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Sample records for cortical brain atrophy

  1. Clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

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    Busse, O.; Agnoli, A.L.; Lippmann, R.; Schuetz, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings.

  2. Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury.

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    Sorenson Donna J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI often present with significant cognitive deficits without corresponding evidence of cortical damage on neuroradiological examinations. One explanation for this puzzling observation is that the diffuse cortical abnormalities that characterize TBI are difficult to detect with standard imaging procedures. Here we investigated a patient with severe TBI-related cognitive impairments whose scan was interpreted as normal by a board-certified radiologist in order to determine if quantitative neuroimaging could detect cortical abnormalities not evident with standard neuroimaging procedures. Methods Cortical abnormalities were quantified using multimodal surfaced-based morphometry (MSBM that statistically combined information from high-resolution structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Normal values of cortical anatomy and cortical and pericortical DTI properties were quantified in a population of 43 healthy control subjects. Corresponding measures from the patient were obtained in two independent imaging sessions. These data were quantified using both the average values for each lobe and the measurements from each point on the cortical surface. The results were statistically analyzed as z-scores from the mean with a p Results The TBI patient showed significant regional abnormalities in cortical thickness, gray matter diffusivity and pericortical white matter integrity that replicated across imaging sessions. Consistent with the patient's impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function, cortical abnormalities were most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Conclusions MSBM is a promising tool for detecting subtle cortical abnormalities with high sensitivity and selectivity. MSBM may be particularly useful in evaluating cortical structure in TBI and other neurological conditions that produce diffuse abnormalities in both cortical structure and tissue properties.

  3. Brain atrophy during aging

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    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  4. Brain atrophy during aging

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    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  5. White Matter Hyperintensities, Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, Cortical Atrophy, and Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Severely Depressed Elderly Patients

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    Oudega, Mardien L.; van Exel, Eric; Wattjes, Mike P.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Stek, Max L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a valuable treatment option in severely depressed elderly patients. Structural abnormalities in the brain, such as white matter hyperintensities, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), or global cortical atrophy, may influence therapeutic response. The

  6. Visual impairment and posterior cortical atrophy preceding rapid progressive dementia.

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    Müller, Kai Ivar; Bekkelund, Svein Ivar

    2013-01-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also known as Benson's disease, has been previously reported as a variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a clinical picture and MRI findings of a patient with PCA who developed early right-sided homonymous haemianopia and marked atrophy of parieto-occipital regions of the brain before a cognitive decline appeared. This case demonstrates that PCA may appear with advanced brain atrophy at the onset of focal visual deficits before the development of progressive dementia, and adds to the knowledge of dementias with rapid progression.

  7. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

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    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

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    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  9. Bilateral cortical atrophy after severe brain trauma and extradural homatoma Atrofia cortical bilateral após traumatismo cranioencefálico grave e hematoma extradural

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    Paulo Roberto Louzada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a severe head injured 43-year old male patient with a large extradural hematoma, Glasgow Coma Scale 3 and dilated fixed pupils. Patient was promptly submitted to surgical evacuation of the lesion, but remained in persistent vegetative state in the post-operative time. Head computed tomography scans performed before surgery, and at early and late post-operative periods comparatively revealed extreme bilateral cortical atrophy. Late consequences of severe head trauma drastically affect the prognosis of patients, being its prevention, and neuroprotection against secondary injury still a therapeutical challenge for neurosurgeons.Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 43 anos, com traumatismo cranioencefálico grave, com grande hematoma extradural, Escala de Coma de Glasgow 3 e pupilas fixas e dilatadas. O paciente foi prontamente submetido à evacuação cirúrgica da lesão mas permaneceu em estado vegetativo persistente no período pós-operatório. As TC de crânio realizadas antes da cirurgia e nos períodos pós-operatórios precoce e tardio revelaram comparativamente extrema atrofia cerebral bilateral. As conseqüências tardias do traumatismo craniano grave afetam drasticamente o prognóstico dos pacientes, sendo sua prevenção, e a neuroproteção contra a injúria secundária ainda um desafio terapêutico para os neurocirurgiões.

  10. Network structure of brain atrophy in de novo Parkinson's disease.

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    Zeighami, Yashar; Ulla, Miguel; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Dadar, Mahsa; Zhang, Yu; Larcher, Kevin Michel-Herve; Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C; Collins, D Louis; Dagher, Alain

    2015-09-07

    We mapped the distribution of atrophy in Parkinson's disease (PD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data from 232 PD patients and 117 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Deformation-based morphometry and independent component analysis identified PD-specific atrophy in the midbrain, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, medial temporal lobe, and discrete cortical regions. The degree of atrophy reflected clinical measures of disease severity. The spatial pattern of atrophy demonstrated overlap with intrinsic networks present in healthy brain, as derived from functional MRI. Moreover, the degree of atrophy in each brain region reflected its functional and anatomical proximity to a presumed disease epicenter in the substantia nigra, compatible with a trans-neuronal spread of the disease. These results support a network-spread mechanism in PD. Finally, the atrophy pattern in PD was also seen in healthy aging, where it also correlated with the loss of striatal dopaminergic innervation.

  11. CT findings of brain atrophy after chemotherapy in acute leukemia

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    Lim, Jun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medicine College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    A study was performed to evaluate the atrophic changes of the central nerve system after chemotherapy in the patients with acute leukemia. The computed tomographic findings and medical records of 20 proven acute leukemia patients under 35 years-old who developed various CNS symptoms and signs during and/or after 2 courses of chemotherapy were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution was from 14 to 5 years (mean was 26 years). Male was 15. 2. Presenting clinical symptoms and signs were headache (16/20), nausea and vomiting (11/20) and loss of consciousness (5/20). 3. Brain atrophy was noted in 16 patients including cortical and subcortical atrophy 15 cases and subcortical atrophy 1 case. 4. Two cases of hemorrhage, one each of intracranial hematoma and chronic subdural hematoma were found in addition to brain atrophy. This showed that chemotherapeutic agents cause brain atrophy in a considerable number of the patients with symptomatic acute leukemia.

  12. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

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    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  13. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

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    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Functional Connectivity of Ventral and Dorsal Visual Streams in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

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    Migliaccio, Raffaella; Gallea, Cécile; Kas, Aurélie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Samri, Dalila; Trotta, Laura; Michon, Agnès; Lacomblez, Lucette; Dubois, Bruno; Lehericy, Stéphane; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) induces progressive dysfunction of ventral and dorsal visual networks. Little is known, however, about corresponding changes in functional connectivity (FC). To investigate FC changes in the visual networks, their relationship with cortical atrophy, and the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Ten PCA patients and 28 age-matched controls participated in the study. Using resting state fMRI, we measured FC in ventral and dorsal cortical visual networks, defined on the basis of a priori knowledge of long-range white matter connections. To assess the relationships with AD, we determined AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and FC in the default mode network (DMN), which is vulnerable to AD pathology. Voxel-based morphometry analysis assessed the pattern of grey matter (GM) atrophy. PCA patients showed GM atrophy in bilateral occipital and inferior parietal regions. PCA patients had lower FC levels in a ventral network than controls, but higher FC in inferior components of the dorsal network. In particular, the increased connectivity correlated with greater GM atrophy in occipital regions. All PCA patients had positive cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD; however, FC in global DMN did not differ from controls. FC in PCA reflects brain structure in a non-univocal way. Hyperconnectivity of dorsal networks may indicate aberrant communication in response to posterior brain atrophy or processes of neural resilience during the initial stage of brain dysfunction. The lack of difference from controls in global DMN FC highlights the atypical nature of PCA with respect to typical AD.

  15. The Pattern of Brain Amyloid Load in Posterior Cortical Atrophy Using 18F-AV45: Is Amyloid the Principal Actor in the Disease

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    Emilie Beaufils

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is characterized by progressive higher-order visuoperceptual dysfunction and praxis declines. This syndrome is related to a number of underlying diseases, including, in most cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD. The aim of this study was to compare the amyloid load with 18F-AV45 positron emission tomography (PET between PCA and AD subjects. Methods: We performed 18F-AV45 PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker analysis and a neuropsychological assessment in 11 PCA patients and 12 AD patients. Results: The global and regional 18F-AV45 uptake was similar in the PCA and AD groups. No significant correlation was observed between global 18F-AV45 uptake and CSF biomarkers or between regional 18F-AV45 uptake and cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusion: This 18F-AV45 PET amyloid imaging study showed no specific regional pattern of cortical 18F-AV45 binding in PCA patients. These results confirm that a distinct clinical phenotype in amnestic AD and PCA is not related to amyloid distribution.

  16. The Pattern of Brain Amyloid Load in Posterior Cortical Atrophy Using (18)F-AV45: Is Amyloid the Principal Actor in the Disease?

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    Beaufils, Emilie; Ribeiro, Maria Joao; Vierron, Emilie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Camus, Vincent; Mondon, Karl; Guilloteau, Denis; Hommet, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by progressive higher-order visuoperceptual dysfunction and praxis declines. This syndrome is related to a number of underlying diseases, including, in most cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare the amyloid load with (18)F-AV45 positron emission tomography (PET) between PCA and AD subjects. We performed (18)F-AV45 PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis and a neuropsychological assessment in 11 PCA patients and 12 AD patients. The global and regional (18)F-AV45 uptake was similar in the PCA and AD groups. No significant correlation was observed between global (18)F-AV45 uptake and CSF biomarkers or between regional (18)F-AV45 uptake and cognitive and affective symptoms. This (18)F-AV45 PET amyloid imaging study showed no specific regional pattern of cortical (18)F-AV45 binding in PCA patients. These results confirm that a distinct clinical phenotype in amnestic AD and PCA is not related to amyloid distribution.

  17. [Visual impairment in posterior cortical atrophy--visual variant of Alzheimer's disease in the ophthalmic practice].

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    Barczak, Anna; Sitek, Emilia J; Chudoba, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy, also known as visual variant of Alzheimer's disease, is a rare dementia syndrome characterized by the predominant visuospatial functional deficit. The ophthalmologist is usually the first specialist consultant the patient is referred to with such complaints as: reading difficulty, face recognition problems, feeling of visual field restriction, difficulty perceiving more than one object at a time, difficulty grabbing objects under visual control, recognizing familiar surroundings, watching television or driving a car. Posterior cortical atrophy is one of early-onset (below 65 years of age) dementia syndromes and is most often associated with Alzheimer's pathology. Visual impairment is due to the disturbance of one or two visual pathways in the brain (dorsal--analyzing the stimulus localization, ventral--enabling the stimulus recognition) and subsequent atrophy of parietal and/or occipital lobe. The article presents the clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria of posterior cortical atrophyas well as abnormal findings of the extended ophtalmic examination and methods utilised in differential diagnosis of cortical vision deficits. Early diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy can be ensured by the close cooperation between the ophtalomogist and a neurologist specializing in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

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    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  19. Cortical atrophy in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease presenilin 1 mutation carriers.

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    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Stern, Chantal E; Reiman, Eric M; Brickhouse, Michael; Ruiz, Adriana; Sperling, Reisa A; Lopera, Francisco; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-05-01

    Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia has been associated with a 'signature' of cortical atrophy in paralimbic and heteromodal association regions measured with MRI. To investigate whether a similar pattern of cortical atrophy is present in presymptomatic presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers an average of 6 years before clinical symptom onset. 40 cognitively normal volunteers from a Colombian population with familial AD were included; 18 were positive for the AD-associated presenilin 1 mutation (carriers, mean age=38) whereas 22 were non-carriers. T1-weighted volumetric MRI images were acquired and cortical thickness was measured. A priori regions of interest from our previous work were used to obtain thickness from AD-signature regions. Compared to non-carriers, presymptomatic presenilin 1 mutation carriers exhibited thinner cortex within the AD-signature summary measure (p<0.008). Analyses of individual regions demonstrated thinner angular gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule in carriers compared to non-carriers, with trend-level effects in the medial temporal lobe. Results demonstrate that cognitively normal individuals genetically determined to develop AD have a thinner cerebral cortex than non-carriers in regions known to be affected by typical late-onset sporadic AD. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that cortical atrophy is present in preclinical AD more than 5 years prior to symptom onset. Further research is needed to determine whether this method could be used to characterise the age-dependent trajectory of cortical atrophy in presymptomatic stages of AD.

  20. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

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    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  1. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

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    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  2. Cortical atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis are non-random and clinically relevant.

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    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Daams, Marita; Tijms, Betty M; Wink, Alle Meije; Balk, Lisanne J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2016-01-01

    cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis occurs largely in a non-random manner and develops (at least partly) according to distinct anatomical patterns. In addition, these cortical atrophy patterns showed stronger associations with clinical (especially cognitive) dysfunction than global cortical atrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Neuropsychological correlates of brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Starkstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; Bylsma, F.; Peyser, C.; Folstein, M.; Folstein, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive cognitive evaluation were carried out in a series of 29 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD). A factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores provided three factors: A memory/speed-of-processing factor, a 'frontal' factor, and a response inhibition factor. The memory/speed factor correlated significantly with measures of caudate atrophy, frontal atrophy, and atrophy of the left (but not the right) sylvian cistern. There were no significant correlations between the 'frontal' or response inhibition factors and measures of cortical or subcortical brain atrophy. Our findings confirm that subcortical atrophy is significantly correlated with specific cognitive deficits in HD, and demonstrate that cortical atrophy also has important association with the cognitive deficits of patients with HD. (orig.)

  4. Posterior Cortical Atrophy: Visuomotor Deficits in Reaching and Grasping

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    Benjamin P Meek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by the predominance of higher-order visual disturbances such as optic ataxia, a characteristic of Balint’s syndrome. Deficits result from progressive neurodegeneration of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortices. The current study sought to explore the visuomotor functioning of four individuals with PCA by testing their ability to reach out and grasp real objects under various viewing conditions. Experiment 1 had participants reach out and grasp simple, rectangular blocks under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Experiment 2 explored participants’ abilities to accurately reach for objects located in their visual periphery. This investigation revealed that PCA patients demonstrate many of the same deficits that have been previously reported in other individuals with optic ataxia, such as ‘magnetic misreaching’ – a pathological reaching bias towards the point of visual fixation when grasping peripheral targets. Unlike many other individuals with optic ataxia, however, the patients in the current study also show symptoms indicative of damage to the more perceptual stream of visual processing, including abolished grip scaling during memory-guided grasping and deficits in face and object identification. These investigations are the first to perform a quantitative analysis of the visuomotor deficits exhibited by patients with Posterior Cortical Atrophy. Critically, this study helps characterize common symptoms of PCA, a vital first step for generating effective diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies for this understudied neurodegenerative disorder.

  5. Hyperconnective and hypoconnective cortical and subcortical functional networks in multiple system atrophy.

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    Rosskopf, Johannes; Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In multiple system atrophy (MSA), the organization of the functional brain connectivity within cortical and subcortical networks and its clinical correlates remains to be investigated. Whole-brain based 'resting-state' fMRI data were obtained from 22 MSA patients (11 MSA-C, 11 MSA-P) and 22 matched healthy controls, together with standardized clinical assessment and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink ® ). MSA patients vs. controls showed significantly higher ponto-cerebellar functional connectivity and lower default mode network connectivity (p hyperconnectivity) and a function disconnection syndrome (hypoconnectivity) that may occur in a consecutive sequence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

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    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned...

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Alzheimer Disease.

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    Suárez-González, Aida; Crutch, Sebastian J; Franco-Macías, Emilio; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio

    2016-03-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity. The most commonly reported NPS in both groups were depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability. However, aside from a trend toward lower rates of apathy in patients with PCA, there were no differences in the percentage of NPS presented in each group. All those patients presenting visual hallucinations in the PCA group also met diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Auditory hallucinations were only present in patients meeting diagnosis criteria for DLB. Prevalence of the 12 NPS examined was similar between patients with PCA and AD. Hallucinations in PCA may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between PCA-AD and PCA-DLB. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Contribution of white matter hyperintensities, medial temporal lobe atrophy and cortical atrophy on outcome, seven to twelve years after ECT in severely depressed geriatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudega, M.L.; Dols, A.; Adelerhof, I.; Rozing, M.; Wattjes, M.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Barkhof, F.; Eikelenboom, P.; Stek, M.L.; van Exel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and cognitive decline are highly prevalent and often coexisting, however, the association between depression and dementia remains unclear. White matter hyperintensities (WMH), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and global cortical atrophy (GCA) are associated with depression,

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  11. Extensive Delayed Brain Atrophy after Resuscitation in a Patient with Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazuku Nisitani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of multiple system atrophy (MSA shows atrophy in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. It is also characterized by specific patterns such as hyperintense lateral putaminal rim. MRI of hypoxic encephalopathy shows atrophy mainly in the gray matter, and laminar necrosis in the cerebral cortex is often observed. Here, we report an MSA patient damaged by hypoxic insult and resuscitated after 18-min cardiac arrest. The brain of the patient developed severe atrophy within a period of 10 months. Furthermore, brain atrophy was observed in the white and gray matter, which preserved the brain atrophy pattern in MSA. We assume that alpha-synuclein oligomerization is involved in the neural cell death and brain atrophy. It might have caused further neural cell death in the brain damaged by hypoxia. Alpha-synuclein, which is involved in the pathogenesis of MSA, is suggested to be a prion. Misfolded alpha-synuclein may propagate through cell-to-cell transmission and cause wide pathological change, visible as atrophied MR imaging.

  12. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Sasiadek, M.; Filarski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  13. Semantic word category processing in semantic dementia and posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebani, Zubaida; Patterson, Karalyn; Nestor, Peter J; Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Dawson, Kate; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-08-01

    There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions. Cohorts with (i) Semantic Dementia (SD), who have anterior temporal-lobe atrophy, and (ii) Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), who have predominantly parieto-occipital atrophy, performed a lexical decision test on words from five different lexico-semantic categories: colour (e.g., yellow), form (oval), number (seven), spatial prepositions (under) and function words (also). Sets of pseudo-word foils matched the target words in length and bi-/tri-gram frequency. Word-frequency was matched between the two visual word categories (colour and form) and across the three other categories (number, prepositions, and function words). Age-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Although broad word processing deficits were apparent in both patient groups, the deficit was strongest for colour words in SD and for spatial prepositions in PCA. The patterns of performance on the lexical decision task demonstrate (a) general lexicosemantic processing deficits in both groups, though more prominent in SD than in PCA, and (b) differential involvement of anterior-temporal and posterior-parietal cortex in the processing of specific semantic categories of words. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. CT measurement of age-related brain atrophy by two-dimensional measurement with a digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Katsube, Tomoko; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1984-01-01

    Various methods of the CT measurement of brain atrophy have been reported. The cranio-ventricular indices (CVI) are most popular, but these indices cannot be used for cortical atrophy. Recently, the computerized three-dimensional CT measurement of the cerebral volume has seemed a reasonable method, but a special computer system is required. The two-dimensional CT measurement of the ventricular system with a tracing method on the computer display or with planimetry has been reported, but it seems far from useful as a routine clinical CT-measurement method. We have here proposed a new method for the two-dimensional CT measurement of brain atrophy using a digitizer connected with a personal computer (Fig. 2). This system is simple, accurate, and economical. We calculated the ventricular area index (VAI) and the brain-atrophy index (BAI) as is shown in Fig. 3. Using this method, we studied age-related brain atrophy in 100 normal subjects (14-90 years) and compared the results with conventional cranio-ventricle indices. Results: 1) There were significant correlations between age and all the indices (CVI, VAI and BAI), but of these indices BAI showed the best correlation (the simple correlation coefficient was -0.67; the partial correlation coefficient was 0.38). 2) A significant acceleration of the brain atrophy from the age of 60 was observed by BAI and VAI. 3) It is suggested that the brain atrophy measured by BAI and VAI might begin earlier in men than in women. 4) A multiregression analysis of these indices to age showed the better contributional rate of the multiple correlation in VAI and BAI (52%) than that of CVI (32.6%). Conclusion: The two-dimensional CT measurement method using a digitizer is practically useful, and VAI and BAI may be more sensitive indices for brain atrophy than the conventional CVI. (author)

  15. Visualizing stages of cortical atrophy in progressive MCI from the ADNI cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick

    of atrophy in the parahippocampal gyrus, the cingulate gyrus and temporal lobes (figure). At two years before conversion, atrophy has spread to large parts of the temporal and frontal lobes, much of the cingulate gyrus and parts of the orbitofrontal region. Twelve months before conversion, atrophy is present...... and medial temporal lobe structures such as hippocampus. Understanding the structural pattern of cortical atrophy at different stages of MCI, before AD can be diagnosed, may help in patient monitoring and prognosis. We used data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to calculate...

  16. The Progression of Posterior Cortical Atrophy to Corticobasal Syndrome: Lumping or Splitting Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Giorelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior cortical atrophy is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by the progressive loss of visuospatial integration and is associated with neurodegenerative conditions.Case Report: We describe a 60‐year‐old female with simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia, and optic ataxia for which she received an initial clinical diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy. Three years later, she developed Balint's syndrome, Gerstmann's syndrome, left alien hand syndrome, smooth asymmetric (left rigidity, cortical sensory loss, and spontaneous myoclonic jerks of the left arm, which suggested a final diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome.Discussion: This case report indicates that corticobasal syndrome may present with visuospatial deficits.

  17. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with cortical amyloid pathology show a reduced NAA/Cr ratio without apparent brain atrophy: A MRS and MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kuhla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.

  18. Pattern of Brain Atrophy Rates in Autopsy-Confirmed Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelska, Zuzana; Ferman, Tanis J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanti; Smith, Glenn E.; Geda, Yonas E.; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Kantarci, Kejal

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by preserved whole brain and medial temporal lobe volumes compared to Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD) on MRI. However, frequently coexistent AD-type pathology may influence the pattern of regional brain atrophy rates in DLB patients. We investigated the pattern and magnitude of the atrophy rates from two serial MRIs in autopsy-confirmed DLB (n=20) and mixed DLB/AD patients (n=22), compared to AD (n=30) and elderly non-demented controls (n=15), followed antemortem. DLB patients without significant AD-type pathology were characterized by lower global and regional rates of atrophy, similar to controls. The mixed DLB/AD patients displayed greater rates in the whole brain, temporo-parietal cortices, hippocampus and amygdala, and ventricle expansion, similar to AD patients. In the DLB and DLB/AD patients, the atrophy rates correlated with Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage, cognitive decline and progression of motor symptoms. Global and regional atrophy rates are associated with AD-type pathology in DLB, and can be used as biomarkers of AD progression in patients with LB pathology. PMID:25128280

  19. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Ewan [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade [University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  20. Brain atrophy rates in first degree relatives at risk for Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J. Lampert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive family history (FH raises the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease though, other than the known risk conferred by apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE4, much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. We examined the effect of family history on longitudinal regional brain atrophy rates in 184 subjects (42% FH+, mean age 79.9 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI enrolled in a national biomarker study. An automated image analysis method was applied to T1-weighted MR images to measure atrophy rates for 20 cortical and subcortical regions. Mixed-effects linear regression models incorporating repeated-measures to control for within-subject variation over multiple time points tested the effect of FH over a follow-up of up to 48 months. Most of the 20 regions showed significant atrophy over time. Adjusting for age and gender, subjects with a positive FH had greater atrophy of the amygdala (p < 0.01, entorhinal cortex (p < 0.01, hippocampus (p < 0.053 and cortical gray matter (p < 0.009. However, when E4 genotype was added as a covariate, none of the FH effects remained significant. Analyses by ApoE genotype showed that the effect of FH on amygdala atrophy rates was numerically greater in ε3 homozygotes than in E4 carriers, but this difference was not significant. FH+ subjects had numerically greater 4-year cognitive decline and conversion rates than FH− subjects but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for ApoE and other variables. We conclude that a positive family history of AD may influence cortical and temporal lobe atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, but it does not have a significant additional effect beyond the known effect of the E4 genotype.

  1. Brain atrophy and dementia from the aspect of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Michiko

    1979-01-01

    Two major causes of dementia in the elderly are reported to be the degeneration of brain and cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases and brain atrophy have been noticed, because they rather clearly show these changes. The authors examined the view of atrophy frequently observed on the dementia in the elderly. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In accordance with the increase of age the appearance of the view of atrophy increased in frequency and that of extreme brain atrophy also increased. 2) As the age increased, the average value of the width of the 3rd ventricle tended to increase. 3) In the cases accompanied with the view of cerebrovascular diseases remarkable ventricular dilatation was frequently observed, and in the very old dilatations of cerebral sulci, central fissure and Sylvian fissure were observed of all cases. 4) Of the group of severe dementia the view of extreme brain atrophy was observed in the major. However, there was no significant difference on the lesion of atrophy between the cases. The results mentioned above include some exceptional points respectively, so further investigation will be necessary from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. (author)

  2. Progressive transcortical sensory aphasia and progressive ideational apraxia owing to temporoparietal cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Nakajima, Asuka

    2015-11-11

    In contrast to frontotemporal lobar degeneration, atrophy of the focal posterior lateral cortex has not been thoroughly studied. Three clinical types of focal cortical atrophy have been described: 1) logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia, which presents with impaired repetition despite normal articulation; 2) posterior cortical atrophy, which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits; and 3) primary progressive apraxia. All three clinical types are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism/hypoperfusion: the left posterior perisylvian area in the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia, bilateral parietooccipital areas in posterior cortical atrophy, and the parietal cortex in primary progressive apraxia. However, not every patient clearly fits into one of these categories. Here we describe two patients with atypical focal cortical presentations. They presented with a history of a few years of progressive transcortical sensory aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, normal repetition, sentence comprehension deficits, and anomia without loss of word meaning. They also presented with progressive apraxia that began at the initial stages. Some forms of posterior symptoms including acalculia, agraphia, and visuospatial deficits were also observed. Hypoperfusion was noted mainly in the left temporoparietal region, which is slightly posterior to the perisylvian area. Although our cases lack in CSF findings and PIB scan, these two cases and previous reports might suggest the existence of a subgroup of patients presenting with transcortical sensory aphasia, apraxia, and posterior symptoms (acalculia, agraphia, and visuospatial deficits) in the setting of Alzheimer's disease. This subgroup may reflect the spectrum of clinical manifestations between logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia and posterior cortical atrophy.

  3. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  4. Homocysteine, Liver Function Derangement and Brain Atrophy in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino; González-Reimers, Emilio; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; de la Vega-Prieto, María José; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; Martín-González, Candelaria; Espelosín-Ortega, Elisa; Romero-Acevedo, Lucía; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia may be involved in the development of brain atrophy in alcoholics. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In the present study, we analyse the relationship between homocysteine levels and brain atrophy, and the relative weight of co-existing factors such as liver function impairment, the amount of ethanol consumed, serum vitamin B12, B6, and folic acid levels on homocysteine levels and brain alterations in alcoholic patients. We included 59 patients admitted to this hospital for major withdrawal symptoms and 24 controls. The mini-mental state examination test and a brain computed tomography (CT) scan were performed and several indices were calculated. Serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were determined. Liver function was assessed by Child-Pugh score. The daily consumption of ethanol in grams per day and years of addiction were recorded. A total of 83.6% and 80% of the patients showed cerebellar or frontal atrophy, respectively. Patients showed altered values of brain indices, higher levels of homocysteine and vitamin B12, but lower levels of folic acid, compared with controls. Homocysteine, B12 and liver function variables showed significant correlations with brain CT indices. Multivariate analyses disclosed that Pugh's score, albumin and bilirubin were independently related to cerebellar atrophy, frontal atrophy, cella index or ventricular index. Serum vitamin B12 was the only factor independently related to Evans index. It was also related to cella index, but after bilirubin. Homocysteine levels were independently related to ventricular index, but after bilirubin. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels are higher among alcoholics. Liver function derangement, vitamin B12 and homocysteine are all independently related to brain atrophy, although not to cognitive alterations. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been described in alcoholics and may be related to brain atrophy, a reversible condition with an obscure pathogenesis

  5. Subacute brain atrophy induced by radiation therapy to the malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Akio; Matsutani, Masao; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1987-01-01

    In order to analyze brain atrophy after radiation therapy to the brain tumors, we calculated a CSF-cranial volume ratio on CT scan as an index of brain atrophy, and estimated dementia-score by Hasegawa's method in 91 post-irradiated patients with malignant brain tumors. Radiation-induced brain atrophy was observed in 51 out of 91 patients (56 %) and dementia in 23 out of 47 patients (49 %). These two conditions were closely related, and observed significantly more often in aged and whole-brain-irradiated patients. As radiation-induced brain atrophy accompanied by dementia appeared 2 - 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy, it should be regarded as a subacute brain injury caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, S.; Raycheva, M.; Traykova, M.; Stankova, T.; Penev, L.; Georgieva-Kozarova, G.; Grigorova, O.; Traykov, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  7. Brain Atrophy of Secondary REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Im, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Juhan; Han, Jee-Young; de Leon, Mony; Deshpande, Anup; Moon, Won-Jin

    2016-04-05

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may present as an early manifestation of an evolving neurodegenerative disorder with alpha-synucleinopathy. We investigated that dementia with RBD might show distinctive cortical atrophic patterns. A total of 31 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), 23 with clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 36 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients with AD and IPD were divided into two groups according to results of polysomnography and rated with a validated Korean version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-K), which covers the clinical features of RBD. Voxel-based morphometry was adapted for detection of regional brain atrophy among groups of subjects. Scores on RBDSQ-K were higher in the IPD group (3.54 ± 2.8) than in any other group (AD, 2.94 ± 2.4; healthy controls, 2.31 ± 1.9). Atrophic changes according to RBDSQ-K scores were characteristically in the posterior part of the brain and brain stem, including the hypothalamus and posterior temporal region including the hippocampus and bilateral occipital lobe. AD patients with RBD showed more specialized atrophic patterns distributed in the posterior and inferior parts of the brain including the bilateral temporal and occipital cortices compared to groups without RBD. The IPD group with RBD showed right temporal cortical atrophic changes. The group of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and RBD showed distinctive brain atrophy patterns, especially in the posterior and inferior cortices. These results suggest that patients diagnosed with clinically probable AD or IPD might have mixed pathologies including α-synucleinopathy.

  8. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  9. Transient Ischemic Attack Results in Delayed Brain Atrophy and Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Maréchal, Bénédicte; Garcia-Esperon, Carlos; Holliday, Elizabeth; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) initiates an ischemic cascade without resulting in frank infarction and, as such, represents a novel model to study the effects of this ischemic cascade and secondary neurodegeneration in humans. Patients with suspected TIA underwent acute brain perfusion imaging, and those with acute ischemia were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We collected baseline and 90-day magnetic resonance imaging, including MP-RAGE (high-resolution T1 sequence) and cognitive assessment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Brain morphometry and within patient statistical analysis were performed to identify changes between baseline and 90-day imaging and clinical assessments. Fifty patients with TIA with acute perfusion lesions were studied. All patients experienced a decrease in global cortical gray matter ( P =0.005). Patients with anterior circulation TIA (n=31) also had a significant reduction in the volume of the pons ( P atrophy ( R 2 =0.28; P =0.009). In a prospective observational study, patients with TIA confirmed by acute perfusion imaging experienced a significant reduction in global gray matter and focal structural atrophy related to the area of acute ischemia. The atrophy also resulted in a proportional decreased cognitive performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Further studies are required to identify the mechanisms of this atrophy. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Disappearance of cerebral cortical atrophy following replacement therapy with vitamin B12 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yilmaz Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin deficiency during infancy is seen most commonly in exclusively breast-fed infants born to mothers with inadequate vitamin B12 stores. In addition to megaoblastic anemia, physical, social and neuromotor retardation may be seen in affected patients. In severe cases, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia may accompany anemia mimicking leukemia or aplastic anemia. Patients may rarely develop cerebral cortical atrophy evident on neuroimaging. In this article, a 12-month-old female infant with psychomotor developmental retardation who was referred to our hospital with the initial diagnosis of leukemia due to the finding of pancytopenia is presented. Further investigations revealed severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in this case. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed cerebral cortical atrophy. Replacement therapy with vitamin B12 resulted in marked improvement of psychomotor status, and cranial MRI performed 7 months following the diagnosis and treatment initiation revealed resolution of cortical atrophy. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 152-160

  11. Study of brain atrophy using X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Masayoshi

    1987-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid space-cranial cavity ratio (CCR) of 811 subjects with no brain damage were investigated using X-ray computed tomography. Brain volume of healthy adults aged 20 - 59 years was almost constant and decreased gradually after 60 years. CCR of men aged 20 - 49 years kept constant value and increased with aging after 50 years. CCR of women aged 20 - 59 years kept equal value and CCR increased with aging after 60 years. Brain atrophy with aging was investigated in this study also. In retrospective study, CCR of patients in any age diagnosed brain atrophy in daily CT reports were beyond the normal range of CCR of healthy subjects aged 20 - 49 years. In 48 patients with Parkinson's disease, almost of CCR of them were included within normal range of CCR in age-matched control. (author)

  12. Cortical columns for quick brains

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Ralph L.; Saase, Victor; Wagner, Clemens; Stoop, Britta; Stoop, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the particular wiring observed within cortical columns boosts neural computation. We use rewiring of neural networks performing real-world cognitive tasks to study the validity of this argument. In a vast survey of wirings within the column we detect, however, no traces of the proposed effect. It is on the mesoscopic inter-columnar scale that the existence of columns - largely irrespective of their inner organization - enhances the speed of information transfer and ...

  13. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte; University Hospital; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Lazeyras, Francois

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  14. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Neuroradiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Dept. of Mental Health and Psychiatry; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare HC CEMEA SUI DI BM PI, Lausanne (Switzerland). Siemens ACIT, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology; University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). LTS5; Lazeyras, Francois [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2} were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  15. Hippocampal Sclerosis of Aging, a Common Alzheimer's Disease 'Mimic': Risk Genotypes are Associated with Brain Atrophy Outside the Temporal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common brain disease in older adults with a clinical course that is similar to Alzheimer's disease. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously shown association with HS-Aging. The present study investigated structural brain changes associated with these SNPs using surface-based analysis. Participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n = 1,239), with both MRI scans and genotype data, were used to assess the association between brain atrophy and previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs in the following genes: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2 (minor allele frequency for each is >30%). A fifth SNP (near the ABCC9 gene) was evaluated in post-hoc analysis. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848_T) was associated with a pattern of atrophy in the dorsomedial frontal lobes bilaterally, remarkable since GRN is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia. The ABCC9 risk SNP (rs704180_A) was associated with multifocal atrophy whereas a SNP (rs7488080_A) nearby (∼50 kb upstream) ABCC9 was associated with atrophy in the right entorhinal cortex. Neither TMEM106B (rs1990622_T), KCNMB2 (rs9637454_A), nor any of the non-risk alleles were associated with brain atrophy. When all four previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs were summed into a polygenic risk score, there was a pattern of associated multifocal brain atrophy in a predominately frontal pattern. We conclude that common SNPs previously linked to HS-Aging pathology were associated with a distinct pattern of anterior cortical atrophy. Genetic variation associated with HS-Aging pathology may represent a non-Alzheimer's disease contribution to atrophy outside of the hippocampus in older adults.

  16. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  17. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET on early stage posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a kind of progressive neurodegenerative disease with cortical visual impairment as the first symptom. Because of rare clinical incidence, early onset age, special clinical symptoms and unobvious MRI abnormality, the definitive diagnosis of PCA is difficult. This study used 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET for PCA patients with unobvious MRI abnormality, so as to discuss the value of PET in the early diagnosis of PCA.  Methods  Five patients diagnosed as PCA in our hospital between April 2012 and March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Cognitive function was measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Clock Drawing Test (CDT. Brain MRI, 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET were performed to analyze glucose metabolism and perfusion of posterior cortex.  Results Neuropsychological tests revealed that the ability of writing, calculating, visuospatial and executive function of all these patients were impaired. Color vision tests showed abnormal results. MRI showed that the posterior atrophy (PA scores were 0-2 (average 1 on the left side and 0-1 (average 0.80 on the right side. The medial temporal atrophy (MTA scores were 1-3 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-4 (average 2 on the right side. The ventricular enlargement (VE scores were 1-2 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-2 (average 1.60 on the right side. 18F-FDG PET showed glucose metabolism decreased obviously on bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus, and slightly on frontal lobes and subcortical structure. 11C-PIB PET showed radioactive 11C-PIB deposition on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, and the outline of cerebellar cortex was clear.  Conclusions  For PCA patients whose parietal and occipital cortical atrophy is not obvious on MRI, 18F-FDG PET

  18. The association between poor sleep quality and global cortical atrophy is related to age. Results from the Atahualpa Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Del Brutto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-dwellers aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project underwent brain MRI and were interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Of 290 participants, 94 (32% had poor sleep quality and 143 (49% had global cortical atrophy (GCA. In a logistic regression model (adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factor, severe edentulism, symptoms of depression, the MoCA score, and neuroimaging signatures of cerebrovascular damage, poor sleep quality was associated with GCA (p=0.004. A multivariate probability model showed that the probability of moderate-to-severe GCA significantly increased in individuals with poor sleep quality aged ≥67 years. This study provides evidence for an association between poor sleep quality and GCA in older adults and the important interaction of age in this association.

  19. Cortical complexity in cetacean brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Patrick R; Chanis, Rebecca; Marino, Lori

    2005-11-01

    Cetaceans (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) have a long, dramatically divergent evolutionary history compared with terrestrial mammals. Throughout their 55-60 million years of evolution, cetaceans acquired a compelling set of characteristics that include echolocation ability (in odontocetes), complex auditory and communicative capacities, and complex social organization. Moreover, although cetaceans have not shared a common ancestor with primates for over 90 million years, they possess a set of cognitive attributes that are strikingly convergent with those of many primates, including great apes and humans. In contrast, cetaceans have evolved a highly unusual combination of neurobiological features different from that of primates. As such, cetacean brains offer a critical opportunity to address questions about how complex behavior can be based on very different neuroanatomical and neurobiological evolutionary products. Cetacean brains and primate brains are arguably most meaningfully conceived as alternative evolutionary routes to neurobiological and cognitive complexity. In this article, we summarize data on brain size and hemisphere surface configuration in several cetacean species and present an overview of the cytoarchitectural complexity of the cerebral cortex of the bottlenose dolphin. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. A meta-analysis on progressive atrophy in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: Time is brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Lorenzo; Bernasconi, Andrea; Wiebe, Samuel; Koepp, Matthias J; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernhardt, Boris C

    2017-08-01

    It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria for quantitative evaluation. We observed a predominance of cross-sectional studies, use of different clinical indices of progression, and high heterogeneity in age-control procedures. Meta-analysis of 18/1 cross-sectional/longitudinal studies on hippocampal atrophy (n = 979 patients) yielded a pooled effect size of r = -0.42 for ipsilateral atrophy related to epilepsy duration (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.32; p atrophy (n = 1,504 patients) indicated that >80% of articles reported duration-related progression in extratemporal cortical and subcortical regions. Detailed analysis of study design features yielded low to moderate levels of evidence for progressive atrophy across studies, mainly due to dominance of cross-sectional over longitudinal investigations, use of diverse measures of seizure estimates, and absence of consistent age control procedures. While the neuroimaging literature is overall suggestive of progressive atrophy in drug-resistant TLE, published studies have employed rather weak designs to directly demonstrate it. Longitudinal multicohort studies are needed to unequivocally differentiate aging from disease progression. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Aphasia with left occipitotemporal hypometabolism: a novel presentation of posterior cortical atrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Machulda, Mary M; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease often characterized by initial episodic memory loss. Atypical focal cortical presentations have been described, including the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) which presents with language impairment, and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits. Both lvPPA and PCA are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism: left temporoparietal in lvPPA and bilateral parietoccipital in PCA. However, not every patient fits neatly into these categories. We retrospectively identified two patients with progressive aphasia and visuospatial deficits from a speech and language based disorders study. The patients were further characterized by MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography. Two women, aged 62 and 69, presented with a history of a few years of progressive aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, anomia without loss of word meaning, and relatively spared repetition. They demonstrated striking deficits in visuospatial function for which they were lacking insight. Prominent hypometabolism was noted in the left occipitotemporal region and diffuse retention of PiB was noted. Posterior cortical atrophy may present focally with left occipitotemporal metabolism characterized clinically with a progressive fluent aphasia and prominent ventral visuospatial deficits with loss of insight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2010-01-01

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods...... higher atrophy rates in the left and right occipital lobes compared to HC at three months follow-up (p accelerated atrophy...... rates can be found in AD patients compared to HC and MCI. Even three months after baseline accelerated atrophy can be observed in AD compared to HC, however, the results indicate that three months is too short a period to distinguish the atrophy rates in AD and MCI. The results suggest that atrophy...

  3. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  4. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, patrophy among elderly VA patients is attributable to the presence of other comorbidities. Conclusion: Brain atrophy can be reliably calculated using automated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  5. Joint assessment of white matter integrity, cortical and subcortical atrophy to distinguish AD from behavioral variant FTD: A two-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM atrophy in combination with white matter (WM integrity to distinguish behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD and from controls using voxel-based morphometry, subcortical structure segmentation, and tract-based spatial statistics. To determine which combination of MR markers differentiated the three groups with the highest accuracy, we conducted discriminant function analyses. Adjusted for age, sex and center, both types of dementia had more GM atrophy, lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher mean (MD, axial (L1 and radial diffusivity (L23 values than controls. BvFTD patients had more GM atrophy in orbitofrontal and inferior frontal areas than AD patients. In addition, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in bvFTD than in AD. FA values were lower; MD, L1 and L23 values were higher, especially in frontal areas of the brain for bvFTD compared to AD patients. The combination of cortical GM, hippocampal volume and WM integrity measurements, classified 97–100% of controls, 81–100% of AD and 67–75% of bvFTD patients correctly. Our results suggest that WM integrity measures add complementary information to measures of GM atrophy, thereby improving the classification between AD and bvFTD.

  6. A novel method of quantifying brain atrophy associated with age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jason Qian

    2017-01-01

    Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years. CSF and parenchymal brain volumes (whole brain and by lobe were obtained through a novel, fully automated algorithm. Atrophy was calculated by taking the ratio of CSF to parenchyma. High frequency hearing loss was associated with disproportional temporal lobe atrophy relative to whole brain atrophy independent of age (r = 0.471, p = 0.005. Mental state was associated with frontoparietal atrophy but not to temporal lobe atrophy, which is consistent with known results. Our method demonstrates that hearing loss is associated with temporal lobe atrophy and generalized whole brain atrophy. Our algorithm is efficient, fully automated, and able to detect significant associations in a small cohort.

  7. [Electrophysiologic diagnosis of 2 psycho-visual syndromes: Balint syndrome and cortical blindness. A propos of a case of Benson progressive posterior atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarry, D; Rigolet, M H; Rivaud, S; Bakchine, S

    1999-10-01

    Cortical blindness and Balint's syndrome are two pathologies not well-known. It seems therefore interesting to report a typical patient case, suffering from Benson's posterior cortical atrophy, who presented successively both syndromes. The Balint's syndrome, which results from a bilateral parieto-occipital junction brain injury, and combines clinically a specified triad defects: a spatial disorder of attention, a psychic paralysis of gaze and an optic ataxia. The cortical blindness, which is caused by bilateral damage of the occipital lobes (Broadman area 17). Electrophysiologically, the abolition of short-latency components of visual evoked potentials and the presence of long-latency potentials are recorded. Visual strategy and visual evoked potentials are thus the only objective examinations allowing to diagnose and follow up these patient's evolution. In any case, an adequate visual rehabilitation has to be carried out in order to help the patient recovering his autonomy.

  8. Resting state brain glucose metabolism is not reduced in normotensive healthy men during aging, after correction for brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Vicente; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L; Alexander, Gene E; Millet, Philippe; Bokde, Arun L W; Teichberg, Diane; Schapiro, Mark B; Horwitz, Barry; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2004-03-15

    Studies using positron emission tomography (PET) have reported that global and regional values for cerebral blood flow and metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc and rCMRglc) decline with age in humans. We wished to determine if such decreases could have reflected a partial volume effect (PVE) of cerebral atrophy in the elderly, rather than "intrinsic" reductions per gram brain. We used PET to compare rCMRglc, before and after correcting for the PVE, between 13 healthy older men (aged: 55-82 years) and 11 healthy young men (aged: 22-34 years). PET was performed with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose while the subjects were in the "resting" state (eyes covered and ears plugged with cotton). The PET scans were normalized to a common brain volume after superimposing them on the subjects' tissue segmented magnetic resonance scans. Analysis showed that rCMRglc in the absence of a PVE correction was significantly less in the older group in insular, frontal, superior temporal cortical, and thalamic regions. Statistical significant differences in rCMRglc, however, were absent after the PVE correction. Thus, statistically significant age reductions in regional brain glucose metabolism, corrected for brain atrophy, are not detectable in healthy normotensive men scanned while in the resting state.

  9. Dose-Dependent Cortical Thinning After Partial Brain Irradiation in High-Grade Glioma

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    Karunamuni, Roshan [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Bartsch, Hauke; White, Nathan S. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali; Carmona, Ruben; Marshall, Deborah C.; Seibert, Tyler M. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Farid, Nikdokht; Krishnan, Anithapriya; Kuperman, Joshua [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Mell, Loren [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B.; Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive deficits may be mediated by tissue damage to cortical regions. Volumetric changes in cortex can be reliably measured using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used these methods to study the association between radiation therapy (RT) dose and change in cortical thickness in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a voxel-wise analysis of MRI from 15 HGG patients who underwent fractionated partial brain RT. Three-dimensional MRI was acquired pre- and 1 year post RT. Cortex was parceled with well-validated segmentation software. Surgical cavities were censored. Each cortical voxel was assigned a change in cortical thickness between time points, RT dose value, and neuroanatomic label by lobe. Effects of dose, neuroanatomic location, age, and chemotherapy on cortical thickness were tested using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Results: Cortical atrophy was seen after 1 year post RT with greater effects at higher doses. Estimates from LME modeling showed that cortical thickness decreased by −0.0033 mm (P<.001) for every 1-Gy increase in RT dose. Temporal and limbic cortex exhibited the largest changes in cortical thickness per Gy compared to that in other regions (P<.001). Age and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with change in cortical thickness. Conclusions: We found dose-dependent thinning of the cerebral cortex, with varying neuroanatomical regional sensitivity, 1 year after fractionated partial brain RT. The magnitude of thinning parallels 1-year atrophy rates seen in neurodegenerative diseases and may contribute to cognitive decline following high-dose RT.

  10. Dose-Dependent Cortical Thinning After Partial Brain Irradiation in High-Grade Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunamuni, Roshan; Bartsch, Hauke; White, Nathan S.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Carmona, Ruben; Marshall, Deborah C.; Seibert, Tyler M.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Farid, Nikdokht; Krishnan, Anithapriya; Kuperman, Joshua; Mell, Loren; Brewer, James B.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive deficits may be mediated by tissue damage to cortical regions. Volumetric changes in cortex can be reliably measured using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used these methods to study the association between radiation therapy (RT) dose and change in cortical thickness in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a voxel-wise analysis of MRI from 15 HGG patients who underwent fractionated partial brain RT. Three-dimensional MRI was acquired pre- and 1 year post RT. Cortex was parceled with well-validated segmentation software. Surgical cavities were censored. Each cortical voxel was assigned a change in cortical thickness between time points, RT dose value, and neuroanatomic label by lobe. Effects of dose, neuroanatomic location, age, and chemotherapy on cortical thickness were tested using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Results: Cortical atrophy was seen after 1 year post RT with greater effects at higher doses. Estimates from LME modeling showed that cortical thickness decreased by −0.0033 mm (P<.001) for every 1-Gy increase in RT dose. Temporal and limbic cortex exhibited the largest changes in cortical thickness per Gy compared to that in other regions (P<.001). Age and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with change in cortical thickness. Conclusions: We found dose-dependent thinning of the cerebral cortex, with varying neuroanatomical regional sensitivity, 1 year after fractionated partial brain RT. The magnitude of thinning parallels 1-year atrophy rates seen in neurodegenerative diseases and may contribute to cognitive decline following high-dose RT.

  11. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  12. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  13. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Soricelli, Andrea; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Tessa, Carlo; Galli, Lucia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Piacentini, Silvia; Salvatore, Elena; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  14. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  15. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease correlates with ventricular width and atrophy-corrected cortical glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, I.; Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Kessler, J.; Grond, M.; Mielke, R.; Heiss, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    We compared the correlation of PET and MRI with neuropsychological tests in 26 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The width of the temporal horns and the third ventricle, regional metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu) and the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid space in mesial temporal and temporoparietal cortical regions were measured with three-dimensionally coregistered PET and MRI in two planes perpendicular to the Sylvian fissure. Highly significant correlations between rCMRGlu and neuropsychological tests were found mainly in the temporoparietal cortex, with and without correction for atrophy. Correlations of similar magnitude were seen also between most tests and the width of the temporal horns and third ventricle. Changes in the third ventricle and mesial temporal lobe were best seen with MRI, whereas PET most clearly depicted alterations in neocortical association areas. These two aspects of the disease correlated with the severity of dementia to a similar degree. (orig.)

  16. Global brain atrophy and metabolic dysfunction in LGI1 encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szots, Monika; Blaabjerg, Morten; Orsi, Gergely

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients...... underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data were compared to 9 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Although extratemporal lesions were not present...... clinical outcome following LGI1 encephalitis is associated with global brain atrophy and disintegration of white matter tracts. The pathological changes affect not only temporomesial structures but also frontal lobes and the cerebellum....

  17. Increased cortical curvature reflects white matter atrophy in individual patients with early multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Deppe

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Whole-brain-averaged cortical extrinsic curvature appears to be a specific and quantitative marker for a WMV–cortex disproportionality and allows us to assess “pure” WMA without being confounded by intracranial volume. WMA seems to be a characteristic symptom in early MS and can already occur in patients with CIS and should thus be considered in future MS research and clinical studies.

  18. Age-related infra-tentorial brain atrophy on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1985-01-01

    We had reported that the brain atrophy progressed significantly with advancing age using the two dimensional CT measurement by digitizer which was connected with personal computer. Using this method, we studied the age-related infra-tentrial brain atrophy in 67 normal subjects (14-90 years), and compared that with age-related supra-tentrial brain atrophy. There was a significant correlation between age and all indices [cranio-ventricular index (CVI), ventricular area index (VAI) and brain atrophy index (BAI)] in supratentrial brain. These indices did not correlated to the age in infra-tentrial brain (brainstem and cerebellum). Significant change of the brain atrophy occured above 60 years old was observed by BAI and VAI in supra-tentrial brain. There was a significant correlation between supra-tentrial brain atrophy index (BAI) and that of infratentrial brain. These results indicate that age-related brain atrophy might progress more slowly in brainstem and cerebellum than in cerebrum. (author)

  19. Brain atrophy in patients with arterial disease. The SMART-MR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelman, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy is often observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elderly. This is of clinical importance since the extent and rate of progression of brain atrophy are associated with future cognitive deterioration and conversion to Alzheimer’s dementia. The overall aim of this thesis was

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were...

  1. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  2. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  3. Treatment of a patient with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) with chiropractic manipulation and Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francio, Vinicius T; Boesch, Ron; Tunning, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative syndrome which unusual symptoms include deficits of balance, bodily orientation, chronic pain syndrome and dysfunctional motor patterns. Current research provides minimal guidance on support, education and recommended evidence-based patient care. This case reports the utilization of chiropractic spinal manipulation, dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS), and other adjunctive procedures along with medical treatment of PCA. A 54-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with non-specific back pain associated with visual disturbances, slight memory loss, and inappropriate cognitive motor control. After physical examination, brain MRI and PET scan, the diagnosis of PCA was recognized. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization were utilized as adjunctive care to conservative pharmacological treatment of PCA. Outcome measurements showed a 60% improvement in the patient's perception of health with restored functional neuromuscular pattern, improvements in locomotion, posture, pain control, mood, tolerance to activities of daily living (ADLs) and overall satisfactory progress in quality of life. Yet, no changes on memory loss progression, visual space orientation, and speech were observed. PCA is a progressive and debilitating condition. Because of poor awareness of PCA by physicians, patients usually receive incomplete care. Additional efforts must be centered on the musculoskeletal features of PCA, aiming enhancement in quality of life and functional improvements (FI). Adjunctive rehabilitative treatment is considered essential for individuals with cognitive and motor disturbances, and manual medicine procedures may be consider a viable option.

  4. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  5. Hippocampal Sclerosis of Aging, a Common Alzheimer’s Disease ‘Mimic’: Risk Genotypes are Associated with Brain Atrophy Outside the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common brain disease in older adults with a clinical course that is similar to Alzheimer’s disease. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously shown association with HS-Aging. The present study investigated structural brain changes associated with these SNPs using surface-based analysis. Participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n = 1,239), with both MRI scans and genotype data, were used to assess the association between brain atrophy and previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs in the following genes: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2 (minor allele frequency for each is >30%). A fifth SNP (near the ABCC9 gene) was evaluated in post-hoc analysis. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848_T) was associated with a pattern of atrophy in the dorsomedial frontal lobes bilaterally, remarkable since GRN is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia. The ABCC9 risk SNP (rs704180_A) was associated with multifocal atrophy whereas a SNP (rs7488080_A) nearby (~50 kb upstream) ABCC9 was associated with atrophy in the right entorhinal cortex. Neither TMEM106B (rs1990622_T), KCNMB2 (rs9637454_A), nor any of the non-risk alleles were associated with brain atrophy. When all four previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs were summed into a polygenic risk score, there was a pattern of associated multifocal brain atrophy in a predominately frontal pattern. We conclude that common SNPs previously linked to HS-Aging pathology were associated with a distinct pattern of anterior cortical atrophy. Genetic variation associated with HS-Aging pathology may represent a non-Alzheimer’s disease contribution to atrophy outside of the hippocampus in older adults. PMID:27003218

  6. Brain MRI atrophy quantification in MS: From methods to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A; Battaglini, Marco; Benedict, Ralph H B; De Stefano, Nicola; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Henry, Roland G; Horsfield, Mark A; Jenkinson, Mark; Pagani, Elisabetta; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-01-24

    Patients with the main clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) manifest varying degrees of brain atrophy beyond that of normal aging. Assessment of atrophy helps to distinguish clinically and cognitively deteriorating patients and predicts those who will have a less-favorable clinical outcome over the long term. Atrophy can be measured from brain MRI scans, and many technological improvements have been made over the last few years. Several software tools, with differing requirements on technical ability and levels of operator intervention, are currently available and have already been applied in research or clinical trial settings. Despite this, the measurement of atrophy in routine clinical practice remains an unmet need. After a short summary of the pathologic substrates of brain atrophy in MS, this review attempts to guide the clinician towards a better understanding of the methods currently used for quantifying brain atrophy in this condition. Important physiologic factors that affect brain volume measures are also considered. Finally, the most recent research on brain atrophy in MS is summarized, including whole brain and various compartments thereof (i.e., white matter, gray matter, selected CNS structures). Current methods provide sufficient precision for cohort studies, but are not adequate for confidently assessing changes in individual patients over the scale of months or a few years. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.; Hacker, H.; Fischer, P.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution. (orig.)

  8. Statokinetic Dissociation (Riddoch Phenomenon in a Patient with Homonymous Hemianopsia as the First Sign of Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichiro Hayashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a 60-year-old woman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA who presented with left homonymous hemianopsia persisting for 5 years; the patient’s condition was observed using static, but not kinetic, perimetry. This statokinetic dissociation of hemianopsia, which is often called Riddoch syndrome, might have been caused by a dysfunction of the right primary visual and visual association cortices, representing a functional imbalance within a disturbed visual cortex. In patients with PCA and visual field defects, both static and kinetic perimetry may be useful for understanding the extent of degeneration in the visual cortex, in addition to examinations of unilateral neglect.

  9. Visuo-Spatial Imagery Impairment in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Cognitive and SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gardini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cognitive profile and the cerebral perfusion pattern in a highly educated 70 year old gentleman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA. Visuo-perceptual abilities, spatial memory, spatial representation and navigation, visuo-spatial mental imagery, semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory were assessed. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF was imaged with SPECT. Cognitive testing showed visual-perceptual impairment, apperceptive visual and landmark agnosia, topographical disorientation with way-finding deficits, impaired map learning and poor mental image generation. Semantic memory was normal, while episodic-autobiographical memory was impaired. Reduced rCBF was found mainly in the right hemisphere, in the precentral gyrus, posterior cingulate and middle temporal gyri, cuneus and precuneus, in the left superior temporal and lingual gyri and in the parahippocampus bilaterally. Hypoperfusion in occipito-parietal regions was associated with visuo-spatial deficits, whereas deficits in visuo-spatial mental imagery might reflect dysfunction related to hypoperfusion in the parahippocampus and precuneus, structures which are responsible for spatial and imagery processing. Dissociating performance between preserved semantic memory and poor episodic-autobiographical recall is consistent with a pattern of normal perfusion in frontal and anterior temporal regions but abnormal rCBF in the parahippocampi. The present findings indicate that PCA involves visuo-spatial imagery deficits and provide further validation to current neuro-cognitive models of spatial representation and topographical disorientation.

  10. A case of burn encephalopathy with reversible brain atrophy on brain computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hisaaki; Suzuki, Koh-ichirou; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kido, Kun-ichi; Sato, Masaharu; Fujii, Chiho; Kohama, Akitsugu

    1985-01-01

    We present an interesting case of burn encephalopathy. The patient is a three-year-old girl with second to third degree and 30 % scald burn. She developed central nervous symptom on the second day with high fever and systemic convulsions and was transferred to our clinic on the third day from a local hospital. Her level of consciousness was 30 to 100 (3-3-9 formula) and she developed extra-pyramidal involuntary movement; these neurological signs persisted untill 66th day when she spoke for the first time since admission. Her EEG showed diffuse brain dysfunction and CT showed marked brain atrophy. She began to improve after around 50 days systematically as well as neurologically and was discharged after four months. EEG, CT findings and neurological signs were normal 1.5 years later. We could not find a case of reversible brain atrophy in the reports on burn encephalopathy or other neurological disorders except for the cases of long-term steroid administration on autoimmune diseases or ACTH therapy on infantile spasm. In our case, the reversible brain atrophy might be caused by the rise of endogenous steroid under burn stress, or transient malfunction of cerebro-spinal fluid absorption, or some other causes. (author)

  11. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  13. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  14. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio

    1981-01-01

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  15. Cortical Atrophy is Associated with Accelerated Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mitzi M; Insel, Philip S; Nelson, Craig; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Mueller, Susanne G; Sacuiu, Simona; Bickford, David; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. Prospective cohort study. Multicenter, clinic-based. Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points. Repeated measures of cognitive outcomes, cortical atrophy, and their associations were evaluated with mixed effects models adjusting for age, education, sex, and APOE genotype. The SSD group demonstrated accelerated decline on measures of global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale; df = 421, t = 2.242, p = 0.025), memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory II; df = 244, t = -2.525, p = 0.011), information processing speed (Trail Making Test Parts A [df = 421, t = 2.376, p = 0.018] and B [df = 421, t = 2.533, p = 0.012]), and semantic fluency (Category Fluency; df = 424, t = -2.418, p = 0.016), as well as accelerated frontal lobe (df = 341, t = -2.648, p = 0.008) and anterior cingulate (df = 341, t = -3.786, p decline on measures of attention, learning, and confrontation naming or for rate of atrophy in any other regions. Accelerated frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy was associated with cognitive decline on measures of global cognition, information processing speed, and semantic fluency (all p cognitive decline, an effect that may be governed by frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Brain Atrophy and Hypomyelination Associated with Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sumeyra; S Dogan, Mehmet; Tutunculer, Filiz; Yapiciugurlar, Ozge; Genchellac, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in infants, albeit rare, may lead to Cushing syndrome. Central nervous system abnormalities including brain atrophy and delayed myelination on cranial magnetic resonance imaging has been reported in patients with corticosteroid treatment. We herein report a 5-month-old female infant referred to Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Edirne, Turkey with brain atrophy and myelination delay that might be due to iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by topical corticosteroid use.

  17. Brain atrophy and trunk stability during dual-task walking among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Dual-task walking is believed to be more cognitively demanding than normal walking and alters trunk movement among older adults. However, the possible association between brain atrophy and spatiotemporal gait parameters, particularly during dual-task walking, is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between dual-task walking and brain atrophy. One hundred ten elderly adults (aged 65-94 years, women n = 55) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning and gait experiments under normal and dual-task walking conditions. Linear accelerations of the trunk were measured in vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral directions using a triaxial accelerometer attached to the lower trunk. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were recorded. The harmonic ratio, a measure of trunk stability, was computed separately in each direction to evaluate the smoothness of trunk movement during walking. Brain atrophy was quantitatively assessed using magnetic resonance image data. Gait speed, stride length, cadence, and harmonic ratio in all directions were lower in dual-task walking than in normal walking (p brain atrophy adjusted for subject characteristics only in the vertical direction (p trunk stability during dual-task walking is associated with brain atrophy. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of regional brain atrophy on the control of walking.

  18. Alzheimer's-related cortical atrophy is associated with postoperative delirium severity in persons without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Annie M; Fong, Tamara G; Travison, Thomas G; Jones, Richard N; Gou, Yun; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Marcantonio, Edward R; Alsop, David C; Inouye, Sharon K; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-11-01

    Patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increased risk of developing delirium. This study investigated the relationship between a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived biomarker associated with preclinical AD and postoperative delirium. Participants were older adults (≥70 years) without dementia who underwent preoperative MRI and elective surgery. Delirium incidence and severity were evaluated daily during hospitalization. Cortical thickness was averaged across a published set of a priori brain regions to derive a measure known as the "AD signature." Logistic and linear regression was used, respectively, to test whether the AD signature was associated with delirium incidence in the entire sample (N = 145) or with the severity of delirium among those who developed delirium (N = 32). Thinner cortex in the AD signature did not predict incidence of delirium (odds ratio = 1.15, p = 0.38) but was associated with greater delirium severity among those who developed delirium (b = -1.2, p = 0.014). These results suggest that thinner cortices, perhaps reflecting underlying neurodegeneration due to preclinical AD, may serve as a vulnerability factor that increases severity once delirium occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, J.D.; van der Flier, W.M.; Karas, G.B.; Fox, N.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whole-brain atrophy rate in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and its association with cognitive decline, and investigate the risk of progression to dementia in initially non-demented patients given baseline brain volume and whole-brain

  20. Changes in brain atrophy indices in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpín, Eva Costa; Sobrino, Tania García; Vivero, Clara Domínguez; del Campo Amigo Jorrín, María; Regal, Ana Rodríguez; González, José Prieto; Bouzas, Manuela Lema

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of natalizumab on progression of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to search for a clinical or radiological marker of progression of brain atrophy. We retrospectively recorded demographic and clinical data, as well as the corpus callosum index (CCI) using MRI, in MS patients treated with natalizumab for 1-4 years. In the study population (n = 29), baseline mean CCI was 0.37 ± 0.04 and final CCI 0.36 ± 0.04. 17 patients did not develop brain atrophy during follow-up. There was no statistically significant relationship between progression of atrophy and clinical and radiological parameters. Natalizumab may have a neuroprotective effect.

  1. Relating Cortical Atrophy in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Graph Diffusion-Based Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Farras; Mueller, Susanne; Raj, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by stereotyped origination and spread pattern of epileptogenic activity, which is reflected in stereotyped topographic distribution of neuronal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both epileptogenic activity and atrophy spread appear to follow white matter connections. We model the networked spread of activity and atrophy in TLE from first principles via two simple first order network diffusion models. Atrophy distribution is modeled as a simple consequence of the propagation of epileptogenic activity in one model, and as a progressive degenerative process in the other. We show that the network models closely reproduce the regional volumetric gray matter atrophy distribution of two epilepsy cohorts: 29 TLE subjects with medial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS), and 50 TLE subjects with normal appearance on MRI (TLE-no). Statistical validation at the group level suggests high correlation with measured atrophy (R = 0.586 for TLE-MTS, R = 0.283 for TLE-no). We conclude that atrophy spread model out-performs the hyperactivity spread model. These results pave the way for future clinical application of the proposed model on individual patients, including estimating future spread of atrophy, identification of seizure onset zones and surgical planning. PMID:26513579

  2. The transitional association between β-amyloid pathology and regional brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Philip S; Mattsson, Niklas; Donohue, Michael C; Mackin, R Scott; Aisen, Paul S; Jack, Clifford R; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline. The functional form to model the association between Aβ and regional brain atrophy has not been well defined. To determine the relationship between Aβ and atrophy, we compared the performance of the usual dichotomization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ to identify subjects as Aβ+ and Aβ- with a trilinear spline model of CSF Aβ. One hundred and eighty-three subjects with mild cognitive impairment and 108 cognitively normal controls with baseline CSF Aβ and up to 4 years of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Piecewise-linear splines were used to evaluate the nonlinear nature of the association between CSF Aβ and regional atrophy and to identify points of acceleration of atrophy with respect to Aβ. Several parameterizations of CSF Aβ were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike information criterion. Periods of acceleration of atrophy in which subjects transition from CSF Aβ negativity to CSF Aβ positivity were estimated from the spline models and tested for significance. Spline models resulted in better fits for many temporal and parietal regions compared with the dichotomous models. The trilinear model showed that periods of acceleration of atrophy varied greatly by region with early changes seen in the insula, amygdala, precuneus, hippocampus, and other temporal regions, occurring before the clinical threshold for CSF Aβ positivity. The use of piecewise-linear splines provides an improved model of the nonlinear association between CSF Aβ and regional atrophy in regions implicated in the progression of AD. The important biological finding of this work is that some brain regions show periods of accelerated volume loss well before the CSF Aβ42 threshold. This implies that signs of brain atrophy

  3. Prevalence of Mathematical and Visuospatial Learning Disabilities in Patients With Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary A; Rosenberg, Lynne; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Stephens, Melanie; Allen, Isabel E; Hubbard, H Isabel; Cantwell, Averill; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Grinberg, Lea T; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2018-04-09

    Increased prevalence of language-based learning disabilities (LDs) has been previously reported in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This study hypothesized that patients with focal neurodegenerative syndromes outside the language network, such as posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), would have a higher rate of nonlanguage LDs, congruent with their mainly visuospatial presentation. To investigate the prevalence and type of LD (language and/or mathematical and visuospatial) in a large cohort of patients with PCA compared with patients with logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) and amnestic Alzheimer disease (AD). This case-control study reviewed 279 medical records from a university-based clinic and research center for patients with neurodegenerative diseases for LD history, including patients with PCA (n = 95), patients with lvPPA (n = 84), and a matched cohort with amnestic AD (n = 100). No records were excluded. The study compared cognitive and neuroimaging features of patients with PCA with and without LDs. A review of the records of patients presenting from March 1, 1999, to August 31, 2014, revealed 95 PCA cases and 84 lvPPA cases. Then 100 patients with amnestic AD from this same period were chosen for comparison, matching against the groups for age, sex, and disease severity. Data analysis was performed from September 8, 2013, to November 6, 2017. Prevalence of total LD history and prevalence of language and mathematical or visuospatial LD history across all cohorts. A total of 179 atypical AD cases (95 with PCA and 84 with lvPPA) and 100 disease control cases (amnestic AD) were included in the study. The groups were not statistically different for mean (SD) age at first visit (PCA, 61.9 [7.0] years; lvPPA, 65.1 [8.7] years; amnestic AD, 64.0 [12.6] years; P = .08), mean (SD) age at first symptom (PCA, 57.5 [7.0] years; lvPPA, 61.1 [9.0] years; amnestic AD, 59.6 [13.7] years; P = .06), or sex (PCA, 66.3% female; lvPPA, 56.0% female

  4. Brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoto, Masafumi, E-mail: mkanoto@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Hosoya, Takaaki, E-mail: thosoya@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Toyoguchi, Yuuki, E-mail: c-elegans_0201g@mail.goo.ne.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Oda, Atsuko, E-mail: a.oda@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease (CPNBD) resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) on patient background and image findings, and therefore is difficult to diagnose. The purpose is to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CPNBD and to clarify the differences between the MRI findings of CPNBD and those of MS. Materials and methods: The subjects consist of a CPNBD group (n = 4; 1 male and 3 females; mean age, 51 y.o.), a MS group (n = 19; 3 males and 16 females; mean age, 45 y.o.) and a normal control group (n = 23; 10 males and 13 females; mean age, 45 y.o.). Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated in each subjects. In middle sagittal brain MR images, the prepontine distance was measured as an indirect index of brain stem and cerebellar atrophy and the pontine and mesencephalic distance was measured as a direct index of brain stem atrophy. These indexes were statistically analyzed. Results: Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were seen in all CPNBD cases. Prepontine distance was significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.05), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pontine and mesencephalic distance were significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease should be considered in patients with brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in addition to leukoencephalopathy similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis.

  5. Combining the boundary shift integral and tensor-based morphometry for brain atrophy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Mateusz; Pai, Akshay; Leung, Kelvin K.; Sommer, Stefan; Darkner, Sune; Sørensen, Lauge; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Brain atrophy from structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is widely used as an imaging surrogate marker for Alzheimers disease. Their utility has been limited due to the large degree of variance and subsequently high sample size estimates. The only consistent and reasonably powerful atrophy estimation methods has been the boundary shift integral (BSI). In this paper, we first propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method to measure voxel-wise atrophy that we combine with BSI. The combined model decreases the sample size estimates significantly when compared to BSI and TBM alone.

  6. Homocysteine and brain atrophy on MRI of non-demented elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Vermeer, SE; Clarke, R; Oudkerk, M; Koudstaal, PJ; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease have higher plasma homocysteine levels than controls, but it is uncertain whether higher plasma homocysteine levels are involved in the early pathogenesis of the disease. Hippocampal, amygdalar and global brain atrophy on brain MRI have been proposed as early

  7. Progressive brain damage, synaptic reorganization and NMDA activation in a model of epileptogenic cortical dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Colciaghi

    Full Text Available Whether severe epilepsy could be a progressive disorder remains as yet unresolved. We previously demonstrated in a rat model of acquired focal cortical dysplasia, the methylazoxymethanol/pilocarpine - MAM/pilocarpine - rats, that the occurrence of status epilepticus (SE and subsequent seizures fostered a pathologic process capable of modifying the morphology of cortical pyramidal neurons and NMDA receptor expression/localization. We have here extended our analysis by evaluating neocortical and hippocampal changes in MAM/pilocarpine rats at different epilepsy stages, from few days after onset up to six months of chronic epilepsy. Our findings indicate that the process triggered by SE and subsequent seizures in the malformed brain i is steadily progressive, deeply altering neocortical and hippocampal morphology, with atrophy of neocortex and CA regions and progressive increase of granule cell layer dispersion; ii changes dramatically the fine morphology of neurons in neocortex and hippocampus, by increasing cell size and decreasing both dendrite arborization and spine density; iii induces reorganization of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks in both neocortex and hippocampus, favoring excitatory vs inhibitory input; iv activates NMDA regulatory subunits. Taken together, our data indicate that, at least in experimental models of brain malformations, severe seizure activity, i.e., SE plus recurrent seizures, may lead to a widespread, steadily progressive architectural, neuronal and synaptic reorganization in the brain. They also suggest the mechanistic relevance of glutamate/NMDA hyper-activation in the seizure-related brain pathologic plasticity.

  8. Progressive brain damage, synaptic reorganization and NMDA activation in a model of epileptogenic cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colciaghi, Francesca; Finardi, Adele; Nobili, Paola; Locatelli, Denise; Spigolon, Giada; Battaglia, Giorgio Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Whether severe epilepsy could be a progressive disorder remains as yet unresolved. We previously demonstrated in a rat model of acquired focal cortical dysplasia, the methylazoxymethanol/pilocarpine - MAM/pilocarpine - rats, that the occurrence of status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent seizures fostered a pathologic process capable of modifying the morphology of cortical pyramidal neurons and NMDA receptor expression/localization. We have here extended our analysis by evaluating neocortical and hippocampal changes in MAM/pilocarpine rats at different epilepsy stages, from few days after onset up to six months of chronic epilepsy. Our findings indicate that the process triggered by SE and subsequent seizures in the malformed brain i) is steadily progressive, deeply altering neocortical and hippocampal morphology, with atrophy of neocortex and CA regions and progressive increase of granule cell layer dispersion; ii) changes dramatically the fine morphology of neurons in neocortex and hippocampus, by increasing cell size and decreasing both dendrite arborization and spine density; iii) induces reorganization of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks in both neocortex and hippocampus, favoring excitatory vs inhibitory input; iv) activates NMDA regulatory subunits. Taken together, our data indicate that, at least in experimental models of brain malformations, severe seizure activity, i.e., SE plus recurrent seizures, may lead to a widespread, steadily progressive architectural, neuronal and synaptic reorganization in the brain. They also suggest the mechanistic relevance of glutamate/NMDA hyper-activation in the seizure-related brain pathologic plasticity.

  9. Albuminuria, Cerebrovascular Disease and Cortical Atrophy: among Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Bin; Shin, Hee-Young; Park, Sang Eon; Chun, Phillip; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Yang, Jin-ju; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Jin San; Lee, Juyoun; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jang, Eun Young; Kang, Mira; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Changsoo; Min, Ju-Hong; Ryu, Seungho; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-02-15

    We tested the hypothesis that decreased glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria have different roles in brain structure alterations. We enrolled 1,215 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom underwent high-resolution T1-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans. The cerebral small vessel disease burdens were assessed with white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, and microbleeds. Subjects were considered to have an abnormally elevated urine albumin creatinine ratio if the value was ≥17 mg/g for men and ≥25 mg/g for women. Albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was associated with increased WMH burdens (p = 0.002). The data was analyzed after adjusting for age, sex, education, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, total cholesterol level, body mass index, status of smoking and alcohol drinking, and intracranial volume. Albuminuria was also associated with cortical thinning, predominantly in the frontal and occipital regions (both p albuminuria was associated with frontal thinning partially mediated by WMH burdens. The assessment of albuminuria is needed to improve our ability to identify individuals with high risk for cognitive impairments, and further institute appropriate preventive measures.

  10. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  11. White matter lesions characterise brain involvement in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but cerebral atrophy does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilling, Catherine A; Jones, Paul W; Dodd, James W; Barrick, Thomas R

    2017-06-19

    Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function. T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV 1 52.1% pred., PaO 2 10.1 kPa) and 24 age, gender-matched controls. T1-weighted images were segmented into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissue classes using a semi-automated procedure optimised for use with this cohort. This procedure allows, cohort-specific anatomical features to be captured, white matter lesions (WMLs) to be identified and includes a tissue repair step to correct for misclassification caused by WMLs. Tissue volumes and cortical thickness were calculated from the resulting segmentations. Additionally, a fully-automated pipeline was used to calculate localised cortical surface and gyrification. WM and GM tissue volumes, the tissue volume ratio (indicator of atrophy), average cortical thickness, and the number, size, and volume of white matter lesions (WMLs) were analysed across the whole-brain and regionally - for each anatomical lobe and the deep-GM. The hippocampus was investigated as a region-of-interest. Localised (voxel-wise and vertex-wise) variations in cortical gyrification, GM density and cortical thickness, were also investigated. Statistical models controlling for age and gender were used to test for between-group differences and within-group correlations. Robust statistical approaches ensured the family-wise error rate was controlled in regional and local analyses. There were no significant differences in global, regional, or local measures of GM between patients and controls, however, patients had an increased volume (p = 0.02) and size (p = 0.04) of WMLs. In patients, greater normalised hippocampal volume positively correlated with exacerbation frequency (p = 0

  12. Progressive brain atrophy in patients with chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; Seabaugh, Jan M; Demark, Michael F; Shrader, Carole R; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Havranek, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    NeuroQuant® is a recently developed, FDA-approved software program for measuring brain MRI volume in clinical settings. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to examine the test-retest reliability of NeuroQuant®; (2) to test the hypothesis that patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) would have abnormally rapid progressive brain atrophy; and (3) to test the hypothesis that progressive brain atrophy in patients with mild TBI would be associated with vocational outcome. Sixteen patients with mild TBI were compared to 20 normal controls. Vocational outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS). NeuroQuant® showed high test-re-test reliability. Patients had abnormally rapid progressive atrophy in several brain regions and the rate of atrophy was associated with inability to return to work. NeuroQuant®, is a reliable and valid method for assessing the anatomic effects of TBI. Progression of atrophy may continue for years after injury, even in patients with mild TBI.

  13. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    and MCI makes use of a single disease-specific template challenging. We propose a novel approach to generate a continuous four-dimensional template, where the 4th dimension is a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy. Methods We used MRI scans obtained from the ADNI database (www...... of the brain and the contrast between different tissue types for the given level of atrophy. Figure 1 shows images through 6 example values of increasing RLVV. Conclusions The proposed method and resulting template will be useful tools for the development of robust automatic image processing methods targeted.......loni.ucla.edu/ADNI). Automated methods to estimate intracranial capacity (ICC) and lateral ventricles volume (LVV) [2] was applied to all available datasets at base line. The ratio between LVV and ICC (RLVV) was used as a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy with mean(standard deviation) value of 2.46(0.87)%. Subsets from...

  14. Measurement of brain atrophy of aging using x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1984-01-01

    We measured brain volume of 1,045 subjects with no brain damage using x-ray computed tomography and investigated brain atrophy of aging. Severity of brain atrophy was estimated by brain atrophy index (BAI): BAI (%)=100 (%)x(cerebrospinal fluid space volume/cranial cavity volume). Atrophy of the brain began with statistical significance in the forties in both sexes. In males 40-49 years of age the mean BAI was 1.0% greater (p<0.001) and the S.D. of BAI was 1.1% greater (p<0.001) than those in their thirties. In females of 40-49 years the mean BAI was 0.5% greater (p<0.001) than that in their thirties, but there was no statistical significance between the two S.D.'s of both decades. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age from thirties in both sexes. Correlation coefficients were 0.702 (p< 0.001, n=471) in males and 0.721 (p<0.001, n=480) in females. From the regression coefficients it was calculated that the BAI was doubled in 19.4 years in males and 17.4 years in females after thirties. (author)

  15. Toward more versatile and intuitive cortical brain machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Richard A.; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Aflalo, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Brain machine interfaces have great potential in neuroprosthetic applications to assist patients with brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. One type of BMI is a cortical motor prosthetic which is used to assist paralyzed subjects. Motor prosthetics to date have typically used the motor cortex as a source of neural signals for controlling external devices. The review will focus on several new topics in the arena of cortical prosthetics. These include using 1) recordings from cortical areas outside motor cortex; 2) local field potentials (LFPs) as a source of recorded signals; 3) somatosensory feedback for more dexterous control of robotics; and 4) new decoding methods that work in concert to form an ecology of decode algorithms. These new advances hold promise in greatly accelerating the applicability and ease of operation of motor prosthetics. PMID:25247368

  16. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  17. The bidirectional association between reduced cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Hazel I; Loehrer, Elizabeth A; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Krestin, Gabriel P; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W

    2015-11-01

    The question remains whether reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) leads to brain atrophy or vice versa. We studied the longitudinal relation between CBF and brain volume in a community-dwelling population. In the Rotterdam Study, 3011 participants (mean age 59.6 years (s.d. 8.0)) underwent repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify brain volume and CBF at two time points. Adjusted linear regression models were used to investigate the bidirectional relation between CBF and brain volume. We found that smaller brain volume at baseline was associated with a steeper decrease in CBF in the whole population (standardized change per s.d. increase of total brain volume (TBV)=0.296 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.200; 0.393)). Only in persons aged ⩾65 years, a lower CBF at baseline was associated with steeper decline of TBV (standardized change per s.d. increase of CBF=0.003 (95% CI -0.004; 0.010) in the whole population and 0.020 (95% CI 0.004; 0.036) in those aged ⩾65 years of age). Our results indicate that brain atrophy causes CBF to decrease over time, rather than vice versa. Only in persons aged >65 years of age did we find lower CBF to also relate to brain atrophy.

  18. Age-related brain atrophy and mental deterioration - a study with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, M.; Hatazawa, J.; Yamaura, H.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of brain atrophy measured with computed tomography (CT) to mental deterioration on living people was studied. A newly improved technique for quantitative measurement of brain atrophy was developed. The pixels inside the head slices were divided into three parts; brain skull, and cerebrospinal fluid according to their CT number. The volume of brain, CSF, and cranial cavity were calculated by counting the number of pixels of each tissue. Results from 130 normal brains showed that the CSF volume was constant at about 16 ml through 20-39 years old. After 40 years the mean CSF volume increased drastically and reached 71 ml in the seventies. The volume of the brain was standardized for comparison between different-sized heads (brain volume index: BVI). The mean BVI decreased with statistical significance after 40 years of age. Mental function of these persons were evaluated using Hasegawa's dementia rating scale for the elderly. Progression of brain atrophy accompanied loss of mental activities (p<0.01). (author)

  19. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6±5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  20. Reversible brain atrophy and cognitive impairment in an adolescent Japanese patient with primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Kaneko, Masanori; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Furukawa, Kazuo; Abe, Takahiro; Matsubayashi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takaho; Hanyu, Osamu; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is an endocrine disease resulting from chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex. Although the ultimate outcome remains uncertain, functional and morphological brain changes are not uncommon in patients with this syndrome, and generally persist even after resolution of hypercortisolemia. We present an adolescent patient with Cushing's syndrome who exhibited cognitive impairment with brain atrophy. A 19-year-old Japanese male visited a local hospital following 5 days of behavioral abnormalities, such as money wasting or nighttime wandering. He had hypertension and a 1-year history of a rounded face. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed apparently diffuse brain atrophy. Because of high random plasma cortisol levels (28.7 μg/dL) at 10 AM, he was referred to our hospital in August 2011. Endocrinological testing showed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent hypercortisolemia, and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a 2.7 cm tumor in the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy in September 2011, and the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adenoma was confirmed histologically. His hypertension and Cushingoid features regressed. Behavioral abnormalities were no longer observed, and he was classified as cured of his cognitive disturbance caused by Cushing's syndrome in February 2012. MRI performed 8 months after surgery revealed reversal of brain atrophy, and his subsequent course has been uneventful. In summary, the young age at onset and the short duration of Cushing's syndrome probably contributed to the rapid recovery of both cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy in our patient. Cushing's syndrome should be considered as a possible etiological factor in patients with cognitive impairment and brain atrophy that is atypical for their age.

  1. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and global brain atrophy in different apolipoprotein E genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Oudkerk, M; Launer, LJ; van Duijn, CM; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2002-01-01

    The epsilon4 allele of the APOE gene increases the risk for AD, whereas the epsilon2 allele may be protective. The authors assessed the impact of APOE genotype on hippocampal, amygdalar, and global brain atrophy as putative markers of preclinical AD in a nondemented population. Carriers Of epsilon4

  2. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, V.; Agosta, F.; Hulst, H.E.; Sluimer, I.C.; Knol, D.L.; Sormani, M.P.; Enzinger, C.; Ropele, S.; Alonso, J.; Sastre-Garriga, J.; Rovira, A.; Montalban, X.; Bodini, B.; Ciccarelli, O.; Khaleeli, Z.; Chard, D.T.; Matthews, L.; Palace, J.; Giorgio, A.; De Stefano, N.; Eisele, P.; Gass, A.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Messina, M.J.; Comi, G.; Filippi, M.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS). Design From eight MAGNIMS (MAGNetic resonance Imaging in MS) centres, we retrospectively included 261 MS patients with MR imaging at baseline and after 1-2 years,

  3. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Ware, Jenna; Fischer, Corinne E; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Much of the research on delaying the onset of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pharmacotherapy, but environmental factors have also been acknowledged to play a significant role. Bilingualism may be one factor contributing to 'cognitive reserve' (CR) and therefore to a delay in symptom onset. If bilingualism is protective, then the brains of bilinguals should show greater atrophy in relevant areas, since their enhanced CR enables them to function at a higher level than would be predicted from their level of disease. We analyzed a number of linear measurements of brain atrophy from the computed tomography (CT) scans of monolingual and bilingual patients diagnosed with probable AD who were matched on level of cognitive performance and years of education. Bilingual patients with AD exhibited substantially greater amounts of brain atrophy than monolingual patients in areas traditionally used to distinguish AD patients from healthy controls, specifically, the radial width of the temporal horn and the temporal horn ratio. Other measures of brain atrophy were comparable for the two groups. Bilingualism appears to contribute to increased CR, thereby delaying the onset of AD and requiring the presence of greater amounts of neuropathology before the disease is manifest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Function and Brain Atrophy Predict Non-pharmacological Efficacy in Dementia: The Mihama-Kiho Scan Project2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Tabei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine whether neuropsychological deficits and brain atrophy could predict the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions. Forty-six participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were monitored for 6 months; 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. Participants were categorized into improvement (IMP and no-IMP subgroups. In the exercise-with-music group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test at baseline. In the cognitive-stimulation group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices and the cognitive functional independence measure at baseline. In the no-IMP subgroup, voxel-based morphometric analysis at baseline revealed more extensive gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus in the exercise-with-music and cognitive-stimulation groups, respectively. Participants with mild-to-moderate dementia with cognitive decline and extensive cortical atrophy are less likely to show improved cognitive function after non-pharmaceutical therapy.

  5. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly

    2013-01-01

    Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization...... inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially...... relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday...

  6. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical network architecture for context processing in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zenas C; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-09-29

    Context is information linked to a situation that can guide behavior. In the brain, context is encoded by sensory processing and can later be retrieved from memory. How context is communicated within the cortical network in sensory and mnemonic forms is unknown due to the lack of methods for high-resolution, brain-wide neuronal recording and analysis. Here, we report the comprehensive architecture of a cortical network for context processing. Using hemisphere-wide, high-density electrocorticography, we measured large-scale neuronal activity from monkeys observing videos of agents interacting in situations with different contexts. We extracted five context-related network structures including a bottom-up network during encoding and, seconds later, cue-dependent retrieval of the same network with the opposite top-down connectivity. These findings show that context is represented in the cortical network as distributed communication structures with dynamic information flows. This study provides a general methodology for recording and analyzing cortical network neuronal communication during cognition.

  8. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magraner, M.; Coret, F.; Casanova, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta ® and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm 3 , to 960 mm 3 (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 × 10 5 mm 3 to 1.42 × 10 5 mm 3 (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was −2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0–6 months PBVC −1.7%; 6–12 months PBVC −0.74%; 12–18 months PBVC −0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient −0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (−2.3% to −1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  9. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  10. Posterior cortical atrophy - a prototypical case of dementia beginning with visual symptoms: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta; Alexandre Chater Taleb; Bruno Galafassi Ghini; Vânia Lúcia Dias Soares; Victor de Melo Caixeta; Ciro Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. We describe a case of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. A 55-year-old, right-handed, woman with early onset of visual impairment not associated with anterior visual pathology, presenting with dyslexia, visual agnosia, Balint's syndrome, and spatial disorientation. Ophthalmologists should consider...

  11. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and possi......BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy...... were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. RESULTS: Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based...

  12. Cortical and subcortical mechanisms of brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Schurger, Aaron; Blefari, Maria Laura; Del Millán, José R; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level. Here, we provide a comprehensive and detailed report of the areas active during on-line BMI control. We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants controlled an EEG-based BMI inside the scanner. We identified the regions activated during BMI control and how they overlap with those involved in motor imagery (without any BMI control). In addition, we investigated which regions reflect the subjective sense of controlling a BMI, the sense of agency for BMI-actions. Our data revealed an extended cortical-subcortical network involved in operating a motor-imagery BMI. This includes not only sensorimotor regions but also the posterior parietal cortex, the insula and the lateral occipital cortex. Interestingly, the basal ganglia and the anterior cingulate cortex were involved in the subjective sense of controlling the BMI. These results inform basic neuroscience by showing that the mechanisms of BMI control extend beyond sensorimotor cortices. This knowledge may be useful for the development of BMIs that offer a more natural and embodied feeling of control for the user. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2971-2989, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Post-mortem Findings in Huntington's Deep Brain Stimulation: A Moving Target Due to Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinata Vedam-Mai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been shown to be effective for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and primary dystonia. However, mixed results have been reported in Huntington’s disease (HD. Case Report: A single case of HD DBS was identified from the University of Florida DBS Brain Tissue Network. The clinical presentation, evolution, surgical planning, DBS parameters, clinical outcomes, and brain pathological changes are summarized. Discussion: This case of HD DBS revealed that chorea may improve and be sustained. Minimal histopathological changes were noted around the DBS leads. Severe atrophy due to HD likely changed the DBS lead position relative to the internal capsule.

  14. Progression of brain atrophy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study in de novo patients without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Carlo; Lucetti, Claudio; Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Poletti, Michele; Danti, Sabrina; Baldacci, Filippo; Vignali, Claudio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-08-01

    The presence of brain atrophy and its progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) are still a matter of debate, particularly in patients without cognitive impairment. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess whether PD patients who remain cognitively intact develop progressive atrophic changes in the early stages of the disease. For this purpose, we employed high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging to compare 22 drug-naïve de novo PD patients without cognitive impairment to 17 age-matched control subjects, both at baseline and at three-year follow-up. We used tensor-based morphometry to explore the presence of atrophic changes at baseline and to compute yearly atrophy rates, after which we performed voxel-wise group comparisons using threshold-free cluster enhancement. At baseline, we did not observe significant differences in regional atrophy in PD patients with respect to control subjects. In contrast, PD patients showed significantly higher yearly atrophy rates in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, and thalamus when compared to control subjects. Our results indicate that even cognitively preserved PD patients show progressive cortical and subcortical atrophic changes in regions related to cognitive functions and that these changes are already detectable in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lateralized occipital degeneration in posterior cortical atrophy predicts visual field deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Millington

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Detailed brain imaging shows that the asymmetric visual field deficits in patients with PCA reflect the pattern of degeneration of both white and gray matter in the occipital lobe. Understanding the nature of both visual field deficits and the neurodegenerative brain changes in PCA may improve diagnosis and understanding of this disease.

  16. Recommendations to improve imaging and analysis of brain lesion load and atrophy in longitudinal studies of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrenken, H.; Jenkinson, M.; Horsfield, M.A.; Battaglini, M.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Rostrup, E.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Fisher, E.; Zijdenbos, A.; Ashburner, J.; Miller, D. H.; Filippi, M.; Fazekas, F.; Rovaris, M.; Rovira, A.; Barkhof, F.; De Stefano, N.

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions and brain atrophy are the most extensively studied aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the image acquisition and analysis techniques used can be further improved, especially those for studying within-patient changes of lesion load and atrophy longitudinally. Improved accuracy and

  17. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  18. Man Versus Machine Part 2: Comparison of Radiologists' Interpretations and NeuroQuant Measures of Brain Asymmetry and Progressive Atrophy in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; DeSmit, Megan E; Seabaugh, Jan M; Havranek, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    This study is an expanded version of an earlier study, which compared NeuroQuant measures of MRI brain volume with the radiologist's traditional approach in outpatients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. NeuroQuant volumetric analyses were compared with the radiologists' interpretations. NeuroQuant found significantly higher rates of atrophy (50.0%), abnormal asymmetry (83.3%), and progressive atrophy (70.0%) than the radiologists (12.5%, 0% and 0%, respectively). Overall, NeuroQuant was more sensitive for detecting at least one sign of atrophy, abnormal asymmetry, or progressive atrophy (95.8%) than the traditional radiologist's approach (12.5%).

  19. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  20. Posterior cortical atrophy--a prototypical case of dementia beginning with visual symptoms: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, Leonardo Ferreira; Taleb, Alexandre Chater; Ghini, Bruno Galafassi; Soares, Vânia Lúcia Dias; Caixeta, Victor de Melo; Vargas, Ciro

    2013-10-01

    Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. We describe a case of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. A 55-year-old, right-handed, woman with early onset of visual impairment not associated with anterior visual pathology, presenting with dyslexia, visual agnosia, Balint's syndrome, and spatial disorientation. Ophthalmologists should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  1. Posterior cortical atrophy - a prototypical case of dementia beginning with visual symptoms: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. We describe a case of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. A 55-year-old, right-handed, woman with early onset of visual impairment not associated with anterior visual pathology, presenting with dyslexia, visual agnosia, Balint's syndrome, and spatial disorientation. Ophthalmologists should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  2. Brain volumetric analysis and cortical thickness in adults with saccadic intrusions (ocular flutter or opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Juliá, María-José; Pappa, Evangelia; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leclercq, Delphine; Hautefort, Charlotte; Tilikete, Caroline; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Psimaras, Dimitri; Alentorn, Agusti

    2017-12-01

    Ocular flutter (OF) and opsoclonus are considered a continuum with a similar pathogenesis. Due to the rarity of this disease in the adult population, little is known about the brain morphological changes in the chronic phase of the disease. Six magnetic resonance imaging from adults with previous history of OF/Opsoclonus and 12 healthy patients (paired by age and sex) were analyzed in order to identify the long term cortical thickness pattern in this rare disease by using Freesurfer. Patients with OF/Opsoclonus showed reduced cerebellum cortical volume with a subsequent diminution in total cerebellar volume. White mater cerebellum volume was not modified. In addition, we have also identified a significant supratentorial gray matter volume decrease in OF/Opsoclonus patients, involving both the cortical and the subcortical gray matter. OF/Opsoclonus in adults may be associated with cortical and subcortical gray matter atrophy, as well as decreased cerebellar cortical volume. Further larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related decline in cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    Using computed tomography, the authors studied brain atrophy during aging in 536 men and 529 women with no neurologic disturbances. They measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space volume and cranial cavity volume above the level of the tentorium cerebelli and calculated a brain atrophy index. CFS space volume strated to increase significantly in the group aged from 45 to 54 years, while the BAI started to increase significantly in the group aged from 35 to 44 years in both men and women. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age after 25 years, continuing to increase until 75 years or more in both men and women: log BAI = -0.260 + 0.0150 x age, r = 0.707, n = 493, p < 0.001 in men; log BAI = -0.434 + 0.0162 x age, r = 0.757, n = 504, p < 0.001 in women. Using the xenon-133 inhalation method, the authors studied age-related decline in regional cerebral blood flow (regional initial slope index; rISI) in 197 men and 238 women with no neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 19 to 88 years. The rISI values in women declined almost linearly with the advancing age from the 50s to the 80s except the 70s. The rISI values in men declined with the advancing age from the 40s to the 60s, but remained unchanged thereafter until the 80s, suggesting the existence of a threshold of rISI values. We estimated the rISI values (probable threshold of brain atrophy), the frequency under which is equivalent to the volume of brain tissues atrophying in a decade, and obtained constant values as about 32 for men and about 37 for women in the 50s, 60s and 70s. If the frequency of rISI values in the brain is distributed according to a Gaussian function and mean of rISI values decreases linearly to the increasing age, then brain tissues having rISI values below the thresholds degenerate almost exponentially with the increasing age, leading to the exponential atrophy of the brain. (J.P.N.)

  4. NSAIDs may protect against age-related brain atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B Bendlin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in humans is associated with brain differences including decreased number of activated microglia. In animals, NSAIDs are associated with reduced microglia, decreased amyloid burden, and neuronal preservation. Several studies suggest NSAIDs protect brain regions affected in the earliest stages of AD, including hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the protective effect of NSAID use on gray matter volume in a group of middle-aged and older NSAID users (n = 25 compared to non-user controls (n = 50. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Non-user controls showed smaller volume in portions of the left hippocampus compared to NSAID users. Age-related loss of volume differed between groups, with controls showing greater medial temporal lobe volume loss with age compared to NSAID users. These results should be considered preliminary, but support previous reports that NSAIDs may modulate age-related loss of brain volume.

  5. Contribution of brain atrophy on CT and aging to intelligence level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    Decrased intellectual functions due to senility have been much discussed in connection with aging or brain atophy alternatively. But this change should be analysed under multifactorial basis. Furthermore, variations between individuals should be taken into account in dealing with an advanced age group. In these regards, the author performed multivariate analysis on intellectual changes, aging and brain arophy demonstrated on brain CT. Clonological study was also performed to reveal the individual variations. The objects were consisted of 72 people, including the patients of more than 65 years of age who were hospitalized to a geriatrics hospital because of senile dementia, and, as a control group residents in a home for the aged nearby the hospital. Average age was 75.4 years old. Intellectual level was measured through Hasegawa's dementia rating scale. Ventricular enlargement was measured on brain CT to determine the severity of brain atrophy. These two factors and age were processed with multivariate analysis. And clonological study was made to the deviation of intellectual level vs. the change of ventricular enlargement. As the result, firstly, this simple analysing model was able to reveal some aspcts of the deteriolating phenomena of intellectual leve through double factorial basis, i.e. brain atrophy on CT and age. Secondly, the group showing greater changes in the brain atrophy on CT, which included one case with rapid deteriolation in dementia scale of more than 10 points, was distributed mainly around full marks or zero point in dementia scale. This result postulates that the range of the dementia scale should be expanded upwrds as well as downwards for the better explanation of the relation between intellectual deteriolation and above mentioned two factors. (author)

  6. Atrophy and Primary Somatosensory Cortical Reorganization after Unilateral Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manxiu, Ma; Zhao, Can; Xi, Yue; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) on the changes in the central nervous system (CNS) over time may depend on the dynamic interaction between the structural integrity of the spinal cord and the capacity of the brain plasticity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in a longitudinal study on five rhesus monkeys to observe cerebral activation during upper limb somatosensory tasks in healthy animals and after unilateral thoracic SCI. The changes in the spinal cord diameters were measured, and the correlations among time after the lesion, structural changes in the spinal cord, and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) reorganization were also determined. After SCI, activation of the upper limb in S1 shifted to the region which generally dominates the lower limb, and the rostral spinal cord transverse diameter adjacent to the lesion exhibited obvious atrophy, which reflects the SCI-induced changes in the CNS. A significant correlation was found among the time after the lesion, the spinal cord atrophy, and the degree of contralateral S1 reorganization. The results indicate the structural changes in the spinal cord and the dynamic reorganization of the cerebral activation following early SCI stage, which may help to further understand the neural plasticity in the CNS. PMID:24490171

  7. 3D pattern of brain atrophy in HIV/AIDS visualized using tensor-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    35% of HIV-infected patients have cognitive impairment, but the profile of HIV-induced brain damage is still not well understood. Here we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize brain deficits and clinical/anatomical correlations in HIV/AIDS. To perform TBM, we developed a new MRI-based analysis technique that uses fluid image warping, and a new α-entropy-based information-theoretic measure of image correspondence, called the Jensen–Rényi divergence (JRD). Methods 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 26 AIDS patients (CDC stage C and/or 3 without HIV-associated dementia; 47.2 ± 9.8 years; 25M/1F; CD4+ T-cell count: 299.5 ± 175.7/µl; log10 plasma viral load: 2.57 ± 1.28 RNA copies/ml) and 14 HIV-seronegative controls (37.6 ± 12.2 years; 8M/6F) were fluidly registered by applying forces throughout each deforming image to maximize the JRD between it and a target image (from a control subject). The 3D fluid registration was regularized using the linearized Cauchy–Navier operator. Fine-scale volumetric differences between diagnostic groups were mapped. Regions were identified where brain atrophy correlated with clinical measures. Results Severe atrophy (~15–20% deficit) was detected bilaterally in the primary and association sensorimotor areas. Atrophy of these regions, particularly in the white matter, correlated with cognitive impairment (P=0.033) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion (P=0.005). Conclusion TBM facilitates 3D visualization of AIDS neuropathology in living patients scanned with MRI. Severe atrophy in frontoparietal and striatal areas may underlie early cognitive dysfunction in AIDS patients, and may signal the imminent onset of AIDS dementia complex. PMID:17035049

  8. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ 42 ). Exosomes were isolated from plasma, enriched for neural origin using immunoprecipitation for L1CAM, and measured for pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 phosphotypes. MPRAGE images were segmented by brain tissue type and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for gray matter against pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 was conducted. Given the regionally variable brain expression of IRS-1, we used the Allen Brain Atlas to make spatial comparisons between VBM results and IRS-1 expression. Brain volume was positively associated with P-panTyr-IRS-1 and negatively associated with pSer 312 -IRS-1 in a strikingly similar regional pattern (bilateral parietal-occipital junction, R middle temporal gyrus). This volumetric association pattern was spatially correlated with Allen Human Brain atlas normal brain IRS-1 expression. Exosomal biomarkers of brain IR are thus associated with atrophy in AD as could be expected by their pathophysiological roles and do so in a pattern that reflects regional IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, neural-origin plasma exosomes may recover molecular signals from specific brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1933-1940, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Delayed Onset Eye Opening Apraxia due to Progression of Brain Atrophy following Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takashi; Higuchi, Masa-Aki; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Samura, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Tooru

    2017-01-01

    Eye opening apraxia (EOA) has been described in literature as a complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS), especially after electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). EOA can be either worsened or alleviated by DBS depending on the etiology. Herein, we report a rare case where the progression of brain atrophy may have contributed to the delayed onset of EOA. The patient, a 73-year-old woman, had previously undergone bilateral STN-DBS for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), which was performed by another DBS team, at the age of 68 years. She initially experienced a dramatic improvement in her motor symptoms, with no adverse events. However, she had difficulty in opening her right eye 3 years after the DBS surgery. Imaging studies showed that the brain atrophy had progressed over the past 5 years, and that the DBS electrodes were implanted through the far anterior entry points. We considered that the relative movement of the DBS might have been caused by the progression of the brain atrophy to the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC) where the corticobulbar tract exists, and this was enhanced by the lower implantation angle. The present case illustrates the importance of the DBS insertion angle considering the a+ trophic effect and the follow-up imaging studies after DBS.

  10. Association of In Vivo [18F]AV-1451 Tau PET Imaging Results With Cortical Atrophy and Symptoms in Typical and Atypical Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Makaretz, Sara J; Caso, Christina; McGinnis, Scott; Gomperts, Stephen N; Sepulcre, Jorge; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Hyman, Bradley T; Schultz, Aaron; Vasdev, Neil; Johnson, Keith A; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-04-01

    Previous postmortem studies have long demonstrated that neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are closely associated with Alzheimer disease clinical phenotype and neurodegeneration pattern. Validating these associations in vivo will lead to new diagnostic tools for Alzheimer disease and better understanding of its neurobiology. To examine whether topographical distribution and severity of hyperphosphorylated tau pathologic findings measured by fluorine 18-labeled AV-1451 ([18F]AV-1451) positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are linked with clinical phenotype and cortical atrophy in patients with Alzheimer disease. This observational case series, conducted from July 1, 2012, to July 30, 2015, in an outpatient referral center for patients with neurodegenerative diseases, included 6 patients: 3 with typical amnesic Alzheimer disease and 3 with atypical variants (posterior cortical atrophy, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, and corticobasal syndrome). Patients underwent [18F]AV-1451 PET imaging to measure tau burden, carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) PET imaging to measure amyloid burden, and structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness. Seventy-seven age-matched controls with normal cognitive function also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging but not tau or amyloid PET imaging. Tau burden, amyloid burden, and cortical thickness. In all 6 patients (3 women and 3 men; mean age 61.8 years), the underlying clinical phenotype was associated with the regional distribution of the [18F]AV-1451 signal. Furthermore, within 68 cortical regions of interest measured from each patient, the magnitude of cortical atrophy was strongly correlated with the magnitude of [18F]AV-1451 binding (3 patients with amnesic Alzheimer disease, r = -0.82; P Alzheimer disease, r = -0.51; P Alzheimer disease neuropathologic condition with clinically significant neurodegeneration, which will

  11. Brain volume analyses and somatosensory evoked potentials in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Satoko; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Tanabe, Hajime; Kuzume, Daisuke; Suzuki, Mikiya; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Kawai, Mitsuru

    2010-03-01

    We investigated a progression of brain atrophy and somatosensory system dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Subjects were 21 MSA patients [12 MSA-C (cerebellar type) and 9 MSA-P (parkinsonism type)]. The relative volumes of cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum to the intracranial volume were obtained from three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) of the brain. The median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded, and the latencies and amplitudes of N9, N11, P13/14, N20 and P25 components were measured. We studied correlations between brain volumes, SEP and clinical features. The brainstem and cerebellar atrophies were aggravated with progression of the disease. The central sensory conduction time (CSCT) was progressively prolonged in parallel with the disease duration irrespective of the actual age of the patients. In MSA patients, the volume reductions of cerebellum and brainstem could be one of structural markers of disease progression, and the sensory pathway is progressively involved with the progression of disease processes.

  12. Relationship between plasma analytes and SPARE-AD defined brain atrophy patterns in ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon B Toledo

    Full Text Available Different inflammatory and metabolic pathways have been associated with Alzheimeŕs disease (AD. However, only recently multi-analyte panels to study a large number of molecules in well characterized cohorts have been made available. These panels could help identify molecules that point to the affected pathways. We studied the relationship between a panel of plasma biomarkers (Human DiscoveryMAP and presence of AD-like brain atrophy patterns defined by a previously published index (SPARE-AD at baseline in subjects of the ADNI cohort. 818 subjects had MRI-derived SPARE-AD scores, of these subjects 69% had plasma biomarkers and 51% had CSF tau and Aβ measurements. Significant analyte-SPARE-AD and analytes correlations were studied in adjusted models. Plasma cortisol and chromogranin A showed a significant association that did not remain significant in the CSF signature adjusted model. Plasma macrophage inhibitory protein-1α and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 showed a significant association with brain atrophy in the adjusted model. Cortisol levels showed an inverse association with tests measuring processing speed. Our results indicate that stress and insulin responses and cytokines associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells in MCI-AD are associated with its characteristic AD-like brain atrophy pattern and correlate with clinical changes or CSF biomarkers.

  13. Recommendations to improve imaging and analysis of brain lesion load and atrophy in longitudinal studies of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrenken, H; Jenkinson, M; Horsfield, M A

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions and brain atrophy are the most extensively studied aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the image acquisition and analysis techniques used can be further improved, especially those for studying within-patient changes of lesion load and atrophy longitudinally. Improved accuracy...... resonance image analysis methods for assessing brain lesion load and atrophy, this paper makes recommendations to improve these measures for longitudinal studies of MS. Briefly, they are (1) images should be acquired using 3D pulse sequences, with near-isotropic spatial resolution and multiple image...... contrasts to allow more comprehensive analyses of lesion load and atrophy, across timepoints. Image artifacts need special attention given their effects on image analysis results. (2) Automated image segmentation methods integrating the assessment of lesion load and atrophy are desirable. (3) A standard...

  14. Alzheimer's disease pattern of brain atrophy predicts cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nicole; Duda, John E.; Wolk, David A.; Doshi, Jimit; Xie, Sharon X.; Davatzikos, Christos; Clark, Christopher M.; Siderowf, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests overlap in brain regions undergoing neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. To assess the clinical significance of this, we applied a validated Alzheimer's disease-spatial pattern of brain atrophy to patients with Parkinson's disease with a range of cognitive abilities to determine its association with cognitive performance and decline. At baseline, 84 subjects received structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans and completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2, and new robust and expanded Dementia Rating Scale-2 norms were applied to cognitively classify participants. Fifty-nine non-demented subjects were assessed annually with the Dementia Rating Scale-2 for two additional years. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were quantified using both a region of interest approach and voxel-based morphometry analysis, and a method for quantifying the presence of an Alzheimer's disease spatial pattern of brain atrophy was applied to each scan. In multivariate models, higher Alzheimer's disease pattern of atrophy score was associated with worse global cognitive performance (β = −0.31, P = 0.007), including in non-demented patients (β = −0.28, P = 0.05). In linear mixed model analyses, higher baseline Alzheimer's disease pattern of atrophy score predicted long-term global cognitive decline in non-demented patients [F(1, 110) = 9.72, P = 0.002], remarkably even in those with normal cognition at baseline [F(1, 80) = 4.71, P = 0.03]. In contrast, in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses there was no association between region of interest brain volumes and cognitive performance in patients with Parkinson's disease with normal cognition. These findings support involvement of the hippocampus and parietal–temporal cortex with cognitive impairment and long-term decline in Parkinson's disease. In addition, an Alzheimer's disease pattern of brain atrophy may be a preclinical biomarker of cognitive decline

  15. Brain atrophy in picornavirus-infected FVB mice is dependent on the H-2Dbclass I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby Kelcher, April M; Atanga, Pascal A; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Cumba Garcia, Luz M; Teclaw, Stephanie J; Pavelko, Kevin D; Macura, Slobodan I; Johnson, Aaron J

    2017-06-01

    Brain atrophy is a common feature of numerous neurologic diseases in which the role of neuroinflammation remains ill-defined. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules to brain atrophy in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-infected transgenic FVB mice that express the D b class I molecule. FVB/D b and wild-type FVB mice were evaluated for changes in neuroinflammation, virus clearance, neuropathology, and development of brain atrophy via T2-weighted MRI and subsequent 3-dimensional volumetric analysis. Significant brain atrophy and hippocampal neuronal loss were observed in TMEV-infected FVB/D b mice, but not in wild-type FVB mice. Brain atrophy was observed at 1 mo postinfection and persisted through the 4-mo observation period. Of importance, virus-infected FVB/D b mice elicited a strong CD8 T-cell response toward the immunodominant D b -restricted TMEV-derived peptide, VP2 121-130 , and cleared TMEV from the CNS. In addition, immunofluorescence revealed CD8 T cells near virus-infected neurons; therefore, we hypothesize that class I restricted CD8 T-cell responses promote development of brain atrophy. This model provides an opportunity to analyze the contribution of immune cells to brain atrophy in a system where persistent virus infection and demyelination are not factors in long-term neuropathology.-Huseby Kelcher, A. M., Atanga, P. A., Gamez, J. D., Cumba Garcia, L. M., Teclaw, S. J., Pavelko, K. D., Macura, S. I., Johnson. A. J. Brain atrophy in picornavirus-infected FVB mice is dependent on the H-2D b class I molecule. © FASEB.

  16. Sub-cortical brain structure segmentation using F-CNN's

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Tsogkas, Stavros; Ferrante, Enzo; Lippe, Sarah; Kadoury, Samuel; Paragios, Nikos; Kokkinos, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose a deep learning approach for segmenting sub-cortical structures of the human brain in Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data. We draw inspiration from a state-of-the-art Fully-Convolutional Neural Network (F-CNN) architecture for semantic segmentation of objects in natural images, and adapt it to our task. Unlike previous CNN-based methods that operate on image patches, our model is applied on a full blown 2D image, without any alignment or registr...

  17. Global brain atrophy is associated with physical performance and the risk of falls in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Takechi, Hajime; Mori, Shuhei; Aoyama, Tomoki; Arai, Hidenori

    2013-04-01

    Falls are common in patients with cognitive disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether global brain atrophy is associated with cognitive function, physical performance and fall incidents in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 31 older adults with mild cognitive disorders (mean age 78.9 ± 7.3 years) were studied, and 10 of them had experienced falls and the others had not in the past 1 year. Cognitive function and physical performance were measured in these patients. Global brain atrophy was determined by the Voxel-Based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease software. Fallers showed significantly worse scores than the non-fallers in the Global Brain Atrophy Index, Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (animal), maximum walking time and Timed Up & Go (TUG) Test. The Global Brain Atrophy Index was correlated with the Verbal Fluency Test (animal; r = -0.522), the Verbal Fluency Test with letter (ka; r = -0.337), CDT (r = -0.547), TUG (r = 0.276) and Five Chair Stands Test (r = 0.303) by age-adjusted correlation analyses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the Global Brain Atrophy Index (β = 1.265, 95% CI 1.022-1.567) was a significant and independent determinant of falls (R(2) = 0.356, P = 0.003). Global brain atrophy might be indicated as one of the risk factors for falls in older adults with mild cognitive disorders. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Tideglusib reduces progression of brain atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Günter U; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Andrés, María V; Belloch, Vincente; León, Teresa; Del Ser, Teodoro

    2014-04-01

    It is believed that glycogen synthase kinase-3 hyperphosphorylates tau protein in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The Tau Restoration on PSP (TAUROS) trial assessed the glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor tideglusib as potential treatment. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy reported here, we assessed the progression of brain atrophy. TAUROS was a multinational, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with mild-to-moderate PSP who were treated with oral tideglusib (600 mg or 800 mg daily) or with placebo for 1 year. A subset of patients underwent baseline and 52-week MRI. Automated, observer-independent, atlas-based, and mask-based volumetry was done on high-resolution, T1-weighted, three-dimensional data. For primary outcomes, progression of atrophy was compared both globally (brain, cerebrum) and regionally (third ventricle, midbrain, pons) between the active and placebo groups (Bonferroni correction). For secondary outcomes, 15 additional brain structures were explored (Benjamini & Yekutieli correction). In total, MRIs from 37 patient were studied (placebo group, N = 9; tideglusib 600 mg group, N = 19; tideglusib 800 mg group, N = 9). The groups compared well in their demographic characteristics. Clinical results showed no effect of tideglusib over placebo. Progression of atrophy was significantly lower in the active group than in the placebo group for the brain (mean ± standard error of the mean: -1.3% ± 1.4% vs. -3.1% ± 2.3%, respectively), cerebrum (-1.3% ± 1.5% vs. -3.2% ± 2.1%, respectively), parietal lobe (-1.6% ± 1.9% vs. -4.1% ± 3.0%, respectively), and occipital lobe (-0.3% ± 1.8% vs. -2.7% ± 3.2%, respectively). A trend toward reduced atrophy also was observed in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and brainstem. In patients with PSP, tideglusib reduced the progression of atrophy in the whole brain, particularly in the parietal and occipital lobes. © 2014 International Parkinson

  19. Clinical study on eating disorders. Brain atrophy revealed by cranial computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Shinichi

    1988-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed in 34 patients with anorexia nervosa (Group I) and 22 with bulimia (Group II) to elucidate the cause and pathological significance of morphological brain alterations. The findings were compared with those from 47 normal women. The incidence of brain atrophy was significantly higher in Group I (17/34, 50%) and Group II (11/22, 50%) than the control group (3/47, 6%). In Group I, there was a significant increase in the left septum-caudate distance, the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure, the width of the both-side Sylvian fissures adjacent to the skull, and the maximum width of the third ventricle. A significant increase in the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure and the width of the left-side Sylvian fissure adjacent to the skull were noted as well in Group II. Ventricular brain ratios were significantly higher in Groups I and II than the control group (6.76 and 7.29 vs 4.55). Brain atrophy did not correlate with age, body weight, malnutrition, eating behavior, depression, thyroid function, EEG findings, or intelligence scale. In Group I, serum cortisol levels after the administration of dexamethasone were correlated with ventricular brain ratio. (Namekawa, K) 51 refs.

  20. Impact of apolipoprotein E ε4 and HIV on cognition and brain atrophy: antagonistic pleiotropy and premature brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Andres, M; Sadino, J; Jiang, C S; Nakama, H; Miller, E; Ernst, T

    2011-10-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele may accelerate the progression of HIV disease, and increase the risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Whether APOEε4 allele(s) and age may influence brain atrophy in HIV patients is unknown and was evaluated. Automated morphometry on magnetic resonance images, using FreeSurfer analyses, neuropsychological testing and APOE genotyping were performed in 139 subjects [70 seronegative controls (SN); 69 clinically-stable HIV subjects]. Compared to SN, HIV subjects had smaller volumes throughout the brain regardless of their HAND status. Compared to APOEε4- subjects, SN controls with APOEε4 had better memory and larger global brain volumes (cerebral white matter and cortex) while HIV subjects with the APOEε4 allele(s) had poorer cognition (verbal fluency, learning, executive function and memory) and smaller cerebral and cerebellar white matter and subcortical structures. Further stratification of age showed that younger (younger APOEε4+HIV subjects had poorer performance on verbal fluency and smaller brain volumes [3-way (HIV-status×APOEε4×Age) interaction-p-values=0.005 to 0.03]. These findings suggest that APOEε4 allele(s) may show antagonistic pleiotropy on cognition and brain atrophy in SN controls, but may lead to premature aging with neurodegeneration in younger HIV patients prior to the development of HAND. Potential mechanisms for such interactions may include stronger neuro-inflammation or greater amyloid deposition in younger HIV subjects with APOEε4 allele(s). Early screening for the APOEε4 allele and brain atrophy with morphometry may guide neuroprotective intervention of cognitively normal HIV subjects prior to the development of HAND. Longitudinal follow-up studies and larger sample sizes are needed to validate these cross-sectional results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2013-10-01

    There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Language representation in the human brain: evidence from cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, S C; Mandybur, G T; Buckingham, H W; Andy, O J

    2000-09-01

    The manner in which the human brain processes grammatical-syntactic and lexical-semantic functions has been extensively debated in neurolinguistics. The discreteness and selectivity of the representation of syntactic-morphological properties in the dominant frontal cortex and the representation of the lexical-semantics in the temporo-parietal cortex have been questioned. Three right-handed adult male neurosurgical patients undergoing left craniotomy for intractable seizures were evaluated using various grammatical and semantic tasks during cortical mapping. The sampling of language tasks consisted of trials with stimulation (experimental) and without stimulation (control) from sites in the dominant fronto-temporo-parietal cortex The sampling of language implicated a larger cortical area devoted to language (syntactic-morphological and lexical-semantic) tasks. Further, a large part of the fronto-parieto-temporal cortex was involved with syntactic-morphological functions. However, only the parieto-temporal sites were implicated with the ordering of lexicon in sentence construction. These observations suggest that the representation of language in the human brain may be columnar or multilayered. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Neuroinflammation and brain atrophy in former NFL players: An in vivo multimodal imaging pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jennifer M; Wang, Yuchuan; Munro, Cynthia A; Ma, Shuangchao; Yue, Chen; Chen, Shaojie; Airan, Raag; Kim, Pearl K; Adams, Ashley V; Garcia, Cinthya; Higgs, Cecilia; Sair, Haris I; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Caffo, Brian; Kassiou, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R; Pomper, Martin G

    2015-02-01

    There are growing concerns about potential delayed, neuropsychiatric consequences (e.g, cognitive decline, mood or anxiety disorders) of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autopsy studies of brains from a limited number of former athletes have described characteristic, pathologic changes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) leading to questions about the relationship between these pathologic and the neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in former athletes. Research in this area will depend on in vivo methods that characterize molecular changes in the brain, linking CTE and other sports-related pathologies with delayed emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this pilot project we studied former National Football League (NFL) players using new neuroimaging techniques and clinical measures of cognitive functioning. We hypothesized that former NFL players would show molecular and structural changes in medial temporal and parietal lobe structures as well as specific cognitive deficits, namely those of verbal learning and memory. We observed a significant increase in binding of [(11)C]DPA-713 to the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of brain injury and repair, in several brain regions, such as the supramarginal gyrus and right amygdala, in 9 former NFL players compared to 9 age-matched, healthy controls. We also observed significant atrophy of the right hippocampus. Finally, we report that these same former players had varied performance on a test of verbal learning and memory, suggesting that these molecular and pathologic changes may play a role in cognitive decline. These results suggest that localized brain injury and repair, indicated by increased [(11)C]DPA-713 binding to TSPO, may be linked to history of NFL play. [(11)C]DPA-713 PET is a promising new tool that can be used in future study design to examine further the relationship between TSPO expression in brain injury and repair, selective regional brain atrophy, and the potential link to

  4. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  5. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  6. A putative Alzheimer's disease risk allele in PCK1 influences brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqi Xia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction are neurodegenerative features of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. We used a candidate gene approach to address whether genetic variants implicated in susceptibility to late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD influence brain volume and cognition in MS patients.MS subjects were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps associated with susceptibility to AD: PICALM, CR1, CLU, PCK1, and ZNF224. We assessed brain volume using Brain Parenchymal Fraction (BPF measurements obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data and cognitive function using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. Genotypes were correlated with cross-sectional BPF and SDMT scores using linear regression after adjusting for sex, age at symptom onset, and disease duration. 722 MS patients with a mean (±SD age at enrollment of 41 (±10 years were followed for 44 (±28 months. The AD risk-associated allele of a non-synonymous SNP in the PCK1 locus (rs8192708G is associated with a smaller average brain volume (P=0.0047 at the baseline MRI, but it does not impact our baseline estimate of cognition. PCK1 is additionally associated with higher baseline T2-hyperintense lesion volume (P=0.0088. Finally, we provide technical validation of our observation in a subset of 641 subjects that have more than one MRI study, demonstrating the same association between PCK1 and smaller average brain volume (P=0.0089 at the last MRI visit.Our study provides suggestive evidence for greater brain atrophy in MS patients bearing the PCK1 allele associated with AD-susceptibility, yielding new insights into potentially shared neurodegenerative process between MS and late onset AD.

  7. Comparison of different MRI brain atrophy rate measures with clinical disease progression in AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, C R; Shiung, M M; Gunter, J L; O'Brien, P C; Weigand, S D; Knopman, D S; Boeve, B F; Ivnik, R J; Smith, G E; Cha, R H; Tangalos, E G; Petersen, R C

    2004-02-24

    To correlate different methods of measuring rates of brain atrophy from serial MRI with corresponding clinical change in normal elderly subjects, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD). One hundred sixty subjects were recruited from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry Studies. At baseline, 55 subjects were cognitively normal, 41 met criteria for MCI, and 64 met criteria for AD. Each subject underwent an MRI examination of the brain at the time of the baseline clinical assessment and then again at the time of a follow-up clinical assessment, 1 to 5 years later. The annualized changes in volume of four structures were measured from the serial MRI studies: hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, whole brain, and ventricle. Rates of change on several cognitive tests/rating scales were also assessed. Subjects who were classified as normal or MCI at baseline could either remain stable or convert to a lower-functioning group. AD subjects were dichotomized into slow vs fast progressors. All four atrophy rates were greater among normal subjects who converted to MCI or AD than among those who remained stable, greater among MCI subjects who converted to AD than among those who remained stable, and greater among fast than slow AD progressors. In general, atrophy on MRI was detected more consistently than decline on specific cognitive tests/rating scales. With one exception, no differences were found among the four MRI rate measures in the strength of the correlation with clinical deterioration at different stages of the disease. These data support the use of rates of change from serial MRI studies in addition to standard clinical/psychometric measures as surrogate markers of disease progression in AD. Estimated sample sizes required to power a therapeutic trial in MCI were an order of magnitude less for MRI than for change measures based on cognitive tests/rating scales.

  8. Carpal tunnel syndrome, syndrome of partial thenar atrophy, and W. Russell Brain: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovski, Marko T; Thomson, J Grant

    2014-09-01

    This article presents the history of the discovery of compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel without an identifiable cause as a distinct clinical entity. By analyzing primary sources, we show that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, physicians described patients with paresthesias and numbness in the hands, most prominent at night, accompanied by bilateral symmetrical atrophy along the radial side of thenar eminence. At the time, the 2 most influential hypotheses regarding etiology were, first, compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a cervical or first rib, and second, compression of the thenar branch of the median nerve as it passes beneath the anterior annular ligament of the wrist. The condition was named syndrome of partial thenar atrophy and was considered a distinct clinical entity. In 1946, after extensive analysis, neurologist Walter Russell Brain concluded that both sensory and motor symptoms of the syndrome were caused by "compression neuritis" of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. At his suggestion, surgeon Arthur Dickson Wright performed decompression of the nerve by "an incision of the carpal ligament," with excellent results. Brain presented this work at the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1946 and published his landmark paper in Lancet the following year. In so doing, he established the basis for the disease we know today as idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Unfortunately, in 1947, Brain did not realize that another "condition" with the same clinical picture but without atrophy of the thenar muscles, known as acroparesthesia at the time, was actually the same disease as syndrome of partial thenar atrophy, but of lesser severity. As a result of Brain's influence, 7 other papers were published by 1950. Between 1946 and 1950, there were at least 10 papers that presented, in total, 31 patients (26 women) who exhibited symptoms of compression of the median nerve without an identifiable cause and underwent

  9. "THE RELATION OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BRAIN ATROPHY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment may be a common even at the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS. In this case-control study, we tried to find out the probable relationship between homocysteine levels and cerebral atrophy or cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. One hundred fifty six patients who had MS according to McDonald diagnostic criteria were included in this study. Patients’ age, gender, and educational level, MS duration and clinical type, disability, cognitive function state based on minimental state examination (MMSE, presence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and brain atrophy were evaluated. There was no statistically significant relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive status. Total homocysteine levels had a significant correlation with MMSE score only in those patients with elementary level of education. Also total homocysteine levels and overall cerebral atrophy did not indicate significant relationship according to those independent variables mentioned above except in the patients with EDSS less than 6. When intercaudate ratio > 0.10 was applied as a criterion for cerebral atrophy, we found that hyperhomocysteinemia related significantly to intercaudate ratio > 0.10 in females, aged between 21 and 30 years, MS duration ≤ 5 years, primary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS clinical types, EDSS ≤ 3 and elementary level of education. We suggest applying MMSE only for the first step of cognitive function survey. In the next steps, much more exact test must be used (e.g. MSNQ. Also we can not suggest measuring plasma homocysteine level as criterion for monitoring the cognitive function in patients with MS.

  10. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna; Wanscher, Benedikte; Fuglø, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Larsson, Henrik; Frederiksen, Jette L

    2011-01-01

    Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and possible associations at the earliest possible stages of MS. In a prospective observational cohort study we included 60 untreated patients with monosymptomatic ON and 19 healthy volunteers. Unaffected fellow eyes were examined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and normalized brain volumes were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based on the presence of white matter lesions did not reveal differences. The association between OCT measures and brain volumes previously found could not be confirmed at the time of the first clinical event. VEP latency was significantly prolonged in patients with white matter lesions compared to those without lesions. A trend towards a relationship between VEP amplitude of fellow eyes and brain volumes was noted. In this cohort we were not able to show atrophic features in the retina or the brain, and the association between structural measures of the retina and the brain as indicated in the later stages of MS could not be reproduced. These findings suggest that atrophy does require time to evolve and indicate the complexity of the relationship between local and general structural measures.

  11. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  12. Clinical implications of brain atrophy by computed tomography in patients with age-related dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yukimitsu; Honma, Akira; Ashida, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to clarify the clinical significance of brain atrophy by computed tomography in age-related dementia. Eighty elderly patients with clinical diagnosis of presenile or senile dementia whose mental states were assessed clinically and by several psychometric test were studied by computed tomography. Patients with suspected cerebrovascular disorders and normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded. Three tomographic sections through anterior and posterior horns and cella media of lateral ventricles and cortex with intracranial space of 60 - 80 cm 2 were evaluated. CSF spaces (%) were measured as an index of brain atrophy. The measurement of CSF spaces (%) was carried out by the computerized planimetric method to avoid visual definition of ventricular borders. In this study, CSF spaces comprised ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Hasegawa's dementia scale, Bender-Gestalt test and Kohs' block design test were employed for the cognitive assessment of the subjects. In two sections through lateral ventricles, significant correlations were obtained between CSF spaces (%) and scores of Hasegawa's dementia scale and Kohs' block design test. Scores of Bender-Gestalt test did not correlate with CSF spaces (%) in these two sections. In the section through cortex, no correlation were found between CSF spaces (%) and scores of any psychometric test. Also, no positive correlations were obtained between age and CSF spaces (%) in the three sections. (author)

  13. Alzheimer disease brain atrophy subtypes are associated with cognition and rate of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risacher, Shannon L; Anderson, Wesley H; Charil, Arnaud; Castelluccio, Peter F; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Saykin, Andrew J; Schwarz, Adam J

    2017-11-21

    To test the hypothesis that cortical and hippocampal volumes, measured in vivo from volumetric MRI (vMRI) scans, could be used to identify variant subtypes of Alzheimer disease (AD) and to prospectively predict the rate of clinical decline. Amyloid-positive participants with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) 1 and ADNI2 with baseline MRI scans (n = 229) and 2-year clinical follow-up (n = 100) were included. AD subtypes (hippocampal sparing [HpSp MRI ], limbic predominant [LP MRI ], typical AD [tAD MRI ]) were defined according to an algorithm analogous to one recently proposed for tau neuropathology. Relationships between baseline hippocampal volume to cortical volume ratio (HV:CTV) and clinical variables were examined by both continuous regression and categorical models. When participants were divided categorically, the HpSp MRI group showed significantly more AD-like hypometabolism on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET ( p Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, 13-Item Subscale (ADAS-Cog 13 ), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Functional Assessment Questionnaire (all p < 0.05) and tAD MRI on the MMSE and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) (both p < 0.05). Finally, a larger HV:CTV was associated with poorer baseline executive function and a faster slope of decline in CDR-SB, MMSE, and ADAS-Cog 13 score ( p < 0.05). These associations were driven mostly by the amount of cortical rather than hippocampal atrophy. AD subtypes with phenotypes consistent with those observed with tau neuropathology can be identified in vivo with vMRI. An increased HV:CTV ratio was predictive of faster clinical decline in participants with AD who were clinically indistinguishable at baseline except for a greater dysexecutive presentation. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Accelerated Brain Atrophy on Serial Computed Tomography: Potential Marker of the Progression of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Srivatsa, Neha; Babb, James; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate computed tomography (CT)-based longitudinal markers of the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). We retrospectively studied 33 AD patients and 39 nondemented patients with other neurological illnesses (non-AD) having 4 to 12 CT examinations of the head, with over a mean (SD) of 3.9 (1.7) years. At each time point, we applied an automatic software to measure whole brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and intracranial space volumes. Longitudinal measures were then related to disease status and time since the first scan using hierarchical models. Absolute brain volume loss accelerated for non-AD patients by 0.86 mL/y (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.08 mL/y) and 1.5× faster, that is, 1.32 mL/y (95% CI, 1.09-1.56 mL/y) for AD patients (P = 0.006). In terms of brain volume normalized to intracranial space, the acceleration in atrophy rate for non-AD patients was 0.0578%/y (95% CI, 0.0389%/y to 0.0767%/y), again 1.5× faster, that is, 0.0919%/y (95% CI, 0.0716%/y to 0.1122%/y) for AD patients (P = 0.017). This translates to an increase in atrophy rate from 0.5% to 1.4% in AD versus to 1.1% in non-AD group after 10 years. Brain volumetry on CT reliably detected accelerated volume loss in AD and significantly lower acceleration factor in age-matched non-AD patients, leading to the possibility of its use to monitor the progression of cognitive decline and dementia.

  15. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick, S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T 2 pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average (±SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions

  16. SMN deficiency disrupts brain development in a mouse model of severe spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Thomas M.; Huang, Jack P.-W.; Murray, Lyndsay M.; Lamont, Douglas J.; Mutsaers, Chantal A.; Ross, Jenny; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Ansorge, Olaf; Talbot, Kevin; Parson, Simon H.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced expression of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene causes the childhood motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Low levels of ubiquitously expressed SMN protein result in the degeneration of lower motor neurons, but it remains unclear whether other regions of the nervous system are also affected. Here we show that reduced levels of SMN lead to impaired perinatal brain development in a mouse model of severe SMA. Regionally selective changes in brain morphology were apparent in areas normally associated with higher SMN levels in the healthy postnatal brain, including the hippocampus, and were associated with decreased cell density, reduced cell proliferation and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis. A comparative proteomics analysis of the hippocampus from SMA and wild-type littermate mice revealed widespread modifications in expression levels of proteins regulating cellular proliferation, migration and development when SMN levels were reduced. This study reveals novel roles for SMN protein in brain development and maintenance and provides the first insights into cellular and molecular pathways disrupted in the brain in a severe form of SMA. PMID:20705736

  17. Enhanced cortical thickness measurements for rodent brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 streamline computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain's developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline.

  18. Macrostructural brain changes in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus - a cortical thickness analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, J B; Brock, C; Søfteland, E

    2013-01-01

    peripheral neuropathy (P=0.02).Patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes showed cortical thinning involving sensory related areas, even though no overall macrostructural brain alterations were detected. This could possibly have underlying functional significance since cortical thinning was associated......Longstanding diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with the risk of complications affecting the central nervous system. The aims were to study brain volume and cortical thickness in regional brain areas in DM patients and to correlate the findings with relevant clinical data.15 patients.......03) and superior parietal gyrus (P=0.008) in patients. The cortical thickness of these regions was not associated with diabetes duration, age at diabetes onset or to HbA1c (all P>0.08). Patients with peripheral neuropathy showed reduced right postcentral gyrus cortical thickness compared to patients without...

  19. Brain Atrophy and Reorganization of Structural Network in Parkinson's Disease With Hemiparkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiparkinsonism duration in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD is a key time window to study early pathology of PD. We aimed to comprehensively explore the alterations of deformation and structural network in PD patients with hemiparkinsonism, which could potentially disclose the early biomarker for PD. Thirty-one PD patients with hemiparkinsonism and 37 age- and gender- matched normal controls were included in the present study. First of all, we normalized the left hemisphere of structural images as the contralateral side to the affected limbs. Deformation-based morphometry (DBM was conducted to evaluate the brain atrophy and/or enlargement. structural networks were constructed by thresholding gray matter volume correlation matrices of 116 regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches (e.g., small-worldness, global, and nodal measures. Significantly decreased deformation values were observed in the temporoparietal regions like bilateral middle temporal gyri, ipsilateral precuneus and contralateral Rolandic operculum extending to supramarginal and postcentral gyri. Lower deformation values in contralateral middle temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with higher motor impairment which was dominated by akinesia/rigidity. Moreover, nodal reorganization of structural network mainly located in frontal, temporal, subcortex and cerebellum was bilaterally explored in PD patients with hemiparkinsonism. Increased nodal properties could be commonly observed in frontal lobes. Disruption of subcortex including basal ganglia and amygdala was detected by nodal local efficiency and nodal clustering coefficient. Twelve hubs, mainly from paralimbic-limbic and heteromodal networks, were disrupted and, alternatively, 14 hubs, most of which were located in frontal lobes, were additionally detected in PD patients with hemiparkinsonism. In conclusion, during hemiparkinsonism period, mild brain atrophy in the temporoparietal regions and widespread

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells can modulate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and its related cognitive decline in patients with multiple system atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Kyung eSunwoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is an adult-onset sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Because the prognosis of MSA is fatal, neuroprotective or regenerative strategies may be invaluable in MSA treatment. Previously, we obtained clinical and imaging evidence that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC treatment could have a neuroprotective role in MSA patients. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MSC therapy on longitudinal changes in subcortical deep grey matter volumes and cortical thickness and their association with cognitive performance. Clinical and imaging data were obtained from our previous randomized trial of autologous MSC in MSA patients. During 1-year follow-up, we assessed longitudinal differences in subcortical deep grey matter volumes and cortical thickness between placebo (n=15 and MSC groups (n=11. Next, we performed correlation analysis between the changes in cortical thickness and changes in the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores and detailed cognitive performance. There were no significant differences in age, gender ratio, disease duration, clinical severity, MoCA score, or education level between the groups. The subcortical volumetric analysis revealed that the changes in deep grey matter volumes of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus did not differ significantly between the groups. The areas of cortical thinning over time in the placebo group were more extensive, including the frontal, temporal, and parietal areas, whereas these areas in the MSC group were less extensive. Correlation analysis indicated that declines in MoCA scores and phonemic fluency were significantly correlated with cortical thinning of the frontal and posterior temporal areas and anterior temporal areas in MSA patients, respectively. These results suggest that MSC treatment in patients with MSA may modulate cortical thinning over time and related cognitive performance, inferring a future therapeutic candidate for cognitive

  1. CAG repeats determine brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia 17: a VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal repeat length has been associated with an earlier age of onset and more severe disease progression in the rare neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17.To determine whether specific structural brain degeneration and rate of disease progression in SCA17 might be associated with the CAG repeat size, observer-independent voxel-based morphometry was applied to high-resolution magnetic resonance images of 16 patients with SCA17 and 16 age-matched healthy controls. The main finding contrasting SCA17 patients with healthy controls demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum bilaterally. Multiple regression analyses with available genetic data and also post-hoc correlations revealed an inverse relationship again with cerebellar atrophy. Moreover, we found an inverse relationship between the CAG repeat length and rate of disease progression.Our results highlight the fundamental role of the cerebellum in this neurodegenerative disease and support the genotype-phenotype relationship in SCA17 patients. Genetic factors may determine individual susceptibility to neurodegeneration and rate of disease progression.

  2. Identification and characterization of insulin receptors on foetal-mouse brain-cortical cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schravendijk, C F; Hooghe-Peters, E L; De Meyts, P; Pipeleers, D G

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of insulin receptors was investigated in freshly dissociated brain-cortical cells from mouse embryos. By analogy with classical insulin-binding cell types, binding of 125I-insulin to foetal brain-cortical cells was time- and pH-dependent, only partially reversible, and competed for by unlabelled insulin and closely related peptides. Desalanine-desasparagine-insulin, pig proinsulin, hagfish insulin and turkey insulin were respectively 2%, 4%, 2% and 200% as potent as bovine insu...

  3. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Lobar atrophy without Pick bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, C M; Crain, B J

    1992-01-01

    Four patients from the Kathleen Price Bryan Brain Bank with clinical Pick's syndrome are presented. Thorough neurological evaluation revealed no evidence of a movement disorder. The brains showed marked knife-blade type atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes with relative sparing of the superior temporal gyrus and parietal and occipital lobes. There was marked caudate atrophy in all four. Histologically there was severe neuronal loss and gemistocytic astrocytosis in the involved areas with marked myelin pallor in the deep white matter and subcortical gliosis. There was sometimes marked spongiform change in cortical layer 2. There was severe neuronal loss and gliosis of the caudate nucleus. The gross and microscopic features were characteristic of Pick's disease except that careful search failed to uncover either Pick's bodies or Pick's cells. Review of the literature revealed that fronto-temporal cortical and caudate atrophy with clinical features of Pick's disease has received many different names including Pick's disease type C, Pick's disease type II, progressive subcortical gliosis, presenile glial dystrophy, long duration Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, frontal lobe degeneration, dysphasic dementia, and dementia lacking distinctive histologic features. Nevertheless, the morphologic findings in the present cases so closely resemble Pick's disease that they may well represent endstage Pick's disease. In our experience, such cases account for a significant proportion of non-Alzheimer disease dementia.

  5. Reversible brain atrophy and cognitive impairment in an adolescent Japanese patient with primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohara N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nobumasa Ohara,1 Hiroshi Suzuki,1 Akiko Suzuki,1 Masanori Kaneko,1 Masahiro Ishizawa,1 Kazuo Furukawa,1 Takahiro Abe,1 Yasuhiro Matsubayashi,1 Takaho Yamada,1 Osamu Hanyu,1 Takayoshi Shimohata,2 Hirohito Sone1 1Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan Abstract: Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disease resulting from chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex. Although the ultimate outcome remains uncertain, functional and morphological brain changes are not uncommon in patients with this syndrome, and generally persist even after resolution of hypercortisolemia. We present an adolescent patient with Cushing’s syndrome who exhibited cognitive impairment with brain atrophy. A 19-year-old Japanese male visited a local hospital following 5 days of behavioral abnormalities, such as money wasting or nighttime wandering. He had hypertension and a 1-year history of a rounded face. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed apparently diffuse brain atrophy. Because of high random plasma cortisol levels (28.7 µg/dL at 10 AM, he was referred to our hospital in August 2011. Endocrinological testing showed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent hypercortisolemia, and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a 2.7 cm tumor in the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy in September 2011, and the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adenoma was confirmed histologically. His hypertension and Cushingoid features regressed. Behavioral abnormalities were no longer observed, and he was classified as cured of his cognitive disturbance caused by Cushing’s syndrome in February 2012. MRI performed 8 months after surgery revealed reversal of brain atrophy, and his subsequent course has been uneventful. In summary, the young age at onset and the

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes: from isolated epilepsy to encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Mütze, Ulrike; Helbig, Katherine L; Polster, Tilman; Albrecht, Beate; Bernbeck, Ulrich; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Biskup, Saskia; Burglen, Lydie; Denecke, Jonas; Heron, Bénédicte; Heyne, Henrike O; Hoffmann, Georg F; Hornemann, Frauke; Matsushige, Takeshi; Matsuura, Ryuki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Korenke, G Christoph; Kuechler, Alma; Lämmer, Constanze; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Mignot, Cyril; Ruf, Susanne; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Stamberger, Hannah; Pisano, Tiziana; Tohyama, Jun; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Werckx, Wendy; Wickert, Julia; Mari, Francesco; Verbeek, Nienke E; Møller, Rikke S; Koeleman, Bobby; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Dobyns, William B; Battaglia, Domenica; Lemke, Johannes R; Kutsche, Kerstin; Guerrini, Renzo

    2017-09-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/β spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup

  8. Cortical Surface Thickness in the Middle-Aged Brain with White Matter Hyperintense Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects.Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group participated in the study. Cortical thickness was estimated using an automated Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12 as the distance between the gray-white matter border and the pial surface. Individual WMH lesions were manually segmented, and WMH loads were measured. Statistical cortical maps were created to estimate differences in cortical thickness between groups based on this cortex-wide analysis. The relationship between WMH lesion loads and cerebral cortical thickness was also analyzed in CAT12.Results: Cortical thickness was significantly lower in the WMH group than in the controls in multimodal integration regions, including the right and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, right and left frontal operculum (fO, right and left operculum parietale (OP, right and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG, and left superior temporal gyrus (STG; P < 0.01, family-wise error (FWE-corrected. Additionally, cortical thickness was also lower in the recognition regions that contained the right temporal pole (TP, the right and left fusiform gyrus, and the left rolandic operculum (RO; P < 0.01, FWE-corrected. The results revealed that in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL, cortical thickness was higher in the WMH group than in the HCS group (P < 0.01, FWE-corrected. A voxel-wise negative correlation was found between cortical

  9. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: chronological changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Nishikawa, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Yasui, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    We studied the MRI characteristics of cortical laminar necrosis in ischaemic stroke. We reviewed 13 patients with cortical laminar high signal on T1-weighted images to analyse the chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-density cortical lesions began to appear on T1-weighted images about 2 weeks after the ictus. At 1-2 months they were prominent. They began to fade from 3 months but could be seen up to 11 months. These cortical lesions showed isointensity or high intensity on T2-weighted images and did not show low intensity at any stage. Contrast enhancement of the laminar lesions was prominent at 1-2 months and became less apparent from 3 months, but could be seen up to 8 months. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A Brain-Machine-Brain Interface for Rewiring of Cortical Circuitry after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Restoration of function after brain damage using a neural prosthesis ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (PNAS), vol. 110, no. 52, pp. 21177-21182...of function after brain damage using a neural prosthesis David J. Guggenmosa,b,1, Meysam Azinc,2, Scott Barbaya,b, Jonathan D. Mahnkend, Caleb Dunhama...can be used effectively to bridge damaged neural pathways functionally and promote recovery after brain injury. brain–machine–brain interface | neural

  11. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  12. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  13. Multiple sclerosis patients lacking oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid have less global and regional brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Voevodskaya, Olga; Imrell, Kerstin; Stawiarz, Leszek; Spulber, Gabriela; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hillert, Jan; Westman, Eric; Karrenbauer, Virginija Danylaité

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands (OCB) differ in brain atrophy. Twenty-eight OCB-negative and thirty-five OCB-positive patients were included. Larger volumes of total CSF and white matter (WM) lesions; smaller gray matter (GM) volume in the basal ganglia, diencephalon, cerebellum, and hippocampus; and smaller WM volume in corpus callosum, periventricular-deep WM, brainstem, and cerebellum, were observed in OCB-positives. OCB-negative patients, known to differ genetically from OCB-positives, are characterized by less global and regional brain atrophy. This finding supports the notion that OCB-negative MS patients may represent a clinically relevant MS subgroup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, L S; Axelsson, J; Riklund, K

    2017-01-01

    cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events......, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology...

  15. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  16. Temporal Genetic Modifications after Controlled Cortical Impact—Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury through a Systematic Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hao Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a primary injury caused by external physical force and also a secondary injury caused by biological processes such as metabolic, cellular, and other molecular events that eventually lead to brain cell death, tissue and nerve damage, and atrophy. It is a common disease process (as opposed to an event that causes disabilities and high death rates. In order to treat all the repercussions of this injury, treatment becomes increasingly complex and difficult throughout the evolution of a TBI. Using high-throughput microarray data, we developed a systems biology approach to explore potential molecular mechanisms at four time points post-TBI (4, 8, 24, and 72 h, using a controlled cortical impact (CCI model. We identified 27, 50, 48, and 59 significant proteins as network biomarkers at these four time points, respectively. We present their network structures to illustrate the protein–protein interactions (PPIs. We also identified UBC (Ubiquitin C, SUMO1, CDKN1A (cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 1A, and MYC as the core network biomarkers at the four time points, respectively. Using the functional analytical tool MetaCore™, we explored regulatory mechanisms and biological processes and conducted a statistical analysis of the four networks. The analytical results support some recent findings regarding TBI and provide additional guidance and directions for future research.

  17. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  18. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The 133 xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM 2 . Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans

  19. Applications of brain blood flow imaging in behavioral neurophysiology: cortical field activation hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 133/xenon intracarotid method for rCBF measurements has been a very useful method for functional mapping and functional dissection of the cerebral cortex in humans. With this method it has been shown that different types of cortical information treatment activate different cortical areas and furthermore that sensory and motor functions of the cerebral cortex could be dissected into anatomical and informational subcomponents by behavioral manipulations. The brain organizes its own activity. One of the principles of organization was that the brain could recruit in advance cortical fields that were expected to participate in a certain type of information operation. During brain work in awake human beings the cerebral cortex was activated in fields that, projected on the cerebral surface, most often had a size greater than 3 CM/sup 2/. Such activated fields appeared no matter which type of information processing was going on in the brain: during planning and execution of voluntary movements, during preparation for sensory information processing, and during sensory information processing, as well as during cognitive brain work and retrieval of specific memories. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cortical field activation was the physiological manifestation of normal brain work in awake humans.

  20. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future.

  1. The cortical contrast accumulation from brain computed tomography after endovascular treatment predicts symptomatic hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Park, K Y; Lee, W J; Byun, J S; Kim, J K; Park, M S; Ahn, S W; Shin, H W

    2015-11-01

    The prognostic value of contrast accumulation from non-contrast brain computed tomography taken immediately after endovascular reperfusion treatment in acute ischaemic stroke patients to predict symptomatic hemorrhage was studied. Between July 2007 and August 2014, acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients who were treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis or thrombectomy were included. Contrast accumulation was defined as a high attenuation area from non-contrast brain computed tomography immediately taken after endovascular reperfusion treatment, and patients were categorized into three groups according to the presence and location of contrast: (i) negative, (ii) cortical involvement and (iii) non-cortical involvement. The rates of symptomatic hemorrhage after 24 h and functional outcome at discharge were compared between patients with and without cortical involvement. Of 64 patients who were treated by endovascular intervention, contrast accumulation was detected in 56, including 33 patients with cortical involvement and 23 patients without cortical involvement. The cortical involvement pattern was more frequently associated with symptomatic hemorrhage (13 vs. 1 patient, P = 0.003) and with grave outcome at discharge with modified Rankin Scale 5 or 6 (14 vs. 4, P = 0.048) than the non-cortical involvement group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including initial collateral status and occlusion site disclosed that cortical involvement pattern independently predicted symptomatic hemorrhage after endovascular treatment (odds ratio 19.0, confidence interval 1.6-227.6, P = 0.020). Our study provides evidence that the cortical involvement of contrast accumulation is associated with symptomatic hemorrhage after endovascular reperfusion treatment. © 2015 EAN.

  2. A Brain-Machine-Brain Interface for Rewiring of Cortical Circuitry after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reaching chamber and a single banana -flavored food pellet (45 mg, Bioserv) was placed into a shallow food well 2 cm from the front wall on an external...Kansas City, Kansas, September 21, 2010. Invited Speaker, Neural Bases of Recovery after Brain Injury, Neuroplasticity in the Mature Brain, 20th...in rats. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 623–627. Rema, V., and Ebner, F.F. (2003). Lesions of mature barrel field cortex interfere with sensory processing and

  3. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, L. S.; Axelsson, J.; Riklund, K.; Boraxbekk, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered-subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function resolution modeling provided the most accurate data. For striatum, the BP changed by 0.08% for every 1% volume change, but for smaller volumes such as the posterior caudate the artificial change in BP was as high as 0.7% per 1% volume change. A simple gross correction for striatal volume is unsatisfactory, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology, combined with the wall removal method, can be implemented to gain knowledge about the predictable bias introduced by the PVE differences in uptake regions of varying shape.

  4. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Britson, Paula J.; Ward, Chadwick P.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S.; Fox, Nick C.; Boyes, Richard G.; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/−7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials. PMID:18378167

  5. Adolescent brain maturation and cortical folding: evidence for reductions in gyrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klein

    Full Text Available Evidence from anatomical and functional imaging studies have highlighted major modifications of cortical circuits during adolescence. These include reductions of gray matter (GM, increases in the myelination of cortico-cortical connections and changes in the architecture of large-scale cortical networks. It is currently unclear, however, how the ongoing developmental processes impact upon the folding of the cerebral cortex and how changes in gyrification relate to maturation of GM/WM-volume, thickness and surface area. In the current study, we acquired high-resolution (3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data from 79 healthy subjects (34 males and 45 females between the ages of 12 and 23 years and performed whole brain analysis of cortical folding patterns with the gyrification index (GI. In addition to GI-values, we obtained estimates of cortical thickness, surface area, GM and white matter (WM volume which permitted correlations with changes in gyrification. Our data show pronounced and widespread reductions in GI-values during adolescence in several cortical regions which include precentral, temporal and frontal areas. Decreases in gyrification overlap only partially with changes in the thickness, volume and surface of GM and were characterized overall by a linear developmental trajectory. Our data suggest that the observed reductions in GI-values represent an additional, important modification of the cerebral cortex during late brain maturation which may be related to cognitive development.

  6. 4D segmentation of brain MR images with constrained cortical thickness variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain MR images plays an important role in longitudinal investigation of developmental, aging, disease progression changes in the cerebral cortex. However, most existing brain segmentation methods consider multiple time-point images individually and thus cannot achieve longitudinal consistency. For example, cortical thickness measured from the segmented image will contain unnecessary temporal variations, which will affect the time related change pattern and eventually reduce the statistical power of analysis. In this paper, we propose a 4D segmentation framework for the adult brain MR images with the constraint of cortical thickness variations. Specifically, we utilize local intensity information to address the intensity inhomogeneity, spatial cortical thickness constraint to maintain the cortical thickness being within a reasonable range, and temporal cortical thickness variation constraint in neighboring time-points to suppress the artificial variations. The proposed method has been tested on BLSA dataset and ADNI dataset with promising results. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method, in comparison to other state-of-the-art 4D segmentation methods.

  7. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment.We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth.Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  8. Incidental Diagnosis of Cerebral Cortical Venous Thrombosis in Postdural Puncture Headache on Brain Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbertjean, Lisa; Ducrocq, Xavier; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Mione, Gioia; Richard, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cerebral cortical venous thrombosis in patients with postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is usually secondary to changes in headache pattern or cerebral infarctions. Nevertheless, incidental discovery of asymptomatic forms on brain imaging has never been reported before and its management thus remains ill-defined. We describe 2 cases of patients with asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis in the context of PDPH. In both cases, brain computed tomography (CT) scans showed an isolated cortical vein thrombosis without cerebral damage. Neurological examination revealed the typical orthostatic feature of PDPH, independently of cortical vein thrombosis which was considered as a radiological incidental finding. Clinical and radiological signs resolved after bed rest, oral caffeine, and anticoagulation therapy. Asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis may be found on radiological exploration, even basic like brain CT scan without contrast, of PDPH. Utility of anticoagulation therapy, which could increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhagic complications in this specific context, has to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  9. Serial MR observation of cortical laminar necrosis caused by brain infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yasui, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    To examine the chronological changes characteristic of cortical laminar necrosis caused by brain infarction, 16 patients were repeatedly examined using T1-, T2-weighted spin-echo, T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images at 1.0 or 1.5 T. High intensity cortical lesions were visible on the T1-weighted images from 2 weeks after ictus and became prominent at 1 to 3 months, then became less apparent, but occasionally remained at high intensity for 2 years. High intensity cortical lesions on FLAIR images became prominent from 1 month, and then became less prominent from 1 year, but occasionally remained at high intensity for 2 years. Subcortical lesions did not display high intensity on T1-weighted images at any stage. On FLAIR images, subcortical lesions initially showed slightly high intensity and then low intensity from 6 months due to encephalomalacia. Cortical lesions showed prominent contrast enhancement from 2 weeks to 3 months, but subcortical lesions were prominent from 2 weeks only up to 1 month. T2*-weighted images disclosed haemosiderin in 3 of 7 patients, but there was no correlation with cortical short T1 lesions. Cortical laminar necrosis showed characteristic chronological signal changes on T1-weighted images and FLAIR images. Cortical short T1 lesions were found not to be caused by haemorrhagic infarction. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  10. The use of computed tomography in brain damage testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1980-01-01

    The article deals with the diagnosis of brain damage by the use of computerized tomography - especially referring to the injuries of boxers. Three conditions may be evaluated with computerized tomography: i) fenestration of the septum pellucidum; ii) cortical atrophy; and, iii) cerebral atrophy. It also appears that computerized tomography has a place in the evaluation of injuries sustained in the ring, as well as the detection of accelerated ageing of the brain or atrophy

  11. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  12. Brain Volumetrics, Regional Cortical Thickness and Radiographic Findings in Adults with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Cordina

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We present the first comprehensive analysis of brain structure in adults with chronic neurocyanosis due to congenital heart disease. We demonstrate clear evidence for marked macro- and microvascular injury. Cyanotic patients show global evidence for reduced brain volume as well as specific foci of cortical thickness reduction. The GM volume loss correlated with hsCRP, BNP and ADMA suggesting that inflammation, neurohormonal activation and endothelial dysfunction may have important roles in its pathogenesis.

  13. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-01-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed d...

  14. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L.; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19–90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  15. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  16. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  17. Case Report: Hypoxic brain injury and cortical blindness in a victim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snakebite and the subsequent envenomation is a serious and potentially fatal illness, owing to the effects of the various toxins present in the venom. Cortical blindness following bites containing neurotoxin is a rare complication. We describe the clinical findings and imaging in a child who sustained significant brain injury ...

  18. STRUCTURAL AND CONNECTOMIC NEUROIMAGING FOR THE PERSONALIZED STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL ALTERATIONS IN CORTICAL SHAPE, THICKNESS AND CONNECTIVITY AFTER TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, A.; Goh, S.-Y. M.; Torgerson, C. M.; Vespa, P. M.; Van Horn, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of longitudinal brain structure analysis with neurointensive care strategies continues to be a substantial difficulty facing the traumatic brain injury (TBI) research community. For patient-tailored case analysis, it remains challenging to establish how lesion profile modulates longitudinal changes in cortical structure and connectivity, as well as how these changes lead to behavioral, cognitive and neural dysfunction. Additionally, despite the clinical potential of morphometric and connectomic studies, few analytic tools are available for their study in TBI. Here we review the state of the art in structural and connectomic neuroimaging for the study of TBI and illustrate a set of recently-developed, patient-tailored approaches for the study of TBI-related brain atrophy and alterations in morphometry as well as inter-regional connectivity. The ability of such techniques to quantify how injury modulates longitudinal changes in cortical shape, structure and circuitry is highlighted. Quantitative approaches such as these can be used to assess and monitor the clinical condition and evolution of TBI victims, and can have substantial translational impact, especially when used in conjunction with measures of neuropsychological function. PMID:24844173

  19. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  20. Neuroblast Distribution After Cortical Impact is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6 or after injury (PND 7 and 8, and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU+ neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of

  1. Pain activates cortical areas in the preterm newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Marco; Bergqvist, Lena L; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Anand, K J S

    2006-05-01

    To study the patterns of supraspinal pain processing in neonates, we hypothesized that acute pain causes haemodynamic changes associated with activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. Forty preterm neonates at 28-36 weeks of gestation (mean=32.0) and at 25-42 h (mean=30.7) of age were studied following standardized tactile (skin disinfection) and painful (venipuncture) stimuli. Changes in regional cerebral haemodynamics were monitored by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) over both somatosensory cortices in 29 newborns, and over the contralateral somatosensory and occipital areas in 11 newborns. Heart rate (HR) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SaO2) were recorded simultaneously with NIRS parameters: oxygenated [HbO2], deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin. Tactile stimulation produced no changes in HR or SaO2. HR increased in the first 20s (p0.1). Pain-related [HbO2] increases were more pronounced in male neonates (p<0.05 on left, p<0.001 on right), inversely correlated with gestational age (r=-0.53 on left, p<0.01; r=-0.42 on right, p<0.05) and directly correlated with postnatal age (r=0.75 on left, p<0.0001; r=0.67 on right, p<0.0001). Painful and tactile stimuli elicit specific haemodynamic responses in the somatosensory cortex, implying conscious sensory perception in preterm neonates. Somatosensory cortical activation occurs bilaterally following unilateral stimulation and these changes are more pronounced in male neonates or preterm neonates at lower gestational ages.

  2. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-03-09

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency.

  3. Cortical thinning in cognitively normal elderly cohort of 60 to 89 year old from AIBL database and vulnerable brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; Yan, Litao; McMillan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cortical thinning has been studied by many researchers using quantitative MR images for the past three decades and vastly differing results have been reported. Although results have shown age-related cortical thickening in elderly cohort statistically in some brain regions under certain conditions, cortical thinning in elderly cohort requires further systematic investigation. This paper leverages our previously reported brain surface intensity model (BSIM)1 based technique to measure cortical thickness to study cortical changes due to normal aging. We measured cortical thickness of cognitively normal persons from 60 to 89 years old using Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study (AIBL) data. MRI brains of 56 healthy people including 29 women and 27 men were selected. We measured average cortical thickness of each individual in eight brain regions: parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, visual, sensory motor, medial frontal and medial parietal. Unlike the previous published studies, our results showed consistent age-related thinning of cerebral cortex in all brain regions. The parietal, medial frontal and medial parietal showed fastest thinning rates of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.10 mm/decade respectively while the visual region showed the slowest thinning rate of 0.05 mm/decade. In sensorimotor and parietal areas, women showed higher thinning (0.09 and 0.16 mm/decade) than men while in all other regions men showed higher thinning than women. We also created high resolution cortical thinning rate maps of the cohort and compared them to typical patterns of PET metabolic reduction of moderate AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results seemed to indicate vulnerable areas of cortical deterioration that may lead to brain dementia. These results validate our cortical thickness measurement technique by demonstrating the consistency of the cortical thinning and prediction of cortical deterioration trend with AIBL database.

  4. Reye's syndrome with cortical laminar necrosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Takahashi, S.; Ishii, K.; Higano, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Haginoya, K.; Iinuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    Serial MRI findings are described in two patients with Reye's syndrome, demonstrating diffuse cortical and white matter changes. In the acute stage, T2-weighted images showed subtle but definite laminar high signal and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images laminar enhancement, along the entire cerebral cortex bilaterally. In the chronic stage, unenhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse cortical laminar high signal. These characteristic MRI features seemed very similar to those of laminar cortical necrosis in hypoxic brain damage. MRI also displayed delayed white matter changes with cerebral atrophy. (orig.)

  5. Fronto-striatal atrophy correlates of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seok Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Behavioural disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD are thought to reflect mainly atrophy of cortical regions. Recent studies suggest that subcortical brain regions, in particular the striatum, are also significantly affected and this pathology might play a role in the generation of behavioural symptoms. Objective: To investigate prefrontal cortical and striatal atrophy contributions to behavioural symptoms in FTD. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two participants (87 FTD patients, 39 AD patients and 56 controls were included. Behavioural profiles were established using the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised (CBI-R and Frontal System Behaviour Scale (FrSBe. Atrophy in prefrontal (VMPFC, DLPFC and striatal (caudate, putamen regions was established via a 5-point visual rating scale of the MRI scans. Behavioural scores were correlated with atrophy rating scores. Results: Behavioural and atrophy ratings demonstrated that patients were significantly impaired compared to controls, with bvFTD being most severely affected. Behavioural-anatomical correlations revealed that VMPFC atrophy was closely related to abnormal behaviour and motivation disturbances. Stereotypical behaviours were associated with both VMPFC and striatal atrophy. By contrast, disturbance of eating was found to be related to striatal atrophy only. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal atrophy contributed to the behavioural disturbances seen in FTD, with some behaviours related to frontal, striatal or combined fronto-striatal pathology. Consideration of striatal contributions to the generation of behavioural disturbances should be taken into account when assessing patients with potential FTD.

  6. Altered cortical hubs in functional brain networks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xujing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Heng; Li, Rong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Huafu

    2015-11-01

    Cortical hubs are highly connected nodes in functional brain networks that play vital roles in the efficient transfer of information across brain regions. Although altered functional connectivity has been found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the changing pattern in functional network hubs in ALS remains unknown. In this study, we applied a voxel-wise method to investigate the changing pattern of cortical hubs in ALS. Through resting-state fMRI, we constructed whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and identified hubs using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was derived from the data on 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy controls. The brain regions with high FCS values were regarded as functional network hubs. Functional hubs were found mainly in the bilateral precuneus, parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and in several visual regions and temporal areas in both groups. Within the hub regions, the ALS patients exhibited higher FCS in the prefrontal cortex compared with the healthy controls. The FCS value in the significantly abnormal hub regions was correlated with clinical variables. Results indicated the presence of altered cortical hubs in the ALS patients and could therefore shed light on the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying ALS.

  7. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (ΔCHI), iCMI (ΔiCMI), and ER (ΔER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (ΔBF) were also determined. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER. The ΔCHI, ΔiCMI, and ΔER were significantly correlated with ΔBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  8. Familial Risk for Alcohol Dependence and Brain Morphology: The Role of Cortical Thickness Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y

    2018-03-12

    Henderson and colleagues have provided new data from a large cohort demonstrating that cortical thickness, as one index of brain morphology, differs between adolescents with and without a family history of alcohol dependence. Understanding the relationship between brain structure and cognitive ability that differ in those with a family history of alcohol use disorders and those without relatives with AUD may provide clues about the biological substrate of addiction. To date, most of the studies concerning brain morphological differences by familial risk have focused on volumetric differences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Your Brain on Art: Emergent Cortical Dynamics During Aesthetic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontson, Kimberly L.; Megjhani, Murad; Brantley, Justin A.; Cruz-Garza, Jesus G.; Nakagome, Sho; Robleto, Dario; White, Michelle; Civillico, Eugene; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2015-01-01

    The brain response to conceptual art was studied with mobile electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the neural basis of aesthetic experiences. In contrast to most studies of perceptual phenomena, participants were moving and thinking freely as they viewed the exhibit The Boundary of Life is Quietly Crossed by Dario Robleto at the Menil Collection-Houston. The brain activity of over 400 subjects was recorded using dry-electrode and one reference gel-based EEG systems over a period of 3 months. Here, we report initial findings based on the reference system. EEG segments corresponding to each art piece were grouped into one of three classes (complex, moderate, and baseline) based on analysis of a digital image of each piece. Time, frequency, and wavelet features extracted from EEG were used to classify patterns associated with viewing art, and ranked based on their relevance for classification. The maximum classification accuracy was 55% (chance = 33%) with delta and gamma features the most relevant for classification. Functional analysis revealed a significant increase in connection strength in localized brain networks while subjects viewed the most aesthetically pleasing art compared to viewing a blank wall. The direction of signal flow showed early recruitment of broad posterior areas followed by focal anterior activation. Significant differences in the strength of connections were also observed across age and gender. This work provides evidence that EEG, deployed on freely behaving subjects, can detect selective signal flow in neural networks, identify significant differences between subject groups, and report with greater-than-chance accuracy the complexity of a subject's visual percept of aesthetically pleasing art. Our approach, which allows acquisition of neural activity “in action and context,” could lead to understanding of how the brain integrates sensory input and its ongoing internal state to produce the phenomenon which we term aesthetic experience

  11. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Agander, Tina Klitmøller

    2013-01-01

    their deregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) together with Parkinson's disease belongs to a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions termed α-synucleinopathies. MSA is a fatal late onset disease characterized by the presence of α-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic...

  12. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes : from isolated epilepsy to encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Mütze, Ulrike; Helbig, Katherine L; Polster, Tilman; Albrecht, Beate; Bernbeck, Ulrich; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Biskup, Saskia; Burglen, Lydie; Denecke, Jonas; Heron, Bénédicte; Heyne, Henrike O; Hoffmann, Georg F; Hornemann, Frauke; Matsushige, Takeshi; Matsuura, Ryuki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Korenke, G. Christoph; Kuechler, Alma; Lämmer, Constanze; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Mignot, Cyril; Ruf, Susanne; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Stamberger, Hannah; Pisano, Tiziana; Tohyama, Jun; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Werckx, Wendy; Wickert, Julia; Mari, Francesco; Verbeek, Nienke E; Møller, Rikke S.; Koeleman, Bobby Pc; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Dobyns, William B.; Battaglia, Domenica; Lemke, Johannes R.; Kutsche, Kerstin; Guerrini, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1

  13. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and age-related brain atrophy: a quantitative study with computed tomography and the xenon-133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatazawa, J.; Kubota, K.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and two subjects (40 men and 62 women) neither having a history of neurologic deficits nor showing organic lesions on computed tomographic examination of the brain were studied. Ages of the subjects ranged from 26 to 81 years. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method, and the volume percentage of brain with respect to the cranial cavity (craniocerebral index) was calculated by means of computer programs. Regional cerebral blood flow was computed as the fast component of two-compartmental analysis and as the initial slope index value. The percentage of each subject's craniocerebral index in relation to the standard for subjects with non-atrophied brains (brain volume index) was calculated as the indicator of brain atrophy. Both the mean brain fast component values and the mean brain initial slope index values correlated closely with the brain volume index in the elderly. Low cerebral blood flow values coincided with loss of brain substance in the final stage of age-related brain atrophy, but not in the intermediate stage

  14. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A David Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins.To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159.Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6 and B(12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187 volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d, vitamin B(12 (0.5 mg/d and vitamin B(6 (20 mg/d, the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans.A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P =  0.001. The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P =  0.001. A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category.The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins. Sixteen percent of those over 70 y old have mild

  15. Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernerén, Fredrik; Elshorbagy, Amany K; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Smith, Stephen M; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David

    2015-07-01

    Increased brain atrophy rates are common in older people with cognitive impairment, particularly in those who eventually convert to Alzheimer disease. Plasma concentrations of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and homocysteine are associated with the development of brain atrophy and dementia. We investigated whether plasma ω-3 fatty acid concentrations (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) modify the treatment effect of homocysteine-lowering B vitamins on brain atrophy rates in a placebo-controlled trial (VITACOG). This retrospective analysis included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placebo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; vitamin B-6, 20 mg; vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85). The subjects underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and 2 y later. The effect of the intervention was analyzed according to tertiles of baseline ω-3 fatty acid concentrations. There was a significant interaction (P = 0.024) between B vitamin treatment and plasma combined ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on brain atrophy rates. In subjects with high baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate by 40.0% compared with placebo (P = 0.023). B vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among subjects with low baseline ω-3 fatty acids (brain atrophy in the B vitamin group but not in the placebo group. The beneficial effect of B vitamin treatment on brain atrophy was observed only in subjects with high plasma ω-3 fatty acids. It is also suggested that the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids on brain atrophy may be confined to subjects with good B vitamin status. The results highlight the importance of identifying subgroups likely to benefit in clinical trials. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN94410159. © 2015 American Society for

  16. Cortical modulations increase in early sessions with brain-machine interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Zacksenhouse

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During planning and execution of reaching movements, the activity of cortical motor neurons is modulated by a diversity of motor, sensory, and cognitive signals. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs extract part of these modulations to directly control artificial actuators. However, cortical modulations that emerge in the novel context of operating the BMI are poorly understood.Here we analyzed the changes in neuronal modulations that occurred in different cortical motor areas as monkeys learned to use a BMI to control reaching movements. Using spike-train analysis methods we demonstrate that the modulations of the firing-rates of cortical neurons increased abruptly after the monkeys started operating the BMI. Regression analysis revealed that these enhanced modulations were not correlated with the kinematics of the movement. The initial enhancement in firing rate modulations declined gradually with subsequent training in parallel with the improvement in behavioral performance.We conclude that the enhanced modulations are related to computational tasks that are significant especially in novel motor contexts. Although the function and neuronal mechanism of the enhanced cortical modulations are open for further inquiries, we discuss their potential role in processing execution errors and representing corrective or explorative activity. These representations are expected to contribute to the formation of internal models of the external actuator and their decoding may facilitate BMI improvement.

  17. Longitudinal changes in brain volumes and cerebrovascular lesions on MRI in patients with manifest arterial disease: the SMART-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Witkamp, Theo D; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2014-02-15

    We estimated the progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions on MRI in a prospective cohort of patients with various manifestations of arterial disease. Within the SMART-MR study, using brain MRI data from baseline and after on average 3.9 years of follow-up, intracranial volume (ICV), total brain, cortical gray matter, ventricular, white matter lesion volumes and visually rated infarcts were obtained from 663 patients (mean age 57 ± 9 years, 81% men). Global and cortical atrophy increased quadratically with age. Men showed more progression of global and cortical atrophy than women (mean difference in change (95% CI): -0.25 (-0.44; -0.06) and -0.94 (-1.35; -0.52)% ICV) and had an increased risk of new brain infarcts (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Compared with coronary artery disease patients, cerebrovascular disease patients showed more progression of cortical and subcortical atrophy and an increased risk of new brain infarcts, and peripheral arterial disease patients showed more progression of cortical atrophy. These results were independent of cerebrovascular lesions and cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with manifest arterial disease, brain atrophy tended to accelerate with older age and men had more progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions than women. Additionally, patients with cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease showed the most prominent progression of atrophy and lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory.......The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped...... differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...

  19. Changes in Mice Brain Spontaneous Electrical Activity during Cortical Spreading Depression due to Mobile Phone Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Samera M; Mohamed, Ehab I; Dawood, Abdel-Fattah B

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate changes in spontaneous EEG activity during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in mice brain. The cortical region of anaesthetized mice were exposed to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from a mobile phone (MP, 935.2-960.2 MHz, 41.8 mW/cm(2)). The effect of EMFs on EEG was investigated before and after exposure to different stimuli (MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl). The records of brain spontaneous EEG activity, slow potential changes (SPC), and spindle shaped firings were obtained through an interfaced computer. The results showed increases in the amplitude of evoked spindles by about 87%, 17%, and 226% for MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl; respectively, as compared to values for the control group. These results showed that the evoked spindle is a more sensitive indicator of the effect of exposure to EMFs from MP.

  20. Accelerated Changes in Cortical Thickness Measurements with Age in Military Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjani, Ricky R; Taylor, Brian A; Acion, Laura; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Jorge, Ricardo E

    2017-11-15

    Finding objective and quantifiable imaging markers of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has proven challenging, especially in the military population. Changes in cortical thickness after injury have been reported in animals and in humans, but it is unclear how these alterations manifest in the chronic phase, and it is difficult to characterize accurately with imaging. We used cortical thickness measures derived from Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) to predict a continuous demographic variable: age. We trained four different regression models (linear regression, support vector regression, Gaussian process regression, and random forests) to predict age from healthy control brains from publicly available datasets (n = 762). We then used these models to predict brain age in military Service Members with TBI (n = 92) and military Service Members without TBI (n = 34). Our results show that all four models overpredicted age in Service Members with TBI, and the predicted age difference was significantly greater compared with military controls. These data extend previous civilian findings and show that cortical thickness measures may reveal an association of accelerated changes over time with military TBI.

  1. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  2. Relation of measured brain glucose utilisation and cerebral atrophy in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, N L; Horwitz, B; Creasey, H; Carson, R; Duara, R; Berg, G W; Rapoport, S I

    1987-06-01

    The effect of cerebral atrophy on measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc), as determined with positron emission tomography (PET), was examined in 49 healthy males aged 21-83 years. Global CMRglc and regional CMRglc for 34 grey matter regions parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the inferior orbital meatal (IOM) line were measured under resting conditions, using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and an ECAT II positron emission tomograph. Using a GE 8800 CT/T scanner, slices parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the IOM line were analysed for CSF volume. Cerebral atrophy, indicated by increased CSF volume, was correlated significantly with global CMRglc, but accounted for no more than 13% of the variance in the CMRglc measurements. Methods for correcting for inter-subject variation in CSF volume were proposed. Global values for CMRglc, uncorrected or corrected for CSF volume, were found to be age invariant. These findings indicate that (a) cerebral atrophy has a small, but statistically significant effect on CMRglc as measured with PET; (b) CMRglc is age invariant in healthy males.

  3. Assessment the Plasticity of Cortical Brain Theory through Visual Memory in Deaf and Normal Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanaee-Chamanabad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main aim of this research was to assess the differences of visual memory in deaf and normal students according to plasticity of cortical brain.Materials and Methods: This is an ex-post factor research. Benton visual test was performed by two different ways on 46 students of primary school. (22 deaf and 24 normal students. The t-student was used to analysis the data. Results: The visual memory in deaf students was significantly higher than the similar normal students (not deaf.While the action of visual memory in deaf girls was risen in comparison to normal girls in both ways, the deaf boys presented the better action in just one way of the two performances of Benton visual memory test.Conclusion: The action of plasticity of brain shows that the brain of an adult is dynamic and there are some changes in it. This brain plasticity has not limited to sensory somatic systems. Therefore according to plasticity of cortical brain theory, the deaf students due to the defect of hearing have increased the visual the visual inputs which developed the procedural visual memory.

  4. Spectral spatiotemporal imaging of cortical oscillations and interactions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Dale, Anders M; Belliveau, John W; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient source estimation algorithm that localizes cortical oscillations and their phase relationships. The proposed method employs wavelet-transformed magnetoencephalography (MEG) data and uses anatomical MRI to constrain the current locations to the cortical mantle. In addition, the locations of the sources can be further confined with the help of functional MRI (fMRI) data. As a result, we obtain spatiotemporal maps of spectral power and phase relationships. As an example, we show how the phase locking value (PLV), that is, the trial-by-trial phase relationship between the stimulus and response, can be imaged on the cortex. We apply the method to spontaneous, evoked, and driven cortical oscillations measured with MEG. We test the method of combining MEG, structural MRI, and fMRI using simulated cortical oscillations along Heschl's gyrus (HG). We also analyze sustained auditory gamma-band neuromagnetic fields from MEG and fMRI measurements. Our results show that combining the MEG recording with fMRI improves source localization for the non-noise-normalized wavelet power. In contrast, noise-normalized spectral power or PLV localization may not benefit from the fMRI constraint. We show that if the thresholds are not properly chosen, noise-normalized spectral power or PLV estimates may contain false (phantom) sources, independent of the inclusion of the fMRI prior information. The proposed algorithm can be used for evoked MEG/EEG and block-designed or event-related fMRI paradigms, or for spontaneous MEG data sets. Spectral spatiotemporal imaging of cortical oscillations and interactions in the human brain can provide further understanding of large-scale neural activity and communication between different brain regions.

  5. Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: health-promoting activities shape brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Albaugh, Matthew D; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif; Spottswood, Margaret; Crehan, Eileen; Evans, Alan C; Botteron, Kelly N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the extent to which playing a musical instrument is associated with cortical thickness development among healthy youths. Participants were part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development. This study followed a longitudinal design such that participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing on up to 3 separate visits, occurring at 2-year intervals. MRI, IQ, and music training data were available for 232 youths (334 scans), ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Cortical thickness was regressed against the number of years that each youth had played a musical instrument. Next, thickness was regressed against an "Age × Years of Playing" interaction term. Age, gender, total brain volume, and scanner were controlled for in analyses. Participant ID was entered as a random effect to account for within-person dependence. False discovery rate correction was applied (p ≤ .05). There was no association between thickness and years playing a musical instrument. The "Age × Years of Playing" interaction was associated with thickness in motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, as well as prefrontal and parietal cortices. Follow-up analysis revealed that music training was associated with an increased rate of thickness maturation. Results were largely unchanged when IQ and handedness were included as covariates. Playing a musical instrument was associated with more rapid cortical thickness maturation within areas implicated in motor planning and coordination, visuospatial ability, and emotion and impulse regulation. However, given the quasi-experimental nature of this study, we cannot rule out the influence of confounding variables. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 ± 13 years (range, 11–81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 ± 35.8 months (range, 12–160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 ± 3.33 cm 3 (range, 0.03–23.30 cm 3 ). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1–48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 ± 194.0 mm 2 (range, 44.70–1170 mm 2 ). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976–0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002–1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103–1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656–31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  8. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Sik [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Song, Sang Woo; Kim, In Kyung; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 {+-} 13 years (range, 11-81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 {+-} 35.8 months (range, 12-160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 {+-} 3.33 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-23.30 cm{sup 3}). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV), defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1-48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 {+-} 194.0 mm{sup 2} (range, 44.70-1170 mm{sup 2}). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976-0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103-1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656-31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.

  9. Peptide-Based Scaffolds Support Human Cortical Progenitor Graft Integration to Reduce Atrophy and Promote Functional Repair in a Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Somaa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplants offer significant hope for brain repair following ischemic damage. Pre-clinical work suggests that therapeutic mechanisms may be multi-faceted, incorporating bone-fide circuit reconstruction by transplanted neurons, but also protection/regeneration of host circuitry. Here, we engineered hydrogel scaffolds to form “bio-bridges” within the necrotic lesion cavity, providing physical and trophic support to transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical progenitors, as well as residual host neurons. Scaffolds were fabricated by the self-assembly of peptides for a laminin-derived epitope (IKVAV, thereby mimicking the brain’s major extracellular protein. Following focal ischemia in rats, scaffold-supported cell transplants induced progressive motor improvements over 9 months, compared to cell- or scaffold-only implants. These grafts were larger, exhibited greater neuronal differentiation, and showed enhanced electrophysiological properties reflective of mature, integrated neurons. Varying graft timing post-injury enabled us to attribute repair to both neuroprotection and circuit replacement. These findings highlight strategies to improve the efficiency of stem cell grafts for brain repair.

  10. Coupling brain-machine interfaces with cortical stimulation for brain-state dependent stimulation: enhancing motor cortex excitability for neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor recovery after stroke is an unsolved challenge despite intensive rehabilitation training programs. Brain stimulation techniques have been explored in addition to traditional rehabilitation training to increase the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex. This modulation of cortical excitability augments the response to afferent input during motor exercises, thereby enhancing skilled motor learning by long-term potentiation-like plasticity. Recent approaches examined brain stimulation applied concurrently with voluntary movements to induce more specific use-dependent neural plasticity during motor training for neurorehabilitation. Unfortunately, such approaches are not applicable for the many severely affected stroke patients lacking residual hand function. These patients require novel activity-dependent stimulation paradigms based on intrinsic brain activity. Here, we report on such brain state-dependent stimulation (BSDS combined with haptic feedback provided by a robotic hand orthosis. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and haptic feedback to the hand were controlled by sensorimotor desynchronization during motor-imagery and applied within a brain-machine interface environment in one healthy subject and one patient with severe hand paresis in the chronic phase after stroke. BSDS significantly increased the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex in both healthy and post-stroke conditions, an effect not observed in non-BSDS protocols. This feasibility study suggests that closing the loop between intrinsic brain state, cortical stimulation and haptic feedback provides a novel neurorehabilitation strategy for stroke patients lacking residual hand function, a proposal that warrants further investigation in a larger cohort of stroke patients.

  11. Genomic regulation of natural variation in cortical and noncortical brain volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughlin Rick E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative growth of the neocortex parallels the emergence of complex cognitive functions across species. To determine the regions of the mammalian genome responsible for natural variations in cortical volume, we conducted a complex trait analysis using 34 strains of recombinant inbred (Rl strains of mice (BXD, as well as their two parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We measured both neocortical volume and total brain volume in 155 coronally sectioned mouse brains that were Nissl stained and embedded in celloidin. After correction for shrinkage, the measured cortical and noncortical brain volumes were entered into a multiple regression analysis, which removed the effects of body size and age from the measurements. Marker regression and interval mapping were computed using WebQTL. Results An ANOVA revealed that more than half of the variance of these regressed phenotypes is genetically determined. We then identified the regions of the genome regulating this heritability. We located genomic regions in which a linkage disequilibrium was present using WebQTL as both a mapping engine and genomic database. For neocortex, we found a genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 11 (marker D11Mit19, as well as a suggestive QTL on chromosome 16 (marker D16Mit100. In contrast, for noncortex the effect of chromosome 11 was markedly reduced, and a significant QTL appeared on chromosome 19 (D19Mit22. Conclusion This classic pattern of double dissociation argues strongly for different genetic factors regulating relative cortical size, as opposed to brain volume more generally. It is likely, however, that the effects of proximal chromosome 11 extend beyond the neocortex strictly defined. An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these regions indicated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf is quite possibly the gene underlying the noncortical QTL. Evidence for a candidate gene modulating neocortical

  12. Cortical hemosiderin is associated with seizures in patients with newly diagnosed malignant brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, Ulrich; Boxheimer, Larissa; Fathi, Ali Reza; Schwyzer, Lucia; Ortega, Marcos; Berberat, Jatta; Remonda, Luca

    2013-12-01

    Hemorrhage is common in brain tumors. Due to characteristic magnetic field changes induced by hemosiderin it can be detected using susceptibility weighted MRI (SWI). Its relevance to clinical syndromes is unclear. Here we investigated the patterns of intra-tumoral SWI positivity (SWI(pos)) as a surrogate for hemosiderin with regard to the prevalence of epilepsy. We report on 105 patients with newly diagnosed supra-tentorial gliomas and brain metastasis. The following parameters were recorded from pre-operative MRI: (1) SWI(pos) defined as dot-like or fine linear signal changes; (2) allocation of SWI(pos) to tumor compartments (contrast enhancement, central hypointensity, non-enhancing area outside contrast-enhancement); (3) allocation of SWI(pos) to include the cortex, or SWI(pos) in subcortical tumor parts only; (4) tumor size on T2 weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1 images. 80 tumors (76 %) showed SWI(pos) (4/14 diffuse astrocytoma WHO II, 5/9 anaplastic astrocytoma WHO III, 41/46 glioblastoma WHO IV, 30/36 metastasis). The presence of SWI(pos) depended on tumor size but not on patient's age, medication with antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulation. Seizures occurred in 60 % of patients. Cortical SWI(pos) significantly correlated with seizures in brain metastasis (p = 0.044), and as a trend in glioblastoma (p = 0.062). Cortical SWI(pos) may confer a risk for seizures in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis and glioblastoma. Whether development of cortical SWI(pos) induced by treatment or by the natural course of tumors also leads to the new onset of seizures has to be addressed in longitudinal studies in larger patient cohorts.

  13. The motor cortical representation of a muscle is not homogeneous in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo Armour; Albishi, Alaa; Babikian, Sarine; Asavasopon, Skulpan; Fisher, Beth E; Kutch, Jason J

    2017-09-01

    Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the EO muscle in stimulation locations encompassing M1 and SMA. The coordinates of locations with the largest motor-evoked potentials were confirmed with task-based fMRI imaging during EO activation. The M1 and SMA components of the EO representation demonstrated significantly different resting-state functional connectivity with other brain regions: the SMA representation of the EO muscle was significantly more connected to the putamen and cerebellum, and the M1 representation of the EO muscle was significantly more connected to somatosensory cortex and the superior parietal lobule. This study confirms the representation of a human axial muscle in M1 and SMA, and demonstrates for the first time that different parts of the cortical representation of a human axial muscle have resting-state functional connectivity with distinct brain regions. Future studies can use the brain regions of interest we have identified here to test the association between resting-state functional connectivity and control of the axial muscles.

  14. Cortical evoked potential and extracellular K+ and H+ at critical levels of brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, J; Symon, L; Branston, N M

    1977-01-01

    As shown previously, the electrical function of the brain is critically dependent on cerebral blood flow in the sense that reduction beyond an ischemic threshold of approximately 15 ml/100 gm per minute (approximately 35% of control) in the baboon leads to complete failure of the somatosensory...... evoked response. This study tests the hypothesis that electrical failure in ischemia may be directly associated with a massive release of intracellular K+ or with a critical degree of extracellular acidosis. By microelectrode techniques, measurements of blood flow, extracellular activity of K+ and H...... local cerebral blood flow proportionally. Abolition of evoked response could not be explained by depolarization by release of intracellular K+, nor was it critically dependent on cortical pH. However, the massive release of intracellular K+ was by itself critically dependent on cortical blood flow...

  15. Disentangling How the Brain is "Wired" in Cortical (Cerebral) Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabet, Lotfi B; Mayer, D Luisa; Bauer, Corinna M; Wright, Darick; Kran, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being. Given the complex neurologic underpinnings of this condition, CVI is often undiagnosed by eye care practitioners. Furthermore, the neurophysiological basis of CVI in relation to observed visual processing deficits remains poorly understood. Here, we present some of the challenges associated with the clinical assessment and management of individuals with CVI. We discuss how advances in brain imaging are likely to help uncover the underlying neurophysiology of this condition. In particular, we demonstrate how structural and functional neuroimaging approaches can help gain insight into abnormalities of white matter connectivity and cortical activation patterns, respectively. Establishing a connection between how changes within the brain relate to visual impairments in CVI will be important for developing effective rehabilitative and education strategies for individuals living with this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia: A case presented brain calcification and corpus callosum atrophy from over 10 years before the onset of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Miyuki; Takeshita, Jun; Takahashi, Kazunori; Tanaka, Akio; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2017-09-30

    A 44-year-old man made many mistakes at work over a year. Eleven years prior, he had had medical examination with headache. He presented with symptoms consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction including cognitive decline, and bilateral pyramidal signs. Brain MRI showed cerebral atrophy, localized atrophy of corpus callosum, asymmetrical white matter lesions and multiple cystic lesions. CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the parietal subcortical white matter. Reconstructed sagittal CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, which had a symmetrical "stepping stone appearance" in the frontal pericallosal regions. The brain MRI and CT images performed 11 years prior already showed evidence of similar findings including corpus callosum atrophy, multiple cystic lesions, and calcifications in the parietal subcortical white matter. Similar cystic lesions and calcifications were also observed in the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles However, the changes in the brain associated with atrophy and white matter lesions at this stage were mild. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation, p.R782C, in the exon 18 of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. The CSF1R gene encodes the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor protein. This mutation was not observed in the patient's parents. Therefore, this mutation is considered to be a de novo mutation. He was diagnosed as having adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).

  17. Writing error may be a predictive sign for impending brain atrophy progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study using X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Ohno, Hideki; Murakami, Hidetomo; Ohnaka, Yohei; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether writing errors are predictive of longitudinal brain atrophy progression in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The frequency of writing errors in 6 ALS patients without dementia was compared with longitudinal changes in lateral ventricular areas of the bilateral anterior and inferior horns on X-ray computed tomography scans. The increase in area per month for the anterior and inferior horns was used as a measure of longitudinal brain atrophy progression, and was calculated as: (area on the initial scan - area on the follow-up scan)/scan interval (month). The longitudinal rate of increase in the area of the anterior horns showed significant associations with the rates of total writing errors (r = 0.886, p = 0.0152), kana errors (r = 0.887, p = 0.0148) and kana omission (r = 0.856, p = 0.0268), whereas that for the inferior horns size showed no significant association with any writing errors. The increased area of the anterior horns indicates frontal-lobar atrophy, and writing errors may be a predictive sign for impending brain atrophy progression in the frontal lobes, which reflects the development of anterior-type dementia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface training: the impact on motor cortical responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiorri, F.; De Vico Fallani, F.; Cincotti, F.; Babiloni, F.; Molinari, M.; Kleih, S. C.; Neuper, C.; Kübler, A.; Mattia, D.

    2011-04-01

    The main purpose of electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is to provide an alternative channel to support communication and control when motor pathways are interrupted. Despite the considerable amount of research focused on the improvement of EEG signal detection and translation into output commands, little is known about how learning to operate a BCI device may affect brain plasticity. This study investigated if and how sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training would induce persistent functional changes in motor cortex, as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and high-density EEG. Motor imagery (MI)-based BCI training in naïve participants led to a significant increase in motor cortical excitability, as revealed by post-training TMS mapping of the hand muscle's cortical representation; peak amplitude and volume of the motor evoked potentials recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle were significantly higher only in those subjects who develop a MI strategy based on imagination of hand grasping to successfully control a computer cursor. Furthermore, analysis of the functional brain networks constructed using a connectivity matrix between scalp electrodes revealed a significant decrease in the global efficiency index for the higher-beta frequency range (22-29 Hz), indicating that the brain network changes its topology with practice of hand grasping MI. Our findings build the neurophysiological basis for the use of non-invasive BCI technology for monitoring and guidance of motor imagery-dependent brain plasticity and thus may render BCI a viable tool for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  19. Changes in the Cell Population in Brain White Matter in Multiple System Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykjaer, Charlotte Havelund; Brudek, Tomasz; Salvesen, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To establish the extent of involvement of the white matter in the disease, we have used stereology to quantify the total number of neurons and glial cells (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia) in the brains from 10 MSA patients and 11 controls. RESULTS: The mean total number...... of white matter interstitial neurons in the patient brains was 0.5 × 10(9) (coefficient of variation = standard deviation/mean = 0.37), which was significantly lower than the 1.1 × 10(9) (0.41) in the control brains (P = .001) and equal to a reduction by ∼50%. The patient brains had a significantly higher...

  20. Functional cortical hubs in the eyes-closed resting human brain from an electrophysiological perspective using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Seol, Jaeho; Kwon, Jiyeon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear whether specific brain areas act as hubs in the eyes-closed (EC) resting state, which is an unconstrained state free from any passive or active tasks. Here, we used electrophysiological magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals to study functional cortical hubs in 88 participants. We identified several multispectral cortical hubs. Although cortical hubs vary slightly with different applied measures and frequency bands, the most consistent hubs were observed in the medial and posterior cingulate cortex, the left dorsolateral superior frontal cortex, and the left pole of the middle temporal cortex. Hubs were characterized as connector nodes integrating EC resting state functional networks. Hubs in the gamma band were more likely to include midline structures. Our results confirm the existence of multispectral cortical cores in EC resting state functional networks based on MEG and imply the existence of optimized functional networks in the resting brain.

  1. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  2. Functional Connectivity MR Imaging Reveals Cortical Functional Connectivity in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Zhu, Q.; Gao, W.; Chen, Y.; Toh, C.-H.; Styner, M.; Gerig, G.; Smith, J.K.; Biswal, B.; Gilmore, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unlike conventional functional MR imaging where external sensory/cognitive paradigms are needed to specifically activate different regions of the brain, resting functional connectivity MR imaging acquires images in the absence of cognitive demands (a resting condition) and detects brain regions, which are highly temporally correlated. Therefore, resting functional MR imaging is highly suited for the study of brain functional development in pediatric subjects. This study aimed to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of rfc in healthy pediatric subjects between 2 weeks and 2 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rfc studies were performed on 85 children: 38 neonates (2–4 weeks of age), 26 one-year-olds, and 21 two-year-olds. All subjects were imaged while asleep; no sedation was used. Six regions of interest were chosen, including the primary motor, sensory, and visual cortices in each hemisphere. Mean signal intensity of each region of interest was used to perform correlation analysis pixel by pixel throughout the entire brain, identifying regions with high temporal correlation. RESULTS: Functional connectivity was observed in all subjects in the sensorimotor and visual areas. The percent brain volume exhibiting rfc and the strength of rfc continued to increase from 2 weeks to 2 years. The growth trajectories of the percent brain volume of rfc appeared to differ between the sensorimotor and visual areas, whereas the z-score was similar. The percent brain volume of rfc in the sensorimotor area was significantly larger than that in the visual area for subjects 2 weeks of age (P = .008) and 1-year-olds (P = .017) but not for the 2-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that rfc in the sensorimotor precedes that in the visual area from 2 weeks to 1 year but becomes comparable at 2 years. In contrast, the comparable z-score values between the sensorimotor and visual areas for all age groups suggest a disassociation between percent

  3. Three-dimensional localization of cortical electrodes with respect to brain gyral anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzeszczuk, R.; Tan, K.K.; Levin, D.N.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Spiere, J.P.; Towle, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on biplanar radiographs and MR imaging-derived 3D models of the brain to localize cortical electrodes. A 3D model of each subject's brain surface was constructed from MR data. Then, six or more lead markers were placed on the subject's head, their 3D locations were digitized, and biplanar skull radiographs were acquired. The imaged and digitized marker coordinates were used to derive the transformation between the radiographs and the subject. The transformation between the MR and subject coordinate systems was derived by using a retrospective surface-fitting program to register the MR data with a digitized representation of the subject's scalp. These two transformations were combined to map electrode locations from the radiographs onto the 3D models

  4. Cortical neurons and networks are dormant but fully responsive during isoelectric brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg-Boussac, Tristan; Schramm, Adrien E; Ballestero, Jimena; Grosselin, Fanny; Chavez, Mario; Lecas, Sarah; Baulac, Michel; Naccache, Lionel; Demeret, Sophie; Navarro, Vincent; Mahon, Séverine; Charpier, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus. Although altered sensory responses can be occasionally observed on an isoelectric electroencephalogram, the electrical membrane properties and synaptic responses of individual neurons during this cerebral state remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intracellular correlates of a barbiturate-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram and to analyse the sensory-evoked synaptic responses that can emerge from a brain deprived of spontaneous electrical activity. We first examined the sensory responsiveness from patients suffering from intractable status epilepticus and treated by administration of thiopental. Multimodal sensory responses could be evoked on the flat electroencephalogram, including visually-evoked potentials that were significantly amplified and delayed, with a high trial-to-trial reproducibility compared to awake healthy subjects. Using an analogous pharmacological procedure to induce prolonged electro-cerebral inactivity in the rat, we could describe its cortical and subcortical intracellular counterparts. Neocortical, hippocampal and thalamo-cortical neurons were all silent during the isoelectric state and displayed a flat membrane potential significantly hyperpolarized compared with spontaneously active control states. Nonetheless, all recorded neurons could fire action potentials in response to intracellularly injected depolarizing current pulses and their specific intrinsic

  5. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. E.; Leitch, D. B.; Wong, P.; Kaas, J. H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Cortical expansion, both in absolute terms and in relation to subcortical structures, is considered a major trend in mammalian brain evolution with important functional implications, given that cortical computations should add complexity and flexibility to information processing. Here, we investigate the numbers of neurons that compose 4 structures in the visual pathway across 11 non-human primate species to determine the scaling relationships that apply to these structures and among them. We...

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical perfusion in response to thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Sohail; Murari, Kartikeya; McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T

    2016-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the treatment of movement disorders. The parameters of electrical stimulation are important to its therapeutic effect and remain a source of clinical controversy. DBS exerts its actions not only locally at the site of stimulation but also remotely through afferent and efferent connections, which are vital to its clinical effects. Yet, only a few studies have examined how cortical activity changes in response to various electrical parameters. Here, we investigated how the parameters of thalamic DBS alter cortical perfusion in rats using intrinsic optical imaging. We hypothesized that thalamic DBS will increase perfusion in primary motor cortex (M1), proportional to amplitude, pulse width, or frequency of the stimulation applied. We applied 45 different combinations of amplitude, pulse width and frequency in the ventro-lateral (VL) nucleus of the thalamus in anesthetized rats while measuring perfusion in M1. VL thalamic DBS reduced cortical reflectance, which corresponds to an increase in cortical perfusion. We computed the maximum change in reflectance (MCR) as well as the spatial spread of MCR in each trial. Both MCR and spatial spread increased linearly with increases in current amplitude or pulse width of stimulation; however, the effect of frequency was non-linear. Stimulation at 20 Hz was significantly different from that at higher frequencies while stimulation at higher frequencies did not differ significantly from each other. Moreover, the effect of pulse width on MCR was larger than the effect of amplitude. The proportional increase in M1 perfusion due to increase in amplitude or pulse width suggests that both activate more neural elements and increase the volume of tissue activated. These results should help clinicians set parameters of DBS. The use of optical imaging to monitor effects of DBS on M1 may not only help understand DBS mechanisms, but may also provide feedback for closed loop DBS devices

  7. Morphine enhances the release of 3H-purines from rat brain cerebral cortical prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P.H.; Phillis, J.W.; Yuen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that 3 H-purines can be released from 3 H-adenosine preloaded rat brain cortical prisms by a KCl-evoked depolarization. The KCl-evoked release of 3 H-purines is dependent on the concentration of KCl present in the superfusate. At concentrations of 10(-7) approximately 10(-5)M morphine did not influence the basal release of 3 H-purines from the prisms, although it enhanced the KCl-evoked release of 3 H-purines. The enhancement of KCl-evoked 3 H-purine release by morphine was concentration-dependent and was antagonized by naloxone, suggesting the involvement of opiate receptors. Uptake studies with rat brain cerebral cortical synaptosomes show that morphine is a very weak inhibitor of adenosine uptake. Comparisons with dipyridamole, a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake, suggest that this low level of inhibition of the uptake did not contribute significantly to the release of 3 H-purine by morphine seen in our experiments. It is therefore suggested that morphine enhances KCl-evoked 3 H-purine release by an interaction with opiate receptors and that the resultant increase in extracellular purine (adenosine) levels may account for some of the actions of morphine

  8. A new method to measure cortical growth in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Andrew K; Chang, Yulin V; Grimm, Cindy M; Phan, Ly; Taber, Larry A; Bayly, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Folding of the cerebral cortex is a critical phase of brain development in higher mammals but the biomechanics of folding remain incompletely understood. During folding, the growth of the cortical surface is heterogeneous and anisotropic. We developed and applied a new technique to measure spatial and directional variations in surface growth from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of a single animal or human subject. MRI provides high resolution 3D image volumes of the brain at different stages of development. Surface representations of the cerebral cortex are obtained by segmentation of these volumes. Estimation of local surface growth between two times requires establishment of a point-to-point correspondence ("registration") between surfaces measured at those times. Here we present a novel approach for the registration of two surfaces in which an energy function is minimized by solving a partial differential equation on a spherical surface. The energy function includes a strain-energy term due to distortion and an "error energy" term due to mismatch between surface features. This algorithm, implemented with the finite element method, brings surface features into approximate alignment while minimizing deformation in regions without explicit matching criteria. The method was validated by application to three simulated test cases and applied to characterize growth of the ferret cortex during folding. Cortical surfaces were created from MRI data acquired in vivo at 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of life. Deformation gradient and Lagrangian strain tensors describe the kinematics of growth over this interval. These quantitative results illuminate the spatial, temporal, and directional patterns of growth during cortical folding.

  9. Brain-stem atrophy secondary to supratentorial cerebrovascular diseases as demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro.

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed the CT findings of 9 cases with supratentorial cerebrovascular diseases which also showed atrophic changes in their ipsilateral brain stem due to a Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Although similar findings have been reported in cases of supratentorial infarcts, our cases consisted of 5 old intracerebral hemorrhages and 4 old infarcts. This finding can occur at any level of the supratentorial corticospinal tract, but the volume changes in the brain stem seemed to be prominent in cases where the motor cortex was involved. A correlation was found between the duration of the supratentorial disease and the volume loss of the brain stem. The shortest duration of our cases was 12 months. This CT finding is considered to be that of the chronic stage of the supratentorial lesion involving the corticospinal tract. (author)

  10. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  11. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  12. The effect of disease modifying therapies on brain atrophy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Tsivgoulis

    Full Text Available The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of disease-modifying drugs (DMD on brain atrophy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS using available randomized-controlled trial (RCT data.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines of all available RCTs of patients with RRMS that reported data on brain volume measurements during the study period.We identified 4 eligible studies, including a total of 1819 RRMS patients (71% women, mean age 36.5 years, mean baseline EDSS-score: 2.4. The mean percentage change in brain volume was found to be significantly lower in DMD versus placebo subgroup (standardized mean difference: -0.19; 95%CI: -0.27--0.11; p<0.001. We detected no evidence of heterogeneity between estimates (I2 = 30%, p = 0.19 nor publication bias in the Funnel plots. Sensitivity analyses stratifying studies according to brain atrophy neuroimaging protocol disclosed no evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.16. In meta-regression analyses, the percentage change in brain volume was found to be inversely related with duration of observation period in both DMD (meta-regression slope = -0.03; 95% CI: -0.04--0.02; p<0.001 and placebo subgroups (meta-regression slope = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.06--0.04; p<0.001. However, the rate of percentage brain volume loss over time was greater in placebo than in DMD subgroup (p = 0.017, ANCOVA.DMD appear to be effective in attenuating brain atrophy in comparison to placebo and their benefit in delaying the rate of brain volume loss increases linearly with longer treatment duration.

  13. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A.; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W.; Saradha, A.; Abdi, Herve; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abeliovich, Asa; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Abner, Erin; Acharya, Deepa; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmed, Shiek; Ahn, Jae Eun; Aisen, Paul; Aksu, Yaman; Al-Akhras, Mousa; Alarcon, Marcelo; Alberca, Roman; Alexander, Gene; Alexander, Daniel; Alin, Aylin; Almeida, Fabio; Amlien, Inge; Anand, Shyam; Anderson, Dallas; Andrew, Marilee; Angersbach, Steve; Anjum, Ayesha; Aoyama, Eiji; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arnold, Steven; Arunagiri, Vidhya; Asatryan, Albert; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Assareh, Arezoo; Le Page, Aurelie; Avants, Brian; Avinash, Gopal; Aviv, Richard; Awasthi, Sukrati; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Babic, Tomislav; Baek, Young; Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Shuyang; Baird, Geoffrey; Baker, John; Banks, Sarah; Bard, Jonathan; Barnes, Josephine; Bartlett, Jonathan; Bartzokis, George; Barua, Neil; Bauer, Corinna; Bayley, Peter; Beck, Irene; Becker, James; Becker, J. Alex; Beckett, Laurel; Bednar, Martin; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bek, Stephan; Belaroussi, Boubakeur; Belmokhtar, Nabil; Bernard, Charlotte; Bertram, Lars; Bhaskar, Uday; Biffi, Alessandro; Bigler, Erin; Bilgic, Basar; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Black, Ronald; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Boppana, Madhu; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bowes, Mike; Bowman, DuBois; Bowman, Gene; Braskie, Meredith; Braunewell, Karl; Breitner, Joihn; Bresell, Anders; Brewer, James; Brickman, Adam; Britschgi, Markus; Broadbent, Steve; Brogren, Jacob; Brooks, David; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Brunton, Simon; Buchert, Ralph; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buckley, Chris; Buerger, Katharina; Burger, Cyrill; Burnham, Samantha; Burns, Jeffrey; Burton, David; Butman, John; Cabeza, Rafael; Cairns, Nigel; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Cantillon, Marc; Capella, Heraldo; Carbotti, Angela; Cardona-Sanclemente, Luis Eduardo; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carranza-Ath, Fredy; Casabianca, Jodi; Casanova, Ramon; Cash, David; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Cella, Massimo; Celsis, Pierre; Chanu, Pascal; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Chemali, Zeina; Chen, Rong; Chen, Jake; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Minhua; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Chertkow, Howard; Cheung, Charlton; Cheung, Vinci; Chiang, Gloria; Chiba, Koji; Chin, Simon; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Youngsang; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Chowbina, Sudhir; Christensen, Anette Luther; Clark, David; Clark, Chris; Clarkson, Matt; Clayton, David; Clunie, David; Coen, Michael; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Coppola, Giovanni; Coulin, Samuel; Cover, Keith S.; Crane, Paul; Crans, Gerald; Croop, Robert; Crowther, Daniel; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Curry, Charles; Curtis, Steven; Cutter, Gary; Daiello, Lori; Dake, Michael; Dale, Anders; Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Damato, Vito Domenico; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Davatzikos, Christos; Dave, Jay; David, Renaud; DavidPrakash, Bhaskaran; Davidson, Julie; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Meyer, Geert; de Nunzio, Giorgio; Decarli, Charles; Dechairo, Bryan; DeDuck, Kristina; Dehghan, Hossein; Dejkam, Arsalan; Delfino, Manuel; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Dellavedova, Luca; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Delrieu, Julien; DeOrchis, Vincent; Depy Carron, Delphine; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; DeVous, Michael; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Bradford, Dickerson; Ding, Xiaobo; Dinov, Ivo; Dobson, Howard; Dodge, Hiroko; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dorflinger, Ernest; Dowling, Maritza; Duan, Xujun; Dubal, Dena; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jrgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dykstra, Kevin; Earl, Nancy; Edula, Goutham; Ekin, Ahmet; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; Emahazion, Tesfai; Engelman, Corinne; Epstein, Noam; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Eskildsen, Simon; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Lingzhong; Fan, Yong; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farb, Norman; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Farzan, Ali; Faux, Noel; Feldman, Betsy; Feldman, Howard; Feldman, Susan; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrarini, Luca; Ferreira, Manuel Joao; Ferrer, Eugene; Figurski, Michal; Filipovych, Roman; Fillit, Howard; Finch, Stephen; Finlay, Daniel; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Fletcher, Evan; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Focke, Niels; Forman, Mark; Forsythe, Alan; Fox, Steven; Fox-Bosetti, Sabrina; Francis, Alexander L.; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Stefanie; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujimoto, Yoko; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Furney, Simon; Gallins, Paul; Galvin, Ben; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Garcia, Maria Teresa; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Ge, Qi; Ge, Tian; Gemme, Gianluca; Geraci, Joseph; Ghassabi, Zeinab; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil, Juan E.; Gill, Ryan; Gitelman, Darren; Gleason, Carey; Glymour, M. Maria; Godbey, Michael; Goghari, Vina; Gold, Michael; Goldberg, Terry; Goldman, Jennifer; Gomeni, Roberto; Gong, Shangwenyan; Gonzales, Celedon; Goodro, Robert; Gordon, Brian; Gore, Chris; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Grachev, Igor; Grandey, Emily; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gratt, Jeremy; Gray, Katherine; Greenberg, Barry; Gregg, Keith; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Grill, Joshua; Gross, Alden; Gross, Alan; Guignot, Isabelle; Guo, Jeffrey; Guo, Qimiao; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Lianghao; Habeck, Christian; Hai, Yizhen; Haight, Thaddeus; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Duke; Han, Jian; Han, Tony; Hanif, Muhammad; Hanna, Yousef; Hardy, Peter; Harvey, Danielle; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hazart, Aurelien; He, Huiguang; He, Yong; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heidebrink, Judith; Henderson, David; Henrard, Sebastien; Herholz, Karl; Hernandez, Monica; Herskovits, A. Zara; Hess, Christopher; Hildenbrand, Maike; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Hollingworth, Paul; Holmes, Robin; Honigberg, Lee; Hoppin, Jack; Hou, Yangyang; Hsu, Ailing; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hu, Xiaolan; Hu, Zhiwei; Hu, William; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chingwen; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Fude; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Shu-Pang; Hubbard, Rebecca; Huentelman, Matthew; Hui, Shen; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Hurko, Orest; Hurt, Stephen; Huyck, Susan; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki; Imani, Farzin; Immermann, Fred; Inlow, Mark; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Irungu, Benson mwangi; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ismail, Sara; Ismail, Shahina; Ito, Kaori; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Jacobson, Mark; Jacqmin, Philippe; Jafari, Aria; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jaffe, Carl; Jara, Hernan; Jasperse, Bas; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, J. Richard; Jessen, Walter; Jia, Fucang; Jiang, Tianzi; Jing, Huang; Johnson, Julene; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, David K.; Jones, Richard; Juengling, Freimut; Juh, Rahyeong; Julin, Per; Kadish, Bill; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Kallam, Hanimi Reddy; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Kang, Ju Hee; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Karantzoulis, Stella; Karlawish, Jason; Katz, Elyse; Kaushik, Sandeep S.; Kauwe, John; Kawakami, Hirofumi; Kazimipoor, Borhan; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Kerchner, Geoffrey; Kerrouche, Nacer; Khalil, Iya; Khalil, Andre; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Ana; Kim, Yeonhee; Kim, Hyoungkyu; Kim, Seongkyun; Kim, Hyewon; Kimberg, Daniel; Kimura, Tokunori; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kirsch, Wolff; Klimas, Michael; Kline, Richard; Kling, Mitchel; Klopfenstein, Erin; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kolasny, Anthony; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Kotran, Nickolas; Kouassi, Alex; Kowalczyk, Adam; Kozma, Lynn; Krams, Michael; Kratzer, Martina; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kumar, Sreedhar; Kuo, Hsun Ting; Kuo, Julie; Kurosawa, Ken; Kwon, Oh Hun; Labrish, Catherine; Laforet, Genevieve; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, On Ki; Lampron, Antoine; Landau, Susan; Landen, Jaren; Lane, Richard; Langbaum, Jessica; Langford, Dianne; Lanius, Vivian; Laxamana, Joel; Le, Trung; Leahy, Richard; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Vita; Lee, Joseph H.; Lee, Grace; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Noah; Lefkimmiatis, Stamatis; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenfant, Pierre; Lenz, Robert; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Lester, Gayle; Levey, Allan; Li, Shi-jiang; Li, Shanshan; Li, Wenjun; Li, Chin-Shang; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Rui; Li, Ming; Li, Lexin; Li, Jinhe; Li, Yi; Li, Quanzheng; Li, Gang; Liang, Kuchang; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Lichen; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lin, Ling-chih; Lin, Lan; Lin, Mingkuan; Lin, Ai-Ling; Liu, Songling; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Meijie; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Li; Liu, Honggang; Liu, Pu; Liu, Tao; Liu, Sophia; Liu, Dazhong; Lo, Raymond; Lobanov, Victor; Loewenstein, David; Logovinsky, Veronika; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Ziyi; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Po-Haong; Lukic, Ana; Lull, Juan J.; Luo, Xiongjian; Lynch, John; Ma, Lei; Mackin, Scott; Mada, Marius; Magda, Sebastian; Maglio, Silvio; Maikusa, Norihide; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Malave, Vicente; Maldjian, Joseph; Mandal, Pravat; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Manjon, Jose; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marambaud, Philippe; Marchewka, Artur; Marek, Kenneth; Markind, Samuel; Marshall, Gad; Martinez Torteya, Antonio; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Mattei, Peter; Matthews, Dawn; McArdle, John; McCarroll, Steven; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGonigle, John; McIntyre, John; McLaren, Donald; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Mehta, Nirav; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melrose, Rebecca; Mendonca, Brian; Menendez, Manuel; Meredith, Jere; Merrill, David; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Metti, Andrea; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Miftahof, Roustem; Mikhno, Arthur; Miller, David; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Ye; Mirza, Mubeena; Mistridis, Panagiota; Mitchell, Meghan; Mitsis, Effie; Mohan, Ananth; Moore, Dana; Moradi Birgani, Parmida; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mormino, Elizabeth; Mortamet, Benedicte; Moscato, Pablo; Mueller, Kathyrne; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller, Notger; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mulder, Emma; Murayama, Shigeo; Murphy, Michael; Murray, Brian; Musiek, Erik; Myers, Amanda; Najafi, Shahla; Nazarparvar, Babak; Nazeri, Arash; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen Xuan, Tuong; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Niecko, Timothy; Nielsen, Casper; Notomi, Keiji; Nutakki, Gopi Chand; O'Bryant, Sid; O'Neil, Alison; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Dong Hoon; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Olmos, Salvador; Ortner, Marion; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Oswald, Annahita; Ott, Brian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Paiva, Renata; Pan, Zhifang; Pande, Yogesh; Pardo, Jose; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Lovingly; Park, Moon Ho; Park, Sang hyun; Park, Kee Hyung; Park, Sujin; Parsey, Ramin; Parveen, Riswana; Paskavitz, James; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Manasi; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Payoux, Pierre; Pearson, Jim; Peavy, Guerry; Pell, Gaby; Peng, Yahong; Pennec, Xavier; Pepin, Jean louis; Perea, Rodrigo; Perneczky, Robert; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Pezoa, Jorge; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Phillips, Justin; Phillips, Nicole; Pierson, Ronald; Piovezan, Mauro; Podhorski, Adam; Pollari, Mika; Pontecorvo, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan; Posner, Holly; Potkin, Steven; Potter, Guy; Potter, Elizabeth; Poulin, Stephane; Prasad, Gautam; Prenger, Kurt; Prince, Jerry; Priya, Anandh; Puchakayala, Shashidhar Reddy; Qiu, Ruolun; Qiu, Anqi; Qiu, Wendy; Qualls, Constance Dean; Rabie, Huwaida; Rajeesh, Rajeesh; Rallabandi, V. P. Subramanyam; Ramage, Amy; Randolph, Christopher; Rao, Anil; Rao, Divya; Raubertas, Richard; Ray, Debashis; Razak, Hana; Redolfi, Alberto; Reed, Bruce; Reid, Andrew; Reilhac, Anthonin; Reinsberger, Claus; Restrepo, Lucas; Retico, Alessandra; Richards, John; Riddle, William; Ries, Michele; Rincon, Mariano; Rischall, Matt; Rizk-Jackson, Angela; Robieson, Weining; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rojas, Ignacio; Rojas Balderrama, Javier; Romero, Klaus; Rorden, Chris; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosen, Allyson; Rosen, Ori; Rosenberg, Paul; Ross, David; Roubini, Eli; Rousseau, François; Rowe, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Rubright, Jonathan; Ruiz, Agustin; Rusinek, Henry; Ryan, Laurie; Saad, Ahmed; Sabbagh, Marway; Sabuncu, Mert; Sachs, Michael; Sadeghi, Ali; Said, Yasmine; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Sakata, Muneyuki; Salat, David; Salmon, David; Salter, Hugh; Samwald, Matthias; Sanchez, Luciano; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sanjo, Nobuo; Sarnel, Haldun; Sato, Hajime; Sato, Shinji; Saumier, Daniel; Savio, Alexandre; Sawada, Ikuhisa; Saykin, Andrew; Schaffer, J. David; Scharre, Douglas; Schegerin, Marc; Schlosser, Gretchen; Schmand, Ben; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Mark; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Schneider, Lon; Schramm, Hauke; Schuerch, Markus; Schwartz, Eben; Schwartz, Craig; Schwarz, Adam; Seethamraju, Ravi; Seixas, Flavio; Selnes, Per; Senjem, Matthew; Senlin, Wang; Seo, Sang Won; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sevigny, Jeffrey; Sfikas, Giorgos; Sghedoni, Roberto; Shah, Said Khalid; Shahbaba, Babak; Shams, Soheil; Shattuck, David; Shaw, Leslie; Sheela, Jaba; Shen, Weijia; Shen, Qian; Shera, David; Sherman, John; Sherva, Richard; Shi, Feng; Shukla, Vinay; Shuler, Catherine; Shulman, Joshua; Siegel, Rene; Siemers, Eric; Silveira, Margarida; Silver, Michael; Silverman, Daniel; Sim, Ida; Simmons, Andy; Simoes, Rita; Simon, Melvin; Simpson, Ivor; Singh, Simer Preet; Singh, Nikhil; Siuciak, Judy; Sjogren, Niclas; Skinner, Jeannine; Skup, Martha; Small, Gary; Smith, Michael; Smith, Benjamin; Smith, Charles; Smyth, Timothy; Snow, Sarah; Soares, Holly; Soldea, Octavian; Solomon, Paul; Solomon, Alan; Som, Subhojit; Song, Changhong; Song, Mingli; Sosova, Iveta; Soudah, Eduardo; Soydemir, Melih; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spenger, Christian; Sperling, Reisa; Spiegel, Rene; Spies, Lothar; Squarcia, Sandro; Squire, Larry; Staff, Roger; Stern, Yaakov; Straw, Jack; Stricker, Nikki; Strittmatter, Stephen; Stühler, Elisabeth; Styren, Scot; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Sugishita, Morihiro; Sukkar, Rafid; Sun, Jia; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yu; Sundell, Karen; Suri, Muhammad; Suzuki, Akiyuki; Svetnik, Vladimir; Swan, Melanie; Takahasi, Tetsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shoji; Tanchi, Chaturaphat; Tancredi, Daniel; Tao, Wenwen; Tao, Dacheng; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Teng, Edmond; Terlizzi, Rita; Thames, April; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Benjamin; Thomas, Ronald; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Thurfjell, Lennart; Titeux, Laurence; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Tolli, Tuomas; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Torrealdea, Patxi; Tousian, Mona; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Trittschuh, Emily; Trojanowski, John; Truran, Diana; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Tucker-Drob, Elliot; Tufail, Ahsan; Tung, Joyce; Turken, And; Ueda, Yoji; Ullrich, Lauren; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Umar, Nisser; Uzunbas, Gokhan; van de Nes, Joseph; van der Brug, Marcel; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; van Zeeland, Ashley; Vasanawala, Minal; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verwaerde, Philippe; Videbaek, Charlotte; Vidoni, Eric; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitolo, Ottavio; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Wan, Hong; Wang, Huanli; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Angela; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wang, Xu; Wang, Ze; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Alex; Wang, Huali; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Ward, Michael; Warfield, Simon; Waring, Stephen; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Webb, David; Wei, Lili; Weiner, Michael; Wen, Shu-Hui; Wenjing, Li; Wenzel, Fabian; Westlye, Lars T.; Whitcher, Brandon; Whitlow, Christopher; Whitwell, Jennifer; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Williams, David; Wilmot, Beth; Wimsatt, Matt; Wingo, Thomas; Wiste, Heather; Wolfson, Tanya; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Ellen; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; Worth, Eric; Wouters, Hans; Wu, Teresa; Wu, Yi-Gen; Wu, Liang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wyman, Bradley; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Xiao, Guanghua; Xiao, Liu; Xie, Sharon; Xu, Shunbin; Xu, Ye; Xu, Yi-Zheng; Xu, Guofan; Xu, Jun; Yamane, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Yunyi; Yan, Pingkun; Yang, Eric; Yang, Jinzhong; Yang, Qing X.; Yang, Zijiang; Yang, Guang; Yang, Zhitong; Yang, Wenlu; Ye, Liang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Jieping; Ye, Jong; Yee, Laura; Yesavage, Jerome; Ying, Song; Yoo, Bongin; Young, Jonathan; Yu, Shiwei; Yu, Dongchuan; Yuan, Guihong; Yuan, Kai; Yushkevich, Paul; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zagorski, Michael; Zawadzki, Rezi; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zelinski, Elizabeth; Zhang, Kurt; Zhang, Huixiong; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Qinying; Zhao, Jim; Zhao, Peng; Zhen, Xiantong; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhijun, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Sheng; Zhu, Wen; Zhu, Hongtu; Zhu, Wanlin; Zilka, Samantha; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by

  14. Selective value of computed tomography of the brain in Cerebritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylis, N.B.; Altman, R.D.; Ostrov, S.; Quencer, R. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). School of Medicine)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and steroid effects on the brain were measured by computed tomography (CT). Of 14 patients with SLE cerebritis, 10 (71%) had marked cortical atrophy and 4 (29%) minimal atrophy. None were normal by CT. Controls included 22 patients with SLE without cerebritis receiving cortiocosteroids; this group had normal CT scans in 16 (73%) and minimal cortical atrophy in the remaining 6 (27%). Follow-up CT on 5 patients with cerebritis was unchanged. CT of the brain is a minimally invasive technique for documenting SLE cerebritis. CT may also help differentiate cerebritis from the neuropsychiatric side effects of corticosteroids.

  15. The selective value of computed tomography of the brain in Cerebritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylis, N.B.; Altman, R.D.; Ostrov, S.; Quencer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and steroid effects on the brain were measured by computed tomography (CT). Of 14 patients with SLE cerebritis, 10 (71%) had marked cortical atrophy and 4 (29%) minimal atrophy. None were normal by CT. Controls included 22 patients with SLE without cerebritis receiving cortiocosteroids; this group had normal CT scans in 16 (73%) and minimal cortical atrophy in the remaining 6 (27%). Follow-up CT on 5 patients with cerebritis was unchanged. CT of the brain is a minimally invasive technique for documenting SLE cerebritis. CT may also help differentiate cerebritis from the neuropsychiatric side effects of corticosteroids

  16. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  17. Malnutrition and brain function: experimental studies using the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R C; Monteiro, J S; Teodósio, N R

    1996-12-01

    Depending on its intensity and duration, nutritional deficiency can disrupt the structure and function of the nervous system of humans and other mammals, with consequences more or less devastating for the whole organism, particularly in the early postnatal life, when body growth is very rapid and the need for proteins, calories and other nutrients is greatest. In this review, electrophysiological data are presented regarding the use of the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression (CSD) to study effects of malnutrition on the brain. Several conditions of clinical importance and that are known to alter brain function are shown also to influence CSD features in experimental animals. Some of these conditions, (e.g., pharmacological manipulation of neurotransmitter systems, dietary treatment with Lithium, acute hyperglycemia, hypothyroidism, aging and environmental stimulation) decrease CSD susceptibility, while other conditions increase it, as, for example, systemic reduction of extracellular chloride levels, deprivation of REM-sleep, acute hypoglycemia, treatment with diazepam, consumption of ethanol and malnutrition. Particular emphasis is laid on the effect of early environmental enrichment on CSD in normal and malnourished animals. Our results suggest that such effect is more evident in the malnourished brain, as compared to the well-nourished one. The data also show that malnutrition alters the brain responsivity to some CSD-facilitatory or inhibitory agents. The underlying mechanisms to explain the observed effects are discussed.

  18. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance

  19. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks.

  20. The dynamic brain: from spiking neurons to neural masses and cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cortex is a complex system, characterized by its dynamics and architecture, which underlie many functions such as action, perception, learning, language, and cognition. Its structural architecture has been studied for more than a hundred years; however, its dynamics have been addressed much less thoroughly. In this paper, we review and integrate, in a unifying framework, a variety of computational approaches that have been used to characterize the dynamics of the cortex, as evidenced at different levels of measurement. Computational models at different space-time scales help us understand the fundamental mechanisms that underpin neural processes and relate these processes to neuroscience data. Modeling at the single neuron level is necessary because this is the level at which information is exchanged between the computing elements of the brain; the neurons. Mesoscopic models tell us how neural elements interact to yield emergent behavior at the level of microcolumns and cortical columns. Macroscopic models can inform us about whole brain dynamics and interactions between large-scale neural systems such as cortical regions, the thalamus, and brain stem. Each level of description relates uniquely to neuroscience data, from single-unit recordings, through local field potentials to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, electroencephalogram (EEG, and magnetoencephalogram (MEG. Models of the cortex can establish which types of large-scale neuronal networks can perform computations and characterize their emergent properties. Mean-field and related formulations of dynamics also play an essential and complementary role as forward models that can be inverted given empirical data. This makes dynamic models critical in integrating theory and experiments. We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the

  1. Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI.

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    Thomas Jubault

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia. Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes an intermediate step in a broader neurodegenerative process rather than a unique feature of Parkinson's disease, as a consistent pattern of progression would exist, originating from the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum. To date, neuroimaging techniques have been unable to characterize the pre-symptomatic stages of PD. However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease. We recruited 23 PD patients at Hoenn and Yahr stages I to II of the disease and 18 healthy controls (HC matched for age. T1-weighted anatomical scans were acquired (MPRAGE, 1 mm3 resolution and analyzed using an optimized VBM protocol to detect white and grey matter volume reduction without spatial a priori. When the HC group was compared to the PD group, a single cluster exhibited statistical difference (p<0.05 corrected for false detection rate, 4287 mm3 in the brain stem, between the pons and the medulla oblongata. The present study provides in-vivo evidence that brain stem damage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology, and that the identification of this consistent damage along with other factors could help with earlier diagnosis in the future. This damage could also explain some non-motor symptoms in PD that often precede diagnosis, such as autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders.

  2. Temporal Changes in Cortical and Hippocampal Expression of Genes Important for Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury in Mice

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    June Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury. Expressions of several genes important for brain glucose utilization were determined by qRT-PCR. In results, (1 mRNA levels of three key enzymes in glucose metabolism [hexo kinase (HK 1, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH] were all increased 6 h after injury in the contralateral cortex, followed by decreases at subsequent times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (2 capillary glucose transporter Glut-1 mRNA increased, while neuronal glucose transporter Glut-3 mRNA decreased, at various times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (3 astrocyte lactate transporter MCT-1 mRNA increased, whereas neuronal lactate transporter MCT-2 mRNA decreased in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (4 HK2 (an isoform of hexokinase expression increased at all time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. GPR81 (lactate receptor mRNA increased at various time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. These temporal alterations in gene expression corresponded closely to the patterns of impaired brain glucose utilization reported in both TBI patients and experimental TBI rodents. The observed changes in hippocampal gene expression were delayed and prolonged, when compared with those in the cortex. The patterns of alterations were specific

  3. The differences of brain cortical activation between superficial pain and deep pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tani, Toshikazu; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) technology, we investigated the difference of pain related brain cortical activation derived from noxious stimulation to the skin and muscular tissue. Ten healthy volunteers who have no history of brain vascular disease were enrolled in this study. A cutaneous pain was provoked by isotonic (0.9%) saline injection into intra-dermal space on right lower leg through 24G plastic catheter, and a muscle pain was provoked by hypertonic (3%) saline injection into right tibialis anterior muscle. We used event-related FMRI to measure brain activity during each injection. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain intensity and unpleasantness, and pain quality was assessed with several verbal descriptions. Pain unpleasantness rating was higher in the muscle pain compared to the cutaneous pain, despite the same pain intensity rating. The cutaneous pain had more acute pain onset than the muscle pain. Pain duration after stimulation was short in the cutaneous pain, but long in the muscle pain. The extent of the painful region tended to be larger with the muscle pain, but there was no statistical significance. Evoked FMRI response from the cutaneous pain showed distinct brain activation in the inferior and superior parietal cortex (BA: Brodmann area 5/7/40), primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2), insula, supplementary motor area (SMA, BA6), posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. On the other hand, FMRI response from muscle pain showed distinct brain activation mainly in the contralateral insula. These results suggest that the parietal lobe including the S1 is the essential area for cognition of sharp and well-localized pain conditions such as cutaneous pain, and may not be essential for cognition of diffuse pain derived from muscular tissue. (author)

  4. The contribution of brain sub-cortical loops in the expression and acquisition of action understanding abilities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Miall, R. Chris; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Research on action understanding in cognitive neuroscience has led to the identification of a wide “action understanding network” mainly encompassing parietal and premotor cortical areas. Within this cortical network mirror neurons are critically involved implementing a neural mechanism according to which, during action understanding, observed actions are reflected in the motor patterns for the same actions of the observer. We suggest that focusing only on cortical areas and processes could be too restrictive to explain important facets of action understanding regarding, for example, the influence of the observer's motor experience, the multiple levels at which an observed action can be understood, and the acquisition of action understanding ability. In this respect, we propose that aside from the cortical action understanding network, sub-cortical processes pivoting on cerebellar and basal ganglia cortical loops could crucially support both the expression and the acquisition of action understanding abilities. Within the paper we will discuss how this extended view can overcome some limitations of the “pure” cortical perspective, supporting new theoretical predictions on the brain mechanisms underlying action understanding that could be tested by future empirical investigations. PMID:23911926

  5. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the

  6. Presymptomatic generalized brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Ahsan, R Laila; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical syndrome is dominated by personality change and behavioural symptoms, but language, memory, calculation and praxis impairments are also seen early in the course of the disease. There are no ......BACKGROUND/AIMS: CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical syndrome is dominated by personality change and behavioural symptoms, but language, memory, calculation and praxis impairments are also seen early in the course of the disease...... gene mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that mutations in CHMP2B have widespread effects throughout the brain, leading to a neuro-anatomical signature distinct from other diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum....

  7. Advancing functional dysconnectivity and atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Jesse A. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12 and healthy control subjects (n = 20 at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI scans and clinical evaluations at both time points. At baseline, voxel based morphometry (VBM revealed that patients with mild-to-moderate clinical symptoms showed structural atrophy in subcortex and brainstem, prefrontal cortex (PFC; supplementary motor area, paracingulate, dorsal and ventral medial PFC, and parietal cortex (precuneus. Tf-fMRI functional connectivity (FC was examined in a rostral midbrain tegmentum (rMT-anchored intrinsic connectivity network that is compromised in PSP-S. In healthy controls, this network contained a medial parietal module, a prefrontal-paralimbic module, and a subcortical-brainstem module. Baseline FC deficits in PSP-S were most severe in rMT network integrative hubs in the prefrontal-paralimbic and subcortical-brainstem modules. Longitudinally, patients with PSP-S had declining intermodular FC between the subcortical-brainstem and parietal modules, while progressive atrophy was observed in subcortical-brainstem regions (midbrain, pallidum and posterior frontal (perirolandic cortex. This suggested that later-stage subcortical-posterior cortical change may follow an earlier-stage subcortical-anterior cortical disease process. Clinically, patients with more severe baseline impairment showed greater subsequent prefrontal-parietal cortical FC declines and posterior frontal atrophy rates, while patients with more rapid longitudinal clinical decline showed coupled prefrontal-paralimbic FC decline. VBM and FC can augment disease monitoring in PSP

  8. Reestablishing speech understanding through musical ear training after cochlear implantation: a study of the potential cortical plasticity in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene V; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide impressive speech perception for persons with severe hearing loss, but many CI recipients fail in perceiving speech prosody and music. Successful rehabilitation depends on cortical plasticity in the brain and postoperative measures. The present study evaluates...... and children with CIs....

  9. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

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    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, Jakob [Karolinska Institutet, The Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Stockholm (Sweden); Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Anders [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  10. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria; Bergstroem, Jakob; Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan; Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders; Ekbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  11. MRI Visual Ratings of Brain Atrophy and White Matter Hyperintensities across the Spectrum of Cognitive Decline Are Differently Affected by Age and Diagnosis

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    Hanneke F. M. Rhodius-Meester

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the associations of age and diagnosis with visual ratings of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, parietal atrophy (PA, global cortical atrophy (GCA, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH and to investigate their clinical value in a large memory clinic cohort.Methods: We included 2,934 patients (age 67 ± 9 years; 1,391 [47%] female; MMSE 24 ± 5 from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (1,347 dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]; 681 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]; 906 controls with subjective cognitive decline. We analyzed the effect of age, APOE e4 and diagnosis on visual ratings using linear regression analyses. Subsequently, we compared diagnostic and predictive value in three age-groups (<65 years, 65–75 years, and >75 years.Results: Linear regression analyses showed main effects of age and diagnosis and an interaction age*diagnosis for MTA, PA, and GCA. For MTA the interaction effect indicated steeper age effects in MCI and AD than in controls. PA and GCA increased with age in MCI and controls, while AD patients have a high score, regardless of age. For WMH we found a main effect of age, but not of diagnosis. For MTA, GCA and PA, diagnostic value was best in patients <65 years (optimal cut-off: ≥1. PA and GCA only discriminated in patients <65 years and MTA in patients <75 years. WMH did not discriminate at all. Taking into account APOE did not affect the identified optimal cut-offs. When we used these scales to predict progression in MCI using Cox proportional hazard models, only MTA (cut-off ≥2 had any predictive value, restricted to patients >75 years.Conclusion: Visual ratings of atrophy and WMH were differently affected by age and diagnosis, requiring an age-specific approach in clinical practice. Their diagnostic value seems strongest in younger patients.

  12. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  13. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

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    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  14. Dynamic brain glucose metabolism identifies anti-correlated cortical-cerebellar networks at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo G; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Wiers, Corinde E; Kim, Sunny W; Demiral, Şukru B; Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions. Whereas cerebellum, thalamus, globus pallidus and calcarine cortex arose as the strongest t-MC hubs, the precuneus and visual cortex arose as the strongest rfMRI hubs. The strength of the t-MC linearly increased with the metabolic rate of glucose suggesting that t-MC measures are strongly associated with the energy demand of the brain tissue, and could reflect regional differences in glucose metabolism, counterbalanced metabolic network demand, and/or differential time-varying delivery of FDG. The mismatch between metabolic and functional connectivity patterns computed as a function of time could reflect differences in the temporal characteristics of glucose metabolism as measured with PET-FDG and brain activation as measured with rfMRI.

  15. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Goraj, Bozena; Tybor, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  16. Disrupted cortical hubs in functional brain networks in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Yifeng; Guo, Wenbin; Li, Meiling; Wang, Wenqin; Long, Zhiliang; Meng, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Zeng, Ling; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2015-09-01

    The network hubs, characterized by the large number of connections to other regions, play important roles in the proper and effective transfer of information. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have aberrant functional connectivity. The changing pattern in functional network hubs in SAD, however, remains incompletely understood. Twenty SAD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were recruited. Resting-state fMRI data were obtained using a gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging sequence. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks were constructed by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and then hubs were identified by using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was computed in each subject and the regions with higher FCS value were considered as functional network hubs. Compared with healthy controls, SAD patients showed significantly decreased FCS in the bilateral precuneus and significantly increased FCS in the right fusiform gyrus. Furthermore, a significantly negative correlation was observed between the FCS value in the precuneus and the illness duration. The present study demonstrated for the first time that disrupted cortical hubs existed in patients with SAD during resting state. These findings may provide novel insight into understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical activity in the left and right hemispheres during language-related brain functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Larsen, B

    1980-01-01

    of cortical activity seen during various language functions, emphasizing the practically symmetrical involvement in both hemispheres. A case of auditive agnosia (with complete cortical word deafness but preserved pure tone thresholds) is presented. The patient's normal speech constitutes evidence...

  18. High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eWhitmer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is marked by excessive synchronous activity in the beta (8-35 Hz band throughout the cortico-basal ganglia network. The optimal location of high frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS within the subthalamic nucleus (STN region and the location of maximal beta hypersynchrony are currently matters of debate. Additionally, the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony in functionally connected regions of motor cortex is unknown and of great interest. Scalp EEG studies demonstrated that stimulation of the STN can activate motor cortex antidromically, but the spatial specificity of this effect has not been examined. The present study examined the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony within the cortico-basal ganglia network in patients with PD. We measured local field potentials dorsal to and within the STN of PD patients, and additionally in the motor cortex in a subset of these patients. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to guide the placement of subdural cortical surface electrodes over the DTI-identified origin of the hyperdirect pathway between motor cortex and the STN. The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN. The degree of attenuation was monotonic with increased DBS voltages in both locations, but this voltage-dependent effect was greater in the central STN than dorsal to the STN (p < 0.05. Cortical signals over the estimated origin of the hyperdirect pathway also demonstrated attenuation of beta hypersynchrony during DBS dorsal to or within STN, whereas signals from non-specific regions of motor cortex were not attenuated. The spatially specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchrony in the functionally connected sensorimotor network.

  19. The correlative study between acupoint stimulations and corresponding brain cortices on functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Cheng; Chen Min; Cai Kui; Wang Wenchao; Yang Zhenghan; Zhao Weifeng; Li Guozhen; Wang Jiazhou; Tian Lifang; Zhou Tiangang; Lai Song

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the cortical activation of acupuncture with BOLD-based fMRI technique. Methods: The study was performed in 31 healthy volunteers (27 men, 4 women; age range 21-48 years) with acupuncture of points along the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang. The acupoints of the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming included Futu (S 32) in 7 volunteers and Zusanli (S 36) in 9 volunteers; and the acupoints of the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang included Yanglingquan (G34) in 7 volunteers and Guangming (G37) in 8 volunteers. MRI data were acquired on a GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon/Echo-speed scanner. 12 oblique axial slices paralleled to the AC-PC line were scanned. T 2 * images were acquired using EPI technique. Data sets of sequential images were analyzed with software package AFNI. Results: Acupuncture at points S32 and S36 resulted in activation of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal complex, and frontal gyri, and the average enhancement in the above activated areas was (4.28 ± 1.50)%. Acupuncture at vision-related points G34 and G37 resulted in activation of the occipital lobe as well as other cortices such as pons, basal ganglion, temporal lobe, and frontal lobe, and the BOLD signal changes of the visual cortex were (3.31 ± l.2)%. Conclusion: These preliminary fMRI results demonstrate strong regional BOLD signal changes in the brain upon acupuncture, hence demonstrates physiological evidence of acupuncture effect. (authors)

  20. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Tyler M; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B; McDonald, Carrie R; Dale, Anders M; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations that brain radiation patients experience deficits in domains of

  1. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  2. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murzin, Vyacheslav [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Nguyen, Tanya T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  3. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  4. A visual MRI atrophy rating scale for the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambikairajah, Ananthan; Devenney, Emma; Flanagan, Emma; Yew, Belinda; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to distinguish ALS, ALS-FTD and bvFTD via a novel visual MRI cortical atrophy scale that can be employed in a clinical setting. MRI images of 100 participants (33 ALS, 11 ALS-FTD, 22 bvFTD and 34 controls) were rated in four brain areas: orbitofrontal cortex, anterior temporal pole, anterior cingulate, and motor cortex. Areas were rated on a 5- point Likert scale by two raters blinded to the diagnosis. Results demonstrated that bvFTD patients showed the highest levels of atrophy across all regions, while ALS patients had the lowest atrophy scores. ALS-FTD patients have higher atrophy ratings compared to ALS patients for the motor cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal lobe, with a statistical trend for the orbitofrontal cortex. ALS-FTD patients were not significantly different from bvFTD for any of the brain regions. These findings were confirmed in a post hoc VBM analysis of the same participants. Our study demonstrates that a simple visual MRI rating scale can reliably distinguish ALS, ALS-FTD and bvFTD atrophy patterns in a clinical setting. Motor cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal atrophy emerged as good diagnostic markers for ALS-FTD. Employment of this MRI rating scale can complement clinical diagnostics of patients in the ALS-FTD continuum.

  5. Age- and gender-related regional variations of human brain cortical thickness, complexity, and gradient in the third decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creze, Maud; Versheure, Leslie; Besson, Pierre; Sauvage, Chloe; Leclerc, Xavier; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Brain functional and cytoarchitectural maturation continue until adulthood, but little is known about the evolution of the regional pattern of cortical thickness (CT), complexity (CC), and intensity or gradient (CG) in young adults. We attempted to detect global and regional age- and gender-related variations of brain CT, CC, and CG, in 28 healthy young adults (19-33 years) using a three-dimensional T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surface-based methods. Whole brain interindividual variations of CT and CG were similar to that in the literature. As a new finding, age- and gender-related variations significantly affected brain complexity (P age), and the fronto-orbital cortex (gender), all in the right hemisphere. Regions of interest analyses showed age and gender significant interaction (P learning plasticity in young adults' brain in the third decade. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N M; Seeley, William W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Kramer, Joel H; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Jagust, William J; Miller, Bruce L; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, 65 years, n=114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n=80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR=0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prevalence of brain atrophy in dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP Botucatu: retrospective study; Prevalencia de atrofia cerebral em caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP Botucatu: estudo retrospectivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Brain atrophy is diagnosed by imaging methods that allow the verification of the widening of cerebral sulci and ventricular dilatation. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 150 dogs were evaluated, brain atrophy was identified in 16 animals. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected, followed by poodles, maltese, dachshunds, yorkshires, pinschers and cockers. Brain atrophy was observed in animals of all age groups, being more prevalent in middle aged dogs followed by elderly animals, in which this alteration can be commonly found. The identification of reduced brain volume, however, may not be the cause of neurological signs expressed by animals since in some dogs of this study it was considered a finding. (author)

  8. An Improved Unscented Kalman Filter Based Decoder for Cortical Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simin; Li, Jie; Li, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to connect brains with machines or computers directly, for application in areas such as prosthesis control. For this application, the accuracy of the decoding of movement intentions is crucial. We aim to improve accuracy by designing a better encoding model of primary motor cortical activity during hand movements and combining this with decoder engineering refinements, resulting in a new unscented Kalman filter based decoder, UKF2, which improves upon our previous unscented Kalman filter decoder, UKF1. The new encoding model includes novel acceleration magnitude, position-velocity interaction, and target-cursor-distance features (the decoder does not require target position as input, it is decoded). We add a novel probabilistic velocity threshold to better determine the user's intent to move. We combine these improvements with several other refinements suggested by others in the field. Data from two Rhesus monkeys indicate that the UKF2 generates offline reconstructions of hand movements (mean CC 0.851) significantly more accurately than the UKF1 (0.833) and the popular position-velocity Kalman filter (0.812). The encoding model of the UKF2 could predict the instantaneous firing rate of neurons (mean CC 0.210), given kinematic variables and past spiking, better than the encoding models of these two decoders (UKF1: 0.138, p-v Kalman: 0.098). In closed-loop experiments where each monkey controlled a computer cursor with each decoder in turn, the UKF2 facilitated faster task completion (mean 1.56 s vs. 2.05 s) and higher Fitts's Law bit rate (mean 0.738 bit/s vs. 0.584 bit/s) than the UKF1. These results suggest that the modeling and decoder engineering refinements of the UKF2 improve decoding performance. We believe they can be used to enhance other decoders as well.

  9. Cortical Spreading Depression Elicited in Rat Brain after Exposure to Microwave from GSM Mobile Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Samera M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate possibility of microwave emitted by cellular phone that can elicit cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rat brain and studying the characteristics of the evoked signals. (CSD) was elicited in cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats after exposure to microwave irradiation (935.2-960.2 MHz) from Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) mobile phone. With the microwave output of about 8.5 mW at the antenna - tissue surface (4mm in diameter), CSD was elicited after 50 sec irradiation from the beginning of a received signal to the mobile and after 35 sec irradiation from the beginning of a transmitted signal from the mobile. CSD was elicited in about 90% of experiments after irradiation by both types of signal exposure. The results have shown that slow potential change (SPC) has an amplitude of 4.5 ± 0.75 mV, duration of 1.5 ± 0.5 min and propagated speed of 3 mm/min on the average. The amplitude, duration and behaviour of SPC of the evoked spreading depression were found to be affected by irradiation time and the method of exposure.

  10. Endocannabinoids in brain plasticity: Cortical maturation, HPA axis function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow-Edwards, Diana; Silva, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana use during adolescence has reached virtually every strata of society. The general population has the perception that marijuana use is safe for mature people and therefore is also safe for developing adolescents. However, both clinical and preclinical research shows that marijuana use, particularly prior to age 16, could have long-term effects on cognition, anxiety and stress-related behaviors, mood disorders and substance abuse. These effects derive from the role of the endocannabinoid system, the endogenous cannabinoid system, in the development of cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus during adolescence. Endocannabinoids are necessary for normal neuronal excitation and inhibition through actions at glutamate and GABA terminals. Synaptic pruning at excitatory synapses and sparing of inhibitory synapses likely results in changes in the balance of excitation/inhibition in individual neurons and within networks; processes which are necessary for normal cortical development. The interaction between prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus is responsible for emotional memory, anxiety-related behaviors and drug abuse and all utilize the endogenous cannabinoid system to maintain homeostasis. Also, endocannabinoids are required for fast and slow feedback in the normal stress response, processes which mature during adolescence. Therefore, exogenous cannabinoids, such as marijuana, have the potential to alter the course of development of each of these major systems (limbic, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neocortex) if used during the critical period of brain development, adolescence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of glutamine transport in metabolism in the brain cortical tissue slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, N.; Bubb, W.A.; Rae, C.; Broeer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The widely accepted 'glutamate/glutamine cycle' holds that glutamate released as a neurotransmitter in the brain is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, converted to neuro-inactive glutamine and transported back to neurons for reconversion to glutamate. Little, however, is known about the role of glutamine transport in this process. The situation is complicated by the fact that glutamine is transported by a variety of general amino-acid transporters of low specificity. The role of these transporters in flux of glutamine through the glutamate/glutamine cycle was investigated by 13 C NMR monitoring of the flux of C from [3- 13 C]L-lactate in guinea pig cortical tissue slices in the presence of competitive inhibitors of the A-type(α-(methylamino)isobutyrate; MeAIB) and N-type (histidine) transporters. The presence of each inhibitor (10 mM) produced no significant decrease in total metabolite pool size but resulted in a significant decrease in flux of [ 13 C] into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA and also into glutamine and alanine. The factional enrichment of glutamate and GABA was also significantly lower. By contrast there was no effect on the amount of [ 13 C] incorporated into aspartate isotopomers which may represent a predominantly astrocyte-labelled pool. These results are consistent with involvement of glutamine transporters in the recycling of synaptic glutamate by demonstrating partial blockage of incorporation of [ 13 C] label into neuronal metabolites

  12. Effect of prolonged 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibition by paroxetine on cortical β1 and β2-adrenoceptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.R.; Palmer, K.J.; Johnson, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of the antidepressants paroxetine and amitriptyline on rat brain cortical β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptor numbers and affinities were investigated using [ 3 H]-CGP 12177. Although amitriptyline, 27 mg/kg, caused a significant 20% reduction in the number of β 1 -adrenoceptors, paroxetine, at does up to 8.9 mg/kg p.o., did not influence binding of [ 3 H]-CGP 12177 to cortical β 1 - or β 2 -adrenoceptors. This study with paroxetine provides further evidence that the down-regulation of central β 1 -adrenoceptors in rat brain after repeated administration is not a property of all antidepressant drugs

  13. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  14. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-02-27

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T 1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T 1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  15. Long-Term Stability of Motor Cortical Activity: Implications for Brain Machine Interfaces and Optimal Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert D; Scheid, Michael R; Wright, Zachary A; Solla, Sara A; Slutzky, Marc W

    2016-03-23

    The human motor system is capable of remarkably precise control of movements--consider the skill of professional baseball pitchers or surgeons. This precise control relies upon stable representations of movements in the brain. Here, we investigated the stability of cortical activity at multiple spatial and temporal scales by recording local field potentials (LFPs) and action potentials (multiunit spikes, MSPs) while two monkeys controlled a cursor either with their hand or directly from the brain using a brain-machine interface. LFPs and some MSPs were remarkably stable over time periods ranging from 3 d to over 3 years; overall, LFPs were significantly more stable than spikes. We then assessed whether the stability of all neural activity, or just a subset of activity, was necessary to achieve stable behavior. We showed that projections of neural activity into the subspace relevant to the task (the "task-relevant space") were significantly more stable than were projections into the task-irrelevant (or "task-null") space. This provides cortical evidence in support of the minimum intervention principle, which proposes that optimal feedback control (OFC) allows the brain to tightly control only activity in the task-relevant space while allowing activity in the task-irrelevant space to vary substantially from trial to trial. We found that the brain appears capable of maintaining stable movement representations for extremely long periods of time, particularly so for neural activity in the task-relevant space, which agrees with OFC predictions. It is unknown whether cortical signals are stable for more than a few weeks. Here, we demonstrate that motor cortical signals can exhibit high stability over several years. This result is particularly important to brain-machine interfaces because it could enable stable performance with infrequent recalibration. Although we can maintain movement accuracy over time, movement components that are unrelated to the goals of a task (such

  16. The Estimation of Cortical Activity for Brain-Computer Interface: Applications in a Domotic Context

    OpenAIRE

    Babiloni, F.; Cincotti, F.; Marciani, M.; Salinari, S.; Astolfi, L.; Tocci, A.; Aloise, F.; Fallani, F. De Vico; Bufalari, S.; Mattia, D.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm...

  17. A comparison of brain volume and cortical thickness in excoriation (skin picking) disorder and trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder) in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Annerine; Grant, Jon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2015-02-15

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder, or HPD) significantly overlap in terms of clinical features. However, few studies have directly compared structural brain data in these disorders. The aim of this study was to compare volumes of brain structures and cortical thickness in patients with SPD and HPD, and determine involvement of fronto-striatal pathways. Seventeen female SPD, 17 HPD and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent clinical assessment and structural MRI imaging. Group differences were determined in brain volume and cortical thickness, controlling for illness severity. Participants with SPD had greater volume of the ventral striatum bilaterally; and reduced cortical thickness in right hemisphere frontal areas, and greater thickness of the cuneus bilaterally compared to HPD and control participants. HPD participants demonstrated reduced thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus compared to SPD and control participants. The findings here are partially consistent with previous structural work in SPD, and suggest some differences in the neurobiology of SPD and HPD. The more extensive involvement of the ventral striatum in SPD may suggest greater involvement of the reward system, while the more extensive involvement of the parahippocampal gyrus in HPD may be consistent with the dissociative symptoms often seen in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Cortical Thickness and Fractional Anisotropy of Water Diffusion in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKochunov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe thickness of the brain’s cortical gray matter (GM and the fractional anisotropy (FA of the cerebral white matter (WM each follow an inverted U-shape trajectory with age. Both measures are positively correlated, suggesting a common biological mechanism. We employed bivariate genetic analyses to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs and individual genes acting pleiotropically upon these phenotypes.MethodsWhole-brain and regional GM thickness and FA values were measured from high-resolution anatomical (0.8mm isotropic and diffusion tensor MR images (1.7x1.7x3.0mm, 55 directions collected for 712 active participants (274/438 male/females, age=47.9±13.2years in the Genetics of Brain Structure study.ResultsBivariate, whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses of the whole brain measures localized significant (LOD≥3.0 QTLs within chromosome region 15q22-23. More detailed localization was achieved using single nuclear polymorphism (SNP association and gene expression analyses. No significant association (p<510-5 was observed for 1565 SNPs located within the QTLs. However, post-hoc analysis indicated that 40% of the potentially significant (p≤10-3 polymorphisms were localized to the RORA and NARG2 genes. A potentially significant association (p=310-4 was also observed for the rs2456930 polymorphism that was previously reported as a significant GWAS finding in ADNI subjects. Lymphocyte expression measurements for two genes, located under QTL, RORA and ADAM10 were significantly (p<0.05 correlated with both FA and GM thickness values. Expression measurements for NARG2 was significantly correlated with GM thickness (p<0.05 but failed to show a significant correlation (p=0.09 with FA.Discussion This study identified a novel, significant QTL at 15q22-23. SNP association and correlation with gene-expression analyses indicated that RORA, NARG2 and ADAM10 jointly influence GM thickness and cerebral WM integrity.

  19. Agreement between different input image types in brain atrophy measurement in multiple sclerosis using SIENAX and SIENA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neacsu, V.; Jasperse, B.; Korteweg, T.; Knol, D.L.; Valsasina, P.; Filippi, M.; Barkhof, F.; Rovaris, M.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) atrophy can be assessed by SIENA and SIENAX software using other image types from MS research protocols than T1-weighted images without contrast agent, which are not always available. Materials and Methods: We selected 46 MS patients with

  20. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  1. The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, since prior analyses were focused on examining gray matter or cortical thickness, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain’s surface. Cortical folding occurs early in development and might be linked to behavioral traits. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues with respect to the underlying anatomical correlates of meditation. This study examined cortical gyrification in a large sample (n=100 of meditators and controls, carefully matched for sex and age. Cortical gyrification was established via calculating mean curvature across thousands of vertices on individual cortical surface models. Pronounced group differences indicating larger gyrification in meditators were evident within the left precentral gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cuneus, as well as left and right anterior dorsal insula (the latter representing the global significance maximum. Although the exact functional implications of larger cortical gyrification remain to be established, these findings suggest the insula to be a key structure involved in aspects of meditation. For example, variations in insular complexity could affect the regulation of well-known distractions in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover, given that meditators are masters in introspection, awareness, and emotional control, increased insular gyrification may reflect an ideal integration of autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, further research is necessary determine the relative contribution of nature and nurture to links between cortical gyrification and meditation.

  2. Severe encephalopathy with brain atrophy and hypomyelination due to adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency--MRI, clinical, biochemical and neuropathological findings of Polish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzewska, Hanna; Schmidt-Sidor, Bogna; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Bogdańska, Anna; Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Stepień, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the ADSL gene. The disease was identified in 1984 by Jaeken and van der Berghe as the first inborn defect of purine biosynthesis. Affected children revealed encephalopathy with epilepsy and marked psychomotor retardation. A neurological examination showed hypotonia, followed sometimes after years by spasticity. The diagnosis is based on detection in the urine and CSF succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAr). We present brain MR examinations of seven patients with ADSL deficiency in the correlation with their clinical findings. In all cases lack of myelination or of delayed myelination of cerebral white matter was seen. Additionally cerebral and cerebellar atrophy was observed. Neuropathological findings revealed damage of all cellular elements of brain tissue and are cause of observed MR changes. Hypo/dysmyelination seemed to be secondary to damage of oligodendroglia and axons of damaged neuronal cells.

  3. Motor cortical control of movement speed with implications for brain-machine interface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Schwartz, Andrew B; Chase, Steven M

    2014-07-15

    Motor cortex plays a substantial role in driving movement, yet the details underlying this control remain unresolved. We analyzed the extent to which movement-related information could be extracted from single-trial motor cortical activity recorded while monkeys performed center-out reaching. Using information theoretic techniques, we found that single units carry relatively little speed-related information compared with direction-related information. This result is not mitigated at the population level: simultaneously recorded population activity predicted speed with significantly lower accuracy relative to direction predictions. Furthermore, a unit-dropping analysis revealed that speed accuracy would likely remain lower than direction accuracy, even given larger populations. These results suggest that the instantaneous details of single-trial movement speed are difficult to extract using commonly assumed coding schemes. This apparent paucity of speed information takes particular importance in the context of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), which rely on extracting kinematic information from motor cortex. Previous studies have highlighted subjects' difficulties in holding a BMI cursor stable at targets. These studies, along with our finding of relatively little speed information in motor cortex, inspired a speed-dampening Kalman filter (SDKF) that automatically slows the cursor upon detecting changes in decoded movement direction. Effectively, SDKF enhances speed control by using prevalent directional signals, rather than requiring speed to be directly decoded from neural activity. SDKF improved success rates by a factor of 1.7 relative to a standard Kalman filter in a closed-loop BMI task requiring stable stops at targets. BMI systems enabling stable stops will be more effective and user-friendly when translated into clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Resting state cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunyan; Li, Dianyou; Jiang, Tianxiao; Ince, Nuri Firat; Zhan, Shikun; Zhang, Jing; Sha, Zhiyi; Sun, Bomin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the modification to cortical oscillations of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) by subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Spontaneous cortical oscillations of patients with PD were recorded with magnetoencephalography during on and off subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation states. Several features such as average frequency, average power, and relative subband power in regions of interest were extracted in the frequency domain, and these features were correlated with Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III evaluation. The same features were also investigated in patients with PD without surgery and healthy controls. Patients with Parkinson disease without surgery compared with healthy controls had a significantly lower average frequency and an increased average power in 1 to 48 Hz range in whole cortex. Higher relative power in theta and simultaneous decrease in beta and gamma over temporal and occipital were also observed in patients with PD. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity score correlated with the average frequency and with the relative power of beta and gamma in frontal areas. During subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, the average frequency increased significantly when stimulation was on compared with off state. In addition, the relative power dropped in delta, whereas it rose in beta over the whole cortex. Through the course of stimulation, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III rigidity and tremor scores correlated with the relative power of alpha over left parietal. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation improves the symptoms of PD by suppressing the synchronization of alpha rhythm in somatomotor region.

  5. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) an......) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain....

  6. Evolution of Cerebral Atrophy in a Patient with Super Refractory Status Epilepticus Treated with Barbiturate Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Newey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Case. A 19-year-old male with a prior history of epilepsy presented with focal clonic seizures. His seizures were refractory to multiple anticonvulsants and eventually required pentobarbital coma for 62 days and midazolam coma for 33 days. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed development of cerebral atrophy at 31 days after admission to our facility and progression of the atrophy at 136 days after admission. Conclusion. This case highlights the development and progression of generalized cerebral atrophy in super refractory status epilepticus. The cerebral atrophy was noticeable at 31 days after admission at our facility which emphasizes the urgency of definitive treatment in patients who present with super refractory status epilepticus. Further research into direct effects of therapeutic coma is warranted.

  7. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormalities of hippocampal-cortical connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Wang, Chunheng; Li, Meng; Lv, Bin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common damage seen in the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, the hippocampal-cortical connectivity was defined as the correlation between the hippocampal volume and cortical thickness at each vertex throughout the whole brain. We aimed to investigate the differences of ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity between the unilateral TLE-HS patients and the normal controls. In our study, the bilateral hippocampal volumes were first measured in each subject, and we found that the ipsilateral hippocampal volume significantly decreased in the left TLE-HS patients. Then, group analysis showed significant thinner average cortical thickness of the whole brain in the left TLE-HS patients compared with the normal controls. We found significantly increased ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the left parahippocampal gyrus of the left TLE-HS patients, which indicated structural vulnerability related to the hippocampus atrophy in the patient group. However, for the right TLE-HS patients, no significant differences were found between the patients and the normal controls, regardless of the ipsilateral hippocampal volume, the average cortical thickness or the patterns of hippocampal-cortical connectivity, which might be related to less atrophies observed in the MRI scans. Our study provided more evidence for the structural abnormalities in the unilateral TLE-HS patients.

  9. Different scaling of white matter volume, cortical connectivity, and gyrification across rodent and primate brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Mota, Bruno; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the cortical gray matter in evolution has been accompanied by an even faster expansion of the subcortical white matter volume and by folding of the gray matter surface, events traditionally considered to occur homogeneously across mammalian species. Here we investigate how white matter expansion and cortical folding scale across species of rodents and primates as the gray matter gains neurons. We find very different scaling rules of white matter expansion across the two orders, favoring volume conservation and smaller propagation times in primates. For a similar number of cortical neurons, primates have a smaller connectivity fraction and less white matter volume than rodents; moreover, as the cortex gains neurons, there is a much faster increase in white matter volume and in its ratio to gray matter volume in rodents than in primates. Order-specific scaling of the white matter can be attributed to different scaling of average fiber caliber and neuronal connectivity in rodents and primates. Finally, cortical folding increases as different functions of the number of cortical neurons in rodents and primates, scaling faster in the latter than in the former. While the neuronal rules that govern gray and white matter scaling are different across rodents and primates, we find that they can be explained by the same unifying model, with order-specific exponents. The different scaling of the white matter has implications for the scaling of propagation time and computational capacity in evolution, and calls for a reappraisal of developmental models of cortical expansion in evolution. PMID:23576961

  10. Modeling chronic brain exposure to amphetamines using primary rat neuronal cortical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, T B; da Costa Araújo, S; Carvalho, F; Pereira, F C; Fernandes, E; Bastos, M L; Costa, V M; Capela, J P

    2014-09-26

    Amphetamine-type psychostimulants (ATS) are used worldwide by millions of patients for several psychiatric disorders. Amphetamine (AMPH) and "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) are common drugs of abuse. The impact of chronic ATS exposure to neurons and brain aging is still undisclosed. Current neuronal culture paradigms are designed to access acute ATS toxicity. We report for the first time a model of chronic exposure to AMPH and MDMA using long-term rat cortical cultures. In two paradigms, ATS were applied to neurons at day 1 in vitro (DIV) (0, 1, 10 and 100 μM of each drug) up to 28 days (200 μM was applied to cultures up to 14 DIV). Our reincubation protocol assured no decrease in the neuronal media's drug concentration. Chronic exposure of neurons to concentrations equal to or above 100 μM of ATS up to 28 DIV promoted significant mitochondrial dysfunction and elicited neuronal death, which was not prevented by glutamate receptor antagonists at 14 DIV. ATS failed to promote accelerated senescence as no increase in β-galactosidase activity at 21 DIV was found. In younger cultures (4 or 8 DIV), AMPH promoted mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death earlier than MDMA. Overall, AMPH proved more toxic and was the only drug that decreased intraneuronal glutathione levels. Meanwhile, caspase 3 activity increased for either drug at 200 μM in younger cultures at 8 DIV, but not at 14 DIV. At 8 DIV, ATS promoted a significant change in the percentage of neurons and astroglia present in culture, promoting a global decrease in the number of both cells. Importantly, concentrations equal to or below 10 μM of either drug did not promote neuronal death or oxidative stress. Our paradigm of neuronal cultures long-term exposure to low micromolar concentrations of ATS closely reproduces the in vivo scenario, being valuable to study the chronic impact of ATS. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urogenital atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2009-08-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The classical changes in an atrophic vulva include loss of labial and vulvar fullness, with narrowing of the introitus and inflamed mucosal surfaces. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately.

  12. Hypomelanosis of Ito and brain abnormalities: MRI findings and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, J.; Adamsbaum, C.; Desguerres, I.; Lalande, G.; Raynaud, F.; Ponsot, G.; Kalifa, G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of a 14-year retrospective study of brain MRI abnormalities in 12 pediatric patients presenting with hypomelanosis of Ito (HI). Miscellaneous brain abnormalities were found: one patient had a medulloblastoma, three had cortical malformations, and five demonstrated ''minor'' abnormalities such as dilated Virchow-Robin spaces or brain atrophy. We emphasize the polymorphism of brain abnormalities associated with HI. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-03-01

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electroencephalography-based real-time cortical monitoring system that uses hierarchical Bayesian estimations for the brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuwan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a real-time cortical activity monitoring system was constructed, which could estimate cortical activities every 125 milliseconds over 2,240 vertexes from 64 channel electroencephalography signals through the Hierarchical Bayesian estimation that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging data as its prior information. Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging has mostly been used in the neurofeedback field because it allows for high spatial resolution. However, in functional magnetic resonance imaging, the time for the neurofeedback information to reach the patient is delayed several seconds because of its poor temporal resolution. Therefore, a number of problems need to be solved to effectively implement feedback training paradigms in patients. To address this issue, this study used a new cortical activity monitoring system that improved both spatial and temporal resolution by using both functional magnetic resonance imaging data and electroencephalography signals in conjunction with one another. This system is advantageous as it can improve applications in the fields of real-time diagnosis, neurofeedback, and the brain-machine interface.

  15. Using a virtual cortical module implementing a neural field model to modulate brain rhythms in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Modolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for selective modulation of cortical rhythms based on neural field theory, in which the activity of a cortical area is extensively monitored using a two-dimensional microelectrode array. The example of Parkinson's disease illustrates the proposed method, in which a neural field model is assumed to accurately describe experimentally recorded activity. In addition, we propose a new closed-loop stimulation signal that is both space- and time- dependent. This method is especially designed to specifically modulate a targeted brain rhythm, without interfering with other rhythms. A new class of neuroprosthetic devices is also proposed, in which the multielectrode array is seen as an artificial neural network interacting with biological tissue. Such a bio-inspired approach may provide a solution to optimize interactions between the stimulation device and the cortex aiming to attenuate or augment specific cortical rhythms. The next step will be to validate this new approach experimentally in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  16. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Upper Limb Motor Practice Poststroke: A Model for Selection of Cortical Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Harris-Love

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor practice is an essential part of upper limb motor recovery following stroke. To be effective, it must be intensive with a high number of repetitions. Despite the time and effort required, gains made from practice alone are often relatively limited, and substantial residual impairment remains. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability prior to practice could enhance the effects of practice and provide greater returns on the investment of time and effort. However, determining which cortical area to target is not trivial. The implications of relevant conceptual frameworks such as Interhemispheric Competition and Bimodal Balance Recovery are discussed. In addition, we introduce the STAC (Structural reserve, Task Attributes, Connectivity framework, which incorporates patient-, site-, and task-specific factors. An example is provided of how this framework can assist in selecting a cortical region to target for priming prior to reaching practice poststroke. We suggest that this expanded patient-, site-, and task-specific approach provides a useful model for guiding the development of more successful approaches to neuromodulation for enhancing motor recovery after stroke.

  17. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F. Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the Δ[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level.

  18. Outcome of deep brain stimulation in slowly progressive multiple system atrophy: A clinico-pathological series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Wassilios G; Laurencin, Chloé; Tranchant, Christine; Witjas, Tatiana; Viallet, François; Guehl, Dominique; Damier, Philippe; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Tison, François; Eusebio, Alexandre; Vital, Anne; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Lannes, Béatrice; Maues de Paula, André; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    To highlight the risk of clinical worsening after deep brain stimulation in histologically proven multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients presenting slow and relatively benign disease progression mimicking Parkinson's disease (PD). In such cases but also in more typical MSA patients, the results of deep brain stimulation have been mostly reported as case reports and small patient series. The present study describes the outcome of the largest series of histologically proven MSA patients who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus because they were considered as having PD at the time of surgery. Three patients showed significant improvement of motor signs after surgery while two did not. Clinical improvement was short-lasting and rapidly followed by the occurrence of disabling manifestations of MSA that counteracted DBS benefits. Together with previous reports, our study demonstrates that DBS should not be recommended for MSA patients. It also underlines that detecting subtle red flags is crucial to avoid DBS surgery in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-Dimensional Visualization with Large Data Sets: A Simulation of Spreading Cortical Depression in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed 3D simulation software of human organs/tissues; we developed a database to store the related data, a data management system to manage the created data, and a metadata system for the management of data. This approach provides two benefits: first of all the developed system does not require to keep the patient's/subject's medical images on the system, providing less memory usage. Besides the system also provides 3D simulation and modification options, which will help clinicians to use necessary tools for visualization and modification operations. The developed system is tested in a case study, in which a 3D human brain model is created and simulated from 2D MRI images of a human brain, and we extended the 3D model to include the spreading cortical depression (SCD wave front, which is an electrical phoneme that is believed to cause the migraine.

  20. Three-Dimensional Visualization with Large Data Sets: A Simulation of Spreading Cortical Depression in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Korhan Levent; Şengül, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    We developed 3D simulation software of human organs/tissues; we developed a database to store the related data, a data management system to manage the created data, and a metadata system for the management of data. This approach provides two benefits: first of all the developed system does not require to keep the patient's/subject's medical images on the system, providing less memory usage. Besides the system also provides 3D simulation and modification options, which will help clinicians to use necessary tools for visualization and modification operations. The developed system is tested in a case study, in which a 3D human brain model is created and simulated from 2D MRI images of a human brain, and we extended the 3D model to include the spreading cortical depression (SCD) wave front, which is an electrical phoneme that is believed to cause the migraine. PMID:23258956

  1. Synchronous changes of cortical thickness and corresponding white matter microstructure during brain development accessed by diffusion MRI tractography from parcellated cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eJeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical thickness (CT changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, especially fractional anisotropy (FA. We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 to 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, includeing Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46 and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for

  2. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  3. Whole‐brain cortical parcellation: A hierarchical method based on dMRI tractography

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Dominguez, D.

    2014-01-01

    In modern neuroscience there is general agreement that brain function relies on networks and that connectivity is therefore of paramount importance for brain function. Accordingly, the delineation of functional brain areas on the basis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and tractography may lead to highly relevant brain maps. Existing methods typically aim to find a predefined number of areas and/or are limited to small regions of grey matter. However, it is in general not likely ...

  4. The Estimation of Cortical Activity for Brain-Computer Interface: Applications in a Domotic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Babiloni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system.

  5. The estimation of cortical activity for brain-computer interface: applications in a domotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F; Marciani, M; Salinari, S; Astolfi, L; Tocci, A; Aloise, F; De Vico Fallani, F; Bufalari, S; Mattia, D

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system.

  6. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    estimates. Volume-based smoothing resulted in large bias and intersubject variance because it smears signal across tissue types. In some cases, PVC with volume smoothing paradoxically caused the estimated BPND to be less than when no PVC was used at all. When applied in the absence of PVC, cortical surface...

  7. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    , cortical grey and white matter volumes in children and adolescents previously treated with glucocorticoids compared to healthy controls may reflect both developmental and degenerative processes. Prospective longitudinal studies are warranted to clarify whether findings are related to treatment or disease.......Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 18 December 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.312....

  8. Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: analyzing induced EEG gamma-band responses in brain's source space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot G Supp

    Full Text Available The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz elicited by familiar (meaningful objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object representations. As analytically power increase is just a property of a single location, phase-synchrony was introduced to investigate the formation of large-scale networks between spatially distant brain sites. However, classical phase-synchrony reveals symmetric, pair-wise correlations and is not suited to uncover the directionality of interactions. Here, we investigated the neural mechanism of visual object processing by means of directional coupling analysis going beyond recording sites, but rather assessing the directionality of oscillatory interactions between brain areas directly. This study is the first to identify the directionality of oscillatory brain interactions in source space during human object recognition and suggests that familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects engage widespread reciprocal information flow. Directionality of cortical information-flow was calculated based upon an established Granger-Causality coupling-measure (partial-directed coherence; PDC using autoregressive modeling. To enable comparison with previous coupling studies lacking directional information, phase-locking analysis was applied, using wavelet-based signal decompositions. Both, autoregressive modeling and wavelet analysis, revealed an augmentation of iGBRs during the presentation of familiar objects relative to unfamiliar controls, which was localized to inferior-temporal, superior-parietal and frontal brain areas by means of distributed source reconstruction. The multivariate analysis of PDC evaluated each possible direction of brain interaction and revealed widespread reciprocal information-transfer during familiar

  9. Caffeine/nutrition interaction in the rat brain: Influence on latent inhibition and cortical spreading depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Márlison José Lima; de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2011-01-10

    Caffeine, like malnutrition, can produce behavioral and electrophysiological alterations. However, the interaction of both factors remains unclear. Here this interaction has been studied in male Wistar rats previously malnourished during the lactation period by feeding their dams the "regional basic diet" of Northeast Brazil, containing about 8% protein, predominantly from vegetable sources (RBD(8)). At 70-75days of life, a subset of the pups was treated intraperitoneally with 30mg/kg caffeine for 4days while being tested according to the behavioral model of latent inhibition. Another group was subjected to an electrophysiological recording of the phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression, and the effects of caffeine injected during the recording session were evaluated. Caffeine did not affect cortical spreading depression, but antagonized latent inhibition in both the RBD(8)-malnourished rats and in the well-nourished control group fed a chow diet with 22% protein. This effect of caffeine was not seen in malnourished rats fed a protein-supplemented RBD (protein increased to 22% by increasing the proportion of foodstuffs from vegetable origin; RBD(22) group), suggesting that the amino acid imbalance of this diet may modulate the caffeine effects on latent inhibition. The results indicate a differential effect of caffeine in the latent inhibition behavioral model, as compared to the cortical spreading depression phenomenon, and this effect is influenced by the early nutritional status of the animal. We suggest that caffeine may modulate dopaminergic subcortical receptors participating in attention processes, but does not interact at the cortical level, in a way that would affect cortical spreading depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional MRI study of the brain with malformations of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Zhou Wenjing; Jin Zhen; Li Ke; Zhang Chaoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the patterns of motor and linguistic activation in cortical and its correlations with abnormal gray matter in patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD) and epilepsy. Methods: Seven MCD patients with epilepsy (2 patients with focal cortical dysplasia, 2 heterotopia, 2 schizencephaly, and 1 polymicrogyria) underwent blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) in a 3 T MR scanner when practicing bilateral fingers tapping,toes twisting, verb generation, and picture naming.Functional images were post-processed by using SPM 5 software based on a general linear model (GLM) to generate activations above a uniform threshold with the cluster size (≥30 voxels, P<0.001 corrected). The activations were recognized and classified by two experienced neuroradiologists, and then compared with that in abnormal gray matter. Results: The clusters and intensities of motor activations were mainly located in the sensormotor cortex (SMC) and premotor area (PMA). In linguistic tasks, activations produced by verb generation were found in language-associated cortical regions and PMA with higher activation in Wernicke area, picture naming significantly in the visual cortex, and language in Broca area. Combination of the two linguistic tasks produced significant clusters and intensities in language cortex. For MCD patients with abnormal cortical abnormalities, motor and language task could produce neuronal activities within normal as well as abnormal cortex regions. In 6 patients who underwent respective surgery, epileptic seizures decreased significantly, and the follow-up images demonstrated no new neurological dysfunctions and cognitive impairments. Conclusions: fMRI can visualize neuronal activities in patients with MCD and epilepsy and demonstrate the motor and linguistic activations occurring in normal and abnormal gray matter. It should be cautious for surgery in patient with MCD and epilepsy. (authors)

  11. Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Davis, Rebecca A; Chapman, Sandra B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2017-05-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated training-induced changes in the healthy adult brain. Yet, it remains unclear how the injured brain responds to cognitive training months-to-years after injury. Sixty individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) were randomized into either strategy-based ( N  = 31) or knowledge-based ( N  = 29) training for 8 weeks. We measured cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before training, immediately posttraining, and 3 months posttraining. Relative to the knowledge-based training group, the cortical thickness of the strategy-based training group showed diverse temporal patterns of changes over multiple brain regions ( p vertex  training group induced only monotonic increases in connectivity, relative to the knowledge-based training group (| Z | > 1.96, p NBS  training group yielded monotonic improvement in scores for the trail-making test ( p  training-induced changes in cortical thickness ( p vertex  training group. These findings suggest that training-induced brain plasticity continues through chronic phases of TBI and that brain connectivity and cortical thickness may serve as markers of plasticity.

  12. Math anxiety: Brain cortical network changes in anticipation of doing mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Pandria, Niki; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-12-01

    Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The cortical connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H; Pandya, Deepak N; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and also with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal corticocortical

  14. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  15. Coronary artery disease affects cortical circuitry associated with brain-heart integration during volitional exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Katelyn N; Badrov, Mark B; Barron, Carly C; Suskin, Neville; Heinecke, Armin; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that coronary artery disease (CAD) alters the cortical circuitry associated with exercise. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) images were made in 23 control subjects [control; 8 women; 63 ± 11 yr; mean arterial pressure (MAP): 90 ± 9 mmHg] (mean ± SD) and 17 similarly aged CAD patients (4 women; 59 ± 9 yr; MAP: 87 ± 10 mmHg). Four repeated bouts each of 30%, 40%, and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force (LAB session), and seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% MVC force (fMRI session), were performed, with each contraction lasting 20 s and separated by 40 s of rest. There was a main effect of group (P = 0.03) on HR responses across all IHG intensities. Compared with control, CAD demonstrated less task-dependent deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, and reduced activation in the right anterior insula, bilateral precentral cortex, and occipital lobe (P < 0.05). When correlated with HR, CAD demonstrated reduced activation in the bilateral insula and posterior cingulate cortex, and reduced deactivation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral precentral cortex (P < 0.05). The increased variability in expected autonomic regions and decrease in total cortical activation in response to the IHG task are associated with a diminished HR response to volitional effort in CAD. Therefore, relative to similarly aged and healthy individuals, CAD impairs the heart rate response and modifies the cortical patterns associated with cardiovascular control during IHG. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SMA: Frequently Asked Questions What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy? Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular ... future trials in SMA. What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Respiratory Distress (SMARD)? SMARD and SMA are ...

  17. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  18. Juxtacortical Lesions and Cortical Thinning in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Sastre-Garriga, J; Auger, C; Vives-Gilabert, Y; Delgado, J; Tintoré, M; Montalban, X; Rovira, A

    2015-12-01

    The role of juxtacortical lesions in brain volume loss in multiple sclerosis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the role of juxtacortical lesions on cortical atrophy and to investigate whether the presence of juxtacortical lesions is related to local cortical thinning in the early stages of MS. A total of 131 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or with relapsing-remitting MS were scanned on a 3T system. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome were classified into 3 groups based on the presence and topography of brain lesions: no lesions (n = 24), only non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 33), and juxtacortical lesions and non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 34). Patients with relapsing-remitting MS were classified into 2 groups: only non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 10) and with non-juxtacortical lesions and juxtacortical lesions (n = 30). A juxtacortical lesion probability map was generated, and cortical thickness was measured by using FreeSurfer. Juxtacortical lesion volume in relapsing-remitting MS was double that of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. The insula showed the highest density of juxtacortical lesions, followed by the temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS with juxtacortical lesions showed significantly thinner cortices overall and in the parietal and temporal lobes compared with those with clinically isolated syndrome with normal brain MR imaging. The volume of subcortical structures (thalamus, pallidum, putamen, and accumbens) was significantly decreased in relapsing-remitting MS with juxtacortical lesions compared with clinically isolated syndrome with normal brain MR imaging. The spatial distribution of juxtacortical lesions was not found to overlap with areas of cortical thinning. Cortical thinning and subcortical gray matter volume loss in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing-remitting MS was related to the presence of juxtacortical

  19. Different Brain Wave Patterns and Cortical Control Abilities in Relation to Different Creative Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Han; Tseng, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Arthur Chih-Hsin; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Lin, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary understanding of brain functions provides a way to probe into the mystery of creativity. However, the prior evidence regarding the relationship between creativity and brain wave patterns reveals inconsistent conclusions. One possible reason might be that the means of selecting creative individuals in the past has varied in each study.…

  20. Cortical concentrations of metals and protein in the brain of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal pollution and exposure is an increasing global problem. One of the best ways to assess the impact of this problem on the brain is by using animals raised in such environments. As a prelude to this, the goat was used in this study to determine its normal metal and protein level in the brain. Ten metals and total crude ...

  1. Effects of music production on cortical plasticity within cognitive rehabilitation of patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Berit Marie Dykesteen; Skeie, Geir Olve; Vikane, Eirik; Specht, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    We explored the effects of playing the piano on patients with cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and, addressed the question if this approach would stimulate neural networks in re-routing neural connections and link up cortical circuits that had been functional inhibited due to disruption of brain tissue. Functional neuroimaging scans (fMRI) and neuropsychological tests were performed pre-post intervention. Three groups participated, one mTBI group (n = 7), two groups of healthy participants, one with music training (n = 11), one baseline group without music (n = 12). The music groups participated in 8 weeks music-supported intervention. The patient group revealed training-related neuroplasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex. fMRI results fit well with outcome from neuropsychological tests with significant enhancement of cognitive performance in the music groups. Ninety per cent of mTBI group returned to work post intervention. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated behavioural improvements and functional brain changes after 8 weeks of playing piano on patients with mTBI having attention, memory and social interaction problems. We present evidence for a causal relationship between musical training and reorganisation of neural networks promoting enhanced cognitive performance. These results add a novel music-supported intervention within rehabilitation of patients with cognitive deficits following mTBI.

  2. Assessing denoising strategies to increase signal to noise ratio in spinal cord and in brain cortical and subcortical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, L.; Moraschi, M.; Summers, P.; Favilla, S.; Mascali, D.; Cedola, A.; Porro, C. A.; Giove, F.; Fratini, M.

    2018-02-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) based on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast has become one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience research. On the other hand, fMRI approaches have seen limited use in the study of spinal cord and subcortical brain regions (such as the brainstem and portions of the diencephalon). Indeed obtaining good BOLD signal in these areas still represents a technical and scientific challenge, due to poor control of physiological noise and to a limited overall quality of the functional series. A solution can be found in the combination of optimized experimental procedures at acquisition stage, and well-adapted artifact mitigation procedures in the data processing. In this framework, we studied two different data processing strategies to reduce physiological noise in cortical and subcortical brain regions and in the spinal cord, based on the aCompCor and RETROICOR denoising tools respectively. The study, performed in healthy subjects, was carried out using an ad hoc isometric motor task. We observed an increased signal to noise ratio in the denoised functional time series in the spinal cord and in the subcortical brain region.

  3. Imaging tactile imagery: changes in brain connectivity support perceptual grounding of mental images in primary sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Timo Torsten; Ostwald, Dirk; Blankenburg, Felix

    2014-09-01

    Constructing mental representations in the absence of sensory stimulation is a fundamental ability of the human mind and has been investigated in numerous brain imaging studies. However, it is still unclear how brain areas facilitating mental construction processes interact with brain regions related to specific sensory representations. In this fMRI study subjects formed mental representations of tactile stimuli either from memory (imagery) or from presentation of actual corresponding vibrotactile patterned stimuli. First our analysis addressed the question of whether tactile imagery recruits primary somatosensory cortex (SI), because the activation of early perceptual areas is classically interpreted as perceptual grounding of the mental image. We also tested whether a network, referred to as 'core construction system', is involved in the generation of mental representations in the somatosensory domain. In fact, we observed imagery-induced activation of SI. We further found support for the notion of a modality independent construction network with the retrosplenial cortices and the precuneus as core components, which were supplemented with the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Finally, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed robust imagery-modulated changes in the connectivity of these construction related areas, which suggests that they orchestrate the assembly of an abstract mental representation. Interestingly, we found increased coupling between prefrontal cortex (left IFG) and SI during mental imagery, indicating the augmentation of an abstract mental representation by reactivating perceptually grounded sensory details. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia with structural brain abnormalities in language-related cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans-Sansa, B; McKenna, P J; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; López-Araquistain, L; Sarró, S; Dueñas, R M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2013-05-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia has been found to be associated with volume reductions in the left superior temporal cortex. However, there have been negative findings and some studies have also found associations in other cortical regions. Fifty-one schizophrenic patients were evaluated for presence of FTD with the Thought, Language and Communication (TLC) scale and underwent whole-brain structural MRI using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Fifty-nine matched healthy controls were also scanned. Compared to 31 patients without FTD (global TLC rating 0 or 1), 20 patients with FTD (global TLC rating 2-5) showed clusters of volume reduction in the medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, and in two left-sided areas approximating to Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The pattern of FTD-associated volume reductions was largely different from that found in a comparison between the healthy controls and the patients without FTD. Analysis of correlations within regions-of-interest based on the above clusters indicated that the 'fluent disorganization' component of FTD was correlated with volume reductions in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, whereas poverty of content of speech was correlated with reductions in the medial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex. The findings point to a relationship between FTD in schizophrenia and structural brain pathology in brain areas involved in language and executive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time to Amyloid Positivity and Preclinical Changes in Brain Metabolism, Atrophy, and Cognition: Evidence for Emerging Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Insel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aβ pathology is associated with longitudinal changes of brain metabolism, atrophy, and cognition, in cognitively healthy elders. However, Aβ information is usually measured cross-sectionally and dichotomized to classify subjects as Aβ-positive or Aβ-negative, making it difficult to evaluate when brain and cognitive changes occur with respect to emerging Aβ pathology. In this study, we use longitudinal Aβ information to combine the level and rate of change of Aβ to estimate the time to Aβ-positivity for each subject and test this temporal proximity to significant Aβ pathology for associations with brain structure, metabolism, and cognition.Methods: In 89 cognitively healthy elders with up to 10 years of follow-up, we estimated the points at which rates of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET, MRI, and cognitive and functional decline begin to accelerate with respect to the time to Aβ-positivity. Points of initial acceleration in rates of decline were estimated using mixed-effects models with penalized regression splines.Results: Acceleration of rates of FDG PET were observed to occur 20+ years before the conventional threshold for Aβ-positivity. Subtle signs of cognitive dysfunction were observed 10+ years before Aβ-positivity.Conclusions: Aβ may have subtle associations with other hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease before Aβ biomarkers reach conventional thresholds for Aβ-positivity. Therefore, we propose that emerging Aβ pathology occurs many years before cognitively healthy elders reach the current threshold for Aβ positivity (preclinical AD. To allow prevention in the earliest disease stages, AD clinical trials may be designed to also include subjects with Aβ biomarkers in the sub-threshold range.

  6. Changes in cortical network connectivity with long-term brain-machine interface exposure after chronic amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Vaidya, Mukta; Southerland, Joshua; Badreldin, Islam; Eleryan, Ahmed; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Qian, Kai; Slutzky, Marc W; Fagg, Andrew H; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2017-11-27

    Studies on neural plasticity associated with brain-machine interface (BMI) exposure have primarily documented changes in single neuron activity, and largely in intact subjects. Here, we demonstrate significant changes in ensemble-level functional connectivity among primary motor cortical (MI) neurons of chronically amputated monkeys exposed to control a multiple-degree-of-freedom robot arm. A multi-electrode array was implanted in M1 contralateral or ipsilateral to the amputation in three animals. Two clusters of stably recorded neurons were arbitrarily assigned to control reach and grasp movements, respectively. With exposure, network density increased in a nearly monotonic fashion in the contralateral monkeys, whereas the ipsilateral monkey pruned the existing network before re-forming a denser connectivity. Excitatory connections among neurons within a cluster were denser, whereas inhibitory connections were denser among neurons across the two clusters. These results indicate that cortical network connectivity can be modified with BMI learning, even among neurons that have been chronically de-efferented and de-afferented due to amputation.

  7. Brain structure in young and old East Asians and Westerners: comparisons of structural volume and cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P

    2011-05-01

    There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative study on cognitively matched young and old adults from two cultural/ethnic groups--Chinese Singaporeans and non-Asian Americans--that involved a total of 140 persons. Young predominantly White American adults were found to have higher cortical thickness in frontal, parietal, and medial-temporal polymodal association areas in both hemispheres. These findings were replicated using voxel-based morphometry applied to the same data set. Differences in cortical thickness observed between young volunteers were not significant in older subjects as a whole. However, group differences were evident when high-performing old were compared. Although the observed differences in gray matter may be rooted in strategic differences in cognition arising from ethnic/cultural differences, alternative explanations involving genetic heritage and environmental factors are also considered.

  8. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  9. Cortical auditory disorders: a case of non-verbal disturbances assessed with event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Sönke; Jöbges, Michael E.; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians' musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19-30) and by event-related potentials (ERP) recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm'. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  10. Alterations in Cortical Thickness and White Matter Integrity in Mild-to-Moderate Communicating Hydrocephalic School-Aged Children Measured by Whole-Brain Cortical Thickness Mapping and DTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up observation is required for mild-to-moderate hydrocephalic patients because of the potential damage to brain. However, effects of mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus on gray and white matter remain unclear in vivo. Using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, current study compared the cortical thickness and white matter integrity between children with mild-to-moderate communicating hydrocephalus and healthy controls. The relationships between cortical changes and intelligence quota were also examined in patients. We found that cortical thickness in the left middle temporal and left rostral middle frontal gyrus was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. Fractional anisotropy in the right corpus callosum body was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. In addition, there was no association of cortical thinning or white matter fractional anisotropy with intelligence quota in either group. Thus, our findings provide clues to that mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus could lead to structural brain deficits especially in the middle temporal and middle frontal gyrus prior to the behavior changes.

  11. Age of language acquisition and cortical language organization in multilingual patients undergoing awake brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Havas, Viktória; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions. Demographic and language data were recorded in relation to age of language acquisition (for native languages and early- and late-acquired languages), neuropsychological pre- and postoperative language testing, the number and location of language sites, and overlapping distribution in terms of language acquisition time. Lesion growth patterns and histopathological characteristics, location, and size were also recorded. The distribution of language sites was analyzed with respect to age of acquisition and overlap. RESULTS The functional language-related sites were distributed in the frontal (55%), temporal (29%), and parietal lobes (16%). The total number of native language sites was 47. Early-acquired languages (including native languages) were represented in 97 sites (55 overlapped) and late-acquired languages in 70 sites (45 overlapped). The overlapping distribution was 20% for early-early, 71% for early-late, and 9% for late-late. The average lesion size (maximum diameter) was 3.3 cm. There were 5 fast-growing and 7 slow-growing lesions. CONCLUSIONS Cortical language distribution in multilingual patients is not homogeneous, and it is influenced by age of acquisition. Early-acquired languages have a greater cortical representation than languages acquired

  12. The evolution of the brain, the human nature of cortical circuits and intellectual creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eDeFelipe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous expansion and the differentiation of the neocortex constitute two major events in the evolution of the mammalian brain. The increase in size and complexity of our brains opened the way to a spectacular development of cognitive and mental skills. This expansion during evolution facilitated the addition of archetypical microcircuits, which increased the complexity of the human brain and contributed to its uniqueness. However, fundamental differences even exist between distinct mammalian species. Here, we shall discuss the issue of our humanity from a neurobiological and historical perspective.

  13. Using multiple imputation to efficiently correct cerebral MRI whole brain lesion and atrophy data in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alicia S; Egorova, Svetlana; Anderson, Mark C; Polgar-Turcsanyi, Mariann; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Guttmann, Charles R G; Bakshi, Rohit; Healy, Brian C

    2015-10-01

    Automated segmentation of brain MRI scans into tissue classes is commonly used for the assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, manual correction of the resulting brain tissue label maps by an expert reader remains necessary in many cases. Since automated segmentation data awaiting manual correction are "missing", we proposed to use multiple imputation (MI) to fill-in the missing manually-corrected MRI data for measures of normalized whole brain volume (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF) and T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV). Automated and manually corrected MRI measures from 1300 patients enrolled in the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB) were identified. Simulation studies were conducted to assess the performance of MI with missing data both missing completely at random and missing at random. An imputation model including the concurrent automated data as well as clinical and demographic variables explained a high proportion of the variance in the manually corrected BPF (R(2)=0.97) and T2LV (R(2)=0.89), demonstrating the potential to accurately impute the missing data. Further, our results demonstrate that MI allows for the accurate estimation of group differences with little to no bias and with similar precision compared to an analysis with no missing data. We believe that our findings provide important insights for efficient correction of automated MRI measures to obviate the need to perform manual correction on all cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Measurement of Free Radical Levels in the Brain After Cortical Ischemia Induced by Photothrombosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, J.; Nohejlová, K.; Stopka, Pavel; Rokyta, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 853-860 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Free radicals * EPR * Focal ischemia * Brain * Photothrombosis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  15. The brain under self-control: modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cojan, Yann; Waber, Lakshmi; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossier, Laurent; Forster, Alain; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Brain mechanisms of hypnosis are poorly known. Cognitive accounts proposed that executive attentional systems may cause selective inhibition or disconnection of some mental operations. To assess motor and inhibitory brain circuits during hypnotic paralysis, we designed a go-nogo task while volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in three conditions: normal state, hypnotic left-hand paralysis, and feigned paralysis. Preparatory activation arose in right motor cortex d...

  16. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  17. Unexpected effects of peripherally administered kynurenic acid on cortical spreading depression and related blood–brain barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gáspár Oláh,1 Judit Herédi,1 Ákos Menyhárt,1 Zsolt Czinege,2 Dávid Nagy,1 János Fuzik,1 Kitti Kocsis,1 Levente Knapp,1 Erika Krucsó,1 Levente Gellért,1 Zsolt Kis,1 Tamás Farkas,1 Ferenc Fülöp,3 Árpád Párdutz,4 János Tajti,4 László Vécsei,4 József Toldi1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, 2Department of Software Engineering, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and MTA-SZTE Research Group for Stereochemistry, 4Department of Neurology and MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Cortical spreading depression (CSD involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate release and by changes in the brain microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA and dizocilpine, on CSD and the related blood–brain barrier (BBB permeability in rats. In intact animals, KYNA hardly crosses the BBB but has some positive features as compared with its precursor L-Kynurenine, which is frequently used in animal studies (KYNA cannot be metabolized to excitotoxic agents such as 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. We therefore investigated the possible effects of peripherally administered KYNA. Repetitive CSD waves were elicited by the application of 1 M KCl solution to the cortex. Direct current-electrocorticograms were measured for 1 hour. Four parameters of the waves were compared. Evans blue dye and fluorescent microscopy were used to study the possible changes in the permeability of the BBB. The results demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can reduce the number of CSD waves and decrease

  18. Widespread Disruption of Functional Brain Organization in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, S.M.; Binnewijzend, M.A.A.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Tijms, B.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Koene, T.; Smits, L.L.; Wink, A.M.; Scheltens, P.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Barkhof, F.

    2014-01-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present a different clinical profile than late-onset AD patients. This can be partially explained by cortical atrophy, although brain organization might provide more insight. The aim of this study was to examine functional connectivity in early-onset and

  19. Decoding of Ankle Flexion and Extension from Cortical Current Sources Estimated from Non-invasive Brain Activity Recording Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mejia Tobar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of ankle movements from non-invasive brain recordings can be applied to a brain-computer interface (BCI to control exoskeletons, prosthesis, and functional electrical stimulators for the benefit of patients with walking impairments. In this research, ankle flexion and extension tasks at two force levels in both legs, were classified from cortical current sources estimated by a hierarchical variational Bayesian method, using electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recordings. The hierarchical prior for the current source estimation from EEG was obtained from activated brain areas and their intensities from an fMRI group (second-level analysis. The fMRI group analysis was performed on regions of interest defined over the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the somatosensory area, which are well-known to contribute to movement control. A sparse logistic regression method was applied for a nine-class classification (eight active tasks and a resting control task obtaining a mean accuracy of 65.64% for time series of current sources, estimated from the EEG and the fMRI signals using a variational Bayesian method, and a mean accuracy of 22.19% for the classification of the pre-processed of EEG sensor signals, with a chance level of 11.11%. The higher classification accuracy of current sources, when compared to EEG classification accuracy, was attributed to the high number of sources and the different signal patterns obtained in the same vertex for different motor tasks. Since the inverse filter estimation for current sources can be done offline with the present method, the present method is applicable to real-time BCIs. Finally, due to the highly enhanced spatial distribution of current sources over the brain cortex, this method has the potential to identify activation patterns to design BCIs for the control of an affected limb in patients with stroke, or BCIs from motor imagery

  20. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia: An ALE Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Marianne; Aldebert, Joséphine; Montembeault, Maxime; Brambati, Simona M

    2016-10-04

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) have distinct episodic memory profiles despite the hippocampal atrophy that characterizes both diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the pattern of gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with AD and SD as well as any differences in these patterns by pooling together the results of previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies.Methods/Overview: We conducted a meta-analysis of VBM studies that investigated GM atrophy in AD patients versus controls (CTRLs) and in SD patients versus CTRLs using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. Our systematic review allowed us to identify 63 VBM studies. The results confirmed that in addition to the classical cortical pattern of atrophy involving posterior medial and lateral regions in AD and the anterior lateral temporal lobes in SD, both AD and SD patients are characterized by bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus. Furthermore, in SD, the hippocampal atrophy was limited to the anterior portion of the hippocampus, while in AD, both the anterior and posterior parts of the hippocampus exhibited atrophy. When we compared the foci identified in the studies that compared AD patients versus CTRLs with those identified in the studies that compared SD patients versus CTRLs, we observed that the atrophy in the posterior hippocampus and precuneus was more severe in AD. These results support theories that propose that the deficits observed in AD result from damage to the episodic memory network, which involves the posterior hippocampus and posterior medial brain regions. However, sparing of the posterior hippocampus in SD could explain the absence of episodic memory deficits in this population.

  2. Diminished Dentate Gyrus Filtering of Cortical Input Leads to Enhanced Area Ca3 Excitability after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Samuel, Sandy; Metheny, Hannah E; Cohen, Akiva S

    2018-04-06

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3. In this study, we assessed hippocampal function, specifically the interaction between the dentate gyrus and CA3, using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo brain slices 1 week following mild lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Behaviorally, LFPI mice were found to be impaired in an object-place recognition task, indicating that spatial information processing in the hippocampus is disrupted. Extracellular recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated that perforant path activation leads to the aberrant spread of excitation from the dentate gyrus into area CA3 along the mossy fiber pathway. These results suggest that after mTBI, the dentate gyrus has a diminished capacity to regulate cortical input into the hippocampus, leading to increased CA3 network excitability. The loss of the dentate filtering efficacy reveals a potential mechanism by which hippocampal-dependent spatial information processing is disrupted, and may contribute to memory dysfunction after mTBI.

  3. Longitudinal Brain Functional Connectivity Changes of the Cortical Motor-Related Network in Subcortical Stroke Patients with Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, the effectiveness of the rehabilitation therapy such as acupuncture combining conventional Western medicine (AG on stroke people’s motor-related brain network and their behaviors has not been systematically studied. In the present study, seventeen adult ischemic patients were collected and divided into two groups: the conventional Western medicine treatment group (CG and the AG. The neurological deficit scores (NDS and resting-state functional MRI data were collected before and after treatment. Compared with the CG patients, AG patients exhibited a significant enhancement of the percent changes of NDS from pre- to posttreatment intervention. All patients showed significant changes of functional connectivity (FC between the pair of cortical motor-related regions. After treatment, both patient groups showed a recovery of brain connectivity to the nearly normal level compared with the controls in these pairs. Moreover, a significant correlation between the percent changes of NDS and the pretreatment FC values of bilateral primary motor cortex (M1 in all patients was found. In conclusion, our results showed that AG therapy can be an effective means for ischemic stroke patients to recover their motor function ability. The FC strengths between bilateral M1 of stroke patients can predict stroke patients’ treatment outcome after rehabilitation therapy.

  4. Cortical and brain stem changes in neural activity during static handgrip and postexercise ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Mikael; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2010-01-01

    , and to differentiate between central command and reflex inputs, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain (3 T). Subjects performed submaximal static handgrip exercise for 2 min followed by 6 min of PEI; MSNA was recorded on a separate day. During the contraction phase...

  5. Cortical concentrations of metals and protein in the brain of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The male RS goats had significantly higher levels (P<0.05) of Mn than the females. While the male WAD goats had higher levels of total crude protein, the concentration between the sexes of the RS goats was the same. This study has given information on metal and protein concentration in the brain of goat for use in ...

  6. Regional differences of relationships between atrophy and glucose metabolism of cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, H.; Uemura, K.; Kanekiyo, S.; Ishii, K.; Ishii, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a correlation between the extent of atrophy and the decline in the brain function measured with PET study among the patients with Alzheimer's disease by each brain lobe. Materials and Methods: Two groups, the normal controls (male: 8, female: 22 age: 62.4±4.9) and the patients with Alzheimer's disease (male: 6, female: 24, age: 65.9±7.2) participated in this study. The extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted gyrus on 2D-projection magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the cerebral cortical glucose metabolism was assessed on 2D-projection positron emission tomography (PET) image, and then a relationship between the cerebral atrophy and the function was evaluated by each brain lobe extracted automatically. 2D-projection of PET and MR images were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. In order to extract brain lobes from each subject automatically, the bitmap with different value by each brain lobe was made from a standard brain image and was automatically transformed to match each subject's brain image by using SPM99. A correlation image was generated between 2D-projection images of glucose metabolism and the area of the sulcus and the gyrus extracted from the correlation between MR and PET images clustered by K-means method. Results: The glucose metabolism of Alzheimer's disease was lower than that of normal control subjects at the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes with the same extent of atrophy as that of the normal. There was high correlation between the area of gyrus and the glucose metabolism, and the correlation tendency of the Alzheimer's disease was steeper than that of the normal control at the parietal lobe. Conclusions: Combined analysis of regional morphology and function may be useful to distinguish pathological process such as early stage of Alzheimer's disease from normal physiological aging

  7. The brain under self-control: modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Waber, Lakshmi; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossier, Laurent; Forster, Alain; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-06-25

    Brain mechanisms of hypnosis are poorly known. Cognitive accounts proposed that executive attentional systems may cause selective inhibition or disconnection of some mental operations. To assess motor and inhibitory brain circuits during hypnotic paralysis, we designed a go-no-go task while volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in three conditions: normal state, hypnotic left-hand paralysis, and feigned paralysis. Preparatory activation arose in right motor cortex despite left hypnotic paralysis, indicating preserved motor intentions, but with concomitant increases in precuneus regions that normally mediate imagery and self-awareness. Precuneus also showed enhanced functional connectivity with right motor cortex. Right frontal areas subserving inhibition were activated by no-go trials in normal state and by feigned paralysis, but irrespective of motor blockade or execution during hypnosis. These results suggest that hypnosis may enhance self-monitoring processes to allow internal representations generated by the suggestion to guide behavior but does not act through direct motor inhibition.

  8. Congenital brain abnormalities: an update on malformations of cortical development and infratentorial malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2014-07-01

    In the past two decades, significant progress in neuroimaging and genetic techniques has allowed for advances in the correct definition/classification of congenital brain abnormalities, which have resulted in a better understanding of their pathogenesis. In addition, new groups of diseases, such as axonal guidance disorders or tubulinopathies, are increasingly reported. Well-defined neuroimaging diagnostic criteria have been suggested for the majority of congenital brain abnormalities. Accurate diagnoses of these complex abnormalities, including distinction between malformations and disruptions, are of paramount significance for management, prognosis, and family counseling. In the next decade, these advances will hopefully be translated into deeper understanding of these disorders and more specific treatments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Going AWOL in the brain: mind wandering reduces cortical analysis of external events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Beach, Emily; Schooler, Jonathan W; Handy, Todd C

    2008-03-01

    Converging evidence from neuroscience suggests that our attention to the outside world waxes and wanes over time. We examined whether these periods of "mind wandering" are associated with reduced cortical analysis of the external environment. Participants performed a sustained attention to response task in which they responded to frequent "nontargets" (digits 0-9) and withheld responses for infrequent "targets" (the letter X). Mind wandering was defined both behaviorally, indicated by a failure to withhold a response to a target, and subjectively, via self-report at a thought probe. The P300 event-related potential component for nontargets was reduced prior to both the behavioral and subjective reports of mind wandering, relative to periods of being "on-task." Regression analysis of P300 amplitude revealed significant common variance between behavioral and subjective markers of mind wandering, suggesting that both markers reflect a common underlying mental state. Finally, control analysis revealed that the effect of mind wandering on the P300 could not be ascribed to changes in motor activity nor was it associated with general arousal. Our data suggest that when trying to engage attention in a sustained manner, the mind will naturally ebb and flow in the depth of cognitive analysis it applies to events in the external environment.

  10. Gambling behavior in Parkinson's Disease: Impulsivity, reward mechanism and cortical brain oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Angioletti, Laura; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2018-03-20

    Psychopathological components, such as reward sensitivity and impulsivity, and dopaminergic treatment are crucial characteristics related to the development of Pathological Gambling (PG) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The aim of the present study is to investigate the differences in decision-making in PD patients with or without PG considering both neurophysiological and behavioral aspects. The IOWA Gambling Task (IGT) and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were considered to elucidate the decision and post-feedback processes in PG. The sample included fifty-two PD patients, divided in three groups: 17 PD patients with active gambling behavior (PD Gamblers, PDG); 15 PD patients who remitted from PG (PD Non-Gamblers, PDNG); and a Control Group (CG) composed by 20 patients with PD only. EEG and IGT performance were recorded during decision and post-feedback phase. Results showed worse performance and an increase of the low frequency bands in the frontal area for the PDG group compared to the other two groups. In addition, higher BAS (Behavioral Activation System) and BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) personality components were correlated to groups' behavioral response. These results show an anomalous behavioral (IGT) and cortical response of PDG patients related to their inability to use adequate control mechanisms during a decision-making task where reward mechanisms (BAS) and impulsivity (BIS-11) are relevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  12. Extraction force and cortical tissue reaction of silicon microelectrode arrays implanted in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, George C; Schneider, Thomas M; Owens, D Jason; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2007-06-01

    Micromotion of implanted silicon multielectrode arrays (Si MEAs) is thought to influence the inflammatory response they elicit. The degree of strain that micromotion imparts on surrounding tissue is related to the extent of mechanical integration of the implanted electrodes with the brain. In this study, we quantified the force of extraction of implanted four shank Michigan electrodes in adult rat brains and investigated potential cellular and extracellular matrix contributors to tissue-electrode adhesion using immunohistochemical markers for microglia, astrocytes and extracellular matrix deposition in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes. Our results suggest that the peak extraction force of the implanted electrodes increases significantly from the day of implantation (day 0) to the day of extraction (day 7 and day 28 postimplantation) (1.68 +/- 0.54 g, 3.99 +/- 1.31 g, and 4.86 +/- 1.49 g, respectively; mean +/- SD; n = 4). For an additional group of four shank electrode implants with a closer intershank spacing we observed a significant increase in peak extraction force on day 28 postimplantation compared to day 0 and day 7 postimplantation (5.56 +/- 0.76 g, 0.37 +/- 0.12 g and 1.87 +/- 0.88 g, respectively; n = 4). Significantly, only glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was correlated with peak extraction force in both electrode designs of all the markers of astroglial scar studied. For studies that try to model micromotion-induced strain, our data implies that adhesion between tissue and electrode increases after implantation and sheds light on the nature of implanted electrode-elicited brain tissue reaction.

  13. Induced gamma-band brain responses to direct eye contact in the frontal and parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Sunao

    2013-01-01

    We used simultaneous recordings of the neuromagnetic (MEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings on a pair of directly facing subjects, i.e., the sender and the observer of the eye gaze, to measure changes in the spontaneous brain activities while the observer perceives changes in eye gaze direction of the sender. The MEG signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to evaluate event-related changes in the spontaneous brain activities induced by the onset of eye movements. Significant increase in the gamma-band power was observed in the eye-contact condition compared to the averting condition in the right superior parietal, bilateral posterior superior-temporal, and the frontal areas of the observer. Together with the preliminary results from the frequency-domain Granger-Geweke causality analysis, the current results indicate that the connectivity between (a) the bilateral frontal areas, and (b) the right frontal and parietal areas might be crucial for the perception of eye gaze of the directly facing person. The increase in gamma-band activities in these regions might reflect the integration of information processed individually in these regions for eye gaze perception.

  14. Integration and relative value of biomarkers for prediction of MCI to AD progression: Spatial patterns of brain atrophy, cognitive scores, APOE genotype and CSF biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the individual, as well as relative and joint value of indices obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI patterns of brain atrophy (quantified by the SPARE-AD index, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers, APOE genotype, and cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog in progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD within a variable follow-up period up to 6 years, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1. SPARE-AD was first established as a highly sensitive and specific MRI-marker of AD vs. cognitively normal (CN subjects (AUC = 0.98. Baseline predictive values of all aforementioned indices were then compared using survival analysis on 381 MCI subjects. SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog were found to have similar predictive value, and their combination was significantly better than their individual performance. APOE genotype did not significantly improve prediction, although the combination of SPARE-AD, ADAS-Cog and APOE ε4 provided the highest hazard ratio estimates of 17.8 (last vs. first quartile. In a subset of 192 MCI patients who also had CSF biomarkers, the addition of Aβ1–42, t-tau, and p-tau181p to the previous model did not improve predictive value significantly over SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog combined. Importantly, in amyloid-negative patients with MCI, SPARE-AD had high predictive power of clinical progression. Our findings suggest that SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog in combination offer the highest predictive power of conversion from MCI to AD, which is improved, albeit not significantly, by APOE genotype. The finding that SPARE-AD in amyloid-negative MCI patients was predictive of clinical progression is not expected under the amyloid hypothesis and merits further investigation.

  15. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2017-06-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.

  16. Mapping cortical hand motor representation using TMS: A method to assess brain plasticity and a surrogate marker for recovery of function after stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is associated with reorganization within motor areas of both hemispheres. Mapping the cortical hand motor representation using transcranial magnetic stimulation may help to understand the relationship between motor cortex reorganization and motor recovery of the affected hand after stroke. A standardized review of the pertinent literature was performed. We identified 20 trials, which analyzed the relationship between the extent and/or location of cortical hand motor representation using transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor function and recovery of the affected hand. Several correlations were found between cortical reorganization and measures of hand motor impairment and recovery. A better understanding of the relationships between the extent and location of cortical hand motor representation and the motor impairment and motor recovery of the affected hand after stroke may contribute to a targeted use of non-invasive brain stimulation protocols. In the future motor mapping may help to guide brain stimulation techniques to the most effective motor area in an affected individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do studies on cortical plasticity provide a rationale for using non invasive brain stimulation as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eKoch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD have shown that key mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD can be impaired by the PD pathology. In humans protocols of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as paired associative stimulation (PAS and theta burst stimulation (TBS, can be used to investigate cortical plasticity of the primary motor cortex. Through the amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP these transcranial magnetic stimulation methods allow to measure both LTP-like and LTD-like mechanisms of cortical plasticity. So far these protocols have reported some controversial findings when tested in PD patients. While various studies described evidence for reduced LTP- and LTD-like plasticity, others showed different results, demonstrating increased LTP-like and normal LTD-like plasticity. Recent evidence provided support to the hypothesis that these different patterns of cortical plasticity likely depend on the stage of the disease and on the concomitant administration of levo-dopa. However, it still unclear how and if these altered mechanisms of cortical plasticity can be taken as a reliable model to build appropriate protocols aimed at treating PD symptoms b

  18. Real-time EEG-based brain-computer interface to a virtual avatar enhances cortical involvement in human treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Nakagome, Sho; He, Yongtian; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2017-08-21

    Recent advances in non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies have shown the feasibility of neural decoding for both users' gait intent and continuous kinematics. However, the dynamics of cortical involvement in human upright walking with a closed-loop BCI has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the changes of cortical involvement in human treadmill walking with and without BCI control of a walking avatar. Source localization revealed significant differences in cortical network activity between walking with and without closed-loop BCI control. Our results showed sustained α/µ suppression in the Posterior Parietal Cortex and Inferior Parietal Lobe, indicating increases of cortical involvement during walking with BCI control. We also observed significant increased activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) in the low frequency band suggesting the presence of a cortical network involved in error monitoring and motor learning. Additionally, the presence of low γ modulations in the ACC and Superior Temporal Gyrus may associate with increases of voluntary control of human gait. This work is a further step toward the development of a novel training paradigm for improving the efficacy of rehabilitation in a top-down approach.

  19. After-discharges and seizures during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation functional brain mapping: Incidence, thresholds, and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungaroon, Gewalin; Zea Vera, Alonso; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the incidence, thresholds, and determinants of electrical cortical stimulation (ECS)-induced after-discharges (ADs) and seizures. Electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine incidence of ECS-induced ADs and seizures. Multivariable analyses for predictors of AD/seizure occurrence and their thresholds were performed. In 122 patients, the incidence of ADs and seizures was 77% (94/122) and 35% (43/122) respectively. Males (odds ratio [OR] 2.92, 95% CI 1.21-7.38, p=0.02) and MRI-negative patients (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.24-13.7, p=0.03) were found to have higher odds of ECS-induced ADs. A significant trend for decreasing AD thresholds with age was seen (regression co-efficient -0.151, 95% CI -0.267 to -0.035, p=0.011). ECS-induced seizures were more likely in patients with lateralized functional imaging (OR 6.62, 95% CI 1.36-55.56, p=0.036, for positron emission tomography) and presence of ADs (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.12-13.36, p=0.043). ECS is associated with a high incidence of ADs and seizures. With age, current thresholds decrease and the probability for AD/seizure occurrence increases. ADs and seizures during ECS brain mapping are potentially hazardous and affect its functional validity. Thus, safer method(s) for brain mapping with improved neurophysiologic validity are desirable. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of traumatic brain injury on a virtual reality social problem solving task and relations to cortical thickness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanten, Gerri; Cook, Lori; Orsten, Kimberley; Chapman, Sandra B; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-02-01

    Social problem solving was assessed in 28 youth ages 12-19 years (15 with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 13 uninjured) using a naturalistic, computerized virtual reality (VR) version of the Interpersonal Negotiations Strategy interview (Yeates, Schultz, & Selman, 1991). In each scenario, processing load condition was varied in terms of number of characters and amount of information. Adolescents viewed animated scenarios depicting social conflict in a virtual microworld environment from an avatar's viewpoint, and were questioned on four problem solving steps: defining the problem, generating solutions, selecting solutions, and evaluating the likely outcome. Scoring was based on a developmental scale in which responses were judged as impulsive, unilateral, reciprocal, or collaborative, in order of increasing score. Adolescents with TBI were significantly impaired on the summary VR-Social Problem Solving (VR-SPS) score in Condition A (2 speakers, no irrelevant information), p=0.005; in Condition B (2 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.035; and Condition C (4 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.008. Effect sizes (Cohen's D) were large (A=1.40, B=0.96, C=1.23). Significant group differences were strongest and most consistent for defining the problems and evaluating outcomes. The relation of task performance to cortical thickness of specific brain regions was also explored, with significant relations found with orbitofrontal regions, the frontal pole, the cuneus, and the temporal pole. Results are discussed in the context of specific cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying social problem solving deficits after childhood TBI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishing the ferret as a gyrencephalic animal model of traumatic brain injury: Optimization of controlled cortical impact procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Susan C; Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Ngalula, Kapinga P; Pierpaoli, Carlo M; Juliano, Sharon L

    2017-06-15

    Although rodent TBI studies provide valuable information regarding the effects of injury and recovery, an animal model with neuroanatomical characteristics closer to humans may provide a more meaningful basis for clinical translation. The ferret has a high white/gray matter ratio, gyrencephalic neocortex, and ventral hippocampal location. Furthermore, ferrets are amenable to behavioral training, have a body size compatible with pre-clinical MRI, and are cost-effective. We optimized the surgical procedure for controlled cortical impact (CCI) using 9 adult male ferrets. We used subject-specific brain/skull morphometric data from anatomical MRIs to overcome across-subject variability for lesion placement. We also reflected the temporalis muscle, closed the craniotomy, and used antibiotics. We then gathered MRI, behavioral, and immunohistochemical data from 6 additional animals using the optimized surgical protocol: 1 control, 3 mild, and 1 severely injured animals (surviving one week) and 1 moderately injured animal surviving sixteen weeks. The optimized surgical protocol resulted in consistent injury placement. Astrocytic reactivity increased with injury severity showing progressively greater numbers of astrocytes within the white matter. The density and morphological changes of microglia amplified with injury severity or time after injury. Motor and cognitive impairments scaled with injury severity. The optimized surgical methods differ from those used in the rodent, and are integral to success using a ferret model. We optimized ferret CCI surgery for consistent injury placement. The ferret is an excellent animal model to investigate pathophysiological and behavioral changes associated with TBI. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Functional reorganization of the brain in humans following spinal cord injury: evidence for underlying changes in cortical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Luke A; Gustin, Sylvia M; Macey, Paul M; Wrigley, Paul J; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-02-16

    Loss of somatosensory drive results in functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). While the phenomenon of functional cortical reorganization is well established, it remains unknown whether in humans, functional reorganization results from changes in brain anatomy, or simply reflects an unmasking of already existing dormant synapses. In 20 subjects with complete thoracic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and 23 controls, we used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether SI reorganization was associated with changes in SI anatomy. SCI resulted in a significant SI reorganization, with the little finger representation moving medially toward the lower body representation (i.e., area of sensory loss). Furthermore, although SCI was associated with gray matter volume loss in the lower body representation, this loss was minimized as reorganization increased. That is, the greater the medial shift in little finger representation, the greater the gray matter preservation in the lower body representation. In addition, in the region of greatest SI reorganization (little finger), fractional anisotropy was correlated with SI reorganization. That is, as SI reorganization increased, the extent of aligned structures decreased. Finally, although thalamocortical fibers remained unchanged, the ease and direction of water movement within the little finger representation was altered, being directed more toward the midline in SCI subjects. These data show that SI reorganization following SCI is associated with changes in SI anatomy and provide compelling evidence that SI reorganization in humans results from the growth of new lateral connections, and not simply from the unmasking of already existing lateral connections.

  3. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  4. Patterns of cortical thinning in relation to event-based prospective memory performance three months after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Merkley, Tricia L; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Bigler, Erin D; Hunter, Jill V; Chu, Zili; Vásquez, Ana C; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-01-01

    While event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) tasks are a familiar part of daily life for children, currently no data exists concerning the relation between EB-PM performance and brain volumetrics after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study investigated EB-PM in children (7 to 17 years) with moderate to severe TBI or orthopedic injuries. Participants performed an EB-PM task and concurrently underwent neuroimaging at three months postinjury. Surface reconstruction and cortical thickness analysis were performed using FreeSurfer software. Cortical thickness was significantly correlated with EB-PM (adjusting for age). Significant thinning in the left (dorsolateral and inferior prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate, temporal lobe, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri), and right hemispheres (dorsolateral, inferior, and medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate, and temporal lobe) correlated positively and significantly with EB-PM performance; findings are comparable to those of functional neuroimaging and lesion studies of EB-PM.

  5. Effect of. cap alpha. -,. beta. -adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists of the efflux of /sup 22/Na and uptake of /sup 42/K by rat brain cortical slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillis, J.W.; Wu, P.H.; Thierry, D.L.

    1982-03-18

    The effects of norepinephrine on ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices have now been ascertained. /sup 22/Na efflux and /sup 42/K influx are enhanced by norepinephrine. The increase in ion fluxes can be blocked by ouabain, phentolamine and propranolol, suggesting that the catecholamine activates a membrane sodium pump by a receptor-mediated step. The facilitation of /sup 22/Na efflux is stereospecific as demonstrated by the very weak action of D-norepinephrine at 10/sup -5/ M concentration. Various ..cap alpha..-adrenergic and ..beta..-adrenergic receptor agonists, including oxymetazoline, naphazoline, clonidine, tramazoline, methoxamine, phenylephrine, L-isoproterenol and methoxyphenamine are potent stimulants of the sodium pump as demonstrated by their enhancement of ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that norepinephrine hyperpolarizes central neurons by activating an ouabain-sensitive, receptor-mediated sodium pump.

  6. The effect of α-, β-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists of the efflux of 22Na and uptake of 42K by rat brain cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillis, J.W.; Wu, P.H.; Thierry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of norepinephrine on ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices have now been ascertained. 22 Na efflux and 42 K influx are enhanced by norepinephrine. The increase in ion fluxes can be blocked by ouabain, phentolamine and propranolol, suggesting that the catecholamine activates a membrane sodium pump by a receptor-mediated step. The facilitation of 22 Na efflux is stereospecific as demonstrated by the very weak action of D-norepinephrine at 10 -5 M concentration. Various α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists, including oxymetazoline, naphazoline, clonidine, tramazoline, methoxamine, phenylephrine, L-isoproterenol and methoxyphenamine are potent stimulants of the sodium pump as demonstrated by their enhancement of ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that norepinephrine hyperpolarizes central neurons by activating an ouabain-sensitive, receptor-mediated sodium pump. (Auth.)

  7. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rossa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-11-17

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  8. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Helena; Peña Melián, Ángel; Rios Lagos, Marcos; Pajares Martinsanz, Gonzalo; Hernández Tamames, J.A.; Álvarez Linera, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional com...

  9. Cortical correlates of affective syndrome in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís T. Hayata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD are prevalent, however their relationship with patterns of cortical atrophy is not fully known. Objectives To compare cortical atrophy’s patterns between AD patients and healthy controls; to verify correlations between neuropsychiatric syndromes and cortical atrophy. Method 33 AD patients were examined by Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Patients and 29 controls underwent a 3T MRI scanning. We considered four NPI syndromes: affective, apathy, hyperactivity and psychosis. Correlations between structural imaging and neuropsychiatric scores were performed by Freesurfer. Results were significant with a p-value < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Patients exhibited atrophy in entorhinal cortices, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, and precuneus bilaterally. There was correlation between affective syndrome and cortical thickness in right frontal structures, insula and temporal pole. Conclusion Cortical thickness measures revealed atrophy in mild AD. Depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with atrophy of right frontal, temporal and insular cortices.

  10. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...... the cerebral cortex have been developed during the last decade (Dale 1999, Kim 2005, Eskildsen 2006). In many studies, the resolution of the morphological image acquisition sequence is chosen to be relatively low (~1mm3) due to time and equipment constraints. To improve segmentation accuracy, such low...... the ability to effectively increase the image resolution while preserving sharp features of the underlying anatomy. In this study, we investigated the effect of applying superresolution as proposed in (Manjon 2010a) to the accuracy of cerebral cortex segmentation....

  11. Patterns of cortical oscillations organize neural activity into whole-brain functional networks evident in the fMRI BOLD signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Whitman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from electrophysiology and multimodal neuroimaging have elucidated the relationship between patterns of cortical oscillations evident in EEG / MEG and the functional brain networks evident in the BOLD signal. Much of the existing literature emphasized how high-frequency cortical oscillations are thought to coordinate neural activity locally, while low-frequency oscillations play a role in coordinating activity between more distant brain regions. However, the assignment of different frequencies to different spatial scales is an oversimplification. A more informative approach is to explore the arrangements by which these low- and high-frequency oscillations work in concert, coordinating neural activity into whole-brain functional networks. When relating such networks to the BOLD signal, we must consider how the patterns of cortical oscillations change at the same speed as cognitive states, which often last less than a second. Consequently, the slower BOLD signal may often reflect the summed neural activity of several transient network configurations. This temporal mismatch can be circumvented if we use spatial maps to assess correspondence between oscillatory networks and BOLD networks.

  12. Cortical excitability correlates with the event-related desynchronization during brain-computer interface control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Blanchard, Caroline; Holmes, Nicholas P.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on motor control have been suggested as tools for stroke rehabilitation. Some initial successes have been achieved with this approach, however the mechanism by which they work is not yet fully understood. One possible part of this mechanism is a, previously suggested, relationship between the strength of the event-related desynchronization (ERD), a neural correlate of motor imagination and execution, and corticospinal excitability. Additionally, a key component of BCIs used in neurorehabilitation is the provision of visual feedback to positively reinforce attempts at motor control. However, the ability of visual feedback of the ERD to modulate the activity in the motor system has not been fully explored. Approach. We investigate these relationships via transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered at different moments in the ongoing ERD related to hand contraction and relaxation during BCI control of a visual feedback bar. Main results. We identify a significant relationship between ERD strength and corticospinal excitability, and find that our visual feedback does not affect corticospinal excitability. Significance. Our results imply that efforts to promote functional recovery in stroke by targeting increases in corticospinal excitability may be aided by accounting for the time course of the ERD.

  13. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-05-05

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  14. Association of White Matter Lesions, Cerebral Atrophy, Intracranial Extravascular Calcifications, and Ventricular-Communicating Hydrocephalus with Delirium Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Sherigar, Rathnakara M; Bader, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kelly; Kenneth, Arline; Kalafat, Naciye; Reddy, Pavan; Lutgens, Brian

    2017-06-01

    The literature regarding the underlying neuropathogenesis of delirium on head computed tomography (CT) is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate, using case-control retrospective chart review, the association of white matter lesions (WML), cerebral atrophy, intracranial extravascular calcifications, and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus in older adult military veterans with and without delirium hospitalized in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Head CT scans were examined for WML, atrophy, and intracranial extravascular calcifications globally in the cortex, subcortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes), basal ganglia (globus pallidus, caudate, putamen), and internal capsule, in addition to the presence of ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus. WML were graded as not present, 2 cm. Atrophy, cerebral atrophy, intracranial extravascular calcifications, and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus were graded as present or not present. There was a significant association of WML in the temporal lobe periventricular cortical and subcortical brain and a significant association of atrophy in the parietal lobes and the cerebellum in hospitalized older adult military veterans with delirium compared with hospitalized older adult military veterans without delirium. There were no differences between the delirium and nondelirium groups for intracranial extravascular calcifications and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus. The results suggest that atrophy in the parietal lobes and the cerebellum of hospitalized older adult military veterans may be associated with an elevated risk of delirium when compared with age, race, and sex-matched control veterans. Continuing efforts are needed to clarify the role of atrophy during delirium in the veteran and nonveteran older adult population to reduce progressive frailty and decreased quality of life secondary to hospital and posthospital-discharge delirium.

  15. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  16. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  17. Improvement of spatial learning and memory, cortical gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats treated with Ficus deltoidea leaf extract and vitexin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nurdiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Ficus deltoidea and vitexin played important roles in controlling hyperglycemia, an effective mitigation strategy dealing with cognitive deficit observed in diabetes, little is known about its neuroprotective effects. The study is aimed to determine changes in behavioral, gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea and vitexin treatments. Diabetic rats were treated orally with metformin, methanolic extract of F. deltoidea leaves and vitexin for eight weeks. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to evaluate learning and memory functions. The patterns of cortical gyrification were subsequently visualized using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Quantification of brain oxidative stress biomarkers, insulin, amylin as well as serum testosterone were measured using a spectrophotometer. The brain fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC. Biochemical variation in brain was estimated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Results showed that oral administration of F. deltoidea extract and vitexin to diabetic rats attenuated learning and memory impairment, along with several clusters of improved gyrification. Both treatments also caused a significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx values, as well as a significant reduction of TBARS. Strikingly, improvement of cortical gyrification, spatial learning and memory are supported by serum testosterone levels, fatty acid composition of brain and FT-IR spectra.

  18. Motor Control and Aging: Links to Age-Related Brain Structural, Functional, and Biochemical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Burutolu, Taritonye B.; Fling, Brett W.; Gordon, Mark T.; Gwin, Joseph T.; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing...

  19. Cortico-cortical and motor evoked potentials to single and paired-pulse stimuli: An exploratory transcranial magnetic and intracranial electric brain stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, Sébastien; Andre-Obadia, Nathalie; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Ryvlin, Philippe; Rheims, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    Paired-pulse (PP) paradigms are commonly employed to assess in vivo cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to stimulate the primary motor cortex and modulate the induced motor evoked potential (MEP). Single-pulse cortical direct electrical stimulation (DES) during intracerebral EEG monitoring allows the investigation of brain connectivity by eliciting cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). However, PP paradigm using intracerebral DES has rarely been reported and has never been previously compared with TMS. The work was intended (i) to verify that the well-established modulations of MEPs following PP TMS remain similar using DES in the motor cortex, and (ii) to evaluate if a similar pattern could be observed in distant cortico-cortical connections through modulations of CCEP. Three patients undergoing intracerebral EEG monitoring with electrodes implanted in the central region were studied. Single-pulse DES (1-3 mA, 1 ms, 0.2 Hz) and PP DES using six interstimulus intervals (5, 15, 30, 50, 100, and 200 ms) in the motor cortex with concomitant recording of CCEPs and MEPs in contralateral muscles were performed. Finally, a navigated PP TMS session targeted the intracranial stimulation site to record TMS-induced MEPs in two patients. MEP modulations elicited by PP intracerebral DES proved similar among the three patients and to those obtained by PP TMS. CCEP modulations elicited by PP intracerebral DES usually showed a pattern comparable to that of MEP, although a different pattern could be observed occasionally. PP intracerebral DES seems to involve excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms similar to PP TMS and allows the recording of intracortical inhibition and facilitation modulation on cortico-cortical connections. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3767-3778, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The pattern of thalamocortical and brain stem projections to the vibrissae-related sensory and motor cortices in de-whiskered congenital hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Behzadi, Gila

    2017-08-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60. Retrograde tracing technique with WGA-HRP was performed in the present study. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the specific thalamic nuclei (VPM and VL) following separately WGA-HRP injections into wS1/M1 cortical areas. The number of labeled cells in the VPM, VL, VM and PO nuclei of the thalamus significantly decreased in CH offsprings rats (P < 0.05). Neonatal WD did not show any significant effects on the number of VPM, VL, VM and PO labeled projection neurons to wS1 and wM1 cortical areas. In addition, retrogradely labeled neurons in dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC) nuclei were observed in all experimental groups. The number of DR and LC labeled neurons were higher in the CH and whisker deprived groups compared to their matching controls (P < 0.05). Upon our results, CH and WD had no synergic or additive effects on the TC and brain stem afferent patterns of barrel sensory and motor cortices.

  1. Acceleration of hippocampal atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, K Abigail; Frost, Chris; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Rowe, Chris C; Villemagne, Victor; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of brain atrophy measured from serial magnetic resonance imaging precede symptom onset in Alzheimer's disease and may be useful outcome measures for prodromal clinical trials. Appropriate trial design requires a detailed understanding of the relationships between β-amyloid load and accumulation, and rate of brain change at this stage of the disease. Fifty-two healthy individuals (72.3 ± 6.9 years) from Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Aging had serial (0, 18 m, 36 m) magnetic resonance imaging, (0, 18 m) Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography, and clinical assessments. We calculated rates of whole brain and hippocampal atrophy, ventricular enlargement, amyloid accumulation, and cognitive decline. Over 3 years, rates of whole brain atrophy (p atrophy (p = 0.001, p = 0.023), and ventricular expansion (p atrophy rates were also independently associated with β-amyloid accumulation over the first 18 months (p = 0.003). Acceleration of left hippocampal atrophy rate was associated with baseline β-amyloid load across the cohort (p atrophy are associated with both baseline β-amyloid load and accumulation, and that there is presymptomatic, amyloid-mediated acceleration of hippocampal atrophy. Clinical trials using rate of hippocampal atrophy as an outcome measure should not assume linear decline in the presymptomatic phase. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio relates to temporo-parietal brain atrophy and memory performances in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Davide V; Paternicò, Donata; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-01-01

    Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI. Seventy-four adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio. Difference of cortical thickness among the groups was estimated. Pearson's r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment. High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical gray matter volume reduction of 471 mm(2) than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p Upper/low alpha group showed a similar but less marked pattern (160 mm(2)) of cortical thinning when compared to middle upper/low alpha power ratio group (p upper/low alpha group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Finally, in high upper/low alpha group temporo-parietal cortical thickness was correlated to memory performance. No significant cortical thickness differences was found between middle and low alpha3/alpha2 power ratio groups. High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning and memory impairment in MCI subjects. The combination of EEG upper/low alpha ratio and cortical thickness measure could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in clinical context.

  3. Effects of valerian consumption during pregnancy on cortical volume and the levels of zinc and copper in the brain tissue of mouse fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Rajaei, Ziba; Haghir, Hossein; Banihashemian, Shahaboldin; Hami, Javad

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) consumption in pregnancy on cortical volume and the levels of zinc and copper, two essential elements that affect brain development and function, in the brain tissues of mouse fetuses. Pregnant female mice were treated with either saline or 1.2 g/kg body weight valerian extract intraperitoneally daily on gestation days (GD) 7 to 17. On GD 20, mice were sacrificed and their fetuses were collected. Fetal brains were dissected, weighed and processed for histological analysis. The volume of cerebral cortex was estimated by the Cavalieri principle. The levels of zinc and copper in the brain tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that valerian consumption in pregnancy had no significant effect on brain weight, cerebral cortex volume and copper level in fetal brain. However,it significantly decreased the level of zinc in the brain (P<0.05). Using valerian during midgestation do not have an adverse effect on cerebral cortex; however,it caused a significant decrease in zinc level in the fetal brain. This suggests that valerian use should be limited during pregnancy.

  4. Anatomically standardised 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPET allows accurate differentiation between healthy volunteers, multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosman, Tommy; Van Laere, Koen; Santens, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The clinical differentiation between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) is complicated by the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with anatomical standardisation and automated analysis in the differentiation of IPD and MSA. This was achieved by discriminant analysis in comparison with a large set of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer SPET was performed on 140 subjects: 81 IPD patients (age 62.6±10.2 years; disease duration 11.0±6.4 years; 50 males/31 females), 15 MSA patients (61.5±9.2 years; disease duration 3.0±2.2 years; 9 males/6 females) and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (age 59.2±11.9 years; 27 males/17 females). Patients were matched for severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage). Automated predefined volume of interest (VOI) analysis was carried out after anatomical standardisation. Stepwise discriminant analysis with cross-validation using the leave-one-out method was used to determine the subgroup of variables giving the highest accuracy for this differential diagnosis. Between MSA and IPD, the only regions with highly significant differences in uptake after Bonferroni correction were the putamen VOIs. Comparing MSA versus normals and IPD, with putamen VOI values as discriminating variables, cross-validated performance showed correct classification of MSA patients with a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 84% and an accuracy of 83.6%. Additional input from the right caudate head and the left prefrontal and left mesial temporal cortex allowed 100% discrimination even after cross-validation. Discrimination between the IPD group alone and healthy volunteers was accurate in 94% of the cases after cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 100%. The three

  5. Monte Carlo point process estimation of electromyographic envelopes from motor cortical spikes for brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuxi; She, Xiwei; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Shaomin; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Principe, Jose C.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Representation of movement in the motor cortex (M1) has been widely studied in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The electromyogram (EMG) has greater bandwidth than the conventional kinematic variables (such as position, velocity), and is functionally related to the discharge of cortical neurons. As the stochastic information of EMG is derived from the explicit spike time structure, point process (PP) methods will be a good solution for decoding EMG directly from neural spike trains. Previous studies usually assume linear or exponential tuning curves between neural firing and EMG, which may not be true. Approach. In our analysis, we estimate the tuning curves in a data-driven way and find both the traditional functional-excitatory and functional-inhibitory neurons, which are widely found across a rat’s motor cortex. To accurately decode EMG envelopes from M1 neural spike trains, the Monte Carlo point process (MCPP) method is implemented based on such nonlinear tuning properties. Main results. Better reconstruction of EMG signals is shown on baseline and extreme high peaks, as our method can better preserve the nonlinearity of the neural tuning during decoding. The MCPP improves the prediction accuracy (the normalized mean squared error) 57% and 66% on average compared with the adaptive point process filter using linear and exponential tuning curves respectively, for all 112 data segments across six rats. Compared to a Wiener filter using spike rates with an optimal window size of 50 ms, MCPP decoding EMG from a point process improves the normalized mean square error (NMSE) by 59% on average. Significance. These results suggest that neural tuning is constantly changing during task execution and therefore, the use of spike timing methodologies and estimation of appropriate tuning curves needs to be undertaken for better EMG decoding in motor BMIs.

  6. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV transcription through calcium responsive elements in cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been studied as an important model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying numerous aspects of neuroplasticity. It has been extensively emphasized that Ca(2+ influx through different routes may have significantly different effects on BDNF transcription. Here, we examined the regulatory property of the major calcium responsive elements (CaRE in BDNF promoter IV in cultured rat cortical neurons. BDNF promoter IV, as well as CaRE1 and CaRE3, was significantly activated by Ca(2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC or NMDA receptor (NMDAR. However, the L-VGCC- and NMDAR-mediated activation of CaRE was differentially regulated by different Ca(2+-stimulated protein kinases. Specifically, PKA, CaMKI, and CaMKIV activity were required for L-VGCC-, but not NMDAR-mediated CaRE1 activation. CaMKI activity was required for NMDAR- but not L-VGCC-mediated CaRE3 activation. Surprisingly, the activation of CaRF, a previously identified transcription factor for CaRE1, was stimulated via L-VGCC but not NMDAR, and required MEK, PI3K and CaMKII activity. These results suggest a new working model that activity-dependent BDNF IV up-regulation may be coordinately mediated by CaRE1 and CaRE3 activity, which show different responses to Ca(2+-stimulated kinases. Our data also explain how the individual cis-element in BDNF promoter is distinctively coupled to different Ca(2+ routes.

  7. BrainCycles: Experimental Setup for the Combined Measurement of Cortical and Subcortical Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients during Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratkowski, Maciej; Storzer, Lena; Butz, Markus; Schnitzler, Alfons; Saupe, Dietmar; Dalal, Sarang S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that bicycling ability remains surprisingly preserved in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who suffer from freezing of gait. Cycling has been also proposed as a therapeutic means of treating PD symptoms, with some preliminary success. The neural mechanisms behind these phenomena are however not yet understood. One of the reasons is that the investigations of neuronal activity during pedaling have been up to now limited to PET and fMRI studies, which restrict the temporal resolution of analysis, and to scalp EEG focused on cortical activation. However, deeper brain structures like the basal ganglia are also associated with control of voluntary motor movements like cycling and are affected by PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted for therapy in PD patients provide rare and unique access to directly record basal ganglia activity with a very high temporal resolution. In this paper we present an experimental setup allowing combined investigation of basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs) and scalp EEG underlying bicycling in PD patients. The main part of the setup is a bike simulator consisting of a classic Dutch-style bicycle frame mounted on a commercially available ergometer. The pedal resistance is controllable in real-time by custom software and the pedal position is continuously tracked by custom Arduino-based electronics using optical and magnetic sensors. A portable bioamplifier records the pedal position signal, the angle of the knee, and the foot pressure together with EEG, EMG, and basal ganglia LFPs. A handlebar-mounted display provides additional information for patients riding the bike simulator, including the current and target pedaling rate. In order to demonstrate the utility of the setup, example data from pilot recordings are shown. The presented experimental setup provides means to directly record basal ganglia activity not only during cycling but also during other movement tasks in patients who

  8. Deep brain stimulation of the amygdala alleviates fear conditioning-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity in the cortical-amygdala pathway and fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Huang, SiJia; Peng, BinBin; Ren, Jie; Tian, FuYing; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the amygdala has been demonstrated to modulate hyperactivity of the amygdala, which is responsible for the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and thus might be used for the treatment of PTSD. However, the underlying mechanism of DBS of the amygdala in the modulation of the amygdala is unclear. The present study investigated the effects of DBS of the amygdala on synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity at cortical inputs to the amygdala, which is critical for the formation and storage of auditory fear memories, and fear memories. The results demonstrated that auditory fear conditioning increased single-pulse-evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the cortical-amygdala pathway. Furthermore, auditory fear conditioning decreased the induction of paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, two neurophysiological models for studying short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity, respectively, in the cortical-amygdala pathway. In addition, all these auditory fear conditioning-induced changes could be reversed by DBS of the amygdala. DBS of the amygdala also rescued auditory fear conditioning-induced enhancement of long-term retention of fear memory. These findings suggested that DBS of the amygdala alleviating fear conditioning-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity in the cortical-amygdala pathway and fear memory may underlie the neuromodulatory role of DBS of the amygdala in activities of the amygdala.

  9. White matter lesions and brain atrophy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: correlation to cognitive dysfunction in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients using different definition models for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannerfelt, B; Nystedt, J; Jönsen, A; Lätt, J; van Westen, D; Lilja, A; Bengtsson, A; Nilsson, P; Mårtensson, J; Sundgren, P C

    2018-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition. Patients and HIs underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test. MRI data were evaluated for number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Differences between groups and subgroups were evaluated for significance. Number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum were correlated to cognitive dysfunction. Results The total volume of white matter lesions was significantly larger in SLE patients compared to HIs ( p = 0.004). However, no significant differences were seen between the different SLE subgroups. Atrophy of the bilateral hippocampus was significantly more pronounced in patients with NPSLE compared to those with non-NPSLE (right: p = 0.010; left p = 0.023). Significant negative correlations between cognitive test scores on verbal memory and number and volume of white matter lesions were present. Conclusion SLE patients have a significantly larger volume of white matter lesions on MRI compared to HIs and the degree of white matter lesion volume correlates to cognitive dysfunction, specifically to verbal memory. No significant differences in the number or volume of white matter lesions were identified between subgroups of SLE patients regardless of the definition model used.

  10. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  11. "Circadian cortical compensation": a longitudinal study of brain function during technical and cognitive skills in acutely sleep-deprived surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Daniel Richard; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Athanasiou, Thanos; Karimyan, Vahe; Elwell, Clare; Wong, John; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara W

    2010-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that fatigue-induced performance decline in surgical residents is associated with changes in brain function as detected by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Surgical residents (n = 7) participated in a prospective study involving 2-hourly objective measurements of neurocognitive skill (arithmetic calculations using Nintendo "brain training"), technical performance (surgical knot tying on a trainer, and monitoring time taken, path length and number of movements), and introspective fatigue (questionnaire-based) across 10 hours of acute sleep deprivation (10:00 PM to 8:00 PM. Simultaneously, changes in cortical oxyhemoglobin (HbO₂), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), and total hemoglobin (HbT), inferring prefrontal function, were recorded by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Arithmetic performance remained stable despite increasing levels of subject fatigue (time: P = 0.07, errors: P = 0.70, efficiency: P = 0.58). Technical skill improved between the first (10:00 PM and the second (12:00 AM sessions (P technical drills. Stimulus type (0: cognitive, 1: technical) was found to be an independent predictor of changes in cortical excitation (HbO₂: P sleep-deprived resident more than well-learned technical skills. Performing cognitive skills at night, such as decision making, may depend upon enhanced prefrontal recruitment indicative of a focused attentional strategy and/or compensation to sleep deprivation. Further work should focus on determining whether errors in performance are associated with attentional lapses and failure of cortical compensation.

  12. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.D.; Gururaj, A.K.; Jeans, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian model reveals latent atrophy factors with dissociable cognitive trajectories in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuming; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Sun, Nanbo; Sperling, Reisa A.; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Yeo, B. T. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We used a data-driven Bayesian model to automatically identify distinct latent factors of overlapping atrophy patterns from voxelwise structural MRIs of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia patients. Our approach estimated the extent to which multiple distinct atrophy patterns were expressed within each participant rather than assuming that each participant expressed a single atrophy factor. The model revealed a temporal atrophy factor (medial temporal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala), a subcortical atrophy factor (striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum), and a cortical atrophy factor (frontal, parietal, lateral temporal, and lateral occipital cortices). To explore the influence of each factor in early AD, atrophy factor compositions were inferred in beta-amyloid–positive (Aβ+) mild cognitively impaired (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN) participants. All three factors were associated with memory decline across the entire clinical spectrum, whereas the cortical factor was associated with executive function decline in Aβ+ MCI participants and AD dementia patients. Direct comparison between factors revealed that the temporal factor showed the strongest association with memory, whereas the cortical factor showed the strongest association with executive function. The subcortical factor was associated with the slowest decline for both memory and executive function compared with temporal and cortical factors. These results suggest that distinct patterns of atrophy influence decline across different cognitive domains. Quantification of this heterogeneity may enable the computation of individual-level predictions relevant for disease monitoring and customized therapies. Factor compositions of participants and code used in this article are publicly available for future research. PMID:27702899

  14. Abnormal MEG oscillatory activity during visual processing in the prefrontal cortices and frontal eye-fields of the aging HIV brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony W Wilson

    Full Text Available Shortly after infection, HIV enters the brain and causes widespread inflammation and neuronal damage, which ultimately leads to neuropsychological impairments. Despite a large body of neuroscience and imaging studies, the pathophysiology of these HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remains unresolved. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown greater activation in HIV-infected patients during strenuous tasks in frontal and parietal cortices, and less activation in the primary sensory cortices during rest and sensory stimulation.High-density magnetoencephalography (MEG was utilized to evaluate the basic neurophysiology underlying attentive, visual processing in older HIV-infected adults and a matched non-infected control group. Unlike other neuroimaging methods, MEG is a direct measure of neural activity that is not tied to brain metabolism or hemodynamic responses. During MEG, participants fixated on a centrally-presented crosshair while intermittent visual stimulation appeared in their top-right visual-field quadrant. All MEG data was imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming.Uninfected controls had increased neuronal synchronization in the 6-12 Hz range within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right frontal eye-fields, and the posterior cingulate. Conversely, HIV-infected patients exhibited decreased synchrony in these same neural regions, and the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with neuropsychological performance in several cortical association regions.MEG-based imaging holds potential as a noninvasive biomarker for HIV-related neuronal dysfunction, and may help identify patients who have or may develop HAND. Reduced synchronization of neural populations in the association cortices was strongly linked to cognitive dysfunction, and likely reflects the impact of HIV on neuronal and neuropsychological health.

  15. Remapping cortical modulation for electrocorticographic brain-computer interfaces: a somatotopy-based approach in individuals with upper-limb paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhart, Alan D.; Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Yang, Ying; Foldes, Stephen; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Boninger, Michael; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims to provide individuals with paralysis a means to restore function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) uses disc electrodes placed on either the surface of the dura or the cortex to record field potential activity. ECoG has been proposed as a viable neural recording modality for BCI systems, potentially providing stable, long-term recordings of cortical activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previously we have demonstrated that a subject with spinal cord injury (SCI) could control an ECoG-based BCI system with up to three degrees of freedom (Wang et al 2013 PLoS One). Here, we expand upon these findings by including brain-control results from two additional subjects with upper-limb paralysis due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and brachial plexus injury, and investigate the potential of motor and somatosensory cortical areas to enable BCI control. Approach. Individuals were implanted with high-density ECoG electrode grids over sensorimotor cortical areas for less than 30 d. Subjects were trained to control a BCI by employing a somatotopic control strategy where high-gamma activity from attempted arm and hand movements drove the velocity of a cursor. Main results. Participants were capable of generating robust cortical modulation that was differentiable across attempted arm and hand movements of their paralyzed limb. Furthermore, all subjects were capable of voluntarily modulating this activity to control movement of a computer cursor with up to three degrees of freedom using the somatotopic control strategy. Additionally, for those subjects with electrode coverage of somatosensory cortex, we found that somatosensory cortex was capable of supporting ECoG-based BCI control. Significance. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ECoG-based BCI systems for individuals with paralysis as well as highlight some of the key challenges that must be overcome before such systems are translated to the clinical

  16. [Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Project CASCADE Kraków. VI. Magnetic resonance imaging of the aging brain in elderly persons (65-78 years old)].

    Sci