to estimate confidence contours for the location of AE sources. To validate the proposed framework, Hsu-Nielsen pencil lead break (PLB) tests were performed on the surface as well as the edges of an aluminum plate. The localization results show that the estimated confidence contours surround the actual source locations. In addition, the performance of the framework was tested in a noisy environment simulated by two dummy transducers and an arbitrary wave generator. The results show that in low-noise environments, the shape and size of the confidence contours depend on the sources and their locations. However, at highly noisy environments, the size of the confidence contours monotonically increases with the noise floor. Such probabilistic results suggest that the proposed probabilistic framework could thus provide more comprehensive information regarding the location of AE sources.

  9. Acoustic mapping of the lung based on source localization of adventitious respiratory sound components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ipek; Saraclar, Murat; Kahya, Yasemin P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to devise a methodology to estimate and depict the source locations of respiratory adventitious sound components in the lungs, particularly crackles, associated with certain pulmonary diseases. Using the multichannel respiratory sound signals recorded on the chest wall, we have tried to locate the sources of crackling sounds. The source localization is performed using basic independent component analysis (basic ICA) followed by an evaluation of the mixing coefficients in a center of weights approach, where after the ICA, by taking the relevant mixing matrix coefficients and assuming them to be placed on the microphone locations, the estimated sound source location is calculated as the center of those weights. In order to select both the proper data segments prior to the ICA, and the relevant independent component (IC) among the source signal estimates of the ICA subsequently, a Bayesian classifier (under the assumption of Gaussian likelihoods) has been trained, using the data of the same subject yet a different acquisition session from the one intended for source localization. The outcome of the algorithm is a map of estimated source locations of crackles with respect to the microphone locations, which is presented together with the error performances (both validation and test) of the classifier. This approach for the estimation and mapping of the adventitious sound source locations in the lungs using the acoustic data may be a promising imaging alternative, which is practical, non-expensive and harmless.

  10. Appropriate technology sourcebook: for tools and techniques that use local skills, local resources, and renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Pam, R.

    1976-01-01

    This is a guide to practical plans and books for village and small community technology. Critical reviews of selected publications on alternative sources of energy, farm implements, shop tools, agriculture, low-cost housing, health care, water supply, pedal power, philosophy of appropriate technology, and related subjects are given. Small-scale systems using local skills and resources are emphasized. Publications were chosen that provide enough practical information to be of significant help in understanding principles and in actually building the designs included. Entries were selected on the basis of low price, clarity of presentation, easily understandable nontechnical language, and unique subject matter. Materials and production techniques required are listed for all equipment plans. More than 375 publications from American and international sources, with 200 illustrations are listed. Price and address are given for each publication; some are also available in French or Spanish editions.

  11. Paired MEG data set source localization using recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, J J; Mosher, J C; Huang, M; Leahy, R M

    2000-09-01

    An important class of experiments in functional brain mapping involves collecting pairs of data corresponding to separate "Task" and "Control" conditions. The data are then analyzed to determine what activity occurs during the Task experiment but not in the Control. Here we describe a new method for processing paired magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data sets using our recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. In this method the signal subspace of the Task data is projected against the orthogonal complement of the Control data signal subspace to obtain a subspace which describes spatial activity unique to the Task. A RAP-MUSIC localization search is then performed on this projected data to localize the sources which are active in the Task but not in the Control data. In addition to dipolar sources, effective blocking of more complex sources, e.g., multiple synchronously activated dipoles or synchronously activated distributed source activity, is possible since these topographies are well-described by the Control data signal subspace. Unlike previously published methods, the proposed method is shown to be effective in situations where the time series associated with Control and Task activity possess significant cross correlation. The method also allows for straightforward determination of the estimated time series of the localized target sources. A multiepoch MEG simulation and a phantom experiment are presented to demonstrate the ability of this method to successfully identify sources and their time series in the Task data.

  12. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  13. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  14. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths. PMID:29462929

  15. Detection prospects for high energy neutrino sources from the anisotropic matter distribution in the local universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Rameez, Mohamed; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Constraints on the number and luminosity of the sources of the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube have been set by targeted searches for point sources. We set complementary constraints by using the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalogue, which maps the matter distribution of the local Universe....... Assuming that the distribution of the neutrino sources follows that of matter we look for correlations between `warm' spots on the IceCube skymap and the 2MRS matter distribution. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the expected number of neutrino multiplets and careful modelling of the detector performance...

  16. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. I - General asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.

  17. Multicompare Tests of the Performance of Different Metaheuristics in EEG Dipole Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Irazú Escalona-Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the use of nonparametric multicompare statistical tests on the performance of simulated annealing (SA, genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and differential evolution (DE, when used for electroencephalographic (EEG source localization. Such task can be posed as an optimization problem for which the referred metaheuristic methods are well suited. Hence, we evaluate the localization’s performance in terms of metaheuristics’ operational parameters and for a fixed number of evaluations of the objective function. In this way, we are able to link the efficiency of the metaheuristics with a common measure of computational cost. Our results did not show significant differences in the metaheuristics’ performance for the case of single source localization. In case of localizing two correlated sources, we found that PSO (ring and tree topologies and DE performed the worst, then they should not be considered in large-scale EEG source localization problems. Overall, the multicompare tests allowed to demonstrate the little effect that the selection of a particular metaheuristic and the variations in their operational parameters have in this optimization problem.

  18. Beamforming with a circular microphone array for localization of environmental noise sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2010-01-01

    It is often enough to localize environmental sources of noise from different directions in a plane. This can be accomplished with a circular microphone array, which can be designed to have practically the same resolution over 360. The microphones can be suspended in free space or they can...

  19. Beamforming with a circular microphone array for localization of environmental sources of noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2010-01-01

    It is often enough to localize environmental sources of noise from different directions in a plane. This can be accomplished with a circular microphone array, which can be designed to have practically the same resolution over 360. The microphones can be suspended in free space or they can...

  20. Increased Error-Related Negativity (ERN) in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: ERP and Source Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization analyses to track the time course of neural activity underlying response monitoring in children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder compared to age-matched low-risk normal controls. Methods: High-density ERPs were examined following errors on a flanker task…

  1. Sparsity and super-resolution in sound source localization with sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) is a method for solving such undetermined problems which achieves simultaneously sparsity, thus super-resolution, and computational...

  2. Open Source Software (OSS) Adoption Framework for Local Environment and its Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, U.; Bukhari, S. F. A.

    According to Business Software Alliance (BSA) Pakistan is ranked in the top 10 countries having highest piracy rate [1]. To overcome the problem of piracy local Information Technology (IT) companies are willing to migrate towards Open Source Software (OSS). Due to this reason need for framework/model for OSS adoption has become more pronounced.

  3. Evolution of Sound Source Localization Circuits in the Nonmammalian Vertebrate Brainstem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, Peggy L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement...... to increased sensitivity to a broader frequency range and to modification of the preexisting circuitry for sound source localization....

  4. An Ideal-Theoretic Criterion for Localization of an Unknown Number of Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morency, M.W.; Vorobyov, S.A.; Leus, G.J.T.; Matthews, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Source localization is among the most fundamental problems in statistical signal processing. Methods which rely on the orthogonality of the signal and noise subspaces, such as Pisarenko’s method, MUSIC, and root-MUSIC are some of the most widely used algorithms to solve this problem. As a common

  5. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  6. The study of local sources of ULF geoelectric signals with steep fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Chirkov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The method for recognition and monitoring of ULF electrotelluric signals with steep fronts is presented. The method is based on the multicomponent measurements of the geoelectric field and recognition of the clusters of signals using the data of spatial-polarization filtering. This detects the local sources of the signals associated with the variation of mode of deformation of the medium. The method was applied to the study of geoelectric sources associated with aftershocks of the Racha-Djava earthquake. The field observations show with a fair degree of confidence that these signals are generated by a small number of local zones in the vicinity of the observer (at a range of tens-hundreds meters. The spatial distribution and the dynamic properties of the local sources are described. The analysis of observations leads to the conclusion that the dynamics of the local sources of ULF signals with steep fronts may be considered possible electrotelluric precursors of the earthquakes. Consideration is given to the feasibility of the well-known VAN method for earthquake prediction. The overall methodological aspects of the current studies of the electrotelluric precursors of the earthquakes are discussed.

  7. Partial differential equation-based localization of a monopole source from a circular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shigeru; Nara, Takaaki; Levy, Tsukassa

    2013-10-01

    Wave source localization from a sensor array has long been the most active research topics in both theory and application. In this paper, an explicit and time-domain inversion method for the direction and distance of a monopole source from a circular array is proposed. The approach is based on a mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, for signal/source parameter estimation. It begins with an exact form of the source-constraint partial differential equation that describes the unilateral propagation of wide-band waves from a single source, and leads to exact algebraic equations that include circular Fourier coefficients (phase mode measurements) as their coefficients. From them, nearly closed-form, single-shot and multishot algorithms are obtained that is suitable for use with band-pass/differential filter banks. Numerical evaluation and several experimental results obtained using a 16-element circular microphone array are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  8. A new method to determine cortical bone thickness in CT images using a hybrid approach of parametric profile representation and local adaptive thresholds: Accuracy results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Museyko

    Full Text Available Cortical bone is an important contributor to bone strength and is pivotal to understand the etiology of osteoporotic fractures and the specific mechanisms of antiosteoporotic treatment regimen. 3D computed tomography (CT can be used to measure cortical thickness, density, and mass in the proximal femur, lumbar vertebrae, and distal forearm. However, the spatial resolution of clinical whole body CT scanners is limited by radiation exposure; partial volume artefacts severely impair the accurate assessment of cortical parameters, in particular in locations where the cortex is thin such as in the lumbar vertebral bodies or in the femoral neck.Model-based deconvolution approaches recover the cortical thickness by numerically deconvolving the image along 1D profiles using an estimated scanner point spread function (PSF and a hypothesized uniform cortical bone mineral density (reference density. In this work we provide a new essentially analytical unique solution to the model-based cortex recovery problem using few characteristics of the measured profile and thus eliminate the non-linear optimization step for deconvolution. Also, the proposed approach allows to get rid of the PSF in the model and reduces sensitivity to errors in the reference density. Additionally, run-time and memory effective computation of cortical thickness was achieved with the help of a lookup table.The method accuracy and robustness was validated and compared to that of a deconvolution approach recently proposed for cortical bone and of the 50% relative threshold technique: in a simulated environment with noise and various error levels in the reference density and using CT acquisitions of the European Forearm Phantom (EFP II, a modification of a widely used anthropomorphic standard of cortical and trabecular bone compartments that was scanned with various scan protocols.Results of simulations and of phantom data analysis verified the following properties of the new method: 1

  9. Detecting a cortical fingerprint of Parkinson’s disease for closed-loop neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eKern

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in Parkinson’s disease (PD mediates its clinical effects by modulating cortical oscillatory activity, presumably via a direct cortico-subthalamic connection. This observation might pave the way for novel closed-loop approaches comprising a cortical sensor. Enhanced beta oscillations (13-35 Hz have been linked to the pathophysiology of PD and may serve as such a candidate marker to localize a cortical area reliably modulated by DBS. However, beta-oscillations are widely distributed over the cortical surface, necessitating an additional signal source for spotting the cortical area linked to the pathologically synchronized cortico-subcortical motor network.In this context, both cortico-subthalamic coherence and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC have been studied in PD patients. Whereas the former requires invasive recordings, the latter allows for non-invasive detection, but displays a rather distributed cortical synchronization pattern in motor tasks. This distributed cortical representation may conflict with the goal of detecting a cortical localization with robust biomarker properties which is detectable on a single subject basis. We propose that this limitation could be overcome when recording CMC at rest. We hypothesized that – unlike healthy subjects – PD would show CMC at rest owing to the enhanced beta oscillations observed in PD. By performing source space analysis of beta CMC recorded during resting-state magnetoencephalography, we provide preliminary evidence in one patient for a cortical hot spot that is modulated most strongly by subthalamic DBS. Such a spot would provide a prominent target region either for direct neuromodulation or for placing a potential sensor in closed-loop DBS approaches, a proposal that requires investigation in a larger cohort of PD patients.

  10. Demonstration of acoustic source localization in air using single pixel compressive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Rohde, Charles A.; Guild, Matthew D.; Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic source localization often relies on large sensor arrays that can be electronically complex and have large data storage requirements to process element level data. Recently, the concept of a single-pixel-imager has garnered interest in the electromagnetics literature due to its ability to form high quality images with a single receiver paired with shaped aperture screens that allow for the collection of spatially orthogonal measurements. Here, we present a method for creating an acoustic analog to the single-pixel-imager found in electromagnetics for the purpose of source localization. Additionally, diffraction is considered to account for screen openings comparable to the acoustic wavelength. A diffraction model is presented and incorporated into the single pixel framework. In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying single pixel localization to acoustic measurements. The method is experimentally validated with laboratory measurements made in an air waveguide.

  11. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-01-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head

  12. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head.

  13. Contaminant point source localization error estimates as functions of data quantity and model quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2016-10-01

    We develop empirically-grounded error envelopes for localization of a point contamination release event in the saturated zone of a previously uncharacterized heterogeneous aquifer into which a number of plume-intercepting wells have been drilled. We assume that flow direction in the aquifer is known exactly and velocity is known to within a factor of two of our best guess from well observations prior to source identification. Other aquifer and source parameters must be estimated by interpretation of well breakthrough data via the advection-dispersion equation. We employ high performance computing to generate numerous random realizations of aquifer parameters and well locations, simulate well breakthrough data, and then employ unsupervised machine optimization techniques to estimate the most likely spatial (or space-time) location of the source. Tabulating the accuracy of these estimates from the multiple realizations, we relate the size of 90% and 95% confidence envelopes to the data quantity (number of wells) and model quality (fidelity of ADE interpretation model to actual concentrations in a heterogeneous aquifer with channelized flow). We find that for purely spatial localization of the contaminant source, increased data quantities can make up for reduced model quality. For space-time localization, we find similar qualitative behavior, but significantly degraded spatial localization reliability and less improvement from extra data collection. Since the space-time source localization problem is much more challenging, we also tried a multiple-initial-guess optimization strategy. This greatly enhanced performance, but gains from additional data collection remained limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Source parameters controlling the generation and propagation of potential local tsunamis along the cascadia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E.; Yoshioka, S.

    1996-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in assessing hazards from local tsunamis along the Cascadia margin is estimating the possible earthquake source parameters. We investigate which source parameters exert the largest influence on tsunami generation and determine how each parameter affects the amplitude of the local tsunami. The following source parameters were analyzed: (1) type of faulting characteristic of the Cascadia subduction zone, (2) amount of slip during rupture, (3) slip orientation, (4) duration of rupture, (5) physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and (6) influence of secondary faulting. The effect of each of these source parameters on the quasi-static displacement of the ocean floor is determined by using elastic three-dimensional, finite-element models. The propagation of the resulting tsunami is modeled both near the coastline using the two-dimensional (x-t) Peregrine equations that includes the effects of dispersion and near the source using the three-dimensional (x-y-t) linear long-wave equations. The source parameters that have the largest influence on local tsunami excitation are the shallowness of rupture and the amount of slip. In addition, the orientation of slip has a large effect on the directivity of the tsunami, especially for shallow dipping faults, which consequently has a direct influence on the length of coastline inundated by the tsunami. Duration of rupture, physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and secondary faulting all affect the excitation of tsunamis but to a lesser extent than the shallowness of rupture and the amount and orientation of slip. Assessment of the severity of the local tsunami hazard should take into account that relatively large tsunamis can be generated from anomalous 'tsunami earthquakes' that rupture within the accretionary wedge in comparison to interplate thrust earthquakes of similar magnitude. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF Radiofrequency Identification (RFID setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements.

  16. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  17. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott

    2016-04-19

    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  18. A Novel Catheter-Guidance Algorithm for Localization of Atrial Fibrillation Rotor and Focal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmin, Anthony J.; Ganesan, Prasanth; Shillieto, Kristina E.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Huang, David T.; Pertsov, Arkady M.; Ghoraani, Behnaz

    2018-01-01

    Locating atrial fibrillation (AF) focal and rotor sources can help improve target ablation therapy for AF. However, it remains unclear how to use the information provided by multi-polar diagnostic catheters (MPDC) to locate AF sources. Our aim was to develop a catheter-guidance algorithm to locate AF focal and rotor sources using a conventional MPDC. We simulated a 10 cm x 10 cm atrial tissue with focal and rotor sources using the Nygren et al. ionic model. We modeled a Lasso MPDC with 20-unipole electrodes placed with a spacing of 4.5-1-4.5 mm (diameter, d=15 mm) along a circle to obtain 10-bipole electrograms. Staring from an initial location, the algorithm, which was blinded to the location and type of the AF source, iteratively advanced the MPDC by moving its center to the location of the first activated bipole (FAB). The algorithm located an AF source if a stopping condition for either source was satisfied using bipole electrogram characteristics extracted from the MPDC placement. We tested the algorithm for a single rotor and focal source for all possible initial positions on the simulated tissue and repeated it for a random placement with a maximum of 20 possible placements at every trial. The algorithm located the AF source for 100% of trials and on average required 5.99 ± 1.92 placements to an AF source. This algorithm may be used to iteratively direct an MPDC towards an AF source and allow the AF source to be localized for customized AF ablation. PMID:28268380

  19. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-12-10

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments.

  20. Compressing Sensing Based Source Localization for Controlled Acoustic Signals Using Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the accuracy of sound source localization in noisy and reverberant environments, this paper proposes an adaptive sound source localization method based on distributed microphone arrays. Since sound sources lie at a few points in the discrete spatial domain, our method can exploit this inherent sparsity to convert the localization problem into a sparse recovery problem based on the compressive sensing (CS theory. In this method, a two-step discrete cosine transform- (DCT- based feature extraction approach is utilized to cover both short-time and long-time properties of acoustic signals and reduce the dimensions of the sparse model. In addition, an online dictionary learning (DL method is used to adjust the dictionary for matching the changes of audio signals, and then the sparse solution could better represent location estimations. Moreover, we propose an improved block-sparse reconstruction algorithm using approximate l0 norm minimization to enhance reconstruction performance for sparse signals in low signal-noise ratio (SNR conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation results and experimental results where substantial improvement for localization performance can be obtained in the noisy and reverberant conditions.

  1. Deep Source Localization with Magnetoencephalography Based on Sensor Array Decomposition and Beamforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yegang; Lin, Yicong; Yang, Baoshan; Tang, Guangrui; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jicong

    2017-08-11

    In recent years, the source localization technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) has played a prominent role in cognitive neuroscience and in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychological disorders. However, locating deep brain activities such as in the mesial temporal structures, especially in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy patients, may be more challenging. In this work we have proposed a modified beamforming approach for finding deep sources. First, an iterative spatiotemporal signal decomposition was employed for reconstructing the sensor arrays, which could characterize the intrinsic discriminant features for interpreting sensor signals. Next, a sensor covariance matrix was estimated under the new reconstructed space. Then, a well-known vector beamforming approach, which was a linearly constraint minimum variance (LCMV) approach, was applied to compute the solution for the inverse problem. It can be shown that the proposed source localization approach can give better localization accuracy than two other commonly-used beamforming methods (LCMV, MUSIC) in simulated MEG measurements generated with deep sources. Further, we applied the proposed approach to real MEG data recorded from ten patients with medically-refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) for finding epileptogenic zone(s), and there was a good agreement between those findings by the proposed approach and the clinical comprehensive results.

  2. Interpretation of the MEG-MUSIC scan in biomagnetic source localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Signal and Image Processing Inst.

    1993-09-01

    MEG-Music is a new approach to MEG source localization. MEG-Music is based on a spatio-temporal source model in which the observed biomagnetic fields are generated by a small number of current dipole sources with fixed positions/orientations and varying strengths. From the spatial covariance matrix of the observed fields, a signal subspace can be identified. The rank of this subspace is equal to the number of elemental sources present. This signal sub-space is used in a projection metric that scans the three dimensional head volume. Given a perfect signal subspace estimate and a perfect forward model, the metric will peak at unity at each dipole location. In practice, the signal subspace estimate is contaminated by noise, which in turn yields MUSIC peaks which are less than unity. Previously we examined the lower bounds on localization error, independent of the choice of localization procedure. In this paper, we analyzed the effects of noise and temporal coherence on the signal subspace estimate and the resulting effects on the MEG-MUSIC peaks.

  3. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  4. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  5. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  6. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization.

  7. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......'' SSL algorithms which use binaural microphones for localization, MLSSL performs better using signals of one or more microphones placed on just one ear, thereby reducing the wireless transmission overhead of binaural hearing aids. More specifically, when the target location confined to the front...

  8. Heirloom tomato cultivars and local populations as sources of genetic variability for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glogovac Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five local tomato populations and fourteen heirloom cultivars were analyzed in this study. The analyzed genotypes represent a part of tomato collection of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The following fruit and plant traits were analyzed: growth type, fruit color, fruit shape index, fruit weight, number of locules and dry matter content. Cluster analysis was performed so as to group the analyzed genotypes by homology and divergence. The aim of this article was to determine the importance of heirloom cultivars and local populations as sources of genetic variability in tomato breeding process.

  9. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  10. Local and Remote Sources of Precipitation during the 1993 Midwestern United States Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael; Sud, Yogesh; Walker, Gregory; Schubert, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    During June and July of 1993, devastating and persistent rainfall caused substantial damage in the Midwest United States primarily focused on the Mississippi River Basin. Above noma1 springtime rains primed the region for flooding. The resulting wet soil was thought to be a major source of water for the heavy summer precipitation. On the other hand, northward moisture transport was extremely intense during the summer. In this study, we have implemented passive tracers to diagnose the geographic source of water for precipitation, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVT), into the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) Data Assimilation System (DAS). The WVT diagnostics can produce detailed budgets of the geographical sources of water that precipitates in any region, and they consider physical and dynamical tendencies at the model time step. The 1993 summer has been reanalyzed with the new WVT diagnostics to better understand the local and remote source of water for precipitation during the flood. Because the DAS also uses observations of water in the atmospheric hydrologic budget, we will also evaluate the impact of the observations on the local and remote sources of water in the DAS.

  11. Gas Source Localization via Behaviour Based Mobile Robot and Weighted Arithmetic Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ahmad Shakaff Ali; Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Visvanathan, Retnam; Mamduh Syed Zakaria, Syed Muhammad; Zakaria, Ammar; Munirah Kamarudin, Latifah

    2018-03-01

    This work is concerned with the localization of gas source in dynamic indoor environment using a single mobile robot system. Algorithms such as Braitenberg, Zig-Zag and the combination of the two were implemented on the mobile robot as gas plume searching and tracing behaviours. To calculate the gas source location, a weighted arithmetic mean strategy was used. All experiments were done on an experimental testbed consisting of a large gas sensor array (LGSA) to monitor real-time gas concentration within the testbed. Ethanol gas was released within the testbed and the source location was marked using a pattern that can be tracked by a pattern tracking system. A pattern template was also mounted on the mobile robot to track the trajectory of the mobile robot. Measurements taken by the mobile robot and the LGSA were then compared to verify the experiments. A combined total of 36.5 hours of real time experimental runs were done and the typical results from such experiments were presented in this paper. From the results, we obtained gas source localization errors between 0.4m to 1.2m from the real source location.

  12. Blind deconvolution in multipath environments and extensions to remote source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Abadi, Shima

    In the ocean, the acoustic signal from a remote source recorded by an underwater hydrophone array is commonly distorted by multipath propagation. Blind deconvolution is the task of determining the source signal and the impulse response from array-recorded sounds when the source signal and the environment's impulse response are both unknown. Synthetic time reversal (STR) is a passive blind deconvolution technique that relies on generic features (rays or modes) of multipath sound propagation to accomplish two remote sensing tasks. 1) It can be used to estimate the original source signal and the source-to-array impulse responses, and 2) it can be used to localize the remote source when some information is available about the acoustic environment. The performance of STR for both tasks is considered in this thesis. For the first task, simulations and underwater experiments (CAPEx09) have shown STR to be successful for 50 millisecond chirp signals with a bandwidth of 1.5 to 4.0 kHz broadcast to source-array ranges of 100 m to 500 m in 60-m-deep water. Here STR is successful when the signal-to-noise ratio is high enough, and the receiving array has sufficient aperture and element density so that conventional delay-and-sum beamforming can be used to distinguish ray-path-arrival directions. Also, an unconventional beamforming technique (frequency-difference beamforming) that manufactures frequency differences from the recorded signals has been developed. It allows STR to be successful with sparse array measurements where conventional beamforming fails. Broadband simulations and experimental data from the focused acoustic field experiment (FAF06) have been used to determine the performance of STR when combined with frequency-difference beamforming when the array elements are nearly 40 signal-center-frequency wavelengths apart. The results are good; the cross-correlation coefficient between the source-broadcast and STR-reconstructed-signal waveforms for the simulations and

  13. Nonlinear waves from a localized vortex source in strongly correlated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin

    2017-11-01

    Highly charged quasi two-dimensional grain medium (complex plasma) is a remarkable test-bed to study wave like phenomena. Understanding of such wave propagation has many important applications in geophysics, petroleum engineering, and mining, earthquakes, and seismology. In the present study, for the first time, the propagation of nonlinear wave which originates from localized coherent vortex source has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation taking Yukawa liquids as a prototype for strongly correlated fluid. In this work, the coupling of transverse and longitudinal mode, effect of azimuthal speed of vortex source on the linear and nonlinear properties of generated wave will be presented as a function of strong correlation.

  14. Distributed 3D Source Localization from 2D DOA Measurements Using Multiple Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canclini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript addresses the problem of 3D source localization from direction of arrivals (DOAs in wireless acoustic sensor networks. In this context, multiple sensors measure the DOA of the source, and a central node combines the measurements to yield the source location estimate. Traditional approaches require 3D DOA measurements; that is, each sensor estimates the azimuth and elevation of the source by means of a microphone array, typically in a planar or spherical configuration. The proposed methodology aims at reducing the hardware and computational costs by combining measurements related to 2D DOAs estimated from linear arrays arbitrarily displaced in the 3D space. Each sensor measures the DOA in the plane containing the array and the source. Measurements are then translated into an equivalent planar geometry, in which a set of coplanar equivalent arrays observe the source preserving the original DOAs. This formulation is exploited to define a cost function, whose minimization leads to the source location estimation. An extensive simulation campaign validates the proposed approach and compares its accuracy with state-of-the-art methodologies.

  15. Time domain localization technique with sparsity constraint for imaging acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Doutres, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Berry, Alain

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses source localization technique in time domain for broadband acoustic sources. The objective is to accurately and quickly detect the position and amplitude of noise sources in workplaces in order to propose adequate noise control options and prevent workers hearing loss or safety risk. First, the generalized cross correlation associated with a spherical microphone array is used to generate an initial noise source map. Then a linear inverse problem is defined to improve this initial map. Commonly, the linear inverse problem is solved with an l2 -regularization. In this study, two sparsity constraints are used to solve the inverse problem, the orthogonal matching pursuit and the truncated Newton interior-point method. Synthetic data are used to highlight the performances of the technique. High resolution imaging is achieved for various acoustic sources configurations. Moreover, the amplitudes of the acoustic sources are correctly estimated. A comparison of computation times shows that the technique is compatible with quasi real-time generation of noise source maps. Finally, the technique is tested with real data.

  16. Section 2: Assessment of local and regional carbon sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the book discusses assessment of local and regional carbon sinks. The chapters of Section 1 discuss the increase in the global CO2 concentration, the aggregate sum of all local and regional carbon sources, whereas those of Section 2 focus mostly on sinks: The terrestrial sinks of soils, grasses, and forest can become sources of CO2 when those sinks die or burn (plants) or erode (soils). Likewise, as ocean temperatures increase, the solubility of CO2 in the seas decreases, reducing the capacity of that sink. Additionally, although the terrestrial sequestration literature provides a wide range of new options, forest management and agricultural soils management—as Perry et al. and Mikhailova et al., respectively, discuss—can increase carbon storage capacity without a great deal of new research.

  17. Muscle and eye movement artifact removal prior to EEG source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Hans; Vergult, Anneleen; Phlypo, Ronald; Van Hese, Peter; De Clercq, Wim; D'Asseler, Yves; Van de Walle, Rik; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2006-01-01

    Muscle and eye movement artifacts are very prominent in the ictal EEG of patients suffering from epilepsy, thus making the dipole localization of ictal activity very unreliable. Recently, two techniques (BSS-CCA and pSVD) were developed to remove those artifacts. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the removal of muscle and eye movement artifacts improves the EEG dipole source localization. We used a total of 8 EEG fragments, each from another patient, first unfiltered, then filtered by the BSS-CCA and pSVD. In both the filtered and unfiltered EEG fragments we estimated multiple dipoles using RAP-MUSIC. The resulting dipoles were subjected to a K-means clustering algorithm, to extract the most prominent cluster. We found that the removal of muscle and eye artifact results to tighter and more clear dipole clusters. Furthermore, we found that localization of the filtered EEG corresponded with the localization derived from the ictal SPECT in 7 of the 8 patients. Therefore, we can conclude that the BSS-CCA and pSVD improve localization of ictal activity, thus making the localization more reliable for the presurgical evaluation of the patient.

  18. Frequency-Difference Source Localization and Blind Deconvolution in Shallow Ocean Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    successful, the STR work might make underwater acoustic communications more efficient and reliable since sound-channel calibration would not be...specific objectives are to: a) assess the performance of STR using 4-by-4 planar hydrophone array recordings in a reverberant laboratory water tank...and ii) to understand and quantify the utility of the frequency-difference concept for remote underwater source localization when applied to MFP

  19. Current use of imaging and electromagnetic source localization procedures in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Brian E; Rados, Matea; Barsi, Péter; Boon, Paul; Carmichael, David W; Carrette, Evelien; Craiu, Dana; Cross, J Helen; Diehl, Beate; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Francione, Stefano; Gaskin, Vladislav; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Grigoreva, Elena; Guekht, Alla; Hirsch, Edouard; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Jung, Julien; Kalviainen, Reetta; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios; Kobulashvili, Teia; Krsek, Pavel; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Larsson, Pål G; Leitinger, Markus; Lossius, Morten I; Luzin, Roman; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Marusic, Petr; Metin, Baris; Özkara, Cigdem; Pecina, Hrvoje; Quesada, Carlos M; Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Rydenhag, Bertil; Ryvlin, Philippe; Scholly, Julia; Seeck, Margitta; Staack, Anke M; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Stepanov, Valentin; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Uzan, Mustafa; Vogt, Viola L; Vos, Sjoerd B; Vulliémoz, Serge; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Leijten, Frans S S; Van Eijsden, Pieter; Braun, Kees P J

    2016-05-01

    In 2014 the European Union-funded E-PILEPSY project was launched to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. We aimed to investigate the current use of neuroimaging, electromagnetic source localization, and imaging postprocessing procedures in participating centers. A survey on the clinical use of imaging, electromagnetic source localization, and postprocessing methods in epilepsy surgery candidates was distributed among the 25 centers of the consortium. A descriptive analysis was performed, and results were compared to existing guidelines and recommendations. Response rate was 96%. Standard epilepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols are acquired at 3 Tesla by 15 centers and at 1.5 Tesla by 9 centers. Three centers perform 3T MRI only if indicated. Twenty-six different MRI sequences were reported. Six centers follow all guideline-recommended MRI sequences with the proposed slice orientation and slice thickness or voxel size. Additional sequences are used by 22 centers. MRI postprocessing methods are used in 16 centers. Interictal positron emission tomography (PET) is available in 22 centers; all using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Seventeen centers perform PET postprocessing. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is used by 19 centers, of which 15 perform postprocessing. Four centers perform neither PET nor SPECT in children. Seven centers apply magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, and nine apply electroencephalography (EEG) source localization. Fourteen combinations of inverse methods and volume conduction models are used. We report a large variation in the presurgical diagnostic workup among epilepsy surgery centers across Europe. This diversity underscores the need for high-quality systematic reviews, evidence-based recommendations, and harmonization of available diagnostic presurgical methods. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Evaluation of Some Local Egyptian Plants as a Source of Chlorophyll Pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Ismail, S. I.; Hussiney, H. A.; Hussein, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Four plant materials viz. Spinacia oleracae Linn, (spinach), Beta vulgaris Limm (chard), Medicago sativa Linn, (alfalfa) and Petroselinum sativum Hoff. (parsely) were studied as local sources for the preparation of chlorophyll pigments as natural green colour additives. Processing of the plant materials were carried out under different conditions viz. blanching, non-blanching followed by drying in air or electrical oven or in solar dehydrating oven. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation...

  1. In vivo measurement of the Ca/P ratio by local activation with isotopic neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Comar, D.; Kuntz, D.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study the mineral content of bone tissue and its variations during physiological, pathological and pharmacological phenomenon, calcium and phosphorus were determined in the hand. Neutron activation analysis is an ideal method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of bone mineral elements in living subjects. The main advantage of local activation lies in the specificity of the irradiation, only the organ or the zone concerned being affected by the neutron flux. Moreover the local irradiation procedure is relatively simple and uses compact apparatus, inexpensive enough to equip a non-specialized hospital service. A method for the measurement of Ca and P by local activation of the hand with 252 Cf and 238 Pu-Be neutron sources is described. The results obtained on a group of normal subjects are given followed by a discussion on the validity of the method, its application to pathological subjects is considered

  2. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  3. Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades: Acoustic Source Localization Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mabrok Bouzid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM is important for reducing the maintenance and operation cost of safety-critical components and systems in offshore wind turbines. This paper proposes an in situ wireless SHM system based on an acoustic emission (AE technique. By using this technique a number of challenges are introduced due to high sampling rate requirements, limitations in the communication bandwidth, memory space, and power resources. To overcome these challenges, this paper focused on two elements: (1 the use of an in situ wireless SHM technique in conjunction with the utilization of low sampling rates; (2 localization of acoustic sources which could emulate impact damage or audible cracks caused by different objects, such as tools, bird strikes, or strong hail, all of which represent abrupt AE events and could affect the structural health of a monitored wind turbine blade. The localization process is performed using features extracted from aliased AE signals based on a developed constraint localization model. To validate the performance of these elements, the proposed system was tested by testing the localization of the emulated AE sources acquired in the field.

  4. Revealing transboundary and local air pollutant sources affecting Metro Manila through receptor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Santos, Flora L.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5) levels at the Metro Manila air sampling stations of the Philippine Nuclear Research Research Institute were found to be above the WHO guideline value of 10 μg m 3 indicating, in general, very poor air quality in the area. The elemental components of the fine particulate matter were obtained using the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Positive matrix factorization, a receptor modelling tool, was used to identify and apportion air pollution sources. Location of probable transboundary air pollutants were evaluated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) while location of probable local air pollutant sources were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF). Air pollutant sources can either be natural or anthropogenic. This study has shown natural air pollutant sources such as volcanic eruptions from Bulusan volcano in 2006 and from Anatahan volcano in 2005 to have impacted on the region. Fine soils was shown to have originated from China's Mu US Desert some time in 2004. Smoke in the fine fraction in 2006 show indications of coming from forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo. Fine particulate Pb in Valenzuela was shown to be coming from the surrounding area. Many more significant air pollution impacts can be evaluated with the identification of probable air pollutant sources with the use of elemental fingerprints and locating these sources with the use of HYSPLIT and CPF. (author)

  5. Reduced mercury deposition in New Hampshire from 1996 to 2002 due to changes in local sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Ji [Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, 192-1, Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: youngji@kangwon.ac.kr; Holsen, Thomas M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, W.J. Rowley Laboratory, Box 5710, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States)], E-mail: holsen@clarkson.edu; Evers, David C. [BioDiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States)], E-mail: david.evers@briloon.org; Driscoll, Charles T. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 151 Link Hall, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)], E-mail: ctdrisco@syr.edu

    2008-12-15

    Changes in deposition of gaseous divalent mercury (Hg(II)) and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) in New Hampshire due to changes in local sources from 1996 to 2002 were assessed using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) model (regional and global sources and Hg atmospheric reactions were not considered). Mercury (Hg) emissions in New Hampshire and adjacent areas decreased significantly (from 1540 to 880 kg yr{sup -1}) during this period, and the average annual modeled deposition of total Hg also declined from 17 to 7.0 {mu}g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for the same period. In 2002, the maximum amount of Hg deposition was modeled to be in southern New Hampshire, while for 1996 the maximum deposition occurred farther north and east. The ISCST3 was also used to evaluate two future scenarios. The average percent difference in deposition across all cells was 5% for the 50% reduction scenario and 9% for the 90% reduction scenario. - This paper is the first research paper to investigate the impact of local sources on the short-term historical change in mercury deposition in Northeast US region.

  6. Estimation of effective brain connectivity with dual Kalman filter and EEG source localization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabioun, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-09-01

    Effective connectivity is one of the most important considerations in brain functional mapping via EEG. It demonstrates the effects of a particular active brain region on others. In this paper, a new method is proposed which is based on dual Kalman filter. In this method, firstly by using a brain active localization method (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) and applying it to EEG signal, active regions are extracted, and appropriate time model (multivariate autoregressive model) is fitted to extracted brain active sources for evaluating the activity and time dependence between sources. Then, dual Kalman filter is used to estimate model parameters or effective connectivity between active regions. The advantage of this method is the estimation of different brain parts activity simultaneously with the calculation of effective connectivity between active regions. By combining dual Kalman filter with brain source localization methods, in addition to the connectivity estimation between parts, source activity is updated during the time. The proposed method performance has been evaluated firstly by applying it to simulated EEG signals with interacting connectivity simulation between active parts. Noisy simulated signals with different signal to noise ratios are used for evaluating method sensitivity to noise and comparing proposed method performance with other methods. Then the method is applied to real signals and the estimation error during a sweeping window is calculated. By comparing proposed method results in different simulation (simulated and real signals), proposed method gives acceptable results with least mean square error in noisy or real conditions.

  7. Nanoscale direct mapping of localized and induced noise sources on conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Cho, Duckhyung; Lee, Hyungwoo; Cho, Dong-Guk; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-12-01

    The localized noise-sources and those induced by external-stimuli were directly mapped by using a conducting-AFM integrated with a custom-designed noise measurement set-up. In this method, current and noise images of a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-polymer-film on a conducting-substrate were recorded simultaneously, enabling the mapping of the resistivity and noise source density (NT). The polymer-films exhibited separate regions with high or low resistivities, which were attributed to the ordered or disordered phases, respectively. A larger number of noise-sources were observed in the disordered-phase-regions than in the ordered-phase regions, due to structural disordering. Increased bias-voltages on the disordered-phase-regions resulted in increased NT, which is explained by the structural deformation at high bias-voltages. On photo-illumination, the ordered-phase-regions exhibited a rather large increase in the conductivity and NT. Presumably, the illumination released carriers from deep-traps which should work as additional noise-sources. These results show that our methods provide valuable insights into noise-sources and, thus, can be powerful tools for basic research and practical applications of conducting polymer films.The localized noise-sources and those induced by external-stimuli were directly mapped by using a conducting-AFM integrated with a custom-designed noise measurement set-up. In this method, current and noise images of a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-polymer-film on a conducting-substrate were recorded simultaneously, enabling the mapping of the resistivity and noise source density (NT). The polymer-films exhibited separate regions with high or low resistivities, which were attributed to the ordered or disordered phases, respectively. A larger number of noise-sources were observed in the disordered-phase-regions than in the ordered-phase regions, due to structural disordering. Increased bias-voltages on the disordered-phase-regions resulted in

  8. Enhanced cortical thickness measurements for rodent brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 streamline computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain's developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline.

  9. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  10. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Julian M L; Kisvárday, Zoltán F

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns.

  11. AE source localization on the material with unknown elastic wave propagation velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Weom Heum; Kim, Dal Jung; Jhang, Kyung Young

    1996-01-01

    The ability to locate defects in materials is one of the major attractions of the acoustic emission technique. The standard method of planar source location is to place three or more transducers on the surface of a specimen and to triangulate the source position by using the differences in arrival times of the acoustic emission wave at the sensors. But the standard method have limited applications if the propagation velocity in the medium is riot known. In this paper, we propose a method for AE source localization on the material with unknown elastic wave propagation velocity. In this method, it is not needed to know the propagation velocity previously, that is, we can apply this method to arbitrary materials of which properties is not known exactly. We discuss the robustness of detecting AE source location algorithm according to the errors, and signal processing for measurement of the differences in arrival times of acoustic emission wave at the sensors. For performance evaluation of this algorithm, experiments performed using a lead break as the AE source on the surface of an aluminum plate.

  12. Sound source localization technique using a seismic streamer and its extension for whale localization during seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H; Wilcock, William S D; Tolstoy, Maya; Crone, Timothy J; Carbotte, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Marine seismic surveys are under increasing scrutiny because of concern that they may disturb or otherwise harm marine mammals and impede their communications. Most of the energy from seismic surveys is low frequency, so concerns are particularly focused on baleen whales. Extensive mitigation efforts accompany seismic surveys, including visual and acoustic monitoring, but the possibility remains that not all animals in an area can be observed and located. One potential way to improve mitigation efforts is to utilize the seismic hydrophone streamer to detect and locate calling baleen whales. This study describes a method to localize low frequency sound sources with data recoded by a streamer. Beamforming is used to estimate the angle of arriving energy relative to sub-arrays of the streamer which constrains the horizontal propagation velocity to each sub-array for a given trial location. A grid search method is then used to minimize the time residual for relative arrival times along the streamer estimated by cross correlation. Results from both simulation and experiment are shown and data from the marine mammal observers and the passive acoustic monitoring conducted simultaneously with the seismic survey are used to verify the analysis.

  13. Human impact on fluvial sediments: distinguishing regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, T.; Matys Grygar, T.; Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2012-04-01

    Industrial pollution can provide a useful tool to study spatiotemporal distribution of modern floodplain sediments, trace their provenance, and allow their dating. Regional contamination of southern Moravia (the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic) by heavy metals during the 20th century was determined in fluvial sediments of the Morava River by means of enrichment factors. The influence of local sources and sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in overbank fines with different lithology and facies. For this purpose, samples were obtained from hand-drilled cores from regulated channel banks, with well-defined local sources of contamination (factories in Zlín and Otrokovice) and also from near naturally inundated floodplains in two nature protected areas (at 30 km distance). The analyses were performed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF), ICP MS (EDXRF samples calibration, 206Pb/207Pb ratio), magnetic susceptibility, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and 137Cs and 210Pb activities. Enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) and magnetic susceptibility of overbank fines in near-naturally (near annually) inundated areas allowed us to reconstruct historical contamination by heavy metals in the entire study area independently on lithofacies. Measured lithological background values were then used for calculation of EFs in the channel sediments and in floodplain sediments deposited within narrow part of a former floodplain which is now reduced to about one quarter of its original width by flood defences. Sediments from regulated channel banks were found stratigraphically and lithologically "erratic", unreliable for quantification of regional contamination due to a high variability of sedimentary environment. On the other hand, these sediments are very sensitive to the nearby local sources of heavy metals. For a practical work one must first choose whether large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination should be reconstructed

  14. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions During Puijo Cloud Experiments - The effects of weather and local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komppula, Mika; Portin, Harri; Leskinen, Ari; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Brus, David; Neitola, Kimmo; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Kortelainen, Aki; Hao, Liqing; Miettinen, Pasi; Jaatinen, Antti; Ahmad, Irshad; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Puijo measurement station has provided continuous data on aerosol-cloud interactions since 2006. The station is located on top of the Puijo observation tower (306 m a.s.l, 224 m above the surrounding lake level) in Kuopio, Finland. The top of the tower is covered by cloud about 15 % of the time, offering perfect conditions for studying aerosol-cloud interactions. With a twin-inlet setup (total and interstitial inlets) we are able to separate the activated particles from the interstitial (non-activated) particles. The continuous twin-inlet measurements include aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption. In addition cloud droplet number and size distribution are measured continuously with weather parameters. During the campaigns the twin-inlet system was additionally equipped with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). This way we were able to define the differences in chemical composition of the activated and non-activated particles. Potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in different supersaturations were measured with two CCN counters (CCNC). The other CCNC was operated with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) to obtain size selected CCN spectra. Other additional measurements included Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) for particle hygroscopicity. Additionally the valuable vertical wind profiles (updraft velocities) are available from Halo Doppler lidar during the 2011 campaign. Cloud properties (droplet number and effective radius) from MODIS instrument onboard Terra and Aqua satellites were retrieved and compared with the measured values. This work summarizes the two latest intensive campaigns, Puijo Cloud Experiments (PuCE) 2010 & 2011. We study especially the effect of the local sources on the cloud activation behaviour of the aerosol particles. The main local sources include a paper mill, a heating plant, traffic and residential areas. The sources can be categorized and identified

  15. Village-Level Identification of Nitrate Sources: Collaboration of Experts and Local Population in Benin, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P.; Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Atoro, I.; Azonsi, F.

    2005-12-01

    Deteriorating groundwater quality, as represented by high nitrates, in the Colline province of Benin, West Africa was identified by the Benin national water agency, Direction Hydraulique. For unknown reasons the Colline province had consistently higher nitrate levels than any other region of the country. In an effort to address this water quality issue, a collaborative team was created that incorporated professionals from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin), the University of Notre Dame (USA), Direction l'Hydraulique (a government water agency in Benin), Centre Afrika Obota (an educational NGO in Benin), and the local population of the village of Adourekoman. The goals of the project were to: (i) identify the source of nitrates, (ii) test field techniques for long term, local monitoring, and (iii) identify possible solutions to the high levels of groundwater nitrates. In order to accomplish these goals, the following methods were utilized: regional sampling of groundwater quality, field methods that allowed the local population to regularly monitor village groundwater quality, isotopic analysis, and sociological methods of surveys, focus groups, and observations. It is through the combination of these multi-disciplinary methods that all three goals were successfully addressed leading to preliminary identification of the sources of nitrates in the village of Adourekoman, confirmation of utility of field techniques, and initial assessment of possible solutions to the contamination problem.

  16. Separation of radio-frequency sources and localization of partial discharges in noisy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-27

    The detection of partial discharges (PD) can help in early-warning detection systems to protect critical assets in power systems. The radio-frequency emission of these events can be measured with antennas even when the equipment is in service which reduces dramatically the maintenance costs and favours the implementation of condition-based monitoring systems. The drawback of these type of measurements is the difficulty of having a reference signal to study the events in a classical phase-resolved partial discharge pattern (PRPD). Therefore, in open-air substations and overhead lines where interferences from radio and TV broadcasting and mobile communications are important sources of noise and other pulsed interferences from rectifiers or inverters can be present, it is difficult to identify whether there is partial discharges activity or not. This paper proposes a robust method to separate the events captured with the antennas, identify which of them are partial discharges and localize the piece of equipment that is having problems. The separation is done with power ratio (PR) maps based on the spectral characteristics of the signal and the identification of the type of event is done localizing the source with an array of four antennas. Several classical methods to calculate the time differences of arrival (TDOA) of the emission to the antennas have been tested, and the localization is done using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to minimize a distance function.

  17. Separation of Radio-Frequency Sources and Localization of Partial Discharges in Noisy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Robles

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of partial discharges (PD can help in early-warning detection systems to protect critical assets in power systems. The radio-frequency emission of these events can be measured with antennas even when the equipment is in service which reduces dramatically the maintenance costs and favours the implementation of condition-based monitoring systems. The drawback of these type of measurements is the difficulty of having a reference signal to study the events in a classical phase-resolved partial discharge pattern (PRPD. Therefore, in open-air substations and overhead lines where interferences from radio and TV broadcasting and mobile communications are important sources of noise and other pulsed interferences from rectifiers or inverters can be present, it is difficult to identify whether there is partial discharges activity or not. This paper proposes a robust method to separate the events captured with the antennas, identify which of them are partial discharges and localize the piece of equipment that is having problems. The separation is done with power ratio (PR maps based on the spectral characteristics of the signal and the identification of the type of event is done localizing the source with an array of four antennas. Several classical methods to calculate the time differences of arrival (TDOA of the emission to the antennas have been tested, and the localization is done using particle swarm optimization (PSO to minimize a distance function.

  18. Inverse Estimation of Localized Sources in Multiple Atmospheric Release Scenario Using Mixture of Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Turbelin, G.; Issartel, J. P.; Feiz, A. A.; Ngae, P.; Bekka, N.

    2016-12-01

    In accidental release scenarios, a reliable prediction of origin and strength of unknown releases is attentive for emergency response authorities in order to ensure safety and security towards human health and environment. The accidental scenarios might involve one or more simultaneous releases emitting the same contaminant. In this case, the field of plumes may overlap significantly and the sampled concentrations may become the mixture of the concentrations originating from all the releases. The study addresses an inverse modelling procedure for identifying the origin and strength of known number of simultaneous releases from the sampled mixture of concentrations. A two-step inversion algorithm is developed in conjunction with an adjoint representation of source-receptor relationship. The computational efficiency is increased by deriving the distributed source information observable from the given monitoring design and number of measurements. The technique leads to an exact retrieval of the true release parameters when measurements are noise free and exactly described by the dispersion model. The inversion algorithm is evaluated using the real data from Fusion Field Trials, involving multiple (two, three and four sources) release experiments emitting Propylene, in September 2007 at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, USA. The release locations are retrieved, on average, within 45 m to the true sources. The analysis of posterior uncertainties shows that the variations in location error and retrieved strength are within 10 m and 0.07%, respectively. Further, the inverse modelling is tested using 4-16 measurements in retrieval of four releases and found to be working reasonably well (within 146±79 m). The sensitivity studies highlight that the covariance statistics, model representativeness errors, source-receptor distance, distance between localized sources, monitoring design and number of measurements plays an important role in multiple source estimation.

  19. Multiple sound source localization using gammatone auditory filtering and direct sound componence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Cao, Li

    2017-06-01

    In order to research multiple sound source localization with room reverberation and background noise, we analyze the shortcomings of traditional broadband MUSIC and ordinary auditory filtering based broadband MUSIC method, then a new broadband MUSIC algorithm with gammatone auditory filtering of frequency component selection control and detection of ascending segment of direct sound componence is proposed. The proposed algorithm controls frequency component within the interested frequency band in multichannel bandpass filter stage. Detecting the direct sound componence of the sound source for suppressing room reverberation interference is also proposed, whose merits are fast calculation and avoiding using more complex de-reverberation processing algorithm. Besides, the pseudo-spectrum of different frequency channels is weighted by their maximum amplitude for every speech frame. Through the simulation and real room reverberation environment experiments, the proposed method has good performance. Dynamic multiple sound source localization experimental results indicate that the average absolute error of azimuth estimated by the proposed algorithm is less and the histogram result has higher angle resolution.

  20. MEG source localization using an MLP with a distributed output representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sung Chan; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Nolte, Guido

    2003-06-01

    We present a system that takes realistic magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and localizes a single dipole to reasonable accuracy in real time. At its heart is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) which takes the sensor measurements as inputs, uses one hidden layer, and generates as outputs the amplitudes of receptive fields holding a distributed representation of the dipole location. We trained this Soft-MLP on dipolar sources with real brain noise and converted the network's output into an explicit Cartesian coordinate representation of the dipole location using two different decoding strategies. The proposed Soft-MLPs are much more accurate than previous networks which output source locations in Cartesian coordinates. Hybrid Soft-MLP-start-LM systems, in which the Soft-MLP output initializes Levenberg-Marquardt, retained their accuracy of 0.28 cm with a decrease in computation time from 36 ms to 30 ms. We apply the Soft-MLP localizer to real MEG data separated by a blind source separation algorithm, and compare the Soft-MLP dipole locations to those of a conventional system.

  1. Generic HRTFs May be Good Enough in Virtual Reality. Improving Source Localization through Cross-Modal Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Gonzalez-Franco, Mar; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Florencio, Dinei; Zhang, Zhengyou

    2018-01-01

    Auditory spatial localization in humans is performed using a combination of interaural time differences, interaural level differences, as well as spectral cues provided by the geometry of the ear. To render spatialized sounds within a virtual reality (VR) headset, either individualized or generic Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) are usually employed. The former require arduous calibrations, but enable accurate auditory source localization, which may lead to a heightened sense of presence within VR. The latter obviate the need for individualized calibrations, but result in less accurate auditory source localization. Previous research on auditory source localization in the real world suggests that our representation of acoustic space is highly plastic. In light of these findings, we investigated whether auditory source localization could be improved for users of generic HRTFs via cross-modal learning. The results show that pairing a dynamic auditory stimulus, with a spatio-temporally aligned visual counterpart, enabled users of generic HRTFs to improve subsequent auditory source localization. Exposure to the auditory stimulus alone or to asynchronous audiovisual stimuli did not improve auditory source localization. These findings have important implications for human perception as well as the development of VR systems as they indicate that generic HRTFs may be enough to enable good auditory source localization in VR.

  2. Generic HRTFs May be Good Enough in Virtual Reality. Improving Source Localization through Cross-Modal Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory spatial localization in humans is performed using a combination of interaural time differences, interaural level differences, as well as spectral cues provided by the geometry of the ear. To render spatialized sounds within a virtual reality (VR headset, either individualized or generic Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs are usually employed. The former require arduous calibrations, but enable accurate auditory source localization, which may lead to a heightened sense of presence within VR. The latter obviate the need for individualized calibrations, but result in less accurate auditory source localization. Previous research on auditory source localization in the real world suggests that our representation of acoustic space is highly plastic. In light of these findings, we investigated whether auditory source localization could be improved for users of generic HRTFs via cross-modal learning. The results show that pairing a dynamic auditory stimulus, with a spatio-temporally aligned visual counterpart, enabled users of generic HRTFs to improve subsequent auditory source localization. Exposure to the auditory stimulus alone or to asynchronous audiovisual stimuli did not improve auditory source localization. These findings have important implications for human perception as well as the development of VR systems as they indicate that generic HRTFs may be enough to enable good auditory source localization in VR.

  3. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  4. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  5. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  6. A Quantitative Electroencephalography Study on Cochlear Implant-Induced Cortical Changes in Single-Sided Deafness with Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Jin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of tinnitus suppression after cochlear implantation (CI in single-sided deafness (SSD is not fully understood. In this regard, by comparing pre- and post-CI quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG, we explored cortical changes relevant to tinnitus improvement. In SSD patients who underwent CI, qEEG data were collected: (1 before CI, (2 6 months post-operatively with CI-on, and (3 30 min after CI-off and source-localized cortical activity/functional connectivity analyses were performed. Compared to the pre-operative baseline, the CI-on condition demonstrated significantly decreased activity in the right auditory- and orbitofrontal cortices (OFC for the delta frequency band as well as decreased connectivity between the auditory cortex/posterior cingulate cortex for the delta/beta2 bands. Meanwhile, compared to the CI-off condition, the CI-on condition displayed decreased activity in the right auditory cortices/OFC for the delta band, and in bilateral auditory cortices, left inferior frontal cortex/OFC for the gamma band. However, qEEG analyses showed no significant differences between the CI-off and baseline conditions. CI induced overall decreased cortical activity and functional connectivity. However, judging from no differences between the CI-off and baseline conditions, CI-induced cortical activity and functional connectivity changes are not by cortical plastic changes, but by dynamic peripheral reafferentation.

  7. Estimate of main local sources to ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying and apportioning the contribution of a range of sources to ultrafine particles (UFPs, D urban environments. Although vehicular emissions have long been considered one of the major sources of ultrafine particles in urban areas, the contribution of other major urban sources is not yet fully understood. This paper aims to determine and quantify the contribution of local ground traffic, nucleated particle (NP) formation and distant non-traffic (e.g. airport, oil refineries, and seaport) sources to the total ambient particle number concentration (PNC) in a busy, inner-city area in Brisbane, Australia using Bayesian statistical modelling and other exploratory tools. The Bayesian model was trained on the PNC data on days where NP formations were known to have not occurred, hourly traffic counts, solar radiation data, and smooth daily trend. The model was applied to apportion and quantify the contribution of NP formations and local traffic and non-traffic sources to UFPs. The data analysis incorporated long-term measured time-series of total PNC (D ≥ 6 nm), particle number size distributions (PSD, D = 8 to 400 nm), PM2.5, PM10, NOx, CO, meteorological parameters and traffic counts at a stationary monitoring site. The developed Bayesian model showed reliable predictive performances in quantifying the contribution of NP formation events to UFPs (up to 4 × 104 particles cm- 3), with a significant day to day variability. The model identified potential NP formation and no-formations days based on PNC data and quantified the sources contribution to UFPs. Exploratory statistical analyses show that total mean PNC during the middle of the day was up to 32% higher than during peak morning and evening traffic periods, which were associated with NP formation events. The majority of UFPs measured during the peak traffic and NP formation periods were between 30-100 nm and smaller than 30 nm, respectively. To date, this is the first application of Bayesian model to

  8. On the influence of microphone array geometry on HRTF-based Sound Source Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, to demonstrate the analysis results, we show the impact of HRTFs similarities and microphone array geometry on an exemplary HRTF-based SSL algorithm, called MLSSL. This algorithm is well-suited for this purpose as it allows to estimate the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) of the target sound using any......The direction dependence of Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) forms the basis for HRTF-based Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms. In this paper, we show how spectral similarities of the HRTFs of different directions in the horizontal plane influence performance of HRTF-based SSL...

  9. [Interpersonal relations as a source of risk of mobbing in the local police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado Torres, Almudena; Agulló Tomás, Esteban; Rodríguez Suárez, Julio; Agulló Tomás, Ma Silveria; Boada i Grau, Joan; Medina Centeno, Raúl

    2008-11-01

    Social relations in the workplace are one of the main sources of risk for the onset of mobbing. In this work, we analyzed, through the perceived social climate, the influence of interpersonal relations on the characterization of the processes of mobbing, in a sample of local police (N = 235). In particular, the policemen and women's opinions of the quality of the personal relations among the group members and the treatment they receive from the command posts were assessed. The results of the study show that the development of guidelines of social interaction based on discrimination and abuse of authority are predicting variables of mobbing in this group.

  10. Global Existence and Blowup for a Parabolic Equation with a Non-Local Source and Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Zhi; Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider a double fronts free boundary problem for a parabolic equation with a non-local source and absorption. The long time behaviors of the solutions are given and the properties of the free boundaries are discussed. Our results show that if the initial value is sufficiently l...... large, then the solution blows up in finite time, while the global fast solution exists for sufficiently small initial data, and the intermediate case with suitably large initial data gives the existence of the global slow solution....

  11. The electric power stations viewed as a source of local and transfrontier pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiu, C.; Sandu, I.

    1994-01-01

    The pollutant emission of the thermal power stations may have an important contribution to the local pollution as well as to regional (transfrontier) and global pollution. Due to the impossibility at present of making continuous monitoring of the emission of pollutants it is necessary to use computational models for obtaining inventories of the pollutant sources and for studying their dispersion into atmosphere. The computational code used to simulate the pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere is a climatologic model giving the annual average concentration and the evaluation of the maximum SO 2 concentration. The paper presents the analyses for the case of 14 thermal power stations of Romania

  12. Helicity of Convective Flows from Localized Heat Source in a Rotating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanovskii A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical study of the steady-state cyclonic vortex from isolated heat source in a rotating fluid layer is described. The structure of laboratory cyclonic vortex is similar to the typical structure of tropical cyclones from observational data and numerical modelling including secondary flows in the boundary layer. Differential characteristics of the flow were studied by numerical simulation using CFD software FlowVision. Helicity distribution in rotating fluid layer with localized heat source was analysed. Two mechanisms which play role in helicity generation are found. The first one is the strong correlation of cyclonic vortex and intensive upward motion in the central part of the vessel. The second one is due to large gradients of velocity on the periphery. The integral helicity in the considered case is substantial and its relative level is high.

  13. Linearized versus non-linear inverse methods for seismic localization of underground sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Geok Lian; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Difference elastic wave-field numerical method. In this paper, the accuracy and performance of the linear beamformer and nonlinear inverse methods to localize a underground seismic source are checked and compared using computer generated synthetic experimental data. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America......., and the Bayes nonlinear inversion method. The travel times used in the beamformer are derived from solving the Eikonal equation. In the linearized inversion method, we assume that the elastic waves are predominantly acoustic waves, and the acoustic approximation is applied. For the nonlinear inverse method, we...... apply the Bayesian framework where the misfit function is the posterior probability distribution of the model space. The model parameters are the location of the seismic source that we are interested in estimating. The forward problem solver applied for the nonlinear inverse method is a Finite...

  14. PCB accumulation in osprey exposed to local sources in lake sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Martin, Pamela A

    2009-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of PCBs in ospreys (Pandion haleaetus) that were exposed to local sediment sources. Eggs, chick plasma, and sediment samples were collected over a range of 14 km (0.2-14.2 km) from a PCB source in Sturgeon Lake, ON. Sum PCB concentrations declined in chick plasma (range 422.5-58.3 ng/g) as distance from the PCB source increased, but there was a poor relationship with sum PCBs in eggs. Both tissues indicated an Aroclor 1248/1254 source. Aroclor 1254 comprised an average of 66.9% of sum PCBs in chick plasma from Sturgeon Lake, but comprised only from 27.0 to 44.4% in plasma from other Great Lake colonies. Dietary differences among osprey colonies were not sufficient to explain the PCB patterns observed. There was weak evidence that the ability to metabolize PCBs may differ between juveniles and adults, based upon the PCB profile in eggs and chick plasma.

  15. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    biogenic SOA were not well-represented by a single site and demonstrated local influences. For isoprene SOA, product distributions indicated a larger role for the high-NOx pathway at the urban site. These local sources are largely responsible for differences in population exposures to outdoor PM in the study domain located within the Midwestern US.

  16. Experimental study on local heat transfer characteristics of porous media with internal heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan Yuanfeng; Wang Taotao; Xiao Zejun; Wang Fei; Huang Yanping

    2008-01-01

    Model of porous media with internal heat source is established. The model uses water as flowing media, and the stainless steel test section is packed with steel spheres in manner of regular triangle, respectively. The armoured resistance wire is inserted inside the steel sphere. On the basis of the experimental model, many parameters of the local heat transfer characteristics including current velocity and wall temperature of steel sphere are measured. The experimental results show that the coefficient of heat transfer scarcely changes with pressure. The coefficient of heat transfer increases with the surface heat flux of steel sphere. When raising the inlet temperature of the cooling water, the coefficient of heat transfer presents the descending trend. In addition, the influence of entrance effect on heat transfer is discovered in the experiment, which is much less than the liquid flow in the light tube. After experiment data are analyzed and processed, the relation model of heat transfer on local heat transfer characteristic of porous media with internal heat source was described with a power-law-equation. The deviations between calculation and experimental values are within ±10%. (authors)

  17. Truncated RAP-MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC) for MEG and EEG source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Niko; Stenroos, Matti; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2018-02-15

    Electrically active brain regions can be located applying MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) on magneto- or electroencephalographic (MEG; EEG) data. We introduce a new MUSIC method, called truncated recursively-applied-and-projected MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC). It corrects a hidden deficiency of the conventional RAP-MUSIC algorithm, which prevents estimation of the true number of brain-signal sources accurately. The correction is done by applying a sequential dimension reduction to the signal-subspace projection. We show that TRAP-MUSIC significantly improves the performance of MUSIC-type localization; in particular, it successfully and robustly locates active brain regions and estimates their number. We compare TRAP-MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC in simulations with varying key parameters, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, correlation between source time-courses, and initial estimate for the dimension of the signal space. In addition, we validate TRAP-MUSIC with measured MEG data. We suggest that with the proposed TRAP-MUSIC method, MUSIC-type localization could become more reliable and suitable for various online and offline MEG and EEG applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismo-volcano source localization with triaxial broad-band seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inza, L. A.; Mars, J. I.; Métaxian, J. P.; O'Brien, G. S.; Macedo, O.

    2011-10-01

    Seismo-volcano source localization is essential to improve our understanding of eruptive dynamics and of magmatic systems. The lack of clear seismic wave phases prohibits the use of classical location methods. Seismic antennas composed of one-component (1C) seismometers provide a good estimate of the backazimuth of the wavefield. The depth estimation, on the other hand, is difficult or impossible to determine. As in classical seismology, the use of three-component (3C) seismometers is now common in volcano studies. To determine the source location parameters (backazimuth and depth), we extend the 1C seismic antenna approach to 3Cs. This paper discusses a high-resolution location method using a 3C array survey (3C-MUSIC algorithm) with data from two seismic antennas installed on an andesitic volcano in Peru (Ubinas volcano). One of the main scientific questions related to the eruptive process of Ubinas volcano is the relationship between the magmatic explosions and long-period (LP) swarms. After introducing the 3C array theory, we evaluate the robustness of the location method on a full wavefield 3-D synthetic data set generated using a digital elevation model of Ubinas volcano and an homogeneous velocity model. Results show that the backazimuth determined using the 3C array has a smaller error than a 1C array. Only the 3C method allows the recovery of the source depths. Finally, we applied the 3C approach to two seismic events recorded in 2009. Crossing the estimated backazimuth and incidence angles, we find sources located 1000 ± 660 m and 3000 ± 730 m below the bottom of the active crater for the explosion and the LP event, respectively. Therefore, extending 1C arrays to 3C arrays in volcano monitoring allows a more accurate determination of the source epicentre and now an estimate for the depth.

  19. Inverse Electrocardiographic Source Localization of Ischemia: An Optimization Framework and Finite Element Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dafang; Kirby, Robert M.; MacLeod, Rob S.; Johnson, Chris R.

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of non-invasively localizing cardiac ischemic disease using body-surface potential recordings, we attempted to reconstruct the transmembrane potential (TMP) throughout the myocardium with the bidomain heart model. The task is an inverse source problem governed by partial differential equations (PDE). Our main contribution is solving the inverse problem within a PDE-constrained optimization framework that enables various physically-based constraints in both equality and inequality forms. We formulated the optimality conditions rigorously in the continuum before deriving finite element discretization, thereby making the optimization independent of discretization choice. Such a formulation was derived for the L2-norm Tikhonov regularization and the total variation minimization. The subsequent numerical optimization was fulfilled by a primal-dual interior-point method tailored to our problem’s specific structure. Our simulations used realistic, fiber-included heart models consisting of up to 18,000 nodes, much finer than any inverse models previously reported. With synthetic ischemia data we localized ischemic regions with roughly a 10% false-negative rate or a 20% false-positive rate under conditions up to 5% input noise. With ischemia data measured from animal experiments, we reconstructed TMPs with roughly 0.9 correlation with the ground truth. While precisely estimating the TMP in general cases remains an open problem, our study shows the feasibility of reconstructing TMP during the ST interval as a means of ischemia localization. PMID:23913980

  20. Electrical source localization by LORETA in patients with epilepsy: Confirmation by postoperative MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have been conducted that have compared electrical source localization (ESL results obtained by analyzing ictal patterns in scalp electroencephalogram (EEG with the brain areas that are found to be responsible for seizures using other brain imaging techniques. Additionally, adequate studies have not been performed to confirm the accuracy of ESL methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, ESL was conducted using LORETA (Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography in 9 patients with lesions apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and in 6 patients who did not exhibit lesions on their MRIs. EEGs of patients who underwent surgery for epilepsy and had follow-ups for at least 1 year after operations were analyzed for ictal spike, rhythmic, paroxysmal fast, and obscured EEG activities. Epileptogenic zones identified in postoperative MRIs were then compared with localizations obtained by LORETA model we employed. Results: We found that brain areas determined via ESL were in concordance with resected brain areas for 13 of the 15 patients evaluated, and those 13 patients were post-operatively determined as being seizure-free. Conclusion: ESL, which is a noninvasive technique, may contribute to the correct delineation of epileptogenic zones in patients who will eventually undergo surgery to treat epilepsy, (regardless of neuroimaging status. Moreover, ESL may aid in deciding on the number and localization of intracranial electrodes to be used in patients who are candidates for invasive recording.

  1. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Strobbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time

  2. Transient synchronization of hippocampo-striato-thalamo-cortical networks during sleep spindle oscillations induces motor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Boré, Arnaud; Carrier, Julie; Fogel, Stuart M; Doyon, Julien

    2018-04-01

    Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks. To that end, we conducted EEG source reconstruction on spindle epochs in both cortical and subcortical regions using novel deep-source localization techniques. Coherence-based metrics were adopted to estimate functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures over specific frequency bands. Our findings not only confirm the critical and functional role of NREM-stage2 sleep spindles in motor skill consolidation, but provide first-time evidence that spindle oscillations [11-17 Hz] may be involved in sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by locally reactivating and functionally binding specific task-relevant cortical and subcortical regions within networks including the hippocampus, putamen, thalamus and motor-related cortical regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  4. Noise source localization using Matched Field Processing: wind turbines, mofettes and geysirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauft, Josefine; Flores Estrella, Hortencia; Christin Obermann, Anne; Korn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Matched Field Processing (MFP) is a beamforming method, derived from ocean acoustics, that serves as a noise source localization and exploration tool in applied geophysics. Here, we present three case studies to explore the applicability of MFP in the presence of different source types, and using sensor arrays with different aperture and density. First, we show the localization of a single wind turbine (Saxony, Eastern Germany), which acts as a point source at the surface generating continuous vibrations due to the rotation of their blades. Using 30 vertical sensors (Reftek Texans) randomly distributed within an area of approximately 50 x 50 m2 around the wind turbine, we identified the turbine as the dominant noise source within the array. Therefore we verified that the MFP procedure gives useful results. The second test was performed in Hartouŝov (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic). This area is characterized by several natural degassing areas of mantle-originating fluids and CO2 (mofettes). Mofettes either appear as little sinks filled with bubbling groundwater or more extensive as vegetation anomalies. We located these mofettes, using the collapsing water bubbles as seismic noise source, and compared our results with CO2 flux values of the same field measured by Nickschick et al. (2015). The array consisted of 130 stations in total (30 Reftek Texans, 50 Omnirecs Data-Cubes3 and 50 Summit X-One channels) and covered an area of about 500 x 1000 m2. Additionally to MFP, we perfomed a polarization analysis of surface waves to characterize the wave field generated by the the degassing process. The last example is a geysering system in NE Java (Indonesia) which is called LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo). The geysir was surrounded by 5 stations (Trillium Compacts) arranged in a circle with about 1.5 km diameter. Here, we could successfully locate the surface position of the geysir as well as image its feeding channel to a depth of 100 m. This example shows the suitability of MFP

  5. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lelic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9±31.3% (P=0.02, while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P=0.4. Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2±12.2% (P=0.03 following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF-based GSL algorithm

  7. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF

  8. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  9. Pre-feasibility MCDM tools to aid communities in prioritising local viable renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K. [Waterloo Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Munier, N. [TEAMIC International-Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Green, J. [Community Renewable Energy Works, Kitchener, Ont. (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Integrating use of renewable energy sources (RESs) with conventional fuel sources increases energy security by minimizing dependence on imported energy sources. It also minimizes the negative environmental impact of generating energy, and the related health implications. Several RES alternatives can be identified in typical applications with various benefits and constraints. This makes the process of deciding which type of RES to implement at a specific site a multi-dimensional problem. Decision-making tools can be used to assist communities, in particular, in prioritizing their RES alternatives. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools are discussed in this work. The first tool is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the second is the sequential interactive model for urban sustainability (SIMUS). AHP is based on community participation in the decision-making process through data collection and elicitation of expert opinions in which data are subjectively weighted to come to a cardinal ranking of alternatives. SIMUS, on the other hand, uses mathematical linear programming manipulation, which also and primarily relies on elicitation of expert opinions, but in a less subjective and more objective manner. The article discusses the application of the MCDM tools to assist communities in pre-feasibility ranking of the alternative local RESs. Both MCDM tools proved to be effective and to facilitate group decision-making in transparent and scientific procedures that enabled communities to get support for their initiative. (author)

  10. Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at

  11. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...... the cerebral cortex have been developed during the last decade (Dale 1999, Kim 2005, Eskildsen 2006). In many studies, the resolution of the morphological image acquisition sequence is chosen to be relatively low (~1mm3) due to time and equipment constraints. To improve segmentation accuracy, such low...... the ability to effectively increase the image resolution while preserving sharp features of the underlying anatomy. In this study, we investigated the effect of applying superresolution as proposed in (Manjon 2010a) to the accuracy of cerebral cortex segmentation....

  12. Appropriate Technology Sourcebook - For Tools and Techniques That Use Local Skills, Local Resources, and Renewable Sources of Energy. Volume One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Ken; Pam, Rick

    Written in non-technical language, this sourcebook identifies plans and books for village and small community technology. It contains reviews of publications from 375 American and foreign sources on agriculture, alternative sources of energy, water supply, health care, housing, and related subjects. Emphasized are small-scale systems using local…

  13. Iterative observer based method for source localization problem for Poisson equation in 3D

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-10

    A state-observer based method is developed to solve point source localization problem for Poisson equation in a 3D rectangular prism with available boundary data. The technique requires a weighted sum of solutions of multiple boundary data estimation problems for Laplace equation over the 3D domain. The solution of each of these boundary estimation problems involves writing down the mathematical problem in state-space-like representation using one of the space variables as time-like. First, system observability result for 3D boundary estimation problem is recalled in an infinite dimensional setting. Then, based on the observability result, the boundary estimation problem is decomposed into a set of independent 2D sub-problems. These 2D problems are then solved using an iterative observer to obtain the solution. Theoretical results are provided. The method is implemented numerically using finite difference discretization schemes. Numerical illustrations along with simulation results are provided.

  14. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  15. Sub-sampling-based 2D localization of an impulsive acoustic source in reverberant environments

    KAUST Repository

    Omer, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a robust method for two-dimensional (2D) impulsive acoustic source localization in a room environment using low sampling rates. The proposed method finds the time delay from the room impulse response (RIR) which makes it robust against room reverberations. We consider the RIR as a sparse phenomenon and apply a recently proposed sparse signal reconstruction technique called orthogonal clustering (OC) for its estimation from the sub-sampled received signal. The arrival time of the direct path signal at a pair of microphones is identified from the estimated RIR, and their difference yields the desired time delay estimate (TDE). Low sampling rates reduces the hardware and computational complexity and decreases the communication between the microphones and the centralized location. Simulation and experimental results of an actual hardware setup are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed technique.

  16. Abstinent Heroin Addicts Tend to Take Risks: ERP and Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decision making is a behavioral characteristic of drug addiction. Indeed, drug addicts prefer immediate rewards at the expense of future interests. Assessing the neurocognitive basis of decision-making related to drug dependence, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques, may provide new insights into understanding decision-making deficits in drug addicts and further guide withdrawal treatment. In this study, EEG was performed in 20 abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs and 20 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs while they participated in a simple two-choice gambling task (99 vs. 9. Our behavioral results showed that AHAs tend to select higher-risk choices compared with HCs (i.e., more “99” choices than “9”. ERP results showed that right hemisphere preponderance of stimulus-preceding negativity was disrupted in AHAs, but not in HCs. Feedback-related negativity of difference wave was higher in AHAs than HCs, with the P300 amplitude associated with risk magnitude and valence. Using source localization that allows identification of abnormal brain activity in consequential cognitive stages, including the reward expectation and outcome evaluation stages, we found abnormalities in both behavioral and neural responses on gambling in AHAs. Taken together, our findings suggest AHAs have risk-prone tendency and dysfunction in adaptive decision making, since they continue to choose risky options even after accruing considerable negative scores, and fail to shift to a safer strategy to avoid risk. Such abnormal decision-making bias to risk and immediate reward seeking may be accompanied by abnormal reward expectation and evaluation in AHAs, which explains their high risk-seeking and impulsivity.

  17. Influence of metallic artifact filtering on MEG signals for source localization during interictal epileptiform activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical intractable epilepsy is a common condition that affects 40% of epileptic patients that generally have to undergo resective surgery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been increasingly used to identify the epileptogenic foci through equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling, one of the most accepted methods to obtain an accurate localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Modeling requires that MEG signals are adequately preprocessed to reduce interferences, a task that has been greatly improved by the use of blind source separation (BSS) methods. MEG recordings are highly sensitive to metallic interferences originated inside the head by implanted intracranial electrodes, dental prosthesis, etc and also coming from external sources such as pacemakers or vagal stimulators. To reduce these artifacts, a BSS-based fully automatic procedure was recently developed and validated, showing an effective reduction of metallic artifacts in simulated and real signals (Migliorelli et al 2015 J. Neural Eng. 12 046001). The main objective of this study was to evaluate its effects in the detection of IEDs and ECD modeling of patients with focal epilepsy and metallic interference. Approach. A comparison between the resulting positions of ECDs was performed: without removing metallic interference; rejecting only channels with large metallic artifacts; and after BSS-based reduction. Measures of dispersion and distance of ECDs were defined to analyze the results. Main results. The relationship between the artifact-to-signal ratio and ECD fitting showed that higher values of metallic interference produced highly scattered dipoles. Results revealed a significant reduction on dispersion using the BSS-based reduction procedure, yielding feasible locations of ECDs in contrast to the other two approaches. Significance. The automatic BSS-based method can be applied to MEG datasets affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step to improve the localization of

  18. L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianwen; Wen, Shiting; Hu, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    In most supervised domain adaptation learning (DAL) tasks, one has access only to a small number of labeled examples from target domain. Therefore the success of supervised DAL in this "small sample" regime needs the effective utilization of the large amounts of unlabeled data to extract information that is useful for generalization. Toward this end, we here use the geometric intuition of manifold assumption to extend the established frameworks in existing model-based DAL methods for function learning by incorporating additional information about the target geometric structure of the marginal distribution. We would like to ensure that the solution is smooth with respect to both the ambient space and the target marginal distribution. In doing this, we propose a novel L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning framework which exploits the geometry of the probability distribution, which has two techniques. Firstly, an L1-norm locally linear representation method is presented for robust graph construction by replacing the L2-norm reconstruction measure in LLE with L1-norm one, which is termed as L1-LLR for short. Secondly, considering the robust graph regularization, we replace traditional graph Laplacian regularization with our new L1-LLR graph Laplacian regularization and therefore construct new graph-based semi-supervised learning framework with multi-source adaptation constraint, which is coined as L1-MSAL method. Moreover, to deal with the nonlinear learning problem, we also generalize the L1-MSAL method by mapping the input data points from the input space to a high-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) via a nonlinear mapping. Promising experimental results have been obtained on several real-world datasets such as face, visual video and object. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast accurate MEG source localization using a multilayer perceptron trained with real brain noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sung Chan; Pearlmutter, Barak A.; Nolte, Guido

    2002-01-01

    Iterative gradient methods such as Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) are in widespread use for source localization from electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. Unfortunately, LM depends sensitively on the initial guess, necessitating repeated runs. This, combined with LM's high per-step cost, makes its computational burden quite high. To reduce this burden, we trained a multilayer perceptron (MLP) as a real-time localizer. We used an analytical model of quasistatic electromagnetic propagation through a spherical head to map randomly chosen dipoles to sensor activities according to the sensor geometry of a 4D Neuroimaging Neuromag-122 MEG system, and trained a MLP to invert this mapping in the absence of noise or in the presence of various sorts of noise such as white Gaussian noise, correlated noise, or real brain noise. A MLP structure was chosen to trade off computation and accuracy. This MLP was trained four times, with each type of noise. We measured the effects of initial guesses on LM performance, which motivated a hybrid MLP-start-LM method, in which the trained MLP initializes LM. We also compared the localization performance of LM, MLPs, and hybrid MLP-start-LMs for realistic brain signals. Trained MLPs are much faster than other methods, while the hybrid MLP-start-LMs are faster and more accurate than fixed-4-start-LM. In particular, the hybrid MLP-start-LM initialized by a MLP trained with the real brain noise dataset is 60 times faster and is comparable in accuracy to random-20-start-LM, and this hybrid system (localization error: 0.28 cm, computation time: 36 ms) shows almost as good performance as optimal-1-start-LM (localization error: 0.23 cm, computation time: 22 ms), which initializes LM with the correct dipole location. MLPs trained with noise perform better than the MLP trained without noise, and the MLP trained with real brain noise is almost as good an initial guesser for LM as the correct dipole location. (author) )

  20. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  1. Using passive air samplers to assess local sources versus long range atmospheric transport of POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Sweetman, Andy; Jones, Kevin C; Breivik, Knut

    2012-10-26

    Passive air samplers (PAS) are cost-efficient tools suitable for spatial mapping of atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of this study was to use PAS to (i) determine atmospheric concentrations of selected POPs in Norwegian coastal zones with consumption advisories on seafood (N = 22), and (ii) evaluate a simple nested monitoring approach to assess the relative influence of local vs. long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) at coastal sites. The latter was facilitated by comparison with data from a coordinated European-wide campaign in which an identical sampling and analytical approach was followed. Air concentrations were calculated based on the loss of performance reference compounds (PRCs), and results are presented for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes. Air concentrations of PCBs were generally highest at sites within larger cities and up to about an order of magnitude higher than anticipated on the basis of LRAT alone. The distribution of PAHs and HCB occasionally showed elevated concentrations at coastal sites with ongoing or former industrial activity, while an urban site was significantly influenced by banned insecticides (technical DDT and lindane). Coastal sites were also elevated in α-HCH beyond the anticipated LRAT contribution, which we attribute to volatilization from the sea. We conclude that a simple nested PAS monitoring approach provides useful information for screening efforts aiming to assess both atmospheric burdens as well as the relative significance of local sources in controlling these burdens at sites in contaminated areas.

  2. Spectral spatiotemporal imaging of cortical oscillations and interactions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Dale, Anders M; Belliveau, John W; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient source estimation algorithm that localizes cortical oscillations and their phase relationships. The proposed method employs wavelet-transformed magnetoencephalography (MEG) data and uses anatomical MRI to constrain the current locations to the cortical mantle. In addition, the locations of the sources can be further confined with the help of functional MRI (fMRI) data. As a result, we obtain spatiotemporal maps of spectral power and phase relationships. As an example, we show how the phase locking value (PLV), that is, the trial-by-trial phase relationship between the stimulus and response, can be imaged on the cortex. We apply the method to spontaneous, evoked, and driven cortical oscillations measured with MEG. We test the method of combining MEG, structural MRI, and fMRI using simulated cortical oscillations along Heschl's gyrus (HG). We also analyze sustained auditory gamma-band neuromagnetic fields from MEG and fMRI measurements. Our results show that combining the MEG recording with fMRI improves source localization for the non-noise-normalized wavelet power. In contrast, noise-normalized spectral power or PLV localization may not benefit from the fMRI constraint. We show that if the thresholds are not properly chosen, noise-normalized spectral power or PLV estimates may contain false (phantom) sources, independent of the inclusion of the fMRI prior information. The proposed algorithm can be used for evoked MEG/EEG and block-designed or event-related fMRI paradigms, or for spontaneous MEG data sets. Spectral spatiotemporal imaging of cortical oscillations and interactions in the human brain can provide further understanding of large-scale neural activity and communication between different brain regions.

  3. Improved radiological/nuclear source localization in variable NORM background: An MLEM approach with segmentation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Robert D.; Crowley, Tanya M.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Mandell, Myron J.; Guo, Yanlin; Haas, Eric B.; Knize, Duane J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Ranta, Dale; Shyffer, Ryan; Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Seilhan, Brandon; Valentine, John D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach and algorithm have been developed to rapidly detect and localize both moving and static radiological/nuclear (R/N) sources from an airborne platform. Current aerial systems with radiological sensors are limited in their ability to compensate for variable naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) background. The proposed approach suppresses the effects of NORM background by incorporating additional information to segment the survey area into regions over which the background is likely to be uniform. The method produces pixelated Source Activity Maps (SAMs) of both target and background radionuclide activity over the survey area. The task of producing the SAMs requires (1) the development of a forward model which describes the transformation of radionuclide activity to detector measurements and (2) the solution of the associated inverse problem. The inverse problem is ill-posed as there are typically fewer measurements than unknowns. In addition the measurements are subject to Poisson statistical noise. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem as it is well suited for under-determined problems corrupted by Poisson noise. A priori terrain information is incorporated to segment the reconstruction space into regions within which we constrain NORM background activity to be uniform. Descriptions of the algorithm and examples of performance with and without segmentation on simulated data are presented.

  4. A novel method for direct localized sound speed measurement using the virtual source paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    both phantom and simulation results. The phantom consisted of two wire targets located near the transducer's axis at depths of 17 and 28 mm. Using this phantom the sound speed between the wires was measured for a homogeneous (water) medium and for two inhomogeneous (DB-grade castor oil and water......) mediums. The inhomogeneous mediums were arranged as an oil layer, one 6 mm thick and the other 11 mm thick, on top of a water layer. To complement the phantom studies, sources of error for spatial registration of virtual detectors were simulated. The sources of error presented here are multiple sound...... speed layers, and signal-to-noise-ratio. Results are shown for 3 different media. The local sound speed estimates had mean relative errors and standard deviations of 0.0991% plusmn0.655% for a homogeneous medium, and -0.0673%plusmn0.279% and -0.0343%plusmn0.119% for inhomogeneous media with an oil layer...

  5. Sound Source Localization through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  6. Sound Source Localization Through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  7. Nitrous acid in a street canyon environment: sources and the contribution to local oxidation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hui; Wang, Zhe; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Zhang, Li; Li, Qinyi; Cui, Long; Lee, Shuncheng; Poon, Steven; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is one of the dominant sources of hydroxyl radical (OH) and plays an important role in photochemical oxidation processes in the atmosphere. Even though HONO has been extensively studied in urban areas, its importance and effects in street canyon microenvironment has not been thoroughly investigated. Street canyons which suffer serious air pollution problem are widely distributed in downtown areas with paralleled high buildings and narrow roads in the center. In this study, we measured HONO at a roadside of a street canyon in urban Hong Kong and applied an observation-based box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM 3.3) to investigate the contribution of HONO to local oxidation chemistry. Higher HONO mixing ratios were observed in the daytime than in the nighttime. An average emission ratio (ΔHONO/ΔNOx) of 1.0% (±0.5%) was derived at this roadside site and the direct HONO emission from vehicles contributed to 38% of the measured HONO in the street canyon. Heterogeneous NO2 conversion on humid ground or building surfaces and the uptake of NO2 on fresh soot surfaces were the other two important HONO sources in this microenvironment. OBM simulations constrained with observed HONO showed that the peak concentration of OH, HO2 and RO2 is 7.9, 5.0 and 7.5 times of the result in the case with only OH+NO as HONO source. Photolysis of HONO contributed to 86.5% of the total primary radical production rates and can lead to efficient NO2 and O3 production under the condition of weak regional O3 transport. Our study suggests that HONO could significantly increase the atmospheric oxidation capacity in a street canyon which may impact the secondary formation of aerosols and OVOCs.

  8. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20 km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen

  9. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20 km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen

  10. ImaEdge - a platform for quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical proteins during cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lim, Yen Wei; Zhao, Peng; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Motegi, Fumio

    2017-12-15

    Cell polarity involves the compartmentalization of the cell cortex. The establishment of cortical compartments arises from the spatial bias in the activity and concentration of cortical proteins. The mechanistic dissection of cell polarity requires the accurate detection of dynamic changes in cortical proteins, but the fluctuations of cell shape and the inhomogeneous distributions of cortical proteins greatly complicate the quantitative extraction of their global and local changes during cell polarization. To address these problems, we introduce an open-source software package, ImaEdge, which automates the segmentation of the cortex from time-lapse movies, and enables quantitative extraction of cortical protein intensities. We demonstrate that ImaEdge enables efficient and rigorous analysis of the dynamic evolution of cortical PAR proteins during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. It is also capable of accurate tracking of varying levels of transgene expression and discontinuous signals of the actomyosin cytoskeleton during multiple rounds of cell division. ImaEdge provides a unique resource for quantitative studies of cortical polarization, with the potential for application to many types of polarized cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  12. Study of short time effect on health of a local air pollution source. Epidemiological approach; Etude des effets a court terme sur la sante d'une source locale de pollution atmospherique. Approche epidemiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzo, J.Ch. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, Reseau National de Sante Publique, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-07-01

    This document applies to health professionals who are facing with a problem of risks evaluation relative to a local source of air pollution and envisage to realize an epidemiological study. In this document, only the short term effects are considered and the situations of accidental pollution are not treated. Without being a methodological treatise it can be a tool to better understand the constraints and the limits of epidemiology to answer the difficult question of the impact evaluation on health of populations living near a local source of air pollution. (N.C.)

  13. Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M.; Pietrapertosa, F.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

  14. Neurophysiological mechanisms of circadian cognitive control in RLS patients - an EEG source localization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Brandt, Moritz D; Schrempf, Wiebke; Beste, Christian; Stock, Ann-Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs. evening) on cognitive performance in RLS patients (n = 33) compared to healthy controls (n = 29) by analyzing flanker interference effects in combination with EEG and source localization techniques. RLS patients showed larger flanker interference effects in the evening than in the morning (p = .023), while healthy controls did not display a comparable circadian variation. In line with this, the neurophysiological data showed smaller N1 amplitudes in RLS patients compared to controls in the interfering task condition in the evening (p = .042), but not in the morning. The results demonstrate diurnal cognitive changes in RLS patients with intensified impairments in the evening. It seems that not all dopamine-regulated cognitive processes are altered in RLS and thus show daytime-dependent impairments. Instead, the daytime-related cognitive impairment emerges from attentional selection processes within the extra-striate visual cortex, but not from later cognitive processes such as conflict monitoring and response selection.

  15. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P  0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  16. Neurophysiological mechanisms of circadian cognitive control in RLS patients - an EEG source localization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS. Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs. evening on cognitive performance in RLS patients (n = 33 compared to healthy controls (n = 29 by analyzing flanker interference effects in combination with EEG and source localization techniques. RLS patients showed larger flanker interference effects in the evening than in the morning (p = .023, while healthy controls did not display a comparable circadian variation. In line with this, the neurophysiological data showed smaller N1 amplitudes in RLS patients compared to controls in the interfering task condition in the evening (p = .042, but not in the morning. The results demonstrate diurnal cognitive changes in RLS patients with intensified impairments in the evening. It seems that not all dopamine-regulated cognitive processes are altered in RLS and thus show daytime-dependent impairments. Instead, the daytime-related cognitive impairment emerges from attentional selection processes within the extra-striate visual cortex, but not from later cognitive processes such as conflict monitoring and response selection.

  17. Somatosensory lateral inhibition processes modulate motor response inhibition - an EEG source localization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Julia; Mückschel, Moritz; Beste, Christian

    2017-06-30

    Motor inhibitory control is a central executive function, but only recently the importance of perceptual mechanisms for these processes has been focused. It is elusive whether basic mechanisms governing sensory perception affect motor inhibitory control. We examine whether sensory lateral inhibition (LI) processes modulate motor inhibitory control using a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG signal decomposition with source localization methods in a somatosensory GO/NOGO task. The results show that inter-individual variations in the strength of LI effects predominantly affect processes when information needs to be integrated between cerebral hemispheres. If information needs to be integrated between hemispheres, strong sensory suppression will lead to more impulsive errors. Importantly, the neurophysiological data suggest that not purely perceptual or motor processes are affected. Rather, LI affects the response selection level and modulates processes of stimulus categorization. This is associated with activity modulations in the posterior parietal cortex. The results suggest that when sensory suppression is high and when information needs to be integrated across hemispheres, these processes are less efficient, which likely leads to worse motor inhibitory control. The results show how basis principles modulating perceptual processes affect subsequent motor inhibitory control processes.

  18. Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

  19. Multilevel cortical processing of somatosensory novelty: a magnetoencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles eNaeije

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, this study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of the multilevel cortical processing of somatosensory change detection. Neuromagnetic signals of sixteen healthy adult subjects (7 females and 9 males, mean age 29 +/-3 y were recorded using whole-scalp-covering MEG while they underwent an oddball paradigm based on simple standard (right index fingertip tactile stimulation and deviant (simultaneous right index fingertip and middle phalanx tactile stimulation stimuli gathered into sequences to create and then deviate from stimulus patterns at multiple (local versus global levels of complexity. Five healthy adult subjects (3 females and 2 males, mean age 31,6 +/-2 y also underwent a similar oddball paradigm in which standard and deviant stimuli were flipped.Local deviations led to a somatosensory mismatch response peaking at 55-130 ms post-stimulus onset with a cortical generator located at the contralateral secondary somatosensory cortex. The mismatch response was independent of the deviant stimuli physical characteristics. Global deviants led to a P300 response with cortical sources located bilaterally at temporo-parietal junction (TPJ and supplementary motor area (SMA. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC and the SMA were found to generate a contingent magnetic variation (CMV attributed to top-down expectations. Amplitude of mismatch responses were modulated by top-down expectations and correlated with both the magnitude of the CMV and the P300 amplitude at the right TPJ. These results provide novel empirical evidence for a unified sensory novelty detection system in the human brain by linking detection of salient sensory stimuli in personal and extra-personal spaces to a common framework of multilevel cortical processing.

  20. Multilevel Cortical Processing of Somatosensory Novelty: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Gilles; Vaulet, Thibaut; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), this study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of the multilevel cortical processing of somatosensory change detection. Neuromagnetic signals of 16 healthy adult subjects (7 females and 9 males, mean age 29 ± 3 years) were recorded using whole-scalp-covering MEG while they underwent an oddball paradigm based on simple standard (right index fingertip tactile stimulation) and deviant (simultaneous right index fingertip and middle phalanx tactile stimulation) stimuli gathered into sequences to create and then deviate from stimulus patterns at multiple (local vs. global) levels of complexity. Five healthy adult subjects (3 females and 2 males, mean age 31, 6 ± 2 years) also underwent a similar oddball paradigm in which standard and deviant stimuli were flipped. Local deviations led to a somatosensory mismatch response peaking at 55-130 ms post-stimulus onset with a cortical generator located at the contralateral secondary somatosensory (cSII) cortex. The mismatch response was independent of the deviant stimuli physical characteristics. Global deviants led to a P300 response with cortical sources located bilaterally at temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and supplementary motor area (SMA). The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the SMA were found to generate a contingent magnetic variation (CMV) attributed to top-down expectations. Amplitude of mismatch responses were modulated by top-down expectations and correlated with both the magnitude of the CMV and the P300 amplitude at the right TPJ. These results provide novel empirical evidence for a unified sensory novelty detection system in the human brain by linking detection of salient sensory stimuli in personal and extra-personal spaces to a common framework of multilevel cortical processing.

  1. P300 Source Localization Contrasts in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors and Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Geneviève; O’Connor, Kieron P.; Blanchet, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    Tic disorders (TD) and body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB) have similar phenotypes that can be challenging to distinguish in clinical settings. Both disorders show high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions, dysfunctional basal ganglia activity, atypical cortical functioning in the prefrontal and motor cortical regions, and cognitive deficits. Clinicians frequently confound the two disorders and it is important to find reliable objective methods to discriminate TD and BFRB. Neuropsychological tests and event-related potential (ERP) studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding a possible context updating deficit in TD and BFRB patients. However, most previous studies did not control for the presence of comorbid psychiatric condition and medication status, which might have confounded the findings reported to date. Hence, we aimed to investigate the psychophysiology of working memory using ERP in carefully screened TD and BFRB patients excluding those with psychiatric comorbidity and those taking psychoactive medication. The current study compared 12 TD patients, 12 BRFB patients, and 15 healthy control participants using a motor oddball task (button press). The P300 component was analyzed as an index of working memory functioning. Results showed that BFRB patients had decreased P300 oddball effect amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared to the TD and control groups. Clinical groups presented different scalp distributions compared to controls, which could represent a potential endophenotype candidate of BFRB and TD. PMID:28671557

  2. P300 Source Localization Contrasts in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors and Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Sauvé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tic disorders (TD and body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB have similar phenotypes that can be challenging to distinguish in clinical settings. Both disorders show high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions, dysfunctional basal ganglia activity, atypical cortical functioning in the prefrontal and motor cortical regions, and cognitive deficits. Clinicians frequently confound the two disorders and it is important to find reliable objective methods to discriminate TD and BFRB. Neuropsychological tests and event-related potential (ERP studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding a possible context updating deficit in TD and BFRB patients. However, most previous studies did not control for the presence of comorbid psychiatric condition and medication status, which might have confounded the findings reported to date. Hence, we aimed to investigate the psychophysiology of working memory using ERP in carefully screened TD and BFRB patients excluding those with psychiatric comorbidity and those taking psychoactive medication. The current study compared 12 TD patients, 12 BRFB patients, and 15 healthy control participants using a motor oddball task (button press. The P300 component was analyzed as an index of working memory functioning. Results showed that BFRB patients had decreased P300 oddball effect amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared to the TD and control groups. Clinical groups presented different scalp distributions compared to controls, which could represent a potential endophenotype candidate of BFRB and TD.

  3. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-11-15

    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Information Seeking and Satisfaction with Information Sources Among Spouses of Men with Newly Diagnosed Local-Stage Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel M; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Li, Chunyu; Smith, Judith Lee; Hall, Ingrid J; Penson, David F; Ramsey, Scott D

    2018-04-01

    Information sources about prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are typically designed for patients. Little is known about the availability and utility of information for partners. The objectives of our study were to evaluate information sources used by partners to understand prostate cancer management options, their perceived usefulness, and the relationship between sources used and satisfaction with treatment experience. A longitudinal survey of female partners of men newly diagnosed with local-stage prostate cancer was conducted in three different geographic regions. Partners and associated patients were surveyed at baseline (after patient diagnosis but prior to receiving therapy) and at 12 months following diagnosis. Information sources included provider, literature, friends or family members, Internet websites, books, traditional media, and support groups. Utility of an information source was defined as whether the partner would recommend it to caregivers of other patients with local-stage prostate cancer. Our study cohort included 179 partner-patient pairs. At diagnosis, partners consulted an average of 4.6 information sources. Non-Hispanic white partners were more likely than others to use friends and family as an information source (OR = 2.44, 95% CI (1.04, 5.56)). More educated partners were less likely to use support groups (OR = 0.31, 95% CI (0.14, 0.71)). At 12-month follow-up, partners were less likely to recommend books (OR = 0.23, 95% CI (0.11, 0.49)) compared to baseline. Partners consulted a large number of information sources in researching treatment options for local-stage prostate cancer and the types of sources accessed varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Additional resources to promote selection of high-quality non-provider information sources are warranted to enable partners to better aid patients in their treatment decision-making process.

  6. Functional adaptation to mechanical loading in both cortical and cancellous bone is controlled locally and is confined to the loaded bones

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2010-01-01

    In order to validate whether bones' functional adaptation to mechanical loading is a local phenomenon, we randomly assigned 21 female C57BL/6 mice at 19?weeks of age to one of three equal numbered groups. All groups were treated with isoflurane anesthesia three times a week for 2?weeks (approximately 7?min/day). During each anaesthetic period, the right tibiae/fibulae in the DYNAMIC?+?STATIC group were subjected to a peak dynamic load of 11.5?N (40 cycles with 10-s intervals between cycles) s...

  7. Cortical high-density counterstream architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Nikola T; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kennedy, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery.

  8. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  9. Effect of windblown dust from local and regional sources on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Wenxing; Bai, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhongliang; Sun, Fengjuan; Hou, Lujian; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Mengshuang; Miao, Yunge

    2017-03-01

    Windblown dust is a major source of PM10 in Jinan, China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of windblown dust on the air quality of the central district in Jinan, which has high population density. In this study, PM10 emissions from the suburbs of Jinan (local source) were estimated using the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model; and the PM10 emissions from Shandong province, excluding Jinan (regional source), were estimated based on an empirical formula. In this study, the heating period includes January, February, November, and December; the non-heating period includes June, July and August; and the sand period includes March, April, May, September, and October. The WEPS-simulated annual PM10 emission was 9.90 × 104 tons (3.22 × 104 tons during the heating period, 5.53 × 104 tons during the sand period, and 1.16 × 104 tons during the non-heating period) in suburban Jinan in 2012. The PM10 emission was 9.17 × 105 tons in Shandong province, excluding Jinan, in 2012. Good correlations between the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust simulated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the PM10 concentrations of windblown dust from local and regional sources were shown in this study. R2 were equal to 0.95, 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, for the entire year, the heating, non-heating and sand period. For the entire year, the contributions of windblown dust from the local sources, regional sources, and long-range dust transport sources to PM10 were 73.0%, 12.8%, 14.2%, respectively. The windblown dust was mainly from local area. The contribution of the regional source was the greatest in the sand period, and the contribution of long-range dust transport was greatest in the heating period.

  10. Analysis of cortical thickness in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Jeon, Seun; Lee, Minjoo; Kim, Sung Tae; Yoon, Uicheul; Koo, Dae Lim; Lee, Jong-Min; Hong, Seung Bong

    2011-10-01

    To investigate differences in cortical thickness in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy and control subjects. Cortical thickness was measured using a 3-D surface-based method that enables more accurate measurement in deep sulci and localized regional mapping. University hospital. We enrolled 28 patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy and 33 age-and sex-matched control subjects. Cortical thickness was measured using a direct method for calculating the distance between corresponding vertices from inner and outer cortical surfaces. We normalized cortical surfaces using 2-D surface registration and performed diffusion smoothing to reduce the variability of folding patterns and to increase the power of the statistical analysis. Localized cortical thinning in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy was found in orbitofrontal gyri, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortexes, insula, cingulate gyri, middle and inferior temporal gyri, and inferior parietal lobule of the right and left hemispheres at the level of a false discovery rate Pmemory, emotion, and sleepiness.

  11. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in an industrial complex in South Korea: impacts from local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Seok; Jeong, Seung-Pyo; Holsen, Thomas M.; Han, Young-Ji; Choi, Eunhwa; Park, Eun Ha; Kim, Tae Young; Eum, Hee-Sang; Park, Dae Gun; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Soontae; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Jaewon; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were measured every 5 min in Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, during summer (17-23 August 2012), fall (9-17 October 2012), winter (22-29 January 2013), and spring (26 March-3 April 2013) to (1) characterize the hourly and seasonal variations of atmospheric TGM concentrations; (2) identify the relationships between TGM and co-pollutants; and (3) identify likely source directions and locations of TGM using the conditional probability function (CPF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and total potential source contribution function (TPSCF). The TGM concentration was statistically significantly highest in fall (6.7 ± 6.4 ng m-3), followed by spring (4.8 ± 4.0 ng m-3), winter (4.5 ± 3.2 ng m-3) and summer (3.8 ± 3.9 ng m-3). There was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between the TGM concentration and ambient air temperature (r = -0.08, pindustrial activities and activation of local surface emission sources. The observed ΔTGM / ΔCO was significantly lower than that of Asian long-range transport, but similar to that of local sources in Korea and in US industrial events, suggesting that local sources are more important than those of long-range transport. CPF, CBPF and TPSCF indicated that the main sources of TGM were iron and manufacturing facilities, the hazardous waste incinerators and the coastal areas.

  12. Wireless cortical implantable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majidzadeh Bafar, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Cortical Implantable Systems examines the design for data acquisition and transmission in cortical implants. The first part of the book covers existing system-level cortical implants, as well as future devices. The authors discuss the major constraints in terms of microelectronic integration. The second part of the book focuses on system-level as well as circuit and system level solutions to the development of ultra low-power and low-noise microelectronics for cortical implants. Existing solutions are presented and novel methods and solutions proposed. The third part of the book focuses on the usage of digital impulse radio ultra wide-band transmission as an efficient method to transmit cortically neural recorded data at high data-rate to the outside world. Original architectural and circuit and system solutions are discussed.

  13. Implementation status of the global and local beam position feedback systems for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is implementing an extensive beam position feedback system for both global and local stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. The description and operational experience of the system will be given in this paper. In particular, we will discuss the underlying fundamental principles, hardware layout, controls interface, and automatic software generation for multiple digital signal processors (DSPS) distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring. The feedback system runs at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve the correction bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. For the maximum correction efficiency and resolution of conflicts among multiple local feedback systems due to the local bump closure error, the global and local feedback systems are combined into a single unified system. This novel approach is made possible through data sharing among the global and local systems via the fiber-optically networked reflective memories

  14. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Alexander

    Full Text Available Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity.

  15. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David M; Nikolaev, Andrey R; Jurica, Peter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity.

  16. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Neumann, Patrick P.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully “translated” into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  17. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  18. Local-global knowledge sourcing in the context of an open innovation knowledge platform : the case of Amsterdam Denim City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DiVito, Lori; Ingen-Housz, Zita

    2016-01-01

    Our paper investigates the inherent tensions between the local embeddedness of highly tacit knowledge and the global sourcing of ‘open’ knowledge or innovation. A single case study design enabled us to perform a thorough and detailed analysis of inter-firm collaboration and open innovation within

  19. An unbroken chain: approaches to implementing Linked Open Data in libraries: comparing local, open-source, collaborative and commercial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenall, R.; Koster, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares methods for libraries to interact with the Web of data by assessing the benefits and risks associated with local development, free-and-open-source software, collaborative and commercial solutions. Through a number of case studies, we provide insight into how each approach can be

  20. Exploiting Deep Neural Networks and Head Movements for Robust Binaural Localization of Multiple Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; May, Tobias; Brown, Guy J.

    2017-01-01

    of the complete cross-correlation function (CCF) and interaural level differences (ILDs). In contrast to many previous binaural hearing systems, the proposed approach is not restricted to localization of sound sources in the frontal hemifield. Due to the similarity of binaural cues in the frontal and rear...

  1. Evaluation of a finite-element reciprocity method for epileptic EEG source localization: Accuracy, computational complexity and noise robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvany, Yazdan; Rubæk, Tonny; Edelvik, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of an EEG source localization method that combines a finite element method (FEM) and the reciprocity theorem.The reciprocity method is applied to solve the forward problem in a four-layer spherical head model for a large number of test dipoles....

  2. Activity in a premotor cortical nucleus of zebra finches is locally organized and exhibits auditory selectivity in neurons but not in glia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Graber

    Full Text Available Motor functions are often guided by sensory experience, most convincingly illustrated by complex learned behaviors. Key to sensory guidance in motor areas may be the structural and functional organization of sensory inputs and their evoked responses. We study sensory responses in large populations of neurons and neuron-assistive cells in the songbird motor area HVC, an auditory-vocal brain area involved in sensory learning and in adult song production. HVC spike responses to auditory stimulation display remarkable preference for the bird's own song (BOS compared to other stimuli. Using two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized zebra finches we measure the spatio-temporal structure of baseline activity and of auditory evoked responses in identified populations of HVC cells. We find strong correlations between calcium signal fluctuations in nearby cells of a given type, both in identified neurons and in astroglia. In identified HVC neurons only, auditory stimulation decorrelates ongoing calcium signals, less for BOS than for other sound stimuli. Overall, calcium transients show strong preference for BOS in identified HVC neurons but not in astroglia, showing diversity in local functional organization among identified neuron and astroglia populations.

  3. On the homogeneity and heterogeneity of cortical thickness profiles in Homo sapiens sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, Jan Willem; Schüppen, André; Morozova, Maria; Lehofer, Agnes; Koschutnig, Karl; Wood, Guilherme

    2017-12-20

    Cortical thickness has been investigated since the beginning of the 20th century, but we do not know how similar the cortical thickness profiles among humans are. In this study, the local similarity of cortical thickness profiles was investigated using sliding window methods. Here, we show that approximately 5% of the cortical thickness profiles are similarly expressed among humans while 45% of the cortical thickness profiles show a high level of heterogeneity. Therefore, heterogeneity is the rule, not the exception. Cortical thickness profiles of somatosensory homunculi and the anterior insula are consistent among humans, while the cortical thickness profiles of the motor homunculus are more variable. Cortical thickness profiles of homunculi that code for muscle position and skin stimulation are highly similar among humans despite large differences in sex, education, and age. This finding suggests that the structure of these cortices remains well preserved over a lifetime. Our observations possibly relativize opinions on cortical plasticity.

  4. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jaeyoon Jun

    Full Text Available In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal's positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole

  5. Localization of cortical primary motor area of the hand using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, BOLD and arterial spin labeling fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Pitkänen, Minna; Könönen, Mervi; Vanninen, Ritva; Julkunen, Petro

    2016-11-01

    Although the relationship between neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely studied in motor mapping, it is unknown how the motor response type or the choice of motor task affect this relationship. Centers of gravity (CoGs) and response maxima were measured with blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI during motor tasks against nTMS CoGs and response maxima, which were mapped with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and silent periods (SPs). No differences in motor representations (CoGs and response maxima) were observed in lateral-medial direction (p=0.265). fMRI methods localized the motor representation more posterior than nTMS (pmotor task (p>0.999) nor nTMS response type (p>0.999). ASL fMRI maxima did not differ from the nTMS nor BOLD fMRI CoGs (p≥0.070), but the ASL CoG was deeper in comparison to other methods (p≤0.042). The BOLD fMRI motor task did not influence the depth of the motor representation (p≥0.745). The median Euclidean distances between the nTMS and fMRI motor representations varied between 7.7mm and 14.5mm and did not differ between the methods (F≤1.23, p≥0.318). The relationship between fMRI and nTMS mapped excitatory (MEP) and inhibitory (SP) responses, and whether the choice of motor task affects this relationship, have not been studied before. The congruence between fMRI and nTMS is good. The choice of nTMS motor response type nor BOLD fMRI motor task had no effect on this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An active electrode for biopotential recording from small localized bio-sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallikarakis Nicolas E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser bio-stimulation is a well-established procedure in Medical Acupuncture. Nevertheless there is still a confusion as to whether it works or the effect is just placebo. Although a plethora of scientific papers published, showing positive clinical results, there is still a lack of objective scientific proofs about the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Acupuncture. The objective of this work was to design and build a body surface electrode and an amplifier for biopotential recording from acupuncture points, considered here as small localized bio-sources (SLB. The design is aimed for studying SLB potentials provoked by laser stimulus, in search for objective proofs of the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Medical Acupuncture. Methods The active electrode presented features a new adjustable anchoring system and fractionation of the biopotential amplifier between the electrode and the cabinet's location. The new adjustable electrode anchoring system is designed to reduce the electrode-skin contact impedance, its variation and motion artifacts. That is achieved by increasing the electrode-skin tension and decreasing its relative movement. Additionally the sensing element provides local constant skin stretching thus eliminating the contribution of the skin potential artifact. The electrode is attached to the skin by a double-sided adhesive pad, where the sensing element is a stainless steel, 4 mm in diameter. The fractionation of the biopotential amplifier is done by incorporating the amplifier's front-end op-amps at the electrodes, thus avoiding the use of extra buffers. The biopotential amplifier features two selectable modes of operation: semi-AC-mode with a -3 dB bandwidth of 0.32–1000 Hz and AC-mode with a bandwidth of 0.16–1000 Hz. Results The average measured DC electrode-skin contact impedance of the proposed electrode was 450 kΩ, with electrode tension of 0.3 kg/cm2 on an unprepared skin of the inner

  7. An investigation of potential regional and local source regions affecting fine particulate matter concentrations in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat; Biswas, Jhumoor; Guttikunda, Sarath; Roychowdhury, Soma; Nayak, Mugdha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, potential regional and local sources influencing PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter >2.5 μm) concentrations in Delhi, India, are identified and their possible impact evaluated through diverse approaches based on study of variability of synoptic and local airflow patterns that transport aerosol concentrations from these emission sources to an urban receptor site in Delhi, India. Trajectory clustering of 72-hr and 48-hr back trajectories simulated at arrival heights of 500 m and 100 m, respectively, every hour for representative years 2008-2010 are used to assess the relative influence of long-distance, regional, and subregional sources on this site. Nonparametric statistical procedures are employed on trajectory clusters to better delineate various distinct regional pollutant source regions. Trajectory clustering and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analyses indicate that regional and subregional PM2.5 emission sources in neighboring country of Pakistan and adjacent states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh contribute significantly to the total surplus of aerosol concentrations in the Delhi region. Conditional probability function and Bayesian approach used to identify local source regions have established substantial influence from highly urbanized satellite towns located southwest (above 25%) and southeast (above 45%) of receptor location. There is significant seasonal variability in synoptic and local air circulation patterns, which is discerned in variability in seasonal concentrations. Mean of daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations at the Income Tax Office (ITO) receptor site over Delhi at 95% confidence level is highest in winter, ranging between 209 and 185 μg m⁻³ for the entire study period. The annual variability in air transport pathways is more in winter than in other seasons. Year-to-year variability is present in aerosol concentrations, especially during winter, with standard deviations varying from a

  8. Tributes imposed on tourists as a new-old source of local governments income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin BURZEC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth in a number of tourists and, consequently, a larger income obtained from tourism by the state led to the situation when the previously marginalized tributes imposed on tourists by local governments have assumed greater significance. Additional revenues to local units’ budgets, gained from the above-mentioned tributes, are often allotted for better infrastructure and tourist promotion, thereby contributing to the increased tourist competitiveness. The present paper discusses the construction of levies imposed on tourists by local governments in various European states. Besides, the issues of how local governments can influence the construction of the tax within the frames of the granted tax autonomy are examined. Due to the fact that in many European countries burdens imposed on tourists by local units can be called taxes, fees or other levies, the term „tribute”, as a broader one including all statutory charges, is intentionally used in the present paper.

  9. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls while an electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. Results When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency. When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Conclusion Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  10. Passive Acoustic Source Localization at a Low Sampling Rate Based on a Five-Element Cross Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate acoustic source localization at a low sampling rate (less than 10 kHz is still a challenging problem for small portable systems, especially for a multitasking micro-embedded system. A modification of the generalized cross-correlation (GCC method with the up-sampling (US theory is proposed and defined as the US-GCC method, which can improve the accuracy of the time delay of arrival (TDOA and source location at a low sampling rate. In this work, through the US operation, an input signal with a certain sampling rate can be converted into another signal with a higher frequency. Furthermore, the optimal interpolation factor for the US operation is derived according to localization computation time and the standard deviation (SD of target location estimations. On the one hand, simulation results show that absolute errors of the source locations based on the US-GCC method with an interpolation factor of 15 are approximately from 1/15- to 1/12-times those based on the GCC method, when the initial same sampling rates of both methods are 8 kHz. On the other hand, a simple and small portable passive acoustic source localization platform composed of a five-element cross microphone array has been designed and set up in this paper. The experiments on the established platform, which accurately locates a three-dimensional (3D near-field target at a low sampling rate demonstrate that the proposed method is workable.

  11. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...

  12. The role of envelope shape in the localization of multiple sound sources and echoes in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Caitlin S; Nelson, Brian S; Takahashi, Terry T

    2013-02-01

    Echoes and sounds of independent origin often obscure sounds of interest, but echoes can go undetected under natural listening conditions, a perception called the precedence effect. How does the auditory system distinguish between echoes and independent sources? To investigate, we presented two broadband noises to barn owls (Tyto alba) while varying the similarity of the sounds' envelopes. The carriers of the noises were identical except for a 2- or 3-ms delay. Their onsets and offsets were also synchronized. In owls, sound localization is guided by neural activity on a topographic map of auditory space. When there are two sources concomitantly emitting sounds with overlapping amplitude spectra, space map neurons discharge when the stimulus in their receptive field is louder than the one outside it and when the averaged amplitudes of both sounds are rising. A model incorporating these features calculated the strengths of the two sources' representations on the map (B. S. Nelson and T. T. Takahashi; Neuron 67: 643-655, 2010). The target localized by the owls could be predicted from the model's output. The model also explained why the echo is not localized at short delays: when envelopes are similar, peaks in the leading sound mask corresponding peaks in the echo, weakening the echo's space map representation. When the envelopes are dissimilar, there are few or no corresponding peaks, and the owl localizes whichever source is predicted by the model to be less masked. Thus the precedence effect in the owl is a by-product of a mechanism for representing multiple sound sources on its map.

  13. Harvesting Nanocatalytic Heat Localized in Nanoalloy Catalyst as a Heat Source in a Nanocomposite Thin Film Thermoelectric Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Shan, Shiyao; Luo, Jin; Mott, Derrick M; Maenosono, Shinya; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-10-20

    This report describes findings of an investigation of harvesting nanocatalytic heat localized in a nanoalloy catalyst layer as a heat source in a nanocomposite thin film thermoelectric device for thermoelectric energy conversion. This device couples a heterostructured copper-zinc sulfide nanocomposite for thermoelectrics and low-temperature combustion of methanol fuels over a platinum-cobalt nanoalloy catalyst for producing heat localized in the nanocatalyst layer. The possibility of tuning nanocatalytic heat in the nanocatalyst and thin film thermoelectric properties by compositions points to a promising pathway in thermoelectric energy conversion.

  14. State-dependent intrinsic predictability of cortical network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fakhraei

    Full Text Available The information encoded in cortical circuit dynamics is fleeting, changing from moment to moment as new input arrives and ongoing intracortical interactions progress. A combination of deterministic and stochastic biophysical mechanisms governs how cortical dynamics at one moment evolve from cortical dynamics in recently preceding moments. Such temporal continuity of cortical dynamics is fundamental to many aspects of cortex function but is not well understood. Here we study temporal continuity by attempting to predict cortical population dynamics (multisite local field potential based on its own recent history in somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model. We found that the intrinsic predictability of cortical dynamics was dependent on multiple factors including cortical state, synaptic inhibition, and how far into the future the prediction extends. By pharmacologically tuning synaptic inhibition, we obtained a continuum of cortical states with asynchronous population activity at one extreme and stronger, spatially extended synchrony at the other extreme. Intermediate between these extremes we observed evidence for a special regime of population dynamics called criticality. Predictability of the near future (10-100 ms increased as the cortical state was tuned from asynchronous to synchronous. Predictability of the more distant future (>1 s was generally poor, but, surprisingly, was higher for asynchronous states compared to synchronous states. These experimental results were confirmed in a computational network model of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our findings demonstrate that determinism and predictability of network dynamics depend on cortical state and the time-scale of the dynamics.

  15. Beach debris on Aruba, Southern Caribbean: Attribution to local land-based and distal marine-based sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Scisciolo, Tobia; Mijts, Eric N; Becker, Tatiana; Eppinga, Maarten B

    2016-05-15

    Accumulation of marine (plastic) debris from local land-based and distal marine-based sources along coastlines is a pressing modern issue. Hitherto, assessing the relative contribution of pollution sources through beach surveys is methodologically challenging. We surveyed ten beaches along the leeward and windward coastlines of Aruba (southern Caribbean) to determine differences in macro- and meso-debris densities. Differences were quantified using three metrics: 1) the gradient in macro-debris density away from the waterfront; 2) the proportion of plastic within macro-debris; 3) the meso-:macro-debris ratio. Overall 42,585 macro-debris items and 884 meso-debris items were collected. The density of near-shore macro-debris, proportion of plastic debris herein, and meso-:macro-debris ratio were highest on the windward coastline. These results suggest that southern Caribbean windward coastlines are mainly exposed to debris originating from distal marine-based sources, and leeward coastlines to local land-based sources. Our metrics clearly reflect these differences, providing novel means to survey debris source origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered Cortical Swallowing Processing in Patients with Functional Dysphagia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollbrink, Andreas; Warnecke, Tobias; Winkels, Martin; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current neuroimaging research on functional disturbances provides growing evidence for objective neuronal correlates of allegedly psychogenic symptoms, thereby shifting the disease concept from a psychological towards a neurobiological model. Functional dysphagia is such a rare condition, whose pathogenetic mechanism is largely unknown. In the absence of any organic reason for a patient's persistent swallowing complaints, sensorimotor processing abnormalities involving central neural pathways constitute a potential etiology. Methods In this pilot study we measured cortical swallow-related activation in 5 patients diagnosed with functional dysphagia and a matched group of healthy subjects applying magnetoencephalography. Source localization of cortical activation was done with synthetic aperture magnetometry. To test for significant differences in cortical swallowing processing between groups, a non-parametric permutation test was afterwards performed on individual source localization maps. Results Swallowing task performance was comparable between groups. In relation to control subjects, in whom activation was symmetrically distributed in rostro-medial parts of the sensorimotor cortices of both hemispheres, patients showed prominent activation of the right insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral premotor, motor as well as inferolateral parietal cortex. Furthermore, activation was markedly reduced in the left medial primary sensory cortex as well as right medial sensorimotor cortex and adjacent supplementary motor area (pdysphagia - a condition with assumed normal brain function - seems to be associated with distinctive changes of the swallow-related cortical activation pattern. Alterations may reflect exaggerated activation of a widely distributed vigilance, self-monitoring and salience rating network that interferes with down-stream deglutition sensorimotor control. PMID:24586948

  17. Source study of local coalfield events using the modal synthesis of shear and surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacBeth, C.D.; Redmayne, D.W.

    1989-10-01

    Results from the BGS LOWNET array from the Midlothian coalfield in Scotland have been studied. Vertical component seismograms have been analysed using a waveform matching technique based on the modal summation method for constructing synthetic seismograms. Results of the analysis are applied to S and surface wave portions of the seismogram. Effects of different earth structures, source depths, source orientation, and type of event, rockburst or triggered earthquake 2-3 km from the mine workings, can be evaluated.

  18. Focal cortical dysplasia alters electrophysiological cortical hubs in the resting-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) have different electrophysiological functional cortical hubs from those of healthy controls. Resting-state functional networks in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands were evaluated in 35 epilepsy patients with histopathologically verified FCD as a single pathology and in 46 age-matched healthy controls. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the network differences between the two groups by comparing the nodal efficiency (Enodal) and betweenness centrality (BC) values at the source level. The FCD patients had significant Enodal increases in the functional cortical hubs in the left anterior, middle, and posterior cortices and the medial orbital superior frontal cortex in the beta band. The left posterior cingulate cortex showed significant BC increases in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. There was a negative correlation between Enodal and age at seizure onset. Cortical dysplasia alters whole brain functional cortical hubs compared to healthy controls. The age at seizure onset was negatively correlated with Enodal in the beta band in FCD patients. Our study for the first time investigated the functional cortical hubs and their alteration in the resting-state functional network in epilepsy patients with FCD using noninvasive MEG signals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  20. Air quality impacted by local pollution sources and beyond - Using a prominent petro-industrial complex as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Lin, Wen-Dian; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chiu, Ching-Jui; Chiang, Hung-Chi; Fan, Chen-Lun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S

    2018-05-01

    The present study combines high-resolution measurements at various distances from a world-class gigantic petrochemical complex with model simulations to test a method to assess industrial emissions and their effect on local air quality. Due to the complexity in wind conditions which were highly seasonal, the dominant wind flow patterns in the coastal region of interest were classified into three types, namely northeast monsoonal (NEM) flows, southwest monsoonal (SEM) flows and local circulation (LC) based on six years of monitoring data. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was chosen as an indicative pollutant for prominent industrial emissions. A high-density monitoring network of 12 air-quality stations distributed within a 20-km radius surrounding the petrochemical complex provided hourly measurements of SO 2 and wind parameters. The SO 2 emissions from major industrial sources registered by the monitoring network were then used to validate model simulations and to illustrate the transport of the SO 2 plumes under the three typical wind patterns. It was found that the coupling of observations and modeling was able to successfully explain the transport of the industrial plumes. Although the petrochemical complex was seemingly the only major source to affect local air quality, multiple prominent sources from afar also played a significant role in local air quality. As a result, we found that a more complete and balanced assessment of the local air quality can be achieved only after taking into account the wind characteristics and emission factors of a much larger spatial scale than the initial (20 km by 20 km) study domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflexive modernization at the source: local media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in rural Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Debra J; Bogdan, Eva

    2010-11-01

    The potential for reflexive modernization is defined by multiple factors, but the acknowledgment of risk is crucial, particularly among social groups that play a key role in risk minimization. This study offers an examination of the role of local media in response to the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in beef-producing communities in rural Alberta. BSE is one of several global risk issues that reflexive modernization theorists argue have the potential to trigger a transformation toward a critically reflexive society in which such risks are minimized. Content analysis of newspapers in beef-producing regions in Alberta, however, shows how local media framed BSE in a manner that maximized community cohesion and protection of local culture. This selective coverage of BSE in rural Alberta is quite likely to have contributed to, or at least reinforced, support for the current institutional structure of Canadian agriculture in beef-producing regions, through the constriction of discourse.

  2. Wearable Sensor Localization Considering Mixed Distributed Sources in Health Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liangtian; Han, Guangjie; Wang, Hao; Shu, Lei; Feng, Nanxing; Peng, Bao

    2016-03-12

    In health monitoring systems, the base station (BS) and the wearable sensors communicate with each other to construct a virtual multiple input and multiple output (VMIMO) system. In real applications, the signal that the BS received is a distributed source because of the scattering, reflection, diffraction and refraction in the propagation path. In this paper, a 2D direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for incoherently-distributed (ID) and coherently-distributed (CD) sources is proposed based on multiple VMIMO systems. ID and CD sources are separated through the second-order blind identification (SOBI) algorithm. The traditional estimating signal parameters via the rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT)-based algorithm is valid only for one-dimensional (1D) DOA estimation for the ID source. By constructing the signal subspace, two rotational invariant relationships are constructed. Then, we extend the ESPRIT to estimate 2D DOAs for ID sources. For DOA estimation of CD sources, two rational invariance relationships are constructed based on the application of generalized steering vectors (GSVs). Then, the ESPRIT-based algorithm is used for estimating the eigenvalues of two rational invariance matrices, which contain the angular parameters. The expressions of azimuth and elevation for ID and CD sources have closed forms, which means that the spectrum peak searching is avoided. Therefore, compared to the traditional 2D DOA estimation algorithms, the proposed algorithm imposes significantly low computational complexity. The intersecting point of two rays, which come from two different directions measured by two uniform rectangle arrays (URA), can be regarded as the location of the biosensor (wearable sensor). Three BSs adopting the smart antenna (SA) technique cooperate with each other to locate the wearable sensors using the angulation positioning method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Audio-Visual Fusion for Sound Source Localization and Improved Attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Gi; Choi, Jong Suk; Yoon, Sang Suk; Choi, Mun Taek; Kim, Mun Sang; Kim, Dai Jin

    2011-01-01

    Service robots are equipped with various sensors such as vision camera, sonar sensor, laser scanner, and microphones. Although these sensors have their own functions, some of them can be made to work together and perform more complicated functions. AudioFvisual fusion is a typical and powerful combination of audio and video sensors, because audio information is complementary to visual information and vice versa. Human beings also mainly depend on visual and auditory information in their daily life. In this paper, we conduct two studies using audioFvision fusion: one is on enhancing the performance of sound localization, and the other is on improving robot attention through sound localization and face detection

  4. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  5. Subspace electrode selection methodology for EEG multiple source localization error reduction due to uncertain conductivity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Yitembe, Bertrand; Dupre, Luc; Van Keer, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a modification of the subspace correlation cost function and the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) method for electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis in epilepsy. This enables to reconstruct neural source locations and orientations that are less degraded due to the uncertain knowledge of the head conductivity values. An extended linear forward model is used in the subspace correlation cost function that incorporates the sensitivity of the EEG potentials to the uncertain conductivity value parameter. More specifically, the principal vector of the subspace correlation function is used to provide relevant information for solving the EEG inverse problems. A simulation study is carried out on a simplified spherical head model with uncertain skull to soft tissue conductivity ratio. Results show an improvement in the reconstruction accuracy of source parameters compared to traditional methodology, when using conductivity ratio values that are different from the actual conductivity ratio.

  6. Remodularizing Java Programs for Improved Locality of Feature Implementations in Source Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Explicit traceability between features and source code is known to help programmers to understand and modify programs during maintenance tasks. However, the complex relations between features and their implementations are not evident from the source code of object-oriented Java programs....... Consequently, the implementations of individual features are difficult to locate, comprehend, and modify in isolation. In this paper, we present a novel remodularization approach that improves the representation of features in the source code of Java programs. Both forward- and reverse restructurings...... are supported through on-demand bidirectional restructuring between feature-oriented and object-oriented decompositions. The approach includes a feature location phase based of tracing program execution, a feature representation phase that reallocates classes into a new package structure based on single...

  7. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements of an F404 Nozzle Plume at Both Full and Model Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Bridges, James E.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire jet noise source localization data on both a full-scale F404-GE-F400 engine and on a 1/4th scale model of a F400 series nozzle. The full-scale engine test data show the location of the dominant noise sources in the jet plume as a function of frequency for the engine in both baseline (no chevron) and chevron configurations. Data are presented for the engine operating both with and without afterburners. Based on lessons learned during this test, a set of recommendations are provided regarding how the phased array measurement system could be modified in order to obtain more useful acoustic source localization data on high-performance military engines in the future. The data obtained on the 1/4th scale F400 series nozzle provide useful insights regarding the full-scale engine jet noise source mechanisms, and document some of the differences associated with testing at model-scale versus fullscale.

  8. The influence of signal parameters on the sound source localization ability of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; de Haan, Dick; Verboom, Willem C

    2007-08-01

    It is unclear how well harbor porpoises can locate sound sources, and thus can locate acoustic alarms on gillnets. Therefore the ability of a porpoise to determine the location of a sound source was determined. The animal was trained to indicate the active one of 16 transducers in a 16-m-diam circle around a central listening station. The duration and received level of the narrowband frequency-modulated signals (center frequencies 16, 64 and 100 kHz) were varied. The animal's localization performance increased when the signal duration increased from 600 to 1000 ms. The lower the received sound pressure level (SPL) of the signal, the harder the animal found it to localize the sound source. When pulse duration was long enough (approximately 1 s) and the received SPLs of the sounds were high (34-50 dB above basic hearing thresholds or 3-15 dB above the theoretical masked detection threshold in the ambient noise condition of the present study), the animal could locate sounds of the three frequencies almost equally well. The porpoise was able to locate sound sources up to 124 degrees to its left or right more easily than sounds from behind it.

  9. iELVis: An open source MATLAB toolbox for localizing and visualizing human intracranial electrode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, David M; Bickel, Stephan; Dykstra, Andrew R; Wang, Xiuyuan; Mégevand, Pierre; Mercier, Manuel R; Lado, Fred A; Mehta, Ashesh D; Honey, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Intracranial electrical recordings (iEEG) and brain stimulation (iEBS) are invaluable human neuroscience methodologies. However, the value of such data is often unrealized as many laboratories lack tools for localizing electrodes relative to anatomy. To remedy this, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox for intracranial electrode localization and visualization, iELVis. NEW METHOD: iELVis uses existing tools (BioImage Suite, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for preimplant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation, neuroimaging coregistration, and manual identification of electrodes in postimplant neuroimaging. Subsequently, iELVis implements methods for correcting electrode locations for postimplant brain shift with millimeter-scale accuracy and provides interactive visualization on 3D surfaces or in 2D slices with optional functional neuroimaging overlays. iELVis also localizes electrodes relative to FreeSurfer-based atlases and can combine data across subjects via the FreeSurfer average brain. It takes 30-60min of user time and 12-24h of computer time to localize and visualize electrodes from one brain. We demonstrate iELVis's functionality by showing that three methods for mapping primary hand somatosensory cortex (iEEG, iEBS, and functional MRI) provide highly concordant results. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: iELVis is the first public software for electrode localization that corrects for brain shift, maps electrodes to an average brain, and supports neuroimaging overlays. Moreover, its interactive visualizations are powerful and its tutorial material is extensive. iELVis promises to speed the progress and enhance the robustness of intracranial electrode research. The software and extensive tutorial materials are freely available as part of the EpiSurg software project: https://github.com/episurg/episurg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring and source apportionment of trace elements in PM2.5: Implications for local air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueyan; Chang, Miao; Ding, Shanshan; Wang, Shiwen; Ni, Dun; Hu, Hongtao

    2017-07-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected simultaneously every hour in Beijing between April 2014 and April 2015 at five sites. Thirteen trace elements (TEs) in PM 2.5 were analyzed by online X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The annual average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged from 76.8 to 102.7 μg m -3 . TEs accounted for 5.9%-8.7% of the total PM 2.5 mass with Cl, S, K, and Si as the most dominant elements. Spearman correlation coefficients of PM 2.5 or TE concentrations between the background site and other sites showed that PM 2.5 and some element loadings were affected by regional and local sources, whereas Cr, Si, and Ni were attributed to substantial local emissions. Temporal variations of TEs in PM 2.5 were significant and provided information on source profiles. The PM 2.5 concentrations were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. Mn and Cr showed similar variation. Fe, Ca, Si, and Ti tended to show higher concentrations in spring, whereas concentrations of S peaked in summer. Concentrations of Cl, K, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni peaked in winter. PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations were higher on Saturdays than on weekdays. The diurnal pattern of PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations yielded similar bimodal patterns. Five dominant sources of PM 2.5 mass were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF). These sources included the regional and local secondary aerosols, traffic, coal burning, soil dust, and metal processing. Air quality management strategies, including regional environmental coordination and collaboration, reduction in secondary aerosol precursors, restrictive vehicle emission standards, promotion of public transport, and adoption of clean energy, should be strictly implemented. High time-resolution measurements of TEs provided detailed source profiles, which can greatly improve precision in interpreting source apportionment calculations; the PMF analysis of online XRF data is a powerful tool for local air quality management. Copyright

  11. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations in an industrial complex in South Korea: impacts from local sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-S. Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations were measured every 5 min in Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, during summer (17–23 August 2012, fall (9–17 October 2012, winter (22–29 January 2013, and spring (26 March–3 April 2013 to (1 characterize the hourly and seasonal variations of atmospheric TGM concentrations; (2 identify the relationships between TGM and co-pollutants; and (3 identify likely source directions and locations of TGM using the conditional probability function (CPF, conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF and total potential source contribution function (TPSCF. The TGM concentration was statistically significantly highest in fall (6.7 ± 6.4 ng m−3, followed by spring (4.8 ± 4.0 ng m−3, winter (4.5 ± 3.2 ng m−3 and summer (3.8 ± 3.9 ng m−3. There was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between the TGM concentration and ambient air temperature (r = −0.08, p<0.05. Although the daytime temperature (14.7 ± 10.0 °C was statistically significantly higher than that in the nighttime (13.0 ± 9.8 °C (p<0.05, the daytime TGM concentration (5.3 ± 4.7 ng m−3 was statistically significantly higher than that in the nighttime (4.7 ± 4.7 ng m−3 (p<0.01, possibly due to local emissions related to industrial activities and activation of local surface emission sources. The observed ΔTGM ∕ ΔCO was significantly lower than that of Asian long-range transport, but similar to that of local sources in Korea and in US industrial events, suggesting that local sources are more important than those of long-range transport. CPF, CBPF and TPSCF indicated that the main sources of TGM were iron and manufacturing facilities, the hazardous waste incinerators and the coastal areas.

  12. Source localization of sensory gating: a combined EEG and fMRI study in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Nikolaj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    2011-01-01

    somatosensory cortex. These sources corresponded to significant fMRI clusters located in the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the claustrum, and the hippocampus. Activity in the hippocampus and the claustrum was higher in the trials with suppression, suggesting that these brain areas are involved...

  13. The FDI-Growth Nexus in Latin America : The Role of Source Countries and Local Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, P.; Tondl, G.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has surged in Latin America (LA) since the mid 1990s. European and North American FDI is of capital importance. We investigate the FDI-growth nexus in LA allowing for different source countries, regional hetero- geneity, interaction terms with FDI, and more than 20

  14. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, P; Bardin, T; Laredo, J D; Ziza, J M; D'Anglejan, G; Lansaman, J; Bucki, B; Forest, M; Kuntz, D

    1994-05-01

    To determine the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. The records of 6 patients with paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis and adjacent bone cortex erosion were reviewed. Calcific tendinitis involved the linea aspera in 4 patients, the bicipital groove in 1 patient, and the deltoid insertion in another. Calcium deposits were associated with cortical bone erosions, revealed on plain radiographs in 4 patients and computed tomography scans in 2. Bone scans were performed in 2 patients and showed local hyperfixation of the isotope. In 4 patients, suspicion of a neoplasm led to a biopsy. Calcium deposits appeared to be surrounded by a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells. Apatite crystals were identified by transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis in 1 surgical sample. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion is an uncommon presentation of apatite deposition disease.

  15. Construction Time of Three Wall Types Made of Locally Sourced Materials: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Drozd; Agnieszka Leśniak; Sebastian Zaworski

    2018-01-01

    Similarly to any other industry, the construction sector puts emphasis on innovativeness, unconventional thinking, and alternative ideas. At present, when sustainable development, ecology, and awareness of people’s impact on the environment grow in importance, low impact buildings can become an innovative alternative construction technology for the highly industrialized construction sector. The paper presents a comparative study of three walls made of available materials used locally, which c...

  16. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  17. The mixing in a room by a localized finite-mass-flux source of buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, C. P.; Woods, Andrew W.

    2002-11-01

    The mixing produced by a turbulent buoyant plume with finite mass flux in a room is examined analytically and numerically. The entrainment of ambient fluid into the ascending buoyant plume leads to a return flow in the room which carries fluid downwards from the top of the room. The cycling of ambient fluid through the buoyant plume and the return flow causes the density to become uniform and gradually evolve towards that of the source fluid. As a result the buoyancy flux associated with the input fluid decreases and the plume motion becomes dominated by the source momentum flux. We develop an asymptotic model of the mixing using buoyant plume theory for a momentum-dominated flow. This provides an analytical description of the evolution of the density in the room which is in excellent accord with a full numerical simulation, and provides an improved description of the experimental filling-box data originally presented by Baines & Turner (1969).

  18. Feature Extraction for BCIs Based on Electromagnetic Source Localization and Multiclass Filter Bank Common Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitcev, Aleksandr; Cook, Greg; Wei Liu; Paley, Martyn; Milne, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) provide means for communication and control without muscular movement and, therefore, can offer significant clinical benefits. Electrical brain activity recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) can be interpreted into software commands by various classification algorithms according to the descriptive features of the signal. In this paper we propose a novel EEG BCI feature extraction method employing EEG source reconstruction and Filter Bank Common Spatial Patterns (FBCSP) based on Joint Approximate Diagonalization (JAD). The proposed method is evaluated by the commonly used reference EEG dataset yielding an average classification accuracy of 77.1 ± 10.1 %. It is shown that FBCSP feature extraction applied to reconstructed source components outperforms conventional CSP and FBCSP feature extraction methods applied to signals in the sensor domain.

  19. Chemical Source Localization Fusing Concentration Information in the Presence of Chemical Background Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomareda, Víctor; Magrans, Rudys; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M; Martínez, Dani; Tresánchez, Marcel; Burgués, Javier; Palacín, Jordi; Marco, Santiago

    2017-04-20

    We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate. In addition, our algorithm allows multiple mobile gas sensors to be used. Ten realistic simulations and ten real data experiments are used for evaluation purposes. For the simulations, we have supposed that sensors are mounted on cars which do not have among its main tasks navigating toward the source. To collect the real dataset, a special arena with induced wind is built, and an autonomous vehicle equipped with several sensors, including a photo ionization detector (PID) for sensing chemical concentration, is used. Simulation results show that our algorithm, provides a better estimation of the source location even for a low background level that benefits the performance of binary version. The improvement is clear for the synthetic data while for real data the estimation is only slightly better, probably because our exploration arena is not able to provide uniform wind conditions. Finally, an estimation of the computational cost of the algorithmic proposal is presented.

  20. Local sources of global climate forcing from different categories of land use activities

    OpenAIRE

    D. S. Ward; N. M. Mahowald

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the sources of climate impacts from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is necessary to optimize policies regarding LULCC for climate change mitigation. These climate impacts are typically defined relative to emissions of CO2, or sometimes emissions of other long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we use previously published estimates of the radiative forcing (RF) of LULCC that include the short-lived forcing agents O3 and aerosols, ...

  1. Local sources of global climate forcing from different categories of land use activities

    OpenAIRE

    D. S. Ward; N. M. Mahowald

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the sources of climate impacts from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is necessary to optimize policies regarding LULCC for climate change mitigation. These climate impacts are typically defined relative to emissions of CO2, or sometimes emissions of other long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we use previously published estimates of the radiative forcing (RF) of LULCC that include the short-lived forcing agents O3 and aerosols, in addition to lo...

  2. Estimating the size of a methane emission point source at different scales: from local to landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Stuart N.; Connors, Sarah; Robinson, Andrew D.; Manning, Alistair J.; Jones, Pippa S. D.; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan; Skelton, Robert L.; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Harris, Neil R. P.

    2017-06-01

    High methane (CH4) mixing ratios (up to 4 ppm) have occurred sporadically at our measurement site in Haddenham, Cambridgeshire, since July 2012. Isotopic measurements and back trajectories show that the source is the Waterbeach Waste Management Park 7 km SE of Haddenham. To investigate this further, measurements were made on 30 June and 1 July 2015 at other locations nearer to the source. Landfill emissions have been estimated using three different approaches at different scales; near source using the WindTrax inversion dispersion model, middle distance using a Gaussian plume (GP) model and at the landscape scale using the Numerical Atmospheric Modelling Environment (NAME) Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling (InTEM) inversion. The emission estimates derived using the WindTrax and Gaussian plume (GP) approaches agree well for the period of intense observations. Applying the Gaussian plume approach to all periods of elevated measurements seen at Haddenham produces year-round and monthly landfill emission estimates with an estimated annual emission of 11.6 Gg CH4 yr-1. The monthly emission estimates are highest in winter (2160 kg h-1 in February) and lowest in summer (620 kg h-1 in July). These data identify the effects of environmental conditions on landfill CH4 production and highlight the importance of year-round measurements to capture seasonal variability in CH4 emission.

  3. Detecting Source Code Plagiarism on .NET Programming Languages using Low-level Representation and Adaptive Local Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Karnalim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though there are various source code plagiarism detection approaches, only a few works which are focused on low-level representation for deducting similarity. Most of them are only focused on lexical token sequence extracted from source code. In our point of view, low-level representation is more beneficial than lexical token since its form is more compact than the source code itself. It only considers semantic-preserving instructions and ignores many source code delimiter tokens. This paper proposes a source code plagiarism detection which rely on low-level representation. For a case study, we focus our work on .NET programming languages with Common Intermediate Language as its low-level representation. In addition, we also incorporate Adaptive Local Alignment for detecting similarity. According to Lim et al, this algorithm outperforms code similarity state-of-the-art algorithm (i.e. Greedy String Tiling in term of effectiveness. According to our evaluation which involves various plagiarism attacks, our approach is more effective and efficient when compared with standard lexical-token approach.

  4. Total gaseous concentrations in mercury in Seoul, Korea: Local sources compared to long-range transport from China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hee; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2009-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured every 5 min and hourly, respectively, in Seoul, Korea, from February 2005 through December 2006. The mean concentrations of TGM and CO were 3.44 ± 2.13 ng m -3 and 613 ± 323 ppbv, respectively. TGM and CO concentrations were highest during the winter and lowest during the summer. In total, 154 high TGM concentration events were identified: 86 were classified as long-range transport events and 68 were classified as local events. The TGM and CO concentrations were well correlated during all long-range transport events and were weakly correlated during local events. Five-day backward trajectory analysis for long-range transport events showed four potential source regions: China (79%), Japan (13%), the Yellow Sea (6%), and Russia (2%). Our results suggest that measured ΔTGM/ΔCO can be used to identify long-range transported mercury and to estimate mercury emissions from long-range transport. - This study identified long-range transport from China and local sources of elevated TGM concentrations in Seoul, Korea using the relationship between ΔTGM and ΔCO

  5. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  6. Self-consistent modeling of plasma response to impurity spreading from intense localized source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltunov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    Non-hydrogen impurities unavoidably exist in hot plasmas of present fusion devices. They enter it intrinsically, due to plasma interaction with the wall of vacuum vessel, as well as are seeded for various purposes deliberately. Normally, the spots where injected particles enter the plasma are much smaller than its total surface. Under such conditions one has to expect a significant modification of local plasma parameters through various physical mechanisms, which, in turn, affect the impurity spreading. Self-consistent modeling of interaction between impurity and plasma is, therefore, not possible with linear approaches. A model based on the fluid description of electrons, main and impurity ions, and taking into account the plasma quasi-neutrality, Coulomb collisions of background and impurity charged particles, radiation losses, particle transport to bounding surfaces, is elaborated in this work. To describe the impurity spreading and the plasma response self-consistently, fluid equations for the particle, momentum and energy balances of various plasma components are solved by reducing them to ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of several parameters characterizing the solution in principal details: the magnitudes of plasma density and plasma temperatures in the regions of impurity localization and the spatial scales of these regions. The results of calculations for plasma conditions typical in tokamak experiments with impurity injection are presented. A new mechanism for the condensation phenomenon and formation of cold dense plasma structures is proposed.

  7. The power of words: sources of anxiety in patients undergoing local anaesthetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, J; Jawad, S; Southern, S; Majumder, S

    2012-03-01

    With local or regional anaesthesia being employed for more as well as more complex surgical procedures, an increasing number of patients remain fully conscious during their operation. This is generally perceived as being advantageous to the patient as less time is spent in hospital and the side effects of general anaesthesia are avoided. However, there is no direct measure of the patient experience during 'awake surgery', in particular of which aspects of the process may be distressing. Seventy patients undergoing day case plastic surgery under local anaesthesia were asked to complete a short questionnaire immediately following their operation. This was designed to identify specific factors likely to either increase or reduce anxiety during surgery. The questionnaire was initially validated on a pilot group of ten patients. Unsurprisingly, painful stimuli such as injections were identified as potential stressors. More interestingly, the data highlighted that some commonly used surgical terms such as 'knife' and 'scalpel' provoke considerable anxiety in the conscious patient. This varied according to age and sex with younger and female patients being most vulnerable. Other events identified as potential stressors, such as casual conversations and movements among theatre staff, were actually shown to be non-stressful and, in some cases, stress relieving. Technical jargon used by surgical staff can elevate anxiety levels among patients who are awake for their operation. Careful consideration of the words we use may reduce this, particularly in female patients.

  8. Mercury isotope signatures in contaminated sediments as a tracer for local industrial pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Jonsson, Sofi; Björn, Erik; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-01-06

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) may cause characteristic isotope signatures of different mercury (Hg) sources and help understand transformation processes at contaminated sites. Here, we present Hg isotope data of sediments collected near industrial pollution sources in Sweden contaminated with elemental liquid Hg (mainly chlor-alkali industry) or phenyl-Hg (paper industry). The sediments exhibited a wide range of total Hg concentrations from 0.86 to 99 μg g(-1), consisting dominantly of organically-bound Hg and smaller amounts of sulfide-bound Hg. The three phenyl-Hg sites showed very similar Hg isotope signatures (MDF δ(202)Hg: -0.2‰ to -0.5‰; MIF Δ(199)Hg: -0.05‰ to -0.10‰). In contrast, the four sites contaminated with elemental Hg displayed much greater variations (δ(202)Hg: -2.1‰ to 0.6‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.19‰ to 0.03‰) but with distinct ranges for the different sites. Sequential extractions revealed that sulfide-bound Hg was in some samples up to 1‰ heavier in δ(202)Hg than organically-bound Hg. The selectivity of the sequential extraction was tested on standard materials prepared with enriched Hg isotopes, which also allowed assessing isotope exchange between different Hg pools. Our results demonstrate that different industrial pollution sources can be distinguished on the basis of Hg isotope signatures, which may additionally record fractionation processes between different Hg pools in the sediments.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of cortical responses to color in the human cVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Shapley, Robert M; Gordon, James

    2017-09-01

    The main finding of this paper is that the human visual cortex responds in a very nonlinear manner to the color contrast of pure color patterns. We examined human cortical responses to color checkerboard patterns at many color contrasts, measuring the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP) with a dense electrode array. Cortical topography of the cVEPs showed that they were localized near the posterior electrode at position Oz, indicating that the primary cortex (V1) was the major source of responses. The choice of fine spatial patterns as stimuli caused the cVEP response to be driven by double-opponent neurons in V1. The cVEP waveform revealed nonlinear color signal processing in the V1 cortex. The cVEP time-to-peak decreased and the waveform's shape was markedly narrower with increasing cone contrast. Comparison of the linear dynamics of retinal and lateral geniculate nucleus responses with the nonlinear dynamics of the cortical cVEP indicated that the nonlinear dynamics originated in the V1 cortex. The nature of the nonlinearity is a kind of automatic gain control that adjusts cortical dynamics to be faster when color contrast is greater.

  10. Local biomass as a decentral source of energy; Kommunale Biomasse als dezentraler Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Swantje Mignon; Guenthert, F. Wolfgang [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserwesen, Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    2013-03-15

    The production of wood based fuels such as wooden logs, wood chip, wooden briquettes or pellets has become standard practice. The easy handling of wood as an energy source has contributed to its popularity. A growing demand for wood based fuels has resulted in higher prices and the increasing demand is being met more and more by imports. The florafuel-Procedure provides an alternative to this trend by processing stalks and biomass waste, which in turn means a considerably broader raw material base. The procedure, which produces fuel in the form of pellets or briquettes to generate electricity or heat, is currently being optimised at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen) and is about to complete a demonstration plant which should prove its economic viability. Substances such as chlorine and potassium which normally cause concern during the combustion of stalks and stems can be significantly reduced through this production process. Moreover, the materials used as an energy source do not compete with food production. The fuel produced can be easily transported and stored. It can be used to meet both base load and peak load demands and has therefore proven to be highly flexible. Easy handling, little storage space and low capital expenditure are important characteristics of the florafuel-Procedure. Compared to other production processes, the florafuel-Procedure shows a very favourable energy balance for biomass based on stalks and stems. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of model based beamforming and Bayesian inversion signal processing methods for seismic localization of underground sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Geok Lian; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Techniques have been studied for the localization of an underground source with seismic interrogation signals. Much of the work has involved defining either a P-wave acoustic model or a dispersive surface wave model to the received signal and applying the time-delay processing technique...... and frequency-wavenumber processing to determine the location of the underground tunnel. Considering the case of determining the location of an underground tunnel, this paper proposed two physical models, the acoustic approximation ray tracing model and the finite difference time domain three-dimensional (3D......) elastic wave model to represent the received seismic signal. Two localization algorithms, beamforming and Bayesian inversion, are developed for each physical model. The beam-forming algorithms implemented are the modified time-and-delay beamformer and the F-K beamformer. Inversion is posed...

  12. Association between source-specific particulate matter air pollution and hs-CRP: local traffic and industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Moebus, Susanne; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Memmesheimer, Michael; Jakobs, Hermann; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Long-term exposures to particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) and high traffic load have been associated with markers of systemic inflammation. Epidemiological investigations have focused primarily on total PM, which represents a mixture of pollutants originating from different sources. We investigated associations between source-specific PM and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. We used data from the first (2000-2003) and second examination (2006-2008) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a prospective population-based German cohort of initially 4,814 participants (45-75 years of age). We estimated residential long-term exposure to local traffic- and industry-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at participants' residences using a chemistry transport model. We used a linear mixed model with a random participant intercept to estimate associations of source-specific PM and natural log-transformed hs-CRP, controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking variables, physical activity, season, humidity, and city (8,204 total observations). A 1-μg/m3 increase in total PM2.5 was associated with a 4.53% increase in hs-CRP concentration (95% CI: 2.76, 6.33%). hs-CRP was 17.89% (95% CI: 7.66, 29.09%) and 7.96% (95% CI: 3.45, 12.67%) higher in association with 1-μg/m3 increases in traffic- and industry-specific PM2.5, respectively. RESULTS for PM10 were similar. Long-term exposure to local traffic-specific PM (PM2.5, PM10) was more strongly associated with systemic inflammation than total PM. Associations of local industry-specific PM were slightly stronger but not significantly different from associations with total PM.

  13. Spatial relationship of source localizations in patients with focal epilepsy: Comparison of MEG and EEG with a three spherical shells and a boundary element volume conductor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Gabriela; Fischer, Michael J M; Genow, Alexandra; Hummel, Cornelia; Rampp, Stefan; Paulini, Andrea; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Kaltenhäuser, Martin; Stefan, Hermann

    2007-04-01

    Epilepsy surgery is an option for patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsies, but it requires a precise focus localization procedure. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) can be used for analysis of interictal activity. The aim of this prospective study was to compare clusters of source localization results with MEG and EEG using a three spherical shells (3SS) and a boundary element method (BEM) volume conductor model. The study was closed when 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Simultaneous MEG and EEG were recorded during presurgical evaluation. Epileptiform signals were analyzed using an equivalent current dipole model. Centroids of source localizations from MEG, EEG, 3SS, and BEM in their respective combinations were compared. In a 3SS model, MEG source localizations were 5.6 mm inferior to those obtained by EEG, while in a BEM model MEG source localizations were 6.3 mm anterior and 4.8 mm superior. The mean scattering of source localizations between both volume conductor models was 19.5 mm for EEG and 9.6 mm for MEG. For MEG no systematic difference between BEM and 3SS source localizations was found. For EEG, source localizations with BEM were 5.9 mm posterior and 11.7 mm inferior to those determined using 3SS. No differences were found between the 46 temporal and the 54 extratemporal lobe epilepsy patients. The observed systematic differences of source localizations of epileptic spikes due to the applied source signal modality and volume conductor model should be considered in presurgical evaluation when only one source signal and volume conductor model is available. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  15. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Thom, M.; Ellison, D. W.; Wilkins, P.; Barnes, D.; Thompson, P. D.; Brown, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. BACKGROUND: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  16. Binary optimization for source localization in the inverse problem of ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyagaylo, Danila; Cortés, Elisenda Gil; Schulze, Walther H W; Dössel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    The goal of ECG-imaging (ECGI) is to reconstruct heart electrical activity from body surface potential maps. The problem is ill-posed, which means that it is extremely sensitive to measurement and modeling errors. The most commonly used method to tackle this obstacle is Tikhonov regularization, which consists in converting the original problem into a well-posed one by adding a penalty term. The method, despite all its practical advantages, has however a serious drawback: The obtained solution is often over-smoothed, which can hinder precise clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we apply a binary optimization approach to the transmembrane voltage (TMV)-based problem. For this, we assume the TMV to take two possible values according to a heart abnormality under consideration. In this work, we investigate the localization of simulated ischemic areas and ectopic foci and one clinical infarction case. This affects only the choice of the binary values, while the core of the algorithms remains the same, making the approximation easily adjustable to the application needs. Two methods, a hybrid metaheuristic approach and the difference of convex functions (DC), algorithm were tested. For this purpose, we performed realistic heart simulations for a complex thorax model and applied the proposed techniques to the obtained ECG signals. Both methods enabled localization of the areas of interest, hence showing their potential for application in ECGI. For the metaheuristic algorithm, it was necessary to subdivide the heart into regions in order to obtain a stable solution unsusceptible to the errors, while the analytical DC scheme can be efficiently applied for higher dimensional problems. With the DC method, we also successfully reconstructed the activation pattern and origin of a simulated extrasystole. In addition, the DC algorithm enables iterative adjustment of binary values ensuring robust performance.

  17. Characterization of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges with Time-Resolved Cortical Current Maps using the Helmholtz-Hodge Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Daniel Slater

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Source estimates performed using a single equivalent current dipole (ECD model forinterictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs which appear unifocal have proven highly accurate inneocortical epilepsies, falling within millimeters of that demonstrated by electrocorticography. Despitethis success, the single ECD solution is limited, best describing sources which are temporally stable.Adapted from the field of optics, optical flow analysis of distributed source models of MEG or EEG datahas been proposed as a means to estimate the current motion field of cortical activity, or "cortical flow".The motion field so defined can be used to identify dynamic features of interest such as patterns ofdirectional flow, current sources and sinks. The Helmholtz-Hodge Decomposition (HHD is a techniquefrequently applied in fluid dynamics to separate a flow pattern into three components: 1 a nonrotationalscalar potential U describing sinks and sources, 2 a non-diverging scalar potential Aaccounting for vortices, and 3 an harmonic vector field H. As IEDs seem likely to represent periods ofhighly correlated directional flow of cortical currents, the U component of the HHD suggests itself as away to characterize spikes in terms of current sources and sinks. In a series of patients with refractoryepilepsy who were studied with magnetoencephalography as part of their evaluation for possibleresective surgery, spike localization with ECD was compared to HHD applied to an optical flow analysisof the same spike. Reasonable anatomic correlation between the two techniques was seen in themajority of patients, suggesting that this method may offer an additional means of characterization ofepileptic discharges.

  18. SEPARATION OF Ca AND Fe METAL ION IN SOURCE WATER BY ADSORPTION COLUMN TECHNIC WITH LOCAL ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims are to separate of Ca and Fe metal ion in source water, with local zeolite and active carbon by adsorption column technic. Efficiency of separation are control by adsorption time and size of zeolite. Method that used was column adsorption with a flow system in which sample is applied to the filtration tube containing zeolite and active carbon. Initial and final concentrations of the samples were analyzed using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer instrument. The results obtained shows that ability adsorption of zeolite to Ca and Fe metal ion are a good. Zeolite 1 (10 mesh can reduce iron concentration until 93.98 % and zeolite 2 (5mesh until 98.88% for 1 – 4 week range time. Whereas reducing of calcium concentration is not good, until 2 week period time adsorption of calcium ion is about 50%.   Keywords: adsorption, zeolite, source water

  19. Examination Of The Physicochemical Characteristics Of Domestic Water Sources In Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwidembia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of good drinking water due to contamination by chemicals has been a global menace. It is one of the most serious environmental problems that have greatly impacted human health. Basic quality parameters of domestic water sources in Ebonyi Local Government Area were studied in the months of September 2014 and October 2014. Samples were randomly collected from common water sources well stream borehole and pond across four communities in the Local Government Area. The physicochemical characteristics of the collected water samples were investigated using standard procedures. The results showed mean pH values of 7.3 7.8 6.8 and 7.0 for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The colour examination showed 13 HU 11 HU 13 HU and 16 HU for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The turbidity were recorded as 103 NTU well 90 NTU stream 0.8 NTU borehole and 92 NTU pond. Total dissolved solids TDS showed a record of 595 mgL 386mgL 76 mgL and 563 mgL for well stream borehole and pond respectively. Well water recorded 78 mgL stream 112 mgL borehole 42 mgL and pond 795 mgL for Total Suspended Solids respectively. Also the total hardness showed 525 mgL 779 mgL 44 mgL and 837 mgL for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The results show that most of the common sources of water in the studied areas are not good for drinking since the physicochemical variables evaluated mostly exceeded WHO permissible limits. We therefore recommend that water treatment should be paramount as alternative sources of drinking water in the communities should be considered.

  20. Deconvolution for the localization of sound sources using a circular microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    that the beamformer's point-spread function is shift-invariant. This makes it possible to apply computationally efficient deconvolution algorithms that consist of spectral procedures in the entire region of interest, such as the deconvolution approach for the mapping of the acoustic sources 2, the Fourier-based non......During the last decade, the aeroacoustic community has examined various methods based on deconvolution to improve the visualization of acoustic fields scanned with planar sparse arrays of microphones. These methods assume that the beamforming map in an observation plane can be approximated....... Even though these methods were originally designed for planar sparse arrays, in the present study, they are adapted to uniform circular arrays for mapping the sound over 360°. This geometry has the advantage that the beamforming output is practically independent of the focusing direction, meaning...

  1. Noise source localization on tyres using an inverse boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Saemann, E-U; Hald, J

    1998-01-01

    A dominating part of tyre noise is radiated from a region close to the tyre/road contact patch, where it is very difficult to measure both the tyre vibration and the acoustic near field. The approach taken in the present paper is to model the tyre and road surfaces with a Boundary Element Model...... (BEM), with unknown node vibration data on the tyre surface. The BEM model is used to calculate a set of transfer functions from the node vibrations to the sound pressure at a set of microphone positions around the tyre. By approximate inversion of the matrix of transfer functions, the surface...... vibration data can then be estimated from a set of measured sound pressure data. The paper describes the different elements of this so-called Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM) including the measurement system, and it gives results from a verification measurement on a loudspeaker sound source. Results...

  2. Comparing predictive models of glioblastoma multiforme built using multi-institutional and local data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Kyle W; Hsu, William; Bui, Alex A T

    2012-01-01

    The growing amount of electronic data collected from patient care and clinical trials is motivating the creation of national repositories where multiple institutions share data about their patient cohorts. Such efforts aim to provide sufficient sample sizes for data mining and predictive modeling, ultimately improving treatment recommendations and patient outcome prediction. While these repositories offer the potential to improve our understanding of a disease, potential issues need to be addressed to ensure that multi-site data and resultant predictive models are useful to non-contributing institutions. In this paper we examine the challenges of utilizing National Cancer Institute datasets for modeling glioblastoma multiforme. We created several types of prognostic models and compared their results against models generated using data solely from our institution. While overall model performance between the data sources was similar, different variables were selected during model generation, suggesting that mapping data resources between models is not a straightforward issue.

  3. Source Correlated Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis for Material Identification and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Bonnie; McConchie, Seth; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy spectrum of photon signatures from an associated particle imaging deuterium tritium (API-DT) neutron generator interrogating shielded uranium. The goal is to investigate if signatures within the energy spectrum could be used to indirectly characterize shielded uranium when the neutron signature is attenuated. By utilizing the correlated neutron cone associated with each pixel of the API-DT neutron generator, certain materials can be identified and located via source correlated spectrometry of prompt neutron activation gamma rays. An investigation is done to determine if fission neutrons induce a significant enough signature within the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray energy spectrum in shielding material to be useful for indirect nuclear material characterization. The signature deriving from the induced fission neutrons interacting with the shielding material was slightly elevated in polyethylene-shielding depleted uranium (DU), but was more evident in some characteristic peaks from the aluminum shielding surrounding DU.

  4. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome; Sosa, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both regional and global scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 hours. The estimated emission rate is high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of 'overlooked' emission sources in Tizayuca region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and the State of Mexico. We found that they can also contribute SO2 in the NE region of the basin, at the suburban supersite and that at some monitoring stations; their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of TIC to regional ozone levels is also estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA and slightly higher contribution at the suburban and rural supersites. However, the contribution could be high in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Results suggest that part of the total regional ozone from TIC-generated precursors could be related to flaring activities.

  5. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  6. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  7. LOCAL REGULATIONS ON ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES: GREYWATER AND RAINWATER USE IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Domènech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fuentes alternativas de agua están ganando importancia en Cataluña (nordeste de España como resultado de las nuevas políticas locales que promueven la conservación del agua y una mayor resiliencia frente a episodios de sequía. Desde 2002, más de 50 municipios (incluyendo en total más de 1.3 millones de personas han aprobado ordenanzas municipales de ahorro de agua, las cuáles exigen la instalación de sistemas de captación de aguas pluviales y reutilización de aguas grises en edificios de nueva construcción. Estas nuevas tecnologías transforman el ciclo hídrico existente e inducen importantes cambios institucionales y sociales relacionados con la descentralización de la gestión del agua. A partir de una serie de entrevistas con técnicos municipales y encuestas con usuarios de sistemas de aguas grises y pluviales, este artículo analiza el aprendizaje socio-técnico generado durante la implementación de las ordenanzas y los principales impedimentos y barreras que deben ser superados para minimizar los riesgos para la salud y promover la aceptación social de estas fuentes de agua alternativas.

  8. Event-related cortical processing in neuropathic pain under long-term spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Capelle, H Holger; Flor, Herta; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms were suggested in the past to explain the beneficial effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Little is known about potential supraspinal mechanisms. In this study cortical signaling of patients with neuropathic pain and successful long-term treatment with SCS was analyzed. Observational study. University hospital, neurosurgical department, outpatient clinic for movement disorders and pain, institute for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Nine patients with neuropathic pain of a lower extremity with a lasting response to chronic SCS were included. Cortical activity was analyzed using event-related potentials of the electroencephalogram after non-painful and painful stimulation. Each patient was tested under the effect of long-term SCS and 24 hours after cessation of SCS. Cortical areas involved in the peaks of evoked potentials were localized using a source localization method based on a fixed dipole model. Detection threshold and intensity of non-painful stimulation did not differ significantly on both sides. Pain threshold was significantly lower on the neuropathic side under the effect of SCS (P = 0.03). Bilateral pain thresholds were significantly lower (P = 0.03 healthy side, P = 0.003 neuropathic side) in 5 patients with increased pain after cessation of SCS. Under the effect of SCS cortical negativities (N1, N2, N3) and positivities (P1) demonstrated bilaterally comparable amplitudes. After cessation of SCS, decreased threshold for peripheral stimulation resulted in lowered negativities on both sides. The positivity P1 was differentially regulated and was reduced more contralateral to the unaffected side. N2 was localized at the sensory representation of the leg within the homunculus. The main vector of P1 was localized within the cingular cortex (CC) and moved more anteriorly under the effect of SCS. The exact time span that SCS continues to have an effect is not known. However, due to patient

  9. Physics-based approach to chemical source localization using mobile robotic swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2008-07-01

    Recently, distributed computation has assumed a dominant role in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. To improve system performance, engineers are combining multiple cooperating robots into cohesive collectives called swarms. This thesis illustrates the application of basic principles of physicomimetics, or physics-based design, to swarm robotic systems. Such principles include decentralized control, short-range sensing and low power consumption. We show how the application of these principles to robotic swarms results in highly scalable, robust, and adaptive multi-robot systems. The emergence of these valuable properties can be predicted with the help of well-developed theoretical methods. In this research effort, we have designed and constructed a distributed physicomimetics system for locating sources of airborne chemical plumes. This task, called chemical plume tracing (CPT), is receiving a great deal of attention due to persistent homeland security threats. For this thesis, we have created a novel CPT algorithm called fluxotaxis that is based on theoretical principles of fluid dynamics. Analytically, we show that fluxotaxis combines the essence, as well as the strengths, of the two most popular biologically-inspired CPT methods-- chemotaxis and anemotaxis. The chemotaxis strategy consists of navigating in the direction of the chemical density gradient within the plume, while the anemotaxis approach is based on an upwind traversal of the chemical cloud. Rigorous and extensive experimental evaluations have been performed in simulated chemical plume environments. Using a suite of performance metrics that capture the salient aspects of swarm-specific behavior, we have been able to evaluate and compare the three CPT algorithms. We demonstrate the improved performance of our fluxotaxis approach over both chemotaxis and anemotaxis in these realistic simulation environments, which include obstacles. To test our understanding of CPT on actual hardware

  10. Multi-source localization in MEG using simulated annealing: model order determination and parameter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.; Supek, S.; Aine, C.

    1996-06-01

    Empirical neuromagnetic studies have reported that multiple brain regions are active at single instants in time as well as across time intervals of interest. Determining the number of active regions, however, required a systematic search across increasing model orders using reduced chi-square measure of goodness-of-fit and multiple starting points within each model order assumed. Simulated annealing was recently proposed for noiseless biomagnetic data as an effective global minimizer. A modified cost function was also proposed to effectively deal with an unknown number of dipoles for noiseless, multi-source biomagnetic data. Numerical simulation studies were conducted using simulated annealing to examine effects of a systematic increase in model order using both reduced chi-square as a cost function as well as a modified cost function, and effects of overmodeling on parameter estimation accuracy. Effects of different choices of weighting factors are also discussed. Simulated annealing was also applied to visually evoked neuromagnetic data and the effectiveness of both cost functions in determining the number of active regions was demonstrated.

  11. A closed-form solution for moving source localization using LBI changing rate of phase difference only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Min

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the deficiencies in the conventional multiple-receiver localization systems based on direction of arrival (DOA such as system complexity of interferometer or array and amplitude/phase unbalance between multiple receiving channels and constraint on antenna configuration, a new radiated source localization method using the changing rate of phase difference (CRPD measured by a long baseline interferometer (LBI only is studied. To solve the strictly nonlinear problem, a two-stage closed-form solution is proposed. In the first stage, the DOA and its changing rate are estimated from the CRPD of each observer by the pseudolinear least square (PLS method, and then in the second stage, the source position and velocity are found by another PLS minimization. The bias of the algorithm caused by the correlation between the measurement matrix and the noise in the second stage is analyzed. To reduce this bias, an instrumental variable (IV method is derived. A weighted IV estimator is given in order to reduce the estimation variance. The proposed method does not need any initial guess and the computation is small. The Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB and mean square error (MSE are also analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be close to the CRLB with moderate Gaussian measurement noise.

  12. Nitrous acid in a street canyon environment: Sources and contributions to local oxidation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hui; Wang, Zhe; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Zhang, Li; Li, Qinyi; Cui, Long; Lee, Shuncheng; Poon, Steven C. N.; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in radical formation and photochemical oxidation processes in the boundary layer. However, its impact on the chemistry in a street canyon microenvironment has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we measured HONO in a street canyon in urban Hong Kong and used an observation-based box model (OBM) with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.3.1) to investigate the contribution of HONO to local oxidation chemistry. The observed HONO mixing ratios were in the range of 0.4-13.9 ppbv, with an average of 3.91 ppbv in the daytime and 2.86 ppbv at night. A mean HONO/NOx emission ratio of 1.0% (±0.5%) from vehicle traffic was derived. OBM simulations constrained by the observed HONO showed that the maximum concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 reached 4.65 × 106, 4.40 × 106, and 1.83 × 106 molecules cm-3, which were 7.9, 5.0, and 7.5 times, respectively, the results in the case without HONO constrained. Photolysis of HONO contributed to 86.5% of the total primary radical production rates and led to efficient NO2 and O3 production under the condition of weak regional transport of O3. The formation of HNO3 contributed to 98.4% of the total radical termination rates. Our results suggest that HONO could significantly increase the atmospheric oxidation capacity in a street canyon and enhance the secondary formation of HNO3 and HCHO, which can damage outdoor building materials and pose health risks to pedestrians.

  13. Are the Symptoms of Parkinsonism Cortical in Origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Arbuthnott

    Full Text Available We present three reasons to suspect that the major deleterious consequence of dopamine loss from the striatum is a cortical malfunction. We suggest that it is cortex, rather than striatum, that should be considered as the source of the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD since: 1. Cortical synapses onto striatal dendritic spines are lost in PD. 2. All known treatments of the symptoms of PD disrupt beta oscillations. Oscillations that are also disrupted following antidromic activation of cortical neurons. 3. The final output of basal ganglia directly modulates thalamic connections to layer I of frontal cortical areas, regions intimately associated with motor behaviour.These three reasons combined with evidence that the current summary diagram of the basal ganglia involvement in PD is imprecise at best, suggest that a re-orientation of the treatment strategies towards cortical, rather than striatal malfunction, is overdue. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Deep brain stimulation, Layer I, Motor cortex

  14. Peat Deposits at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria District, Bangladesh : A Potential Local Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazwanul Haque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh with about 160 million people in land of 147,570 square km which is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. With the increase of population and diversifying of economic activities, Bangladesh has become an energy hunger country. Presently, 80% peoples depend on non commercial energy sources living in the rural area. Peat exploration at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria district. Bangladesh has been carried out for reserve estimation and its economic aspect evaluation. Total peat exploration area is about 4000 hectare. In explored area, nine peat bearing locations are identified in which peat deposits are observed from 0.152 to 3.0 meters below the surface. Total reserves are about 32.61 million tons in wet condition and 13.044 million tons in dry conditions. The peat is grayish brown to grayish black, fibrous, less to medium compacted and water content is about 60-80 % in wet condition. Chemical analyses of the peat shows that fixed carbon content is 15-25 %, Sulfur is 0.1 to 0.8 % and calorific value of the peat is 3000-7000 BTU. The peat of the area is medium to good quality. The peat may be extracted by open peat mining because of its surface to near surface position. This peat can be conveniently used for small industrial and domestic purpose as briquette and compressed tablet form to meet the growing energy demand of the area. But most of the people of Bijoynagar area live on agriculture. So, peat extraction and related geo-environmental degradation may change living style of the people. Proper land use planning, environmental management and policy should be taken before peat extraction.

  15. Locally-sourced: How climate science can collaborate with arts & humanities museums to achieve widespread public trust and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Local history, art and culture museums have a large role to play in climate science communication. Unfortunately, in our current society, scientific evidence and logic is not universally accepted as truth. These messages can be dispersed through trusted institutional allies like humanities and arts museums. There are many reasons for scientific institutions to work with humanities and arts museums of all sizes, especially local museums that have personal, trusted relationships with their communities. First, museums (by definition) are public educators; the work that they do is to disperse challenging information in an understandable way to a wide array of audiences. Museums are located in every state, with over 35,000 museums in the nation; 26% of those are located in rural areas. These museums serve every demographic and age range, inspiring even those with difficulty accepting climate change information to act. Second, in a recent public opinion survey commissioned by the American Alliance of Museums, museums - especially history museums - are considered the most trustworthy source of information in America, rated higher than newspapers, nonprofit researchers, the U.S. government, or academic researchers. Scientific institutions must collaborate with local museums to improve science communication going forward. Not only will important climate and sustainability research be dispersed via trusted sources, but the public will engage with this information in large numbers. In 2012 alone, over 850 million people visited museums - more than the attendance for all major league sports and theme parks combined. A recent impact study shows that history and art museums, especially, are not seen as "having a political agenda," with over 78% of the public seeing these museums as trusted institutions. There are many ways in which the scientific community can collaborate with "the arts." This presentation will speak to the larger benefit of working with sister arts & humanities

  16. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  17. Femtosecond excitations in metallic nanostructures. From ultrafast light confinement to a local electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropers, C.

    2007-07-11

    This thesis contributes to the understanding of optical excitations in metallic nanostructures. In experiments on selected model structures, the dynamics of these excitations and their electromagnetic spatial modes are investigated with femtosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution, respectively. Angle- and time-resolved transmission experiments on metallic thin film gratings demonstrate the dominant role resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) play in the optical properties of such structures. The lifetimes of these excitations are determined, and it is shown that coherent couplings among SPP-resonances result in drastic lifetime modifications. Near the visible part of the spectrum, subradiant SPP lifetimes of up to 200 femtoseconds are observed, which is considerably longer than previously expected for these structures. The spatial SPP mode profiles are imaged using a custom-built near-field optical microscope. The experiments reveal a direct correlation between the spatial mode structure and the dynamics of different SPP resonances. Coupling-induced SPP band gaps are identified as splittings into symmetric and antisymmetric surface modes. These findings allow for an interpretation of the near-field optical image contrast in terms of the contributions of different vectorial components of the electromagnetic near-field. A selective imaging of different electric and magnetic field components is demonstrated for various types of near-field probes. Furthermore, the excitation of SPPs in periodic structures is employed in a novel type of near-field tip. The resonant excitation of SPPs in a nanofabricated grating on the shaft of a sharp metallic tip results in their concentration at the tip apex. The final part of the thesis highlights the importance of optical field enhancements for the local generation of nonlinear optical signals at the apex of sharp metallic tips. Specifically, the observation of intense multiphoton electron emission after femtosecond

  18. A logical source localization approach evaluating SRS-fields from backward atmospheric transport modeling for multiple detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification the use of atmospheric Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models is well established to confine possible source regions of radionuclide detections. For that Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields are calculated in backward mode. At the German National Data Center (NDC) the NOAA model HYSPLIT is operational using as well NCEP as ECMWF meteorological data in up to 0.2 degree horizontal resolution. For additional comparisons and tests FLEXPART is also available. Various localization approaches for atmospheric backtracking are introduced. Especially a logical approach for combining SRS fields for multiple detections and non-detections is presented and compared with the correlation based PSR given by the CTBT-Organization software tool Webgrape. Our logical method is based on an additive coincidence score value combining binary sensitivities of detecting and non-detecting samples pointing to areas of high source location probability. Additionally, weight-functions and variable threshold values are introduced accounting for radioactive decay and for detectable release terms, respectively. The presented test cases comprise detections related to the Fukushima release 2011, scenarios of the NDC Preparedness Exercises NPE2012 and NP2010, and recent radioxenon occurrences at Schauinsland, Germany (DEX 33). Furthermore, the differences in sensitivity results between simulations in backward and forward mode are discussed. Although the standard backward simulations have huge operational and political advantages in the CTBT context, additional forward simulations for specific cases are essential to provide the most consitent picture of a potential release scenario.

  19. Renal cortical scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locher, J.Th.

    2002-01-01

    In this report the renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) like a 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children is presented. The role of the vesicoureteral reflux, the level of C-reactive protein and other urinary tract anomaly to the pyelonephritis development is considered. The administrated doses for children and adults, procedure of the study and the SPECT possibilities are given. A four-grade scale describing the grade of parenchymal damage is shown. The correlation between the radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the functioning renal cortex and the intrarenal blood flow and proximal tubular cell membrane transport function is discussed. Because of the slow transfer of activity from blood to kidney, imaging should be delayed for 3 hours after injection. The renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA is a primary method for an early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis because animal experiences have demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for DMSA scanning when correlated with histopathology. The results from several multiple-center study for the specificity and sensitivity of the method are discussed. The necessity for the renal cortical scintigraphy standardization is outlined

  20. Mapping nanoscale effects of localized noise-source activities on photoconductive charge transports in polymer-blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Cho, Duckhyung; Cho, Dong-Guk; Yang, Myungjae; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-05-18

    We develolped a method to directly image the nanoscale effects of localized noise-source activities on photoconducting charge transports in domain structures of phase-separated polymer-blend films of Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) and Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole). For the imaging, current and noise maps of the polymer-blend were recorded using a conducting nanoprobe in contact with the surface, enabling the conductivity (σ) and noise-source density (N T ) mappings under an external stimulus. The blend-films exhibited the phase-separation between the constituent polymers at domains level. Within a domain, high σ (low N T ) and low σ (high N T ) regions were observed, which could be associated with the ordered and disordered regions of a domain. In the N T maps, we observed that noise-sources strongly affected the conduction mechanism, resulting in a scaling behavior of σ ∝ [Formula: see text] in both ordered and disordered regions. When a blend film was under an influence of an external stimulus such as a high bias or an illumination, an increase in the σ was observed, but that also resulted in increases in the N T as a trade-off. Interestingly, the Δσ versus ΔN T plot exhibited an unusual scaling behavior of Δσ ∝ [Formula: see text] which is attributed to the de-trapping of carriers from deep traps by the external stimuli. In addition, we found that an external stimulus increased the conductivity at the interfaces without significantly increasing their N T , which can be the origin of the superior performances of polymer-blend based devices. These results provide valuable insight about the effects of noise-sources on nanoscale optoelectronic properties in polymer-blend films, which can be an important guideline for improving devices based on polymer-blend.

  1. Mapping nanoscale effects of localized noise-source activities on photoconductive charge transports in polymer-blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Cho, Duckhyung; Cho, Dong-Guk; Yang, Myungjae; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-05-01

    We develolped a method to directly image the nanoscale effects of localized noise-source activities on photoconducting charge transports in domain structures of phase-separated polymer-blend films of Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) and Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole). For the imaging, current and noise maps of the polymer-blend were recorded using a conducting nanoprobe in contact with the surface, enabling the conductivity (σ) and noise-source density (N T) mappings under an external stimulus. The blend-films exhibited the phase-separation between the constituent polymers at domains level. Within a domain, high σ (low N T) and low σ (high N T) regions were observed, which could be associated with the ordered and disordered regions of a domain. In the N T maps, we observed that noise-sources strongly affected the conduction mechanism, resulting in a scaling behavior of σ ∝ {{N}{{T}}}-0.5 in both ordered and disordered regions. When a blend film was under an influence of an external stimulus such as a high bias or an illumination, an increase in the σ was observed, but that also resulted in increases in the N T as a trade-off. Interestingly, the Δσ versus ΔN T plot exhibited an unusual scaling behavior of Δσ ∝ {{Δ }}{{N}{{T}}}0.5, which is attributed to the de-trapping of carriers from deep traps by the external stimuli. In addition, we found that an external stimulus increased the conductivity at the interfaces without significantly increasing their N T, which can be the origin of the superior performances of polymer-blend based devices. These results provide valuable insight about the effects of noise-sources on nanoscale optoelectronic properties in polymer-blend films, which can be an important guideline for improving devices based on polymer-blend.

  2. Rehabilitation of cortical blindness secondary to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K

    2010-01-01

    Cortical blindness is a rare complication of posterior circulation stroke. However, its complex presentation with sensory, physical, cognitive and behavioural impairments makes it one of the most challenging. Appropriate approach from a rehabilitation standpoint was never reported. Our study aims to discuss the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of a cohort of patients with cortical blindness. The notes of all patients with cortical blindness referred to a local NHS rehabilitation service in the last 6~years were examined. Patients' demographics, presenting symptoms, scan findings, rehabilitation programmes and outcomes were documented. Seven patients presented to our service, six of them were males. The mean age was 63. Patients 1, 2 and 3 had total blindness with severe cognitive and behavioural impairments, wandering and akathisia. All of them failed to respond to any rehabilitation effort and the focus was on damage limitation. Pharmacological interventions had a modest impact on behaviour and sleep pattern. The 3 patients were discharged to a nursing facility. Patients 4, 5, 6 and 7 had partial blindness with variable severity. All of them suffered from significant memory impairment. However, none suffered from any behavioural, physical or other cognitive impairment. Rehabilitation efforts on 3 patients were carried out collaboratively between brain injury occupational therapists and sensory disability officers. All patients experienced significant improvement in handicap and they all maintained community placements. This small cohort of patients suggests that the rehabilitation philosophy and outcomes of these 2 distinct groups of either total or partial cortical blindness differ significantly.

  3. Posterior Thalamic Nucleus Modulation of Tactile Stimuli Processing in Rat Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Casas-Torremocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF and motor (M1wk cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM. Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po. However, Po axons may convey, in addition to direct sensory signals, the dynamic output of computations between whisker signals and descending motor commands. It has been proposed that this input may be relevant for adjusting cortical responses to predicted vs. unpredicted whisker signals, but the effects of Po input on M1wk and S1BF function have not been directly tested or compared in vivo. Here, using electrophysiology, optogenetics and pharmacological tools, we compared in adult rats M1wk and S1BF in vivo responses in the whisker areas of the motor and primary somatosensory cortices to passive multi-whisker deflection, their dependence on Po activity, and their changes after a brief intense activation of Po axons. We report that the latencies of the first component of tactile-evoked local field potentials in M1wk and S1BF are similar. The evoked potentials decrease markedly in M1wk, but not in S1BF, by injection in Po of the GABAA agonist muscimol. A brief high-frequency electrical stimulation of Po decreases the responsivity of M1wk and S1BF cells to subsequent whisker stimulation. This effect is prevented by the local application of omega-agatoxin, suggesting that it may in part depend on GABA release by fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV-expressing cortical interneurons. Local optogenetic activation of Po synapses in different

  4. Contribution of a 3D ray tracing model in a complex medium to the localization of infra-sound sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialle, Pierrick

    2007-01-01

    Localisation of infra-sound sources is a difficult task due to large propagation distances at stake and because of the atmospheric complexity. In order to resolve this problem, one can seek as many necessary information as the comprehension of wave propagation, the role and influence of the atmosphere and its spatio-temporal variations, the knowledge of sources and detection parameters, but also the configuration of the stations and their global spreading. Two methods based on the construction of propagation tables depending on station, date and time are introduced. Those tables require a long range propagation tool to simulate the propagation through a complex medium, which are carried out by WASP-3D Sph a 3D paraxial ray tracing based-theory tool integrating both amplitude estimation and horizontal wind fields in space and time. Tables are centered on the receptor. They describe spatial variations of the main observation parameters and offer a snapshot of the atmospheric propagation depending on the range for every simulated phase. For each path, celerity, azimuth deviation, attenuation and return altitude are predicted and allow building the tables. The latter help to identify detected phases and are integrated in an accurate localization procedure. The procedure is tested on three case study, such as the explosion of gas-pipeline in Belgium 2004 near Ghislenghien, the explosion of a military facility in 2007 in Novaky, Slovakia and the explosion of the Buncefield oil depot in 2005 in the United Kingdom, where event specificities, propagation parameters and used configurations are introduced. The accuracy and optimization of the localization are discussed. A validation study is presented regarding International Monitoring System stations along a meridian - I18DK (Greenland, Denmark), I51UK (Bermuda, United Kingdom), I25FR (Guyane, France), I08BO (La Paz, Bolivia), I01AR (Paso Flores, Argentina), I02AR (Ushuaia, Argentina), I54US (Antarctica, U.S.A.) - to

  5. A Mechanistic Link from GABA to Cortical Architecture and Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, James; Logan, John P; Hinson, Emily L; Manners, Daniel; Divanbeighi Zand, Amir P; Makin, Tamar R; Emir, Uzay E; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-06-05

    Understanding both the organization of the human cortex and its relation to the performance of distinct functions is fundamental in neuroscience. The primary sensory cortices display topographic organization, whereby receptive fields follow a characteristic pattern, from tonotopy to retinotopy to somatotopy [1]. GABAergic signaling is vital to the maintenance of cortical receptive fields [2]; however, it is unclear how this fine-grain inhibition relates to measurable patterns of perception [3, 4]. Based on perceptual changes following perturbation of the GABAergic system, it is conceivable that the resting level of cortical GABAergic tone directly relates to the spatial specificity of activation in response to a given input [5-7]. The specificity of cortical activation can be considered in terms of cortical tuning: greater cortical tuning yields more localized recruitment of cortical territory in response to a given input. We applied a combination of fMRI, MR spectroscopy, and psychophysics to substantiate the link between the cortical neurochemical milieu, the tuning of cortical activity, and variability in perceptual acuity, using human somatosensory cortex as a model. We provide data that explain human perceptual acuity in terms of both the underlying cellular and metabolic processes. Specifically, higher concentrations of sensorimotor GABA are associated with more selective cortical tuning, which in turn is associated with enhanced perception. These results show anatomical and neurochemical specificity and are replicated in an independent cohort. The mechanistic link from neurochemistry to perception provides a vital step in understanding population variability in sensory behavior, informing metabolic therapeutic interventions to restore perceptual abilities clinically. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A., E-mail: alberto.tagliaferri@polimi.it [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Nicotra, G. [IMM-CNR, Stradale Primosole 50, I-95121 Catania (Italy); Bollani, M. [CNR-IFN, LNESS, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali and L-NESS, Università Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Capellini, G. [Department of Sciences at the Università Roma Tre, Via Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Roma (Italy); Isella, G. [CNISM, LNESS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano (Polo di Como), Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Osmond, J. [ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2015-03-14

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  7. Frequency domain beamforming of magnetoencephalographic beta band activity in epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Marcel; Hirschmann, Jan; Jacobs, Julia; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Butz, Markus; von Lehe, Marec; Elger, Christian E; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wellmer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Spike-based magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization is an established method in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients. Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are associated with focal epileptic discharges of variable morphologies in the beta frequency band in addition to single epileptic spikes. Therefore, we investigated the potential diagnostic value of MEG-based localization of spike-independent beta band (12-30Hz) activity generated by epileptogenic lesions. Five patients with FCD IIB underwent MEG. In one patient, invasive EEG (iEEG) was recorded simultaneously with MEG. In two patients, iEEG succeeded MEG, and two patients had MEG only. MEG and iEEG were evaluated for epileptic spikes. Two minutes of iEEG data and MEG epochs with no spikes as well as MEG epochs with epileptic spikes were analyzed in the frequency domain. MEG oscillatory beta band activity was localized using Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources. Intralesional beta band activity was coherent between simultaneous MEG and iEEG recordings. Continuous 14Hz beta band power correlated with the rate of interictal epileptic discharges detected in iEEG. In cases where visual MEG evaluation revealed epileptic spikes, the sources of beta band activity localized within <2cm of the epileptogenic lesion as shown on magnetic resonance imaging. This result held even when visually marked epileptic spikes were deselected. When epileptic spikes were detectable in iEEG but not MEG, MEG beta band activity source localization failed. Source localization of beta band activity has the potential to contribute to the identification of epileptic foci in addition to source localization of visually marked epileptic spikes. Thus, this technique may assist in the localization of epileptic foci in patients with suspected FCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF, hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART and a chemical transport model (CAMx. The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  9. A Crowd-Sourcing Indoor Localization Algorithm via Optical Camera on a Smartphone Assisted by Wi-Fi Fingerprint RSSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Weiping; Li, Qun; Chang, Qiang; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-03-19

    Indoor positioning based on existing Wi-Fi fingerprints is becoming more and more common. Unfortunately, the Wi-Fi fingerprint is susceptible to multiple path interferences, signal attenuation, and environmental changes, which leads to low accuracy. Meanwhile, with the recent advances in charge-coupled device (CCD) technologies and the processing speed of smartphones, indoor positioning using the optical camera on a smartphone has become an attractive research topic; however, the major challenge is its high computational complexity; as a result, real-time positioning cannot be achieved. In this paper we introduce a crowd-sourcing indoor localization algorithm via an optical camera and orientation sensor on a smartphone to address these issues. First, we use Wi-Fi fingerprint based on the K Weighted Nearest Neighbor (KWNN) algorithm to make a coarse estimation. Second, we adopt a mean-weighted exponent algorithm to fuse optical image features and orientation sensor data as well as KWNN in the smartphone to refine the result. Furthermore, a crowd-sourcing approach is utilized to update and supplement the positioning database. We perform several experiments comparing our approach with other positioning algorithms on a common smartphone to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor-calibrated algorithm, and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm could significantly improve accuracy, stability, and applicability of positioning.

  10. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF), hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART) and a chemical transport model (CAMx). The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  11. The source of pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen in clinically localized prostate cancer--T, N, or M?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Kavadi, Vivek S.; Pollack, Alan; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von; Sands, M. Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important marker for prostate cancer and has been shown to be secreted from the primary tumor and from metastases. However, the relative contribution of the primary and micrometastatic disease to the serum level of PSA in patients with clinically localized disease has not been delineated. This study addresses the source of pretreatment serum PSA in patients with clinically localized disease. Methods and Materials: The fall in serum PSA level following radical prostatectomy (280 patients; 105 T1, 165 T2, 10 T3) or definitive radiotherapy (427 patients; 122 T1, 147 T2, 158 T3/T4) was analyzed with the assumption that any fall in PSA following local treatment reflects the fraction of PSA produced in the prostate and its primary tumor. Results: Serum PSA level became undetectable in 277 of the 280 (99%) patients within 6 months of radical prostatectomy. The three patients who did not achieve undetectable levels had postsurgical values ≤ 0.9 ng/ml. Following definitive radiotherapy, nadir serum PSA values were between ≤ 0.3 and 20.3 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 1.9 and 1.2 ng/ml, respectively. Nadir PSA was undetectable in 52 patients (12%). Four patients' PSA did not fall, but rose from the start, and each developed metastatic disease within 9 months, and in each metastases appeared to contribute to pretreatment serum PSA. In the remaining patients, the maximal factor by which PSA fell to its nadir was higher the higher the pretreatment PSA level. We present arguments that this is most consistent with the hypothesis that virtually all detectable pretreatment serum PSA derives from the primary tumor. Confirmatory evidence that little of the pretreatment serum PSA came from metastases was obtained by extrapolating the rising PSA profile in 97 patients back to pretreatment time. Back-extrapolated PSA contributed a mean of 7% and a median of 5% to the pretreatment serum value. Because such back-extrapolated values

  12. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO2 and O3 levels of the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emission sources on both global and regional scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and at ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is about 2 kg s-1. To the best of our knowledge, sulfur dioxide emissions from the Tizayuca region have not been considered in previous studies. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the state of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico. It was found that they can contribute to the SO2 levels in the northeast (NE) region of the basin (about 42%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41%) and that at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than the contribution from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of the Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 to 4 ppb) and slightly higher contribution at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the state of Hidalgo. In addition, the results indicated that the ozone plume could also be transported to northwest

  13. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  14. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C

    2015-07-08

    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  15. Onset timing of cross-sensory activations and multisensory interactions in auditory and visual sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tommi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Letham, Benjamin; Israeli, Emily; Sahyoun, Cherif; Vasios, Christos; Stufflebeam, Steven; Hämäläinen, Matti; Belliveau, John W

    2010-05-01

    Here we report early cross-sensory activations and audiovisual interactions at the visual and auditory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to obtain accurate timing information. Data from an identical fMRI experiment were employed to support MEG source localization results. Simple auditory and visual stimuli (300-ms noise bursts and checkerboards) were presented to seven healthy humans. MEG source analysis suggested generators in the auditory and visual sensory cortices for both within-modality and cross-sensory activations. fMRI cross-sensory activations were strong in the visual but almost absent in the auditory cortex; this discrepancy with MEG possibly reflects the influence of acoustical scanner noise in fMRI. In the primary auditory cortices (Heschl's gyrus) the onset of activity to auditory stimuli was observed at 23 ms in both hemispheres, and to visual stimuli at 82 ms in the left and at 75 ms in the right hemisphere. In the primary visual cortex (Calcarine fissure) the activations to visual stimuli started at 43 ms and to auditory stimuli at 53 ms. Cross-sensory activations thus started later than sensory-specific activations, by 55 ms in the auditory cortex and by 10 ms in the visual cortex, suggesting that the origins of the cross-sensory activations may be in the primary sensory cortices of the opposite modality, with conduction delays (from one sensory cortex to another) of 30-35 ms. Audiovisual interactions started at 85 ms in the left auditory, 80 ms in the right auditory and 74 ms in the visual cortex, i.e., 3-21 ms after inputs from the two modalities converged.

  16. Cortical Control of Zona Incerta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Varga, Viktor; Bokor, Hajnalka; Pinault, Didier; Buzsáki, György; Acsády, László

    2009-01-01

    The zona incerta (ZI) is at the crossroad of almost all major ascending and descending fiber tracts and targets numerous brain centers from the thalamus to the spinal cord. Effective ascending drive of ZI cells has been described, but the role of descending cortical signals in patterning ZI activity is unknown. Cortical control over ZI function was examined during slow cortical waves (1-3 Hz), paroxysmal high-voltage spindles (HVSs), and 5-9 Hz oscillations in anesthetized rats. In all conditions, rhythmic cortical activity significantly altered the firing pattern of ZI neurons recorded extracellularly and labeled with the juxtacellular method. During slow oscillations, the majority of ZI neurons became synchronized to the depth-negative phase (“up state”) of the cortical waves to a degree comparable to thalamocortical neurons. During HVSs, ZI cells displayed highly rhythmic activity in tight synchrony with the cortical oscillations. ZI neurons responded to short epochs of cortical 5-9 Hz oscillations, with a change in the interspike interval distribution and with an increase in spectral density in the 5-9 Hz band as measured by wavelet analysis. Morphological reconstruction revealed that most ZI cells have mediolaterally extensive dendritic trees and very long dendritic segments. Cortical terminals established asymmetrical synapses on ZI cells with very long active zones. These data suggest efficient integration of widespread cortical signals by single ZI neurons and strong cortical drive. We propose that the efferent GABAergic signal of ZI neurons patterned by the cortical activity can play a critical role in synchronizing thalamocortical and brainstem rhythms. PMID:17301175

  17. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  18. Evaluation of smoothing in an iterative lp-norm minimization algorithm for surface-based source localization of MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jooman; Sic Kim, June; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-08-01

    The imaging of neural sources of magnetoencephalographic data based on distributed source models requires additional constraints on the source distribution in order to overcome ill-posedness and obtain a plausible solution. The minimum lp norm (0 temporal gyrus.

  19. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  20. Cortical activity in tinnitus patients and its modification by phonostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to observe spontaneous cortical activity and cortical activity modulated by tinnitus-matched sound in tinnitus patients and healthy subjects with no otoneurologic symptoms. METHOD: Data were prospectively collected from 50 tinnitus patients and 25 healthy subjects. Cortical activity was recorded in all subjects with eyes closed and open and during photostimulation, hyperventilation and acoustic stimulation using 19-channel quantitative electroencephalography. The sound applied in the tinnitus patients was individually matched with the ability to mask or equal the tinnitus. The maximal and mean amplitude of the delta, theta, alpha and beta waves and the type and amount of the pathologic EEG patterns were noted during each recording. Differences in cortical localization and the influence of sound stimuli on spontaneous cortical activity were evaluated between the groups. RESULTS: The tinnitus group exhibited decreased delta activity and increased alpha and beta activity. Hyperventilation increased the intensity of the differences. The tinnitus patients had more sharp-slow waves and increased slow wave amplitude. Sound stimuli modified the EEG recordings; the delta and beta wave amplitudes were increased, whereas the alpha-1 wave amplitude was decreased. Acoustic stimulation only slightly affected the temporal region. CONCLUSION: Cortical activity in the tinnitus patients clearly differed from that in healthy subjects, i.e., tinnitus is not a “phantom” sign. The changes in cortical activity included decreased delta wave amplitudes, increased alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-h wave amplitudes and pathologic patterns. Cortical activity modifications occurred predominantly in the temporal region. Acoustic stimulation affected spontaneous cortical activity only in tinnitus patients, and although the applied sound was individually matched, the pathologic changes were only slightly improved.

  1. The changing roles of neurons in the cortical subplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Friedlander

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may serve different functions over the course of an organism’s life. Recent evidence suggests that cortical subplate neurons including those that reside in the white matter may perform longitudinal multi-tasking at different stages of development. These cells play a key role in early cortical development in coordinating thalamocortical reciprocal innervation. At later stages of development, they become integrated within the cortical microcircuitry. This type of longitudinal multi-tasking can enhance the capacity for information processing by populations of cells serving different functions over the lifespan. Subplate cells are initially derived when cells from the ventricular zone underlying the cortex migrate to the cortical preplate that is subsequently split by the differentiating neurons of the cortical plate with some neurons locating in the marginal zone and others settling below in the subplate (SP. While the cortical plate neurons form most of the cortical layers (layers 2-6, the marginal zone neurons form layer 1 and the SP neurons become interstitial cells of the white matter as well as forming a compact sublayer along the bottom of layer 6. After serving as transient innervation targets for thalamocortical axons, most of these cells die and layer 4 neurons become innervated by thalamic axons. However, 10-20% survives, remaining into adulthood along the bottom of layer 6 and as a scattered population of interstitial neurons in the white matter. Surviving subplate cells’ axons project throughout the overlying laminae, reaching layer 1 and issuing axon collaterals within white matter and in lower layer 6. This suggests that they participate in local synaptic networks, as well. Moreover, they receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, potentially monitoring outputs from axon collaterals of cortical efferents, from cortical afferents and/or from each other. We explore our understanding of the functional connectivity of

  2. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Orelvis Pérez Duerto

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco mes...

  3. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  4. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  5. Differentiating local and regional sources of Chinese urban air pollution based on the effect of the Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Qiao; Cao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan

    2017-07-01

    The emission of pollutants is extremely reduced during the annual Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in Shenzhen, China. During the SF, traffic flow drops by ˜ 50 % and the industrial plants are almost entirely shut down in Shenzhen. To characterize the variation in ambient air pollutants due to the Spring Festival effect, various gaseous and particulate pollutants were measured in real time in urban Shenzhen over three consecutive winters (2014-2016). The results indicate that the concentrations of NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols, chloride, and nitrate in submicron aerosols decrease by 50-80 % during SF periods relative to non-Spring Festival periods, regardless of meteorological conditions. This decrease suggests that these pollutants are mostly emitted or secondarily formed from urban local emissions. The concentration variation in species mostly from regional or natural sources, however, is found to be much less, such as for bulk fine particulate matter (PM2. 5). More detailed analysis of the Spring Festival effect reveals an urgent need to reduce emissions of SO2 and VOCs on a regional scale rather than on an urban scale to reduce urban PM2. 5 in Shenzhen, which can also be useful as a reference for other megacities in China.

  6. The stochastic Cramér-Rao bound for source localization and medium tomography using vector sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggeroer, Arthur B

    2017-05-01

    A direct version for the stochastic Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for parameters of Gaussian signals with additive Gaussian noise is introduced. The formulation applies to passive and active radars/sonars/seismics/structures with vector observations from multiple sources. These sensors include pressure, vector velocity, and/or acceleration sensors for ocean and structural acoustics, seismometers, polarized receivers for electromagnetics, and vector current meters for oceanography. The observations may contain partially coherent signals such as multipath. The parameters represent (i) signal localization or (ii) tomographic ones. As such, their embedding is very general using a Green's function vector and is not limited to direction of arrival problems. This formulation leads to simplified expressions for the stochastic CRB using just three quadratic forms involving just the Green's function and its derivatives with the inverse of the noise matrix for the norm. The number of the parameters sets the dimensions of these quadratic forms, so performance studies over the parameter space can be done with much smaller matrices as the noise covariance is inverted just once. The formulas are applied to vector sensors in jamming with both analytical and numerical results. The results are also compared to often cited papers on the CRB.

  7. Crowd-Sourced Mobility Mapping for Location Tracking Using Unlabeled Wi-Fi Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing requirements of the seamless and round-the-clock Location-based services (LBSs, a growing interest in Wi-Fi network aided location tracking is witnessed in the past decade. One of the significant problems of the conventional Wi-Fi location tracking approaches based on received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting is the time-consuming and labor intensive work involved in location fingerprint calibration. To solve this problem, a novel unlabeled Wi-Fi simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM approach is developed to avoid the location fingerprinting and additional inertial or vision sensors. In this approach, an unlabeled mobility map of the coverage area is first constructed by using the crowd-sourcing from a batch of sporadically recorded Wi-Fi RSS sequences based on the spectral cluster assembling. Then, the sequence alignment algorithm is applied to conduct location tracking and mobility map updating. Finally, the effectiveness of this approach is verified by the extensive experiments carried out in a campus-wide area.

  8. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO₂ and O₃ levels of the Mexico megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome D.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-22

    from technological changes in the existing refinery is briefly discussed. These changes are due to the upcoming construction of a new refinery in Tula. The combination of emission reductions in the power plant, the refinery and in local sources in the MCMA could result in higher reductions on the average SO₂ 26580 Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | concentration. Reductions in external sources tend to affect more the northern part of the basin (-16.35% to -45.58%), whilst reductions of urban sources in the megacity tend to diminish SO₂ levels substantially in the central, southwest, and southeast regions (-30.71% to -49.75%).

  9. The use of cluster analysis method for the localization of acoustic emission sources detected during the hydrotest of PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, J.; Svetlik, M.; Slama, K.

    1982-01-01

    The acoustic emission method is a promising tool for checking reactor pressure vessel integrity. Localization of emission sources is the first and the most important step in processing emission signals. The paper describes the emission sources localization method which is based on cluster analysis of a set of points depicting the emission events in the plane of coordinates of their occurrence. The method is based on using this set of points for constructing the minimum spanning tree and its partition into fragments corresponding to point clusters. Furthermore, the laws are considered of probability distribution of the minimum spanning tree edge length for one and several clusters with the aim of finding the optimum length of the critical edge for the partition of the tree. Practical application of the method is demonstrated on localizing the emission sources detected during a hydrotest of a pressure vessel used for testing the reactor pressure vessel covers. (author)

  10. Assessment of sensorimotor cortical representation asymmetries and motor skills in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2007-12-01

    As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.

  11. Decisional impairments in cocaine addiction, reward bias, and cortical oscillation “unbalance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balconi M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Michela Balconi, Roberta Finocchiaro Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy Abstract: A vast amount of research has suggested that subjects with substance use disorder (SUD might have difficulty making advantageous decisions that opt in favor of a longer-ter