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Sample records for cortex key elements

  1. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  2. Disease management contracting: key elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, D J

    1996-01-01

    Although the data at the outset of a contractual agreement can often be incomplete or inaccurate, and the analytical tools necessary to interpret these data are still being developed, partners about to enter a disease management (DM) arrangement can nonetheless take steps to ensure that the relationship will be sound and successful. Pharmaceutical firms (and other service providers) wishing to enter into DM relationships with managed-care organizations must consider several important factors of the contracting process to protect their financial interests and benefit from the partnership, particularly in the first 1 to 2 years of the arrangement. This paper provides recommendations for both general strategies and financial elements of DM contracting, and defines several contractual elements that can help to secure a harmonious and profitable partnership. These suggestions address concerns for various types of partnerships, including risk-sharing and fee-for-service plans. Early and careful consideration of the legal aspects of the DM business can protect companies from incurring significant, unanticipated losses.

  3. Key Instructional Design Elements for Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lihua; Smaldino, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that distance education instructors need to understand and apply important instructional design elements in order to successfully fulfill their role as instructional designers. Reviews the most recent literature pertaining to designing instruction in distance education. Identifies some key instructional design elements for teaching at a…

  4. Specialized elements of orbitofrontal cortex in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Helen

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is associated with encoding the significance of stimuli within an emotional context, and its connections can be understood in this light. This large cortical region is architectonically heterogeneous, but its connections and functions can be summarized by a broad grouping of areas by cortical type into posterior and anterior sectors. The posterior (limbic) orbitofrontal region is composed of agranular and dysgranular-type cortices and has unique connections with primary olfactory areas and rich connections with high-order sensory association cortices. Posterior orbitofrontal areas are further distinguished by dense and distinct patterns of connections with the amygdala and memory-related anterior temporal lobe structures that may convey signals about emotional import and their memory. The special sets of connections suggest that the posterior orbitofrontal cortex is the primary region for the perception of emotions. In contrast to orbitofrontal areas, posterior medial prefrontal areas in the anterior cingulate are not multi-modal, but have strong connections with auditory association cortices, brain stem vocalization, and autonomic structures, in pathways that may mediate emotional communication and autonomic activation in emotional arousal. Posterior orbitofrontal areas communicate with anterior orbitofrontal areas and, through feedback projections, with lateral prefrontal and other cortices, suggesting a sequence of information processing for emotions. Pathology in orbitofrontal cortex may remove feedback input to sensory cortices, dissociating emotional context from sensory content and impairing the ability to interpret events.

  5. Establishing the baseline level of repetitive element expression in the human cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Yolken, Robert H; McCombie, W Richard; Parla, Jennifer; Kramer, Melissa; Wheelan, Sarah J; Sabunciyan, Sarven

    2011-01-01

    .... Hence, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing to investigate the expression of repetitive elements in human frontal cortex using postmortem tissue obtained from the Stanley Medical Research Institute...

  6. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  7. Four Key Elements that Revitalize Your Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑玲

    2007-01-01

    <正>School reform has been the main focus of discussion among educators for a number of years. The following four courses of action I call keys because they are the tools that could open certain areas which, if not addressed, may result in the institutionalization of many of the problem that plague our schools today. Key Number One Renew and refresh your knowledg of the subject matter. Read new information to maintain currency in your field. You can gain different ideas from different areas and incorporate them in your lessons, resulting in greater understanding of the world at large. Above all, talk to your colleagues. Many students today do not understand the fact that “ learning is its own reward” .

  8. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and environmental value: ... and commercial entities strive for exemplary corporate social responsibility. ... Keywords: design, events, innovation, hospitality sustainability, strategy, trends ...

  9. Key Elements of Effective Teaching in the Direct Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Roger H.

    Summaries and outlines are presented of key elements in effective teaching identified in research studies by Kounin (1970), Brophy (1973), Brophy and Evertson (1976), Stallings (1974; l975), Berliner (1979), and Good and Grouws (1979). These elements are synthesized in a direct teaching model that delineates the characteristics of effective…

  10. Mining key elements for severe convection prediction based on CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Pan, Ning; Zhang, Changan; Sha, Hongzhou; Zhang, Bolei; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Meng

    2017-04-01

    Severe convective weather is a kind of weather disasters accompanied by heavy rainfall, gust wind, hail, etc. Along with recent developments on remote sensing and numerical modeling, there are high-volume and long-term observational and modeling data accumulated to capture massive severe convective events over particular areas and time periods. With those high-volume and high-variety weather data, most of the existing studies and methods carry out the dynamical laws, cause analysis, potential rule study, and prediction enhancement by utilizing the governing equations from fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. In this study, a key-element mining method is proposed for severe convection prediction based on convolution neural network (CNN). It aims to identify the key areas and key elements from huge amounts of historical weather data including conventional measurements, weather radar, satellite, so as numerical modeling and/or reanalysis data. Under this manner, the machine-learning based method could help the human forecasters on their decision-making on operational weather forecasts on severe convective weathers by extracting key information from the real-time and historical weather big data. In this paper, it first utilizes computer vision technology to complete the data preprocessing work of the meteorological variables. Then, it utilizes the information such as radar map and expert knowledge to annotate all images automatically. And finally, by using CNN model, it cloud analyze and evaluate each weather elements (e.g., particular variables, patterns, features, etc.), and identify key areas of those critical weather elements, then help forecasters quickly screen out the key elements from huge amounts of observation data by current weather conditions. Based on the rich weather measurement and model data (up to 10 years) over Fujian province in China, where the severe convective weathers are very active during the summer months, experimental tests are conducted with

  11. Biomechanical indicators of key elements of sports equipment gymnastic exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the biomechanical performance of the kinematic and dynamic structures of key elements of sports techniques of basic exercises performed gymnasts aged 12 - 14 years to the vaulting and on the bars of different heights, on the basis of the method of postural orientation movements. The study involved 11 gymnasts doing exercises on the vaulting and 9 gymnasts - on the boards of various heights. It is shown that the method of video - computer analysis of the type Yurchenko vault and dismount from the bars of varying heights, in conjunction with the method of postural orientation movements possible to isolate and identify the node elements. The indicators characterizing the node elements of sports equipment movements gymnasts in the phase structure of the vault and dismount from the bars of different heights have specific features and characteristics. Learned node elements sports equipment is the basis for the measurement, analysis and evaluation of the kinematic and dynamic structures and other types of exercises all-around gymnastics.

  12. Key Elements of a Low Voltage, Ultracompact Plasma Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, E. E.; Barrie, A.; Dugas, M.; Elliott, D.; Ellison, S.; Keesee, A. M.; Pollock, C. J.; Rager, A.; Tersteeg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of technological developments in wafer-scale processing over the past two decades, such as deep etching, 3-D chip stacking, and double-sided lithography, we have designed and fabricated the key elements of an ultracompact 1.5cm (exp 3)plasma spectrometer that requires only low-voltage power supplies, has no microchannel plates, and has a high aperture area to instrument volume ratio. The initial design of the instrument targets the measurement of charged particles in the 3-20keV range with a highly directional field of view and a 100 duty cycle; i.e., the entire energy range Is continuously measured. In addition to reducing mass, size, and voltage requirements, the new design will affect the manufacturing process of plasma spectrometers, enabling large quantities of identical instruments to be manufactured at low individual unit cost. Such a plasma spectrometer is ideal for heliophysics plasma investigations, particularly for small satellite and multispacecraft missions. Two key elements of the instrument have been fabricated: the collimator and the energy analyzer. An initial collimator transparency of 20 with 3deg x 3deg angular resolution was achieved. The targeted 40 collimator transparency appears readily achievable. The targeted energy analyzer scaling factor of 1875 was achieved; i.e.20 keV electrons were selected for only a 10.7V bias voltage in the energy analyzer.

  13. The key elements of a comprehensive global mammal conservation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinini, Carlo; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    A global strategy is necessary to achieve the level of coordination, synergy and therefore optimization of resources to achieve the broad goal of conserving mammals worldwide. Key elements for the development of such a strategy include: an institutional subject that owns the strategy; broad conservation goals, quantitative targets derived from them and appropriate indicators; data on the distribution of species, their threats, the cost-effectiveness of conservation actions; and a set of methods for the identification of conservation priorities. Previous global mammal research investigated phylogeny, extinction risk, and the species and areas that should be regarded as global conservation priorities. This theme issue presents new key elements: an updated Red List Index, a new list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species, new high-resolution mammal distribution models, a global connectivity analysis and scenarios of future mammal distribution based on climate and land-cover change. Area prioritization schemes account for mammalian phylogeny, governance and cost-benefit of measures to abate habitat loss. Three discussion papers lay the foundations for the development of a global unifying mammal conservation strategy, which should not be further deterred by the knowledge gaps still existing.

  14. Key elements of a sustainable nuclear business case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, D [Nuclear Consultants International - South Africa and AMEC Nuclear - United Kingdom, 20-35th Avenue, Umhlatuzana, Chatsworth, Durban (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The argument for nuclear power generation grows stronger internationally. Its increasing acceptance is attributable to scarcity of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns. However, the potential implementation of nuclear power plants to solve our energy need has become an economic issue. The relatively high capital costs, the need to internalise all waste disposal and decommissioning costs are perceived barriers to the expansion of the nuclear industry. South Africa has embarked on an ambitious plan to provide 20 GW of electricity through the use of nuclear power by 2025. The success of the governments drive to stabilise electricity supply shall depend on the socio-economic conditions prevalent in the country over the stipulated period, but more specifically on the execution of a sustainable nuclear business model beyond the initial nuclear plant construction phases. This paper shall examine briefly, the key elements of a nuclear business case within the South African context. (authors)

  15. Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidaršič, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2011-04-01

    Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface.

  16. Representation of individual elements of a complex call sequence in primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nelson Wallace

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conspecific communication calls can be rhythmic or contain extended, discontinuous series of either constant or frequency modulated harmonic tones and noise bursts separated by brief periods of silence. In the guinea pig, rhythmic calls can produce isomorphic responses within the primary auditory cortex (AI where single units respond to every call element. Other calls such as the chutter comprise a series of short irregular syllables that vary in their spectral content and are more like human speech. These calls can also evoke isomorphic responses, but may only do so in fields in the auditory belt and not in AI. Here we present evidence that cells in AI treat the individual elements within a syllable as separate auditory objects and respond selectively to one or a subset of them. We used a single chutter exemplar to compare single/multi-unit responses in the low-frequency portion of AI - AI(LF and the low-frequency part of the thalamic medial geniculate body - MGB(LF in urethane anaesthetised guinea pigs. Both thalamic and cortical cells responded with brief increases in firing rate to one, or more, of the 8 main elements present in the chutter call. Almost none of the units responded to all 8 elements. While there were many different combinations of responses to between one and five of the elements, MBG(LF and AI(LF neurons exhibited the same specific types of response combinations. Nearby units in the upper layers of the cortex tended to respond to similar combinations of elements while the deep layers were less responsive. Thus the responses from a number of AI units would need to be combined in order to represent the entire chutter call. Our results don’t rule out the possibility of constructive convergence but there was no evidence that a convergence of inputs within AI led to a complete representation of all eight elements.

  17. A Detailed Data-Driven Network Model of Prefrontal Cortex Reproduces Key Features of In Vivo Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Joachim; Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex is centrally involved in a wide range of cognitive functions and their impairment in psychiatric disorders. Yet, the computational principles that govern the dynamics of prefrontal neural networks, and link their physiological, biochemical and anatomical properties to cognitive functions, are not well understood. Computational models can help to bridge the gap between these different levels of description, provided they are sufficiently constrained by experimental data and capable of predicting key properties of the intact cortex. Here, we present a detailed network model of the prefrontal cortex, based on a simple computationally efficient single neuron model (simpAdEx), with all parameters derived from in vitro electrophysiological and anatomical data. Without additional tuning, this model could be shown to quantitatively reproduce a wide range of measures from in vivo electrophysiological recordings, to a degree where simulated and experimentally observed activities were statistically indistinguishable. These measures include spike train statistics, membrane potential fluctuations, local field potentials, and the transmission of transient stimulus information across layers. We further demonstrate that model predictions are robust against moderate changes in key parameters, and that synaptic heterogeneity is a crucial ingredient to the quantitative reproduction of in vivo-like electrophysiological behavior. Thus, we have produced a physiologically highly valid, in a quantitative sense, yet computationally efficient PFC network model, which helped to identify key properties underlying spike time dynamics as observed in vivo, and can be harvested for in-depth investigation of the links between physiology and cognition.

  18. Concentration of Key Elements in North American Meat & Bone Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) and related rendered protein commodities have potential for use in applications other than animal feed, including use as a fuel or a phosphorus fertilizer. In order to develop these applications, data on the elemental composition are required; the currently available elementa...

  19. [Determination of trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xing-Ming; Xu, Min; Gu, Yong-Zuo

    2007-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense after microwave-assisted digestion of the sample has been developed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of corresponding trace heavy metal elements in standard reference materials (GBW 07604 and GBW 07605). By applying the proposed method, the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense cultivated in different areas (in Bazhong, Yibin and Yingjing, respectively) of Sichuan and different growth period (6, 8 and 10 years of samples from Yingjing) were determined. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is in the range of 3.2%-17.8% and the recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 70%-120%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense. The results also show that the concentrations of 4 harmful trace heavy metal elements As, Cd, Hg and Pb in cortex Phellodendron chinense are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation. Therefore, the cortex Phellodendron chinense is fit for use as medicine and export.

  20. Single-cell methylomes identify neuronal subtypes and regulatory elements in mammalian cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongyuan; Keown, Christopher L; Kurihara, Laurie; Zhou, Jingtian; He, Yupeng; Li, Junhao; Castanon, Rosa; Lucero, Jacinta; Nery, Joseph R; Sandoval, Justin P; Bui, Brian; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Harkins, Timothy T; Mukamel, Eran A; Behrens, M Margarita; Ecker, Joseph R

    2017-08-11

    The mammalian brain contains diverse neuronal types, yet we lack single-cell epigenomic assays that are able to identify and characterize them. DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that distinguishes cell types and marks regulatory elements. We generated >6000 methylomes from single neuronal nuclei and used them to identify 16 mouse and 21 human neuronal subpopulations in the frontal cortex. CG and non-CG methylation exhibited cell type-specific distributions, and we identified regulatory elements with differential methylation across neuron types. Methylation signatures identified a layer 6 excitatory neuron subtype and a unique human parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neuron subtype. We observed stronger cross-species conservation of regulatory elements in inhibitory neurons than in excitatory neurons. Single-nucleus methylomes expand the atlas of brain cell types and identify regulatory elements that drive conserved brain cell diversity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Key Elements of a Successful Drive toward Marketing Strategy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Cynthia W.; George, Marie A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that depicts the relationship between an internal marketing function and an organization's readiness to learn. Learning and marketing orientations are identified as components to marketing strategy making. Key organizational functions, including communication and decision-making, are utilized in a framework for…

  2. Key Elements of a Successful Drive toward Marketing Strategy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Cynthia W.; George, Marie A.

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is presented that depicts the relationship between an internal marketing function and an organization's readiness to learn. Learning and marketing orientations are identified as components to marketing strategy making. Key organizational functions, including communication and decision-making, are utilized in a framework for…

  3. Dysbiotic gut microbiome: A key element of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyri, Styrk Furnes; Műzes, Györgyi; Sipos, Ferenc

    2015-12-01

    Since the first publication on "regional ileitis", the relevance of this chronic inflammatory disease condition termed finally as Crohn's disease is continuously increasing. Although we are beginning to comprehend certain aspects of its pathogenesis, many facets remain unexplored. Host's gut microbiota is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes including immune system development, and pathogen regulation. Further, the microbiome is thought to play a key role in Crohn's disease. The presence of Crohn's-associated variants of NOD2 and ATG16L genes appears to be associated not only with alterations of mucosal barrier functions, and bacterial killing, but the gut microbiota, as well, reflecting a potential relationship between the host's genotype and intestinal dysbiosis, involved in disease etiology. This review aims to characterize some exciting new aspect of Crohn's disease pathology, focusing mainly on the role of intestinal microbes, and their interplay with the immune system of the host.

  4. Nature and Key Elements of the Ukrainian Think Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Petrovich Kurylev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the activities of the Ukrainian think tanks in the context of studying “the Center of it. A. Razumkov” activity, which is supposed to be the leading Ukrainian think tank. The authors examined in detail the mechanisms and principles of the center’s work, analyzed the activity of key experts including A. Gritsenko, G. Sherr, P. Rozenko, A. Melnyk, I. Zhdanov, V. Chaly, Yu. Mostovaya, N. Martynenko, A. Rachok and sources of funding. The researchers highlighted a number of issues of the Ukrainian system of analytical centers, including the closed system of decision making at the state and local authorities level, the lack of demand for the services of independent analytical structures by public authorities, weak financial, material and technical base, the absence of staff training, poor communication between the centers, insufficient use of the Internet, software and hardware, information-analytical systems, and so on. While analyzing their activities the author comes to the conclusion that they have mostly been funded by various agencies (including foreign ones and used in opposition between the local political and financial elites. As a result their expert assessments and analytics very often did not reflect the real situation. Within the civil war in Ukraine in 2013-2014’s these think tanks finally turned into an instrument of information and psychological war, being discredited by their actual support to the actors which had staged a coup and started a struggle against their own nation.

  5. Audit as Key Element of System Management Improvement in Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents what is an audit for a company, tries to regularize the quality audits, presents main differences between separate types of audits and between audit and control. There are also some exemplary types of nonconformance in a company. Each system has a risk of deficiencies. They can result from material defects or human imperfection. A good quality system should allow the company to detect them in an organized and systematical manner. It guarantees that the irregularities will be removed before they cause a defective production. Quality management consists of planning the quality via quality plans, control and research plans, and supervision and verification by audits and controls. The objective of this paper is to present a special message of audit for organizations which is the improvement of management system in company. Quality audit is used with reference to quality system and its elements, to process, products and services. It compares the real values with expected ones with reference to the activities connected with quality and their results, and planned data. Thanks to quality audits, it is possible to state if the quality management instruments achieve the desired effect. Quality audit can be conducted for the internal and external purposes. One of the quality audit purposes is to estimate if the improvement is necessary or to take corrective actions. The universality of audit, which is completed by periodic system review preformed by head management, allows the use of its application effects both on the strategic and operational effects. Audit is often misled with quality monitoring or control, i.e. activities which aim to control the process or accept the product. Therefore this paper shows the differences between the notions. The information used to conduct an audit is only based on facts (evidence objective, which really exist, independent on emotions or prejudice. They can be documented, declared, based on observed

  6. [Determination of 11 kinds of inorganic elements in Cortex Spondiacis by microwave digestion/ICP-MS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Ma, Jin-Jing; Zhang, Long-Wang; Chen, Cong; Ye, Yan-Qing

    2012-09-01

    The present research aimed to establish a kind of simple and rapid method to detect metal elements in Cortex Spondiacis were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The sample was digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. Instead of using concent rated acid, this experiment not only can leave out the process of drying or dilution and save time, and extend the life of the instrument, but also eliminates the errors of the inconsistency between digestion solutions and standard solutions. The experimental results showed that Cortex Spondiacis is rich in beneficial elements such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, and nickel. And the content of harmful elements of the drug, such as mercury, lead, cadmi um and arsenic, is under the national rule, which have some medicinal value. Under the optimum working conditions of the instrument, the detection limits were all smaller than 0.052 1 microg x L(-1), the recovery ratios by standard addition were in the range of 90.8%-113.8% and the RSD was smaller than 5.10% for all elements. Precision and accuracy of determining results are satisfactory. This results are reliable. These results are reliable. The method can meet the need for simultaneity determination of high content element and trace element in Cortex Spondiacis.

  7. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing...... of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  8. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly effortless, we adjust our movements to continuously changing environments. After initiation of a goal-directed movement, the motor command is under constant control of sensory feedback loops. The main sensory signals contributing to movement control are vision and proprioception. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive feedback for online reaching control, and demonstrate that distinct cortical areas process proprioceptive-only and multi-sensory information for fast feedback corrections.

  9. Somatostatin Interneurons Control a Key Component of Mismatch Negativity in Mouse Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan P. Hamm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia have deficient sensory processing, undermining how they perceive and relate to a changing environment. This impairment can be captured by the reduced mismatch negativity (MMN index, an electroencephalographic biomarker of psychosis. The biological factors contributing to MMN are unclear, though mouse research, in which genetic and optical methods could be applied, has given some insight. Using fast two-photon calcium imaging and multielectrode recordings in awake mice, we find that visual cortical circuits display adapted (decreased responses to repeated stimuli and amplified responses to a deviant stimulus, the key component of human MMN. Moreover, pharmacogenetic silencing of somatostatin-containing interneurons specifically eliminated this amplification, along with its associated theta/alpha-band response, leaving stimulus-specific adaption and related gamma-band modulations intact. Our results validate a mouse model of MMN and suggest that abnormalities in somatostatin-containing interneurons cause sensory deficits underlying MMN and schizophrenia.

  10. Automated information extraction of key trial design elements from clinical trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Berry; Carini, Simona; Kiritchenko, Svetlana; Martin, Joel; Sim, Ida

    2008-11-06

    Clinical trials are one of the most valuable sources of scientific evidence for improving the practice of medicine. The Trial Bank project aims to improve structured access to trial findings by including formalized trial information into a knowledge base. Manually extracting trial information from published articles is costly, but automated information extraction techniques can assist. The current study highlights a single architecture to extract a wide array of information elements from full-text publications of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). This architecture combines a text classifier with a weak regular expression matcher. We tested this two-stage architecture on 88 RCT reports from 5 leading medical journals, extracting 23 elements of key trial information such as eligibility rules, sample size, intervention, and outcome names. Results prove this to be a promising avenue to help critical appraisers, systematic reviewers, and curators quickly identify key information elements in published RCT articles.

  11. Neurocognitive Elements of Antisocial Behavior: Relevance of an Orbitofrontal Cortex Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to…

  12. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  13. Designing new institutions for implementing integrated disaster risk management: key elements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Chennat; Okada, Norio

    2007-12-01

    The goal of integrated disaster risk management is to promote an overall improvement in the quality of safety and security in a region, city or community at disaster risk. This paper presents the case for a thorough overhaul of the institutional component of integrated disaster risk management. A review of disaster management institutions in the United States indicates significant weaknesses in their ability to contribute effectively to the implementation of integrated disaster risk management. Our analysis and findings identify eight key elements for the design of dynamic new disaster management institutions. Six specific approaches are suggested for incorporating the identified key elements in building new institutions that would have significant potential for enhancing the effective implementation of integrated disaster risk management. We have developed a possible blueprint for effective design and construction of efficient, sustainable and functional disaster management institutions.

  14. Identification and characterization of endogenous viral elements for the three key schistosomes of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Quhuan

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are widely distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes, and their evolution and potential function have attracted a lot of interest. Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium are now available; however, information about EVEs in blood flukes of the genus schistosoma is scanty. Here, genome-wide survey into the putative EVE sequences of the three key schistosome genomes were present. Totally 4, 117 gene sequences were identified, including retrovirus-like gypsy elements, RNA viruses and dsDNA viruses. Compared with S. japonicum and S. haematobium, S. mansoni appeared to greatly out numbered by gypsy members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one novel endogenous retrovirus element in S. mansoni. This initial characterization of schistosomes showed that schistosomes harbour distinct EVEs that may have played an important evolutionary role. Studies of schistosomes' endogenous viruses helped us to glance at an earlier viral event in the class Trematoda, greatly broadening the field of palaeovirology.

  15. What are the key elements of a primary care teaching practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of clinicians, clinical learners and practice staff of key elements of being a teaching practice. Whilst previous studies have explored individual facets of being a teaching practice, this paper offers an in-depth insight of how these elements come together to support learning and teaching activity. The single descriptive case study was conducted within a purposefully selected primary care teaching practice in West Yorkshire, UK. Interview, observational and documentary data were collected over a single academic year in 2008/9. Interview data from 33 participants were transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Those interviewed included transient, vocational and embedded medical and nurse learners. The findings are presented within the context of existing literature on teaching practices and practice-based clinical learning. The case study highlighted elements that support and contribute to learning within a practice. These elements include: whole practice support for learning, a skilled and committed clinical and educational workforce, stimulation and support from a range of learners at all levels, and a more indefinable additional element which is best summarised as a passion for education. The findings will be of interest to those involved with the delivery or organisation of clinical learning in primary care.

  16. Key elements for implementing comprehensive health care models for persons with HIV: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, L A; Panter, A T; Larson, T A; Meredith, K L; Richardson-Nassif, K; Huba, G J

    2000-09-01

    A semistructured interview was conducted with 69 stakeholders in three university-based health care projects that were funded to provide an integrated continuum of care for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Data from the key informant interviews yielded composite indicators of familiarity with the service model, the importance of the elements in the service model, and the perceived quality of services provided by these innovative HIV service demonstration projects. Ratings of service quality were related to ratings of the respondent's knowledge of the service demonstration project, the importance of the various elements in the service continuum, and several indicators of stakeholder characteristics using the data modeling method of Exhaustive CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector). The groups of stakeholders most likely to give the highest quality or success ratings for these projects are identified. The implications of these findings for developing collaborative and comprehensive service models for persons with HIV/AIDS are discussed.

  17. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  18. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  19. Key Elements of a Family Intervention for Schizophrenia: A Qualitative Analysis of an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, Jaime; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Leff, Julian

    2016-11-29

    Schizophrenia is a complex biopsychosocial condition in which expressed emotion in family members is a robust predictor of relapse. Not surprisingly, family interventions are remarkably effective and thus recommended in current treatment guidelines. Their key elements seem to be common therapeutic factors, followed by education and coping skills training. However, few studies have explored these key elements and the process of the intervention itself. We conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the records from a pioneering family intervention trial addressing expressed emotion, published by Leff and colleagues four decades ago. Records were analyzed into categories and data explored using descriptive statistics. This was complemented by a narrative evaluation using an inductive approach based on emotional markers and markers of change. The most used strategies in the intervention were addressing needs, followed by coping skills enhancement, advice, and emotional support. Dealing with overinvolvement and reframing were the next most frequent. Single-family home sessions seemed to augment the therapeutic work conducted in family groups. Overall the intervention seemed to promote cognitive and emotional change in the participants, and therapists were sensitive to the emotional trajectory of each subject. On the basis of our findings, we developed a longitudinal framework for better understanding the process of this treatment approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  20. Key Elements of Robustness in Binary Black Hole Evolutions using Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szilagyi, Bela

    2014-01-01

    As a network of advanced-era gravitational wave detectors is nearing its design sensitivity, efficient and accurate waveform modeling becomes more and more relevant. Understanding of the nature of the signal being sought can have an order unity effect on the event rates seen in these instruments. The paper provides a description of key elements of the Spectral Einstein Code ({\\tt SpEC}), with details of our spectral adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm that has been optimized for binary black hole (BBH) evolutions. We expect that the gravitational waveform catalog produced by our code will have a central importance in both the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves in these instruments.

  1. Homoserine Lactone as a Structural Key Element for the Synthesis of Multifunctional Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Marquardt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based building blocks for polymer synthesis represents a milestone on the way to “green” materials. In this work, two synthetic strategies for the preparation of multifunctional polymers are presented in which the key element is the functionality of homoserine lactone. First, the synthesis of a bis cyclic coupler based on a thiolactone and homoserine lactone is displayed. This coupler was evaluated regarding its regioselectivity upon reaction with amines and used in the preparation of multifunctional polymeric building blocks by reaction with diamines. Furthermore, a linear polyglycidol was functionalized with homoserine lactone. The resulting polyethers with lactone groups in the side chain were converted to cationic polymers by reaction with 3-(dimethylamino-1-propylamine followed by quaternization with methyl iodide.

  2. CFD for hydrodynamic efficiency and design optimization of key elements of SHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira, Helena M. Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study how the flow behaves in key elements of small hydropower plants (SHP which should be well designed in order to achieve properly the best hydraulic and energy efficiency. There are some hydrodynamic and structural fundaments that all hydro circuits design has to follow, and there are other aspects that vary from design to the flow behavior. The variables that influence the hydro systems design are related with performance, technical, operational and environmental aspects. For instance, design discharge, produced energy, intakes and outlets geometry are some of the technical variables. The components of SHP design should be characterized by a balance between hydraulic, structural, operational and environment efficiency and economic issues. To improve the hydraulic efficiency is necessary information concerning with hydrodynamic flow behavior. The knowledge in this area is still insufficient since the hydrodynamic flow patterns, in some key elements of hydraulic circuits of SHP are quite complex. Therefore this paper uses an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD model for flow simulation, with the aim to improve the behavior comprehension enabling the identification of parameters’ variation which influences the performance efficiency of those components in the design criteria of such SHP. Since the inefficiency and the unsafe operating conditions are normally associated to separated flow zones, vorticity development, macro turbulence intensity, pressure gradients, shear stress increase, this paper intends to analyze causes and consequences of the flow behavior. Among these concerns it is possible to identify induced problems, such as vibrations, resonance effects, ruptures or collapses, cavitation, water column separation, significant friction losses, vortices and regions of reversed flow.

  3. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H. [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Fusion Neutron Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  4. Sevoflurane effects on cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein, and Livin expression in the cortex and hippocampus of a vascular cognitive impairment rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Ling Dan; Xianlin Zhu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuronal necrosis and apoptosis play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia and resulting cognitive impairment. However, inhibition of neuronal necrosis and apoptosis has been shown to attenuate cognitive impairment following cerebral ischemia.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and Livin expression in the cortex and hippocampus of a rat model of vascular cognitive impairment.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled experiment was performed in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology between June 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: Sevoflurane was provided by Abbott Laboratory, UK; Morris water maze was provided by Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China; goat anti-rat CREB, goat anti-rat pCREB and goat anti-rat Livin antibodies were provided by Biosource International, USA.METHODS: A total of 42 female, Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham operation, vascular cognitive impairment, and sevoflurane treatment. The vascular cognitive impairment rat model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, and 1.0 MAC sevoflurane was immediately administered by inhalation for 2 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CREB, pCREB, and Livin expression was measured in the cortex and hippocampus by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Behavior was evaluated with Morris water maze.RESULTS: CREB, pCREB, and Livin expression in the sevoflurane treatment group was significantly greater than the vascular cognitive impairment group (P<0.01). However, expression of CREB and pCREB was significantly less in the sevoflurane treatment and vascular cognitive impairment groups, compared with the sham operation group (P<0.01). Livin expression in the sevoflurane treatment and vascular cognitive impairment groups was significantly greater than the sham

  5. Microglial production of TNF-alpha is a key element of sustained fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqian; Fukushima, Hotaka; Ono, Chiaki; Sakai, Mai; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Gunawansa, Nicole; Takahashi, Yuta; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Kida, Satoshi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine productions in the brain are altered in a process of fear memory formation, indicating a possibility that altered microglial function may contribute to fear memory formation. We aimed to investigate whether and how microglial function contributes to fear memory formation. Expression levels of M1- and M2-type microglial marker molecules in microglia isolated from each conditioned mice group were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but not of other proinflammatory cytokines produced by M1-type microglia, increased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Administration of inhibitors of TNF-α production facilitated extinction of fear memory. On the other hand, expression levels of M2-type microglia-specific cell adhesion molecules, CD206 and CD209, were decreased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Our findings indicate that microglial TNF-α is a key element of sustained fear memory and suggest that TNF-α inhibitors can be candidate molecules for mitigating posttraumatic reactions caused by persistent fear memory.

  6. Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-11-01

    Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

  7. Brain banks as key part of biochemical and molecular studies on cerebral cortex involvement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka; Ferrer, Isidro

    2012-04-01

    Exciting developments in basic and clinical neuroscience and recent progress in the field of Parkinson's disease (PD) are partly a result of the availability of human specimens obtained through brain banks. These banks have optimized the methodological, managerial and organizational procedures; standard operating procedures; and ethical, legal and social issues, including the code of conduct for 21st Century brain banking and novel protocols. The present minireview focuses on current brain banking organization and management, as well as the likely future direction of the brain banking field. We emphasize the potentials and pitfalls when using high-quality specimens of the human central nervous system for advancing PD research. PD is a generalized disease in which α-synuclein is not a unique component but, instead, is only one of the players accounting for the complex impairment of biochemical/molecular processes involved in metabolic pathways. This is particularly important in the cerebral cortex, where altered cognition has a complex neurochemical substrate. Mitochondria and energy metabolism impairment, abnormal RNA, microRNA, protein synthesis, post-translational protein modifications and alterations in the lipid composition of membranes and lipid rafts are part of these complementary factors. We have to be alert to the possible pitfalls of each specimen and its suitability for a particular study. Not all samples qualify for the study of DNA, RNA, proteins, post-translational modifications, lipids and metabolomes, although the use of carefully selected samples and appropriate methods minimizes pitfalls and errors and guarantees high-quality reserach.

  8. THE PAYMENT SERVICES; KEY ELEMENTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROVIDER AND THE USER OF THE PAYMENT SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana Apan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study identifies and develops in an in exhaustive manner the key elements of the relationship between the provider and the user of payment services, which represent serious obligations for the payment service providers. We have also analyzed the perspectives of disputes generated by the payment service users’ non-compliance with the components that are subsequent to each of the key elements developed in the present study. The purposed of the study is towards constituting a Codex for the payment service providers which should constitute a work instrument for both the providers and the consumers.

  9. What are the key elements required for a successful and effective word of mouth tourism marketing campaign? – Case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Piltonen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to further study what are the key elements for successful and effective word of mouth marketing campaign in tourism. The objective was to identify the key elements by analysing a real life case provided for this thesis where a tourism board used word of mouth as part of their marketing campaign to increase awareness of the destination and drive tourism in the destination. The case was analysed with the support of secondary research conducted around the topics of...

  10. ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE – KEY ELEMENTS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TEREC-VLAD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the organizational culture within the business environment. The paper analyzes the ethical criteria of the entrepreneurs and the way they relate to the consumer, as well as the reinforcement of the moral values so that the final result of the economic activity is represented by sustainability and economic profit. We thought it would be important to point out that promoting an ethical firm can ensure the well-needed trust capital in a constantly changing society. In this context, corporate responsibility is a key element that ensures both the sustainability of the company as well as the sustainability of the relations with the business partners. In our view, a strong corporate culture must integrate ethics and responsibility in all its activities, since the focus is often laid on obtaining profit, not on the values ​​that should lead the organization towards success over a long period of time. Since our society provides both positive and negative information regarding any company or organization, the focus should be laid increasingly more on the ethics and responsibility of the human resources in regard to the external environment of the company. We thought it would be appropriate to bring up these issues since the issue of building an organizational culture is at a very early stage in our country, and most entrepreneurs only aim at obtaining short-term profit. The fees and taxes are high and the thick legislation often does not provide alternatives; therefore, one must take into account the fact that the real profit is not represented by the short-term benefits, but rather by the benefits obtained in a constant manner over medium-long periods of time.

  11. Electrolyser and fuel cells, key elements for energy and life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, Klaus; Funke, Helmut; Lucas, Joachim

    Both, Electrolyser and Fuel Cells are key elements for regenerative energy and life support systems. Electrolyser technology is originally intended for oxygen production in manned space habitats and in submarines, through splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells serve for energy production through the reaction, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte, between a fuel and an oxidant. Now combining both technologies i.e. electrolyser and fuel cell makes it a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS). In charge mode, i.e. with energy supplied e.g. by solar cells, the electrolyser splits water into hydrogen and oxygen being stored in tanks. In discharge mode, when power is needed but no energy is available, the stored gases are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under the formation of water that is stored in tanks. Rerouting the water to the electrolyser makes it a closed-loop i.e. regenerative process. Different electrolyser and fuel cell technologies are being evolved. At Astrium emphasis is put on the development of an RFCS comprised of Fixed Alkaline Electrolyser (FAE) and Fuel Cell (AFC) as such technology offers a high electrical efficiency and thus reduced system weight, which is important in space applications. With increasing power demand and increasing discharge time an RFCS proves to be superior to batteries. Since the early technology development multiple design refinements were done at Astrium, funded by the European Space Agency ESA and the German National Agency DLR as well as based on company internal R and T funding. Today a complete RFCS energy system breadboard is established and the operational behavior of the system is being tested. In parallel the electrolyser itself is subject to design refinement and testing in terms of oxygen production in manned space habitats. In addition essential features and components for process monitoring and control are being developed. The present results and achievements and the dedicated

  12. Chemical thermodynamic data. 1. The concept of links to the chemical elements and the historical development of key thermodynamic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolery, Thomas J.; Jové Colón, Carlos F.

    2017-09-01

    Chemical thermodynamic data remain a keystone for geochemical modeling and reactive transport simulation as applied to an increasing number of applications in the earth sciences, as well as applications in other areas including metallurgy, material science, and industrial process design. The last century has seen the development of a large body of thermodynamic data and a number of major compilations. The past several decades have seen the development of thermodynamic databases in digital form designed to support computer calculations. However, problems with thermodynamic data appear to be persistent. One problem pertains to the use of inconsistent primary key reference data. Such data pertain to elemental reference forms and key, stoichiometrically simple chemical species including metal oxides, CO2, water, and aqueous species such as Na+ and Cl-. A consistent set of primary key data (standard Gibbs energies, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies for key chemical species) for 298.15 K and 1 bar pressure is essential. Thermochemical convention is to define the standard Gibbs energy and the standard enthalpy of an individual chemical species in terms of formation from reference forms of the constituent chemical elements. We propose a formal concept of ;links; to the elemental reference forms. This concept involves a documented understanding of all reactions and calculations leading to values for a formation property (standard Gibbs energy or enthalpy). A valid link consists of two parts: (a) the path of reactions and corrections and (b) the associated data, which are key data. Such a link differs from a bare ;key; or ;reference; datum in that it requires additional information. Some or all of its associated data may also be key data. In evaluating a reported thermodynamic datum, one should identify the links to the chemical elements, a process which can be time-consuming and which may lead to a dead end (an incomplete link). The use of two or more inconsistent

  13. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  14. Concentration of key elements in North American meat and bone meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rafael A. [USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Fats, Oils and Animal Coproducts Research Unit, 600 E. Mermaid Lane Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Rosentrater, Kurt A. [USDA-ARS, North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, Integrated Cropping Systems Research Unit, 2923 Medary Avenue, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) and related rendered protein commodities have potential for use in applications other than animal feed, including use as a fuel or a phosphorus fertilizer. In order to develop these applications, data on the elemental composition are required; the currently available elemental composition data have important limitations. To generate more appropriate and reliable data, MBM samples were collected from 17 North American rendering plants, carefully prepared and analyzed for 20 elements. Preliminary studies showed that the sample preparation process artificially increased levels of sulfur and nickel in a manner that was correctable. Concentrations of many elements were found to agree with previously published values, but concentrations of potassium, magnesium and copper were significantly different from the most authoritative reference. Concentrations of heavy metals tested for were low, and arsenic and cadmium were not detected in any sample. Among the elements tested, there were a number of pairs of elements whose concentration was correlated with high significance, which in some cases was due to the varying proportions of soft tissue and bone in the MBM. The data presented should allow the development of non-feed applications for MBM to proceed with increased confidence. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise by postural orientation movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinenko Y.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Examine the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise (difficult to coordinate. The method of postural orientation movements. Material : The study involved acrobats jumpers on the path of high qualification (n = 7. The method used video - computer recording the movements of the athlete. Results : Identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck. Exercise performed after rondat and double back flip and stretch after rondat - flick (coup ago. In the preparatory phase of motor actions acrobatic exercises isolated and studied central element of sports equipment - starting posture of the body; in the phase of the main motor action - animation poses of the body; in the final phase - the final body posture (stable landing. Conclusions : The method of video - computer registration allowed to perform a biomechanical analysis and evaluation of key elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and a double back flip and stretch. Also gain new knowledge about the mechanism of the phase structure of movements when performing double somersaults.

  16. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  17. The Investment Policy Key Element for the Development and Integration of Romania Into the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina VIRLANUTA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents some elements for evaluation of the level of certain macroeconomic indices for Romania in the last years, and more precisely the index for inflation, the deficit of the current account, the GPD structure, with the aim of identifying certain efficient policies and strategies in order to ensure the continuity of the country’s economic development. The charts show the way inwhich the annual inflation has evolved, the annual deficit of the current account and foreign investments in Romania. Last years’ governmental policies for macrostabilization and economic growth are identified, and we propose to go on with allocating investment funds, especially in infrastructure.

  18. Binding of transcription factors to Presenilin 1 and 2 promoter cis-acting elements varies during the development of mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Thakur, M K

    2016-08-15

    Previously, we reported differential expression of Presenilin (PS)1 and 2 and epigenetic modifications of their gene promoter in the cerebral cortex of mice during development. We identified the crucial role of DNA methylation and H3K9/14 acetylation in stage specific PS expression during brain development. Interestingly, we noted differential DNA methylation in putative binding sites of transcription factors considered pivotal for brain development. This prompted us to study the binding of transcription factors to cis-acting elements of PS1 and PS2 promoter in the cerebral cortex of mice during development. In-silico analysis revealed various cis-acting elements of PS1 and PS2 promoter and their putative transcription factors. We selected those cis-acting elements that were proven by wet lab experiments to interact with the transcription factors crucial for brain development. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the binding of nuclear proteins to PS1 promoter cis-acting elements like HSF-1, Cdx1, Ets-1 and Sp1 significantly increased at embryonic day (E) 12.5, postnatal day (P) 45 and 20 weeks (w) as compared to P0. The binding pattern of these factors correlated well with the PS1 expression profile, indicating their cumulative influence on PS1 gene transcription. For PS2 promoter, the binding of Nkx2.2 and HFH-2 was high at prenatal stages (E12.5 and E18.5) while that of Cdx1 and NF-κB was maximum at postnatal stages (P45 and 20w). Taken together, our study shows that the binding of HSF-1, Cdx1, Ets-1 and Sp1 to PS1 promoter and that of Nkx2.2, HFH-2, Cdx1 and NF-κB to PS2 promoter regulate their differential expression during brain development.

  19. The Quality of Colonoscopy Reporting in Usual Practice: Are Endoscopists Reporting Key Data Elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hadlock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High quality reporting of endoscopic procedures is critical to the implementation of colonoscopy quality assurance programs. Objective. The aim of our research was to (1 determine the quality of colonoscopy (CS reporting in “usual practice,” (2 identify factors associated with good quality reporting, and (3 compare CS reporting in open-access and non-open-access procedures. Methods. 557 CS reports were randomly selected and assigned a score based on the number of mandatory data elements included in the report. Reports documenting greater than 70% of the mandatory data elements were considered to be of good quality. Physician and procedure factors associated with good quality CS reporting were identified. Results. Variables that were consistently well documented included date of the procedure (99.6%, procedure indication (88.9%, a description of the most proximal anatomical segment reached (98.6%, and documentation of polyp location (97.8%. Approximately 79.4% of the reports were considered to be of good quality. Gastroenterology specialty, lower annual CS volume, and fewer years in practice were associated with good quality reporting. Discussion. CS reporting in usual practice in Ontario lacks quality in several areas. Almost 1 in 5 reports was of poor quality in our study. Conclusions. Targeted interventions and/or use of mandatory fields in synoptic reports should be considered to improve CS reporting.

  20. Online tutoring procedure for research project supervision: management, organization and key elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Darder Mesquida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research project tutoring appears as a crucial element for teaching; it is a planned action based on the relationship between a tutor and a student. This paper presents the findings of a design and development research which has as its main aim to create an organization system for the tutoring of online research projects. That system seeks to facilitate the tutoring and supervision task with trainee researchers, providing guidance for its management and instruments for its implementation. The main conclusions arising from this research derive from considering the need to offer a solution to the problem of distance research project supervision and has materialized in organization and sequencing through a model about the variables that influence the research project tutoring problem.

  1. Using the false memory paradigm to test two key elements of alcohol expectancy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Richard R; Goldman, Mark S; Noll, Jane A

    2004-05-01

    Two key aspects of alcohol expectancy theory--(a) that memories about alcohol effects are stored as relatively cohesive templates of information and (b) that these templates are automatically activated in alcohol-related contexts--were tested using the Deese-Roediger- McDermott false memory paradigm. Alcohol expectancy adjectives were studied, and false memory for expectancy target words was tested in neutral and alcohol contexts. Results indicated that in the alcohol context heavier drinkers showed more false memory for alcohol expectancy words than they did in a neutral context. Differences were not found for lighter drinkers. These results were consistent with alcohol expectancy theory, which was then compared with various forms of association theory in explaining these results and larger issues in the addiction field. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  2. Electron beam test of key elements of the laser-based calibration system for the muon $g$ $-$ $2$ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasi, A; Bedeschi, F; Bartolini, M; Cantatore, G; Cauz, D; Corradi, G; Dabagov, S; DI Sciascio, G; Di Stefano, R; Driutti, A; Escalante, O; Ferrari, C; Fienberg, A T; Fioretti, A; Gabbanini, C; Gioiosa, A; Hampai, D; Hertzog, D W; Iacovacci, M; Karuza, M; Kaspar, J; Liedl, A; Luisiani, A; Marignetti, F; Mastroianni, S; Moricciani, D; Pauletta, G; Piacentino, G M; Raha, N; Rossi, E; Santi, L; Venanzoni, G

    2016-01-01

    We report the test of many of the key elements of the laser-based calibration system for muon g - 2 experiment E989 at Fermilab. The test was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati's Beam Test Facility using a 450 MeV electron beam impinging on a small subset of the final g - 2 lead-fluoride crystal calorimeter system. The calibration system was configured as planned for the E989 experiment and uses the same type of laser and most of the final optical elements. We show results regarding the calorimeter's response calibration, the maximum equivalent electron energy which can be provided by the laser and the stability of the calibration system components.

  3. Electron beam test of key elements of the laser-based calibration system for the muon g - 2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasi, A.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bartolini, M.; Cantatore, G.; Cauz, D.; Corradi, G.; Dabagov, S.; Di Sciascio, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Driutti, A.; Escalante, O.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gioiosa, A.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Liedl, A.; Lusiani, A.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Piacentino, G. M.; Raha, N.; Rossi, E.; Santi, L.; Venanzoni, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report the test of many of the key elements of the laser-based calibration system for muon g - 2 experiment E989 at Fermilab. The test was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati's Beam Test Facility using a 450 MeV electron beam impinging on a small subset of the final g - 2 lead-fluoride crystal calorimeter system. The calibration system was configured as planned for the E989 experiment and uses the same type of laser and most of the final optical elements. We show results regarding the calorimeter's response calibration, the maximum equivalent electron energy which can be provided by the laser and the stability of the calibration system components.

  4. The Laser Scan Data as a Key Element in the Hydraulic Flood Modelling in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, A.; Giosa, L.; Albano, R.; Cantisani, A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper is intended to highlight the need to use data at high spatial resolution, such as those obtained through the use of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) techniques, to support hydraulic models for the assessment of flood hazards in urban territory. In fact, the significant structural features (houses, walls, roads, etc.) in the city are important in relation to both the volume of the floodplain that can be occupied by the flow and the direction that the flow takes across the floodplain. ALS data can range up to several terabytes in size and is a function of the geographic scale of the mission. Also, this data is typically irregular with uneven point density. Therefore, a quick method is described to ride out the difficulties to handle the large datasets with uneven point densities and to improve the extracting of feature information for further use in Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis. Finally, a comparison is made between the maximum inundated area obtained from ALS data and that one calculated using a traditional topographic map. The results show that the high-resolution data obtained from airborne remote sensing can increase the opportunities for representation of small-scale structural elements in complex systems using two-dimensional models of flood inundation.

  5. HIGHLY QUALIFIED WORKING FORCE – KEY ELEMENT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avksientiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly qualified working force is a central element of intensive development model in modern society. The article surveys the experience of countries that managed to transform their economy to the innovative one. Ukrainian economy cannot stand aside processes that dominate the world economy trends, thus we are to use this experience to succeed in future. Today any government of the world is facing challenges that occur due to transformation of the economy into informational one. This type of economy causes its transformation form extensive to intensive one. The main reasons under that is limitation of nature resources, material factors of production. Thus this approach depends much on the quality of working force. Unfortunately in Ukraine there is a misbalance in specialist preparation. This puts additional pressure on the educational sphere also. In order to avoid this pressure we are to conduct reforms in education sphere. Nowadays, in the world views and concepts of governmental role in the social development are changing. This why, even at times of economic recession educational costs are not reduced under the new economical doctrine in the EU. Highly qualified specialists, while creating new products and services play role of engineers in XXI century. They are to lead their industries to world leading positions. From economic point of view, highly qualified specialists benefit society with higher income rates, taxation and thus, increasing the living standards in society. Thus, the majority if modern scientists prove the importance of highly trained working force for more effective economic development.

  6. Projections of specialist physicians in Mexico: a key element in planning human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Muños, José Alberto

    2015-09-22

    Projections are considered a useful tool in the planning of human resources for health. In Mexico, the supply and demand of specialist doctors are clearly disconnected, and decisions must be made to reduce labour market imbalances. Thus, it is critical to produce reliable projections to assess future interactions between supply and demand. Using a service demand approach, projections of the number of specialist physicians required by the three main public institutions were calculated using the following variables: a) recent recruitment of specialists, b) physician productivity and c) retirement rates. Two types of scenarios were produced: an inertial one with no changes made to current production levels and an alternative scenario adjusted by recommended productivity levels. Results show that institutions must address productivity as a major policy element to act upon in future contracting of specialist physicians. The projections that adjusted for productivity suggest that the hiring trends for surgeons and internists should be maintained or increased to compensate for the increase in demand for services. In contrast, due to the decline in demand for obstetric and paediatric services, the hiring of new obstetrician-gynaecologists and paediatricians should be reduced to align with future demand.

  7. Iron: A Key Element for Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of the interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust, since searches for dust in SN~Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65% of the iron is injected into the ISM in gaseous form. Yet, ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90% of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only elemen...

  8. [Finite Element Analysis of Effect of Key Dimension of Nitinol Stent on Its Fatigue Behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Shengzhang

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the fatigue behavior of nitinol stents, we used the finite element method to simulate the manufacture processes of nitinol stents, including expanding, annealing, crimping, and releasing procedure in applications of the clinical treatments. Meanwhile, we also studied the effect of the crown area dimension of stent on strain distribution. We then applied a fatigue diagram to investigate the fatigue characteristics of nitinol stents. The results showed that the maximum strain of all three stent structures, which had different crown area dimensions under vessel loads, located at the transition area between the crown and the strut, but comparable deformation appeared at the inner side of the crown area center. The cause, of these results was that the difference of the area moment of inertia determined by the crown dimension induced the difference of strain distribution in stent structure. Moreover, it can be drawn from the fatigue diagrams that the fatigue performance got the best result when the crown area dimension equaled to the intermediate value. The above results proved that the fatigue property of nitinol stent had a close relationship with the dimension of stent crown area, but there was no positive correlation.

  9. Body area network--a key infrastructure element for patient-centered telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgall, Thomas; Schmidt, Robert; von der Grün, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Body Area Network (BAN) extends the range of existing wireless network technologies by an ultra-low range, ultra-low power network solution optimised for long-term or continuous healthcare applications. It enables wireless radio communication between several miniaturised, intelligent Body Sensor (or actor) Units (BSU) and a single Body Central Unit (BCU) worn at the human body. A separate wireless transmission link from the BCU to a network access point--using different technology--provides for online access to BAN components via usual network infrastructure. The BAN network protocol maintains dynamic ad-hoc network configuration scenarios and co-existence of multiple networks.BAN is expected to become a basic infrastructure element for electronic health services: By integrating patient-attached sensors and mobile actor units, distributed information and data processing systems, the range of medical workflow can be extended to include applications like wireless multi-parameter patient monitoring and therapy support. Beyond clinical use and professional disease management environments, private personal health assistance scenarios (without financial reimbursement by health agencies / insurance companies) enable a wide range of applications and services in future pervasive computing and networking environments.

  10. [Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided.

  11. Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N; Cunningham, Ross B; Endler, John A; Langmore, Naomi E

    2017-06-01

    All human societies have music with a rhythmic "beat," typically produced with percussive instruments such as drums. The set of capacities that allows humans to produce and perceive music appears to be deeply rooted in human biology, but an understanding of its evolutionary origins requires cross-taxa comparisons. We show that drumming by palm cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus) shares the key rudiments of human instrumental music, including manufacture of a sound tool, performance in a consistent context, regular beat production, repeated components, and individual styles. Over 131 drumming sequences produced by 18 males, the beats occurred at nonrandom, regular intervals, yet individual males differed significantly in the shape parameters describing the distribution of their beat patterns, indicating individual drumming styles. Autocorrelation analyses of the longest drumming sequences further showed that they were highly regular and predictable like human music. These discoveries provide a rare comparative perspective on the evolution of rhythmicity and instrumental music in our own species, and show that a preference for a regular beat can have other origins before being co-opted into group-based music and dance.

  12. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  13. Key Elements of the User-Friendly, GFDL SKYHI General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Hemler

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past seven years, the portability of the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model has greatly increased. Modifications to the source code have allowed SKYHI to be run on the GFDL Cray Research PVP machines, the TMC CM-5 machine at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and more recently on the GFDL 40-processor Cray Research T3E system. At the same time, changes have been made to the model to make it more usable and flexible. Because of the reduction of the human resources available to manage and analyze scientific experiments, it is no longer acceptable to consider only the optimization of computer resources when producing a research code; one must also consider the availability and cost of the people necessary to maintain, modify and use the model as an investigative tool, and include these factors in defining the form of the model code. The new SKYHI model attempts to strike a balance between the optimization of the use of machine resources (CPU time, memory, disc and the optimal use of human resources (ability to understand code, ability to modify code, ability to perturb code to do experiments, ability to run code on different platforms. Two of the key features that make the new SKYHI code more usable and flexible are the archiving package and the user variable block. The archiving package is used to manage the writing of all archive files, which contain data for later analysis. The model-supplied user variable block allows the easy inclusion of any new variables needed for particular experiments.

  14. Geodiversity, biodiversity and landscape - key elements in modern nature management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstad, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Nature consists of a diversity of systems of both abiotic and biotic character interlinked with each other. Often geodiversity provides fundamental elements for biodiversity in forming major ecosystem attributes. Bedrock geology and sediments contribute to nutrient and substrate conditions and terrain to drainage and moisture differences. But we also find the opposite relation, for example in formation of biogenetic sediments. Truly we are talking of nature diversity consisting of biodiversity and geodiversity in a variety of blends. This close scientific relationship should also be reflected in nature conservation practices to the benefit of both geodiversity and biodiversity. But as biodiversity has dominated the nature conservation debate for the last decades, geodiversity has had a tendency to be overlooked. This is unfortunate both for the sake of biodiversity as major parts of ecosystems that is not treated properly and geodiversity that does not get the recognition it deserves. Nature diversity can be described in a range of scale from the very small to the very great. A lot of management attention is put on a fairly detailed scale such as species (protection of species, red-listing of species etc.). The well-established imperative to look at different scales (from genes via species to ecosystems) is often too complicated for many management systems. The same can be the case in geoconservation were the focus on geosites (for scientific purposes) may favour the same detailed scale approach. On these scales the relation between geo- and biodiversity is easier to overlook. These detailed conservation efforts are sensible and necessary, but need to be supplemented by supplementary strategies that covers other scales. Exploring the relation between geodiversity and biodiversity makes the understanding and integration of geoconservation within nature management easier especially on a landscape scale. The landscapes have the potential to supplement the detailed

  15. Deepwater turbidite system analysis : From outcrops studies to basin scale depositional elements. Key learnings for reservoir occurence and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarre, J.-C.; Dattilo, P.; Crumeyrolle, P.

    2012-04-01

    Decisions on exploration and production in the deepwater domain rely mostly on seismic data (2D or 3D) with limited amount of well geological data. This limited information has to be supplemented by models derived from analogues at different scales, in order to derisk the reservoir presence and infer the reservoir architecture within a larger stratigraphic framework from shelf to deep basin. The fundamental outcrop analysis carried in the 70's and the 80's contributed to identify and characterize the main deep water depositional elements. Outcrop observations are the best way to appraise the architectural and faciological complexity of the subsurface depositional systems within their stratigraphic framework. The lessons learned in the Earth surface provide the key to the subsurface data understanding: core analysis, well-logs correlations and detailed 3D seismic interpretations. Subsurface data is in turn bringing key insights on large scale depositional system; 3D geometry and sediment nature of the depositional elements and processes. Research derived from 3D seismic subsurface data interpretations with tentative continuity between shelf to basin improved the understanding of shelf to deep basin sediment transfer mechanisms. In particular, it has been accompanied by a renewal of interest in the processes associated with hyperpycnal flows in the various deepwater settings. Outcrop and Subsurface integration appears as a powerful tool to characterize and predict reservoir occurence. A seismic based approach on the recognition of depositional elements defined at different scales honoring the stratigraphical architecture of turbidites deposits is systematically applied in our evaluations at a similar scale than the elementary depositional sequences recognized by Mutti (1994). Despite common depositional processes, a large diversity of systems and geobodies will be illustrated from regional scale to reservoir scale from a worldwide portfolio of assets in turbidite

  16. New Evidences of Key Factors Involved in "Silent Stones" Etiopathogenesis and Trace Elements: Microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Biochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalu, Simona; Popa, Adriana; Bratu, Ioan; Borodi, Gheorghe; Maghiar, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The knowledge of the key factors involved in etiopathogenesis of the gallstone disease requires chemical, structural, and elemental composition analysis. The application of different complementary analytical techniques, both microscopic and spectroscopic, are aimed to provide a more comprehensive determination of the gallbladder calculi ultrastructure and trace element identification. High sensitivity techniques such as electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with biochemical analysis are used in a new attempt to investigate various factors which play a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of gallstones. The microstructure of different types of gallbladder stones has specific characteristics which are related to the elemental composition. The binding of metal ions with bile salts and bilirubin plays important roles in gallstone formation as revealed by FTIR spectrum of calcium bilirubinate complex in pigment gallstones. The EPR results demonstrated the generation of bilirubin free radicals and variation of its electronic structure and conjugation system in the skeleton of bilirubin molecule during complex formation. EPR spectra of pigment gallstones demonstrate the coexistence of four paramagnetic centers including stable bilirubin free radical, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ with distinct magnetic parameters and well-resolved hyperfine structure in the case of Mn2+ ions. The result confirms a macromolecular network structure with proteins and the formation of bilirubin-coordinated polymer. Bilirubin and bilirubinate free radical complexes may play an important role in pigment gallstone formation.

  17. [Scale of organizational learning in schools. Organizational learning is a key element for the development of organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Ahumada, Luis; Olivares, Rodrigo; González, Alvaro

    2012-05-01

    Organizational learning is a key element for the development of organizations. School organizations are not exempt from this challenge and they currently face a highly dynamic and demanding context of education policies that emphasize the school's ability to learn. Thus, research on organizational learning in educational contexts requires valid instruments that are sensitive to the specifics of schools as organizations. In this study, we adapted and validated a scale of organizational learning in a sample of 119 Chilean municipal schools (N= 1,545). The results suggest a structural model made up of three factors: culture of learning, strategic clarity, and group learning. These factors predicted dimensions of educational achievement, as measured through the National Assessment System of Educational Achievement (SNED). Results are discussed in view of the literature on school improvement.

  18. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  19. KEY ELEMENTS OF HEURISTIC METHODS USAGE IN FOREIGN THEORY OF EDUCATION (ON THE BASIS OF GREAT BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify key elements of employing heuristic teaching methods in foreign theory of education. Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the issues of teaching creativity. Results: on the basis of theoretical analysis the main criteria of heuristic teaching methods are revealed: repeatability; absence of a single decision; need for group discussions; flexibility; wide variability; promotion of creative teaching; influence on the character of knowledge and relationships between the teacher and the students. Heuristic teaching methods have been divided into: methods of working with information, methods of working with problems, methods of research and methods of analyzing the decisions. The main characteristics of each group of methods are presented and certain recommendations for applying them in teaching creativity are given. Practical implications: the system of education.

  20. Comprehensive automation and monitoring of MV grids as the key element of improvement of energy supply reliability and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Kubacki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of comprehensive automation and monitoring of medium voltage (MV grids as a key element of the Smart Grid concept. The existing condition of MV grid control and monitoring is discussed, and the concept of a solution which will provide the possibility of remote automatic grid reconfiguration and ensure full grid observability from the dispatching system level is introduced. Automation of MV grid switching is discussed in detail to isolate a faulty line section and supply electricity at the time of the failure to the largest possible number of recipients. An example of such automation controls’ operation is also presented. The paper’s second part presents the key role of the quick fault location function and the possibility of the MV grid’s remote reconfiguration for improving power supply reliability (SAIDI and SAIFI indices. It is also shown how an increase in the number of points fitted with faulted circuit indicators with the option of remote control of switches from the dispatch system in MV grids may affect reduction of SAIDI and SAIFI indices across ENERGA-OPERATOR SA divisions.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE KRASNODAR REGION AS A KEY ELEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Official statistics and information as well as the results of the modern researches in the field of finances and budgetary process were used in the given article. The aspects of forming the budget system as a key element of regional financial system were singled out. We examined the institutional peculiarities and modern tendencies of the development of budget system of the Krasnodar Region between 2009 and 2013. There are some positive characteristics: relative diversification of sources of tax yields, high diversification of portfolio of debentures, low level of interest payment for debt service, balanced system of debit. Some negative aspects were revealed: significant deterioration of balance sheet figures, reduction of self-financing ratio for the given period, high budget deficit, gap between the dynamics of small enterprises development and the budget expenditures size for support of small and medium-sized businesses. Taking into account that along with the Russian economy, the economy of the Krasnodar Region slows down, there will hardly be a significant rise of tax revenue to the budget system of the region. That’s why, modernization of the budget system of the region must be connected with the development of the financial management quality at all the levels of budget system: target and effective flow of funds for the social sphere, fight against shadow economy, increase of return for the use of property such as privatization, optimization and effectiveness of budget expenditures

  2. Fracture reduction with positive medial cortical support: a key element in stability reconstruction for the unstable pertrochanteric hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Min; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Ma, Zhuo; Li, Qing; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer

    2015-06-01

    To introduce the concept of fracture reduction with positive medial cortical support and its clinical and radiological correlation in geriatric unstable pertrochanteric fractures. A retrospective analysis of 127 patients (32 men and 95 women, with mean age 78.7 years) with AO/OTA 31A2.2 and 2.3 hip fractures treated with cephalomedullary nail (PFNA-II or Gamma-3) between July 2010 and June 2013 was performed. They were classified into three groups according the grade of medial cortical support in postoperative fracture reduction (positive, neutral, and negative). The positive cortex support was defined that the medial cortex of the head-neck fragment displaced and located a little bit superomedially to the medial cortex of the shaft. If the neck cortex is located laterally to the shaft, it is negative with no cortical buttress, and if the two cortices contact smoothly, it is in neutral position. The demographic baseline, postoperative radiographic femoral neck-shaft angle and neck length, rehabilitation progress and functional recovery scores of each group were recorded and compared. There were 89 cases (70 %) in positive, 26 in neutral, and 12 in negative support. No statistical differences were found between the three groups among patient age, sex ratio, prefracture score of activity of daily living, walking ability score, ASA physical risk score, number of medical comorbidities, osteoporosis Singh index, fracture reduction quality (Garden alignments), and the position of lag screw or helical blade in femoral head (TAD). In follow-up, patients in positive medial cortical support reduction group had the least loss in neck-shaft angle and neck length, and got ground-walking much earlier than negative reduction group, with good functional outcomes and less hip-thigh pain presence. Fracture reduction with nonanatomic positive medial cortical support allows limited sliding of the head-neck fragment to contact with the femur shaft and achieve secondary stability

  3. Structural design of Key Element Market in Hefei%合肥要素大市场结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王必刚; 王启文; 何晓雪; 黄建羽; 胡凯

    2011-01-01

    Key Element Market in Hefei ia a complicated high-rise building with several features, such as big holes in plane and elevation, long span and large cantilever components, cantilever length increasing layer upon layer.Several performance indexes of the structure have exceed the limit of the code.Suitable seismic performance target was set, calculation analysis was done with seismic performance design method, and strengthening measures were applied based on analysis results.Analysis results show that the structure performance can meet seismic performance target.Several plans were studied on the structure for its complexity of increasing cantilever length layer upon layer, connected tower and superlong dimension.Comparative analysis shows that the plan applied on the structure is feasible, safe and suitable.%合肥要素大市场建筑平面开洞较多,立面开大洞并层叠出挑,多处存在大跨度及长悬挑结构.结构多项指标超限,为多重复杂高层建筑.通过设定适用于本工程的性能目标,采用基于性能的设计方法对结构进行了计算分析,采取了有针对性的抗震加强措施.分析结果表明,工程能满足"小震不坏,中震可修,大震不倒"的抗震设防目标.此外,针对工程的特殊性,对层叠出挑结构、连体结构和超长结构亦进行了详细分析和多方案比较,分析结果表明工程结构设计是安全可行的.

  4. Physiological observations validate finite element models for estimating subject-specific electric field distributions induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Legon, Wynn; Rowlands, Abby; Bickel, Warren K; Paulus, Walter; Tyler, William J

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates subject-specific gyral folding patterns and white matter anisotropy uniquely shape electric fields generated by TMS. Current methods for predicting the brain regions influenced by TMS involve projecting the TMS coil position or center of gravity onto realistic head models derived from structural and functional imaging data. Similarly, spherical models have been used to estimate electric field distributions generated by TMS pulses delivered from a particular coil location and position. In the present paper we inspect differences between electric field computations estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and projection-based approaches described above. We then more specifically examined an approach for estimating cortical excitation volumes based on individualistic FEM simulations of electric fields. We evaluated this approach by performing neurophysiological recordings during MR-navigated motormapping experiments. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to single pulse TMS using two different coil orientations (45° and 90° to midline) at 25 different locations (5×5 grid, 1cm spacing) centered on the hotspot of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in left motor cortex. We observed that motor excitability maps varied within and between subjects as a function of TMS coil position and orientation. For each coil position and orientation tested, simulations of the TMS-induced electric field were computed using individualistic FEM models and compared to MEP amplitudes obtained during our motormapping experiments. We found FEM simulations of electric field strength, which take into account subject-specific gyral geometry and tissue conductivity anisotropy, significantly correlated with physiologically observed MEP amplitudes (rmax=0.91, p=1.8×10(-5) rmean=0.81, p=0.01). These observations validate the implementation of individualistic FEM models to account for variations in gyral folding patterns and tissue

  5. Trains of transcranial direct current stimulation antagonize motor cortex hypoexcitability induced by acute hemicerebellectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taib, Nordeyn Oulad; Manto, Mario

    2009-10-01

    The cerebellum is a key modulator of motor cortex activity, allowing both the maintenance and fine-tuning of motor cortex discharges. One elemental defect associated with acute cerebellar lesions is decreased excitability of the contralateral motor cortex, which is assumed to participate in deficits in skilled movements and considered a major defect in motor cortex properties. In the present study, the authors assessed the effect of trains of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which elicits polarity-dependent shifts in resting membrane potentials. Transcranial DCS countered the defect in motor cortex excitability contralaterally to the hemicerebellar ablation. The depression of both the H-reflex and F wave remained unchanged with tDCS, and cutaneomuscular reflexes remained unaffected. Transcranial DCS antagonized motor cortex hypoexcitability induced by high-frequency stimulation of interpositus nucleus. The authors' results show that tDCS has the potential to modulate motor cortex excitability after acute cerebellar dysfunction. By putting the motor cortex at the appropriate level of excitability, tDCS might allow the motor cortex to become more reactive to the procedures of training or learning.

  6. Abnormal retinoid and TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex in mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Ji; Fang, Hui; Swaab, Dick F; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex shows structural and functional alterations in mood disorders. Retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrkB are reported to be involved in depression. Here, we found that mRNA levels of key elements of retinoid signaling were significantly

  7. Key elements to successful rapid prototyping and building of a Michelson interferometer for space-based sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Merritt; Cordray, David; Cronin, Shaun; Walker, Gary

    2004-02-01

    The Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is one of the sensors now under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) program. In order to reduce program risk and verify instrument performance rapid prototyping of the sensor and critical subsystems has been utilized. Key among these was a prototype instrument and a prototype interferometer. This prototype instrument is referred to as the EDU1 (Engineering Development Unit). A second effort was the build of a prototype interferometer as a part of an internal ITT effort. This was an uncompensated version of the CrIS interferometer. This was referred to as the Aluminum Prototype Interferometer. The idea was to move rapidly to hardware while exploring new technologies. This was built in 4 months. There were key success factors for both efforts. A set of clear cardinal requirements was established. The layout and the cardinal requirements therefore provided a conceptual overview and a basis for deriving lower level requirements. These requirements remained basically unchanged throughout the effort. Vendors were closely worked with but; key to this was the GD&T dimensions and datum"s that were established. These enabled sub systems to be independently produced and "snapped together" to produce a final assembly in a minimum time. Essentially many of the critical optical alignments were built in to the individual parts so the subsequent shiming was not required. Electronics to control the porchswing and Dynamic Alignment Mechanism were developed in existing servo control test beds and designed to be FPGA based. This allowed a high degree of flexibility. Success was also based on continuity of the key engineering leadership and effective communications between the team and a clear understanding of the technical issues by the engineering leadership team.

  8. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CREATION OF A EUROPEAN BANKING UNION – A KEY ELEMENT IN REINFORCING THE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Antoaneta RĂDOI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of setting up a European Banking Union, an essential element in the reinforcement of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, has become a concrete project and it has been outlined as such after the financial crisis started in 2007. The setting up of a Banking Union is a new project for the European Union and it comes as an answer to the financial crisis; this project has three major components: the Unique Mechanism of Surveillance (UMS, the Unique Mechanism of Resolution (UMR and the European Deposit Guarantee Schemes. At the basis of these infrastructure elements there laid: the Single Rulebook”, the unique European regulation framework (made up of the capital requirements: “CDR/CRR IV – CRD IV Directive” and “Regulation regarding capital requirements” provided together with the standards and directions issued by the European Banking Authority “ABE” and a set of rules established for state subsidies. The large flow of important information which exists in the matter makes it necessary for us to deal with this topic in a consistent and complex argumentation.

  10. FISCAL CULTURE - AS KEY ELEMENTS OF ENSURING TAX COMPLIANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (BASED ON THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax avoidance and tax evasion have considerably consumed the ink and papers of academic research because taxation is an issue that has been relevant in the last 6000 years of human history and will continue to be relevant in the future. Questions about tax compliance are as old as taxes themselves and will remain an area of discovery as long as taxes exist. To understand the impact of a tax system, it is important to know who complies with the tax law as well as who does not. In this paper I discuss several key factors that seem to be important for understanding tax compliance in Republic of Moldova: factors of tax evasion and avoidance, consequences and methods for ensuring tax compliance.

  11. DOC Affinity as a Key Parameter for Explaining the Transport Patterns of U, Th and Other Elements in the Boreal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, F.; Köhler, S.; Björkvald, L.; Mörth, M.; Laudon, H.

    2009-04-01

    used to estimate the percentage of each element bound to DOC in these waters and this shows a strong correlation to how elements are affected by wetlands/lakes in the catchments. Experiments, e.g. using flow field-flow fractionation, in the Krycklan Catchment have demonstrated that DOC is important for many elements in the transport from soils to streams, and as it appears these processes will also have an impact on the catchment scale. The general picture is that the variation between sub-catchments is small for elements that do not bind strongly to DOC, while there is a considerable and systematic variation for elements with a high DOC affinity. This suggests that DOC affinity is a key parameter for understanding the fate and transport patters for elements in the boreal region. The results could also be used to predict the long-term fate of artificial elements from nuclear waste such as neptunium, plutonium or americium, since it relates fundamental biogeochemical processes to patterns on the catchment scale.

  12. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  13. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan.

  14. Bombyx mori P-element Somatic Inhibitor (BmPSI) Is a Key Auxiliary Factor for Silkworm Male Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Zeng, Baosheng; James, Anthony A.; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear. In the current study, we exploite the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a comprehensive set of knockout mutations in genes BmSxl, Bmtra2, BmImp, BmImpM, BmPSI and BmMasc, to investigate their roles in silkworm sex determination. Absence of Bmtra2 results in the complete depletion of Bmdsx transcripts, which is the conserved downstream factor in the sex determination pathway, and induces embryonic lethality. Loss of BmImp or BmImpM function does not affect the sexual differentiation. Mutations in BmPSI and BmMasc genes affect the splicing of Bmdsx and the female reproductive apparatus appeared in the male external genital. Intriguingly, we identify that BmPSI regulates expression of BmMasc, BmImpM and Bmdsx, supporting the conclusion that it acts as a key auxiliary factor in silkworm male sex determination. PMID:28103247

  15. Abbreviated Report of the WHO Western Pacific Region Workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition:Key Elements for Success ,Constraints and Future plans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E-SIONGTEE

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition:Constraints,Key Elements for Sucess,and Futrue Plans was convened and organized by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific in collaboration with the Institute for Medical Research Malasysia and Co-Sponsored with FAO and UNICEF from 25-29 October 1999,It was attended by representatives of 25 coutries in the region and resource persons,representatives form WHO and other international agencies,The objectives of the workshop were to review the progress of countries in developing,implementing and monitoring national plans of action for nutrition(NPANs) in the Western Pacific Region and to identify constraints and key elements of success in these efforts.Most of the countries have NPANs,either approved and implemented or awaiting official endorsement.The Plan formulation is usually multisectoral,involving several government ministries.non-governmental organizations,and international agencies,Ofter official adoption or endorsement of the Plan comes from the head of state and cabinet or the minister of health,one to six years from the stat of its formulation,The NPAn has stiumlated support for the development and implementation of nutrition projects and activities,with comparatively greater involvement of and more support from government ministries,NU agencies and non-governmental a gencies compared to local communities,bilateral and private sectors and research and academic institutions.Monitoring and evaluation are importand components of NPANs.They are,however,not given high priority and often not bulit into the plan.The role of an intersectoral coordinating body is considered crucial to a coutry's nutrition program.Most countries have an intersectoral structure or coordinating body to ensure the proper impleentation,monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs.The workshop identified the constraints and key elements of success in each of the four stages of the NPAN process

  16. Abbreviated Report of the WHO Western Pacific Region Workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition: Key Elements for Success, Constraints and Future Plans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition:Constraints, Key Elements for Success, and Future Plans was convened and organized by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific in collaboration with the Institute for Medical Research Malaysia and co-sponsored with FAO and UNICEF from 25—29 October 1999. It was attended by representatives of 25 countries in the region and resource persons, representatives from WHO and other international agencies. The objectives of the workshop were to review the progress of countries in developing, implementing and monitoring national plans of action for nutrition (NPANs) in the Western Pacific Region and to identify constraints and key elements of success in these efforts. Most of the countries have NPANs, either approved and implemented or awaiting official endorsement. The Plan formulation is usually multisectoral, involving several government ministries, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies. Often official adoption or endorsement of the Plan comes from the head of state and cabinet or the minister of health, one to six years from the start of its formulation. The NPAN has stimulated support for the development and implementation of nutrition projects and activities, with comparatively greater involvement of and more support from government ministries, UN agencies and non-governmental agencies compared to local communities, bilateral and private sectors and research and academic institutions. Monitoring and evaluation are important components of NPANs. They are, however, not given high priority and often not built into the plan. The role of an intersectoral coordinating body is considered crucial to a country's nutrition program. Most countries have an intersectoral structure or coordinating body to ensure the proper implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs.

  17. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ye, E-mail: yuanye_19840915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chen, Chuan, E-mail: echo110244@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liang, Bin, E-mail: liangbin1214@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Huang, Cong, E-mail: hengyue5257@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhao, Youkang, E-mail: zhaoyoukang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Xu, Xijun, E-mail: xuxijun3220@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Tan, Wenbo, E-mail: tanwenbo1@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhou, Xu, E-mail: x.zhou@awmc.uq.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Shuang, E-mail: localinna.1990@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhi@bjfu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, DuuJong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); and others

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The system achieved simultaneous removal of 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen. • The HRTs and reflux ratios were key parameters for performance and S{sup 0} recovery. • 60% S{sup 0} reclaimed from effluent, 30% deposited in reactor S{sup 0} (S{sup 0} production ≈ 90%). • Characteristics of bio-S{sup 0} were targeted to acquire high-rate S{sup 0} recovery. • Microbial community succession and function were discussed at different stage. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A and H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S{sup 2−}-S/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A and H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S{sup 0} recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A and H-DSR and AN were 12 h, 3 h and 3 h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S{sup 2−}-S/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A and H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S{sup 0} reached 90%, but only 60% S{sup 0} was reclaimed from effluent. The S{sup 0} that adhered

  18. Measurement of key resonance states for the P30(p,γS31 reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kankainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the P30(p,γS31 reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The P30(d,nS31 reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2− resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T≈0.10–0.17 GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  19. Measurement of key resonance states for the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P. J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Estrade, A.; Gade, A.; José, J.; Kontos, A.; Langer, C.; Lotay, G.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Noji, S.; Nunes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Pereira, J.; Recchia, F.; Redpath, T.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Stevens, J.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Zegers, R.

    2017-06-01

    We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The 30P (d , n)31S reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3 /2- resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T ≈ 0.10- 0.17 GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  20. Measurement of key resonance states for the P-30(p, gamma)S-31 reaction rate, and the production of intermediate -mass elements in nova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P. J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Seweryniak, D.

    2017-06-10

    We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the P-30(p, gamma)S-31 reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The P-30(d,n)S-31 reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA gamma-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2(-) resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T approximate to 0.10-0.17 GM, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  1. RATIONAL STRUCTURES OF POLITICS IN MONTESQUIEU’S THE SPIRIT OF THE LAWS. PART I: THE KEY ELEMENTS LEGITIMATING THE POWER AND ITS SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS DUMITRESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu tried not to discuss about laws, but in fact, about the type of power hiding behind them. Inspired by Plato and Aristotle, he built his own vision on the palingenesis of the political forms and of the principles governing them. Baron de La Brède started from ideas, from spiritual structures, that have the role to create certain social behaviors, and identified three types of government forms, each characterized by its own nature and principle: monarchy, democracy, and despotism. The French philosopher tried to understand, besides the principles ensuring the nature of each government, the key elements legitimating the power and also its sources. The monarchy is seen by Montesquieu as the most suitable regime, for his time, to rule free societies. The aristocracy helps to the maintenance of freedom in royalty by resisting to any attempt of the crown to exceed its constitutional prerogatives. The transition from one form of government to another is done because of the alteration of principles. Democracy is maybe the most exposed to alteration as its excess of freedom leads to the affirmation of the spirit of endless equality that makes everybody wanting to be the equals to the rulers. Montesquieu sees no other solution to replace the degraded forms of political organization than the confederative republic. Such a political organization would answer the need for permanent political flexibility.

  2. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Oost John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially complementary to a region of the target. Key components of the RNAi systems are proteins of the Argonaute-PIWI family some of which function as slicers, the nucleases that cleave the target RNA that is base-paired to a guide RNA. Numerous prokaryotes possess the CRISPR-associated system (CASS of defense against phages and plasmids that is, in part, mechanistically analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi systems. Many prokaryotes also encode homologs of Argonaute-PIWI proteins but their functions remain unknown. Results We present a detailed analysis of Argonaute-PIWI protein sequences and the genomic neighborhoods of the respective genes in prokaryotes. Whereas eukaryotic Ago/PIWI proteins always contain PAZ (oligonucleotide binding and PIWI (active or inactivated nuclease domains, the prokaryotic Argonaute homologs (pAgos fall into two major groups in which the PAZ domain is either present or absent. The monophyly of each group is supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved PIWI-domains. Almost all pAgos that lack a PAZ domain appear to be inactivated, and the respective genes are associated with a variety of predicted nucleases in putative operons. An additional, uncharacterized domain that is fused to various nucleases appears to be a unique signature of operons encoding the short (lacking PAZ pAgo form. By contrast, almost all PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to be active nucleases. Some proteins of this group (e.g., that from Aquifex aeolicus have been experimentally shown to possess nuclease activity, and are not typically associated with genes for other (putative nucleases. Given these observations, the apparent extensive

  3. Rheology of the Active Cell Cortex in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Toyoda, Yusuke; Cattin, Cedric J; Müller, Daniel J; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-08-09

    The cell cortex is a key structure for the regulation of cell shape and tissue organization. To reach a better understanding of the mechanics and dynamics of the cortex, we study here HeLa cells in mitosis as a simple model system. In our assay, single rounded cells are dynamically compressed between two parallel plates. Our measurements indicate that the cortical layer is the dominant mechanical element in mitosis as opposed to the cytoplasmic interior. To characterize the time-dependent rheological response, we extract a complex elastic modulus that characterizes the resistance of the cortex against area dilation. In this way, we present a rheological characterization of the cortical actomyosin network in the linear regime. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of actin cross linkers and the impact of active prestress on rheological behavior. Notably, we find that cell mechanics values in mitosis are captured by a simple rheological model characterized by a single timescale on the order of 10 s, which marks the onset of fluidity in the system. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Where does TMS Stimulate the Motor Cortex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungert, Andreas; Antunes, André; Espenhahn, Svenja;

    2016-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the physiological mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stems from studies which targeted the human motor cortex. However, it is still unclear which part of the motor cortex is predominantly affected by TMS. Considering that the motor cortex consists...... of functionally and histologically distinct subareas, this also renders the hypotheses on the physiological TMS effects uncertain. We use the finite element method (FEM) and magnetic resonance image-based individual head models to get realistic estimates of the electric field induced by TMS. The field changes...... in different subparts of the motor cortex are compared with electrophysiological threshold changes of 2 hand muscles when systematically varying the coil orientation in measurements. We demonstrate that TMS stimulates the region around the gyral crown and that the maximal electric field strength in this region...

  5. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Wolf, Y.I.; Oost, van der J.; Koonin, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi) is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially comp

  6. Analysis of the key elements of FFAT-like motifs identifies new proteins that potentially bind VAP on the ER, including two AKAPs and FAPP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikitova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two phenylalanines (FF in an acidic tract (FFAT-motifs were originally described as having seven elements: an acidic flanking region followed by 6 residues (EFFDA-E. Such motifs are found in several lipid transfer protein (LTP families, and they interact with a protein on the cytosolic face of the ER called vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP. Mutation of which causes ER stress and motor neuron disease, making it important to determine which proteins bind VAP. Among other proteins that bind VAP, some contain FFAT-like motifs that are missing one or more of the seven elements. Defining how much variation is tolerated in FFAT-like motifs is a preliminary step prior to the identification of the full range of VAP interactors. RESULTS: We used a quantifiable in vivo system that measured ER targeting in a reporter yeast strain that over-expressed VAP to study the effect of substituting different elements of FFAT-like motifs in turn. By defining FFAT-like motifs more widely than before, we found them in novel proteins the functions of which had not previously been directly linked to the ER, including: two PKA anchoring proteins, AKAP220 and AKAP110; a family of plant LTPs; and the glycolipid LTP phosphatidylinositol-four-phosphate adaptor-protein-2 (FAPP-2. CONCLUSION: All of the seven essential elements of a FFAT motif tolerate variation, and weak targeting to the ER via VAP is still detected if two elements are substituted. In addition to the strong FFAT motifs already known, there are additional proteins with weaker FFAT-like motifs, which might be functionally important VAP interactors.

  7. Long-range superexchange in Cu2A2O7 (A= P, As, V) as a key element of the microscopic magnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, O.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Skourski, Y.; Weickert, F.; Rosner, H.

    2011-03-01

    A microscopic magnetic model for α-Cu2P2O7 is evaluated in a combined theoretical and experimental study. Despite a dominant intradimer coupling J1, sizable interdimer couplings enforce long-range magnetic ordering at TN=27 K. The spin model for α-Cu2P2O7 is compared to the models of the isostructural β-Cu2V2O7 and α-Cu2As2O7 systems. As a surprise, coupled dimers in α-Cu2P2O7 and alternating chains in α-Cu2As2O7 contrast with a honeycomb lattice in β-Cu2V2O7. We find that the qualitative difference in the coupling regime of these isostructural compounds is governed by the nature of AO4 side groups: d elements (A=V) hybridize with nearby O atoms forming a Cu-O-A-O-Cu superexchange path, while for p elements (A= P, As) the superexchange is realized via O-O edges of the tetrahedron. Implications for a broad range of systems are discussed.

  8. The heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC is a key component of a cis-acting promoter element that is critical for SnSAG1 expression in Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2009-07-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona undergoes a complex process of intracellular development, during which many genes are temporally regulated. The described study was undertaken to begin identifying the basic promoter elements that control gene expression in S. neurona. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of five S. neurona genes revealed a conserved heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC that is similar to the WGAGACG motif described upstream of multiple genes in Toxoplasma gondii. The promoter region for the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1, which contains three heptanucleotide motifs within 135 bases of the transcription start site, was dissected by functional analysis using a dual luciferase reporter assay. These analyses revealed that a minimal promoter fragment containing all three motifs was sufficient to drive reporter molecule expression, with the presence and orientation of the 5'-most heptanucleotide motif being absolutely critical for promoter function. Further studies should help to identify additional sequence elements important for promoter function and for controlling gene expression during intracellular development by this apicomplexan pathogen.

  9. Systematic analysis of cis-elements in unstable mRNAs demonstrates that CUGBP1 is a key regulator of mRNA decay in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jerome E; Lee, Ju Youn; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Tian, Bin; Wilusz, Carol J

    2010-06-21

    Dramatic changes in gene expression occur in response to extracellular stimuli and during differentiation. Although transcriptional effects are important, alterations in mRNA decay also play a major role in achieving rapid and massive changes in mRNA abundance. Moreover, just as transcription factor activity varies between different cell types, the factors influencing mRNA decay are also cell-type specific. We have established the rates of decay for over 7000 transcripts expressed in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. We found that GU-rich (GRE) and AU-rich (ARE) elements are over-represented in the 3'UTRs of short-lived mRNAs and that these mRNAs tend to encode factors involved in cell cycle and transcription regulation. Stabilizing elements were also identified. By comparing mRNA decay rates in C2C12 cells with those previously measured for pluripotent and differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells, we identified several groups of transcripts that exhibit cell-type specific decay rates. Further, whereas in C2C12 cells the impact of GREs on mRNA decay appears to be greater than that of AREs, AREs are more significant in ES cells, supporting the idea that cis elements make a cell-specific contribution to mRNA stability. GREs are recognized by CUGBP1, an RNA-binding protein and instability factor whose function is affected in several neuromuscular diseases. We therefore utilized RNA immunoprecipitation followed by microarray (RIP-Chip) to identify CUGBP1-associated transcripts. These mRNAs also showed dramatic enrichment of GREs in their 3'UTRs and encode proteins linked with cell cycle, and intracellular transport. Interestingly several CUGBP1 substrate mRNAs, including those encoding the myogenic transcription factors Myod1 and Myog, are also bound by the stabilizing factor HuR in C2C12 cells. Finally, we show that several CUGBP1-associated mRNAs containing 3'UTR GREs, including Myod1, are stabilized in cells depleted of CUGBP1, consistent with the role of CUGBP1 as a

  10. Systematic analysis of cis-elements in unstable mRNAs demonstrates that CUGBP1 is a key regulator of mRNA decay in muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome E Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dramatic changes in gene expression occur in response to extracellular stimuli and during differentiation. Although transcriptional effects are important, alterations in mRNA decay also play a major role in achieving rapid and massive changes in mRNA abundance. Moreover, just as transcription factor activity varies between different cell types, the factors influencing mRNA decay are also cell-type specific. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have established the rates of decay for over 7000 transcripts expressed in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. We found that GU-rich (GRE and AU-rich (ARE elements are over-represented in the 3'UTRs of short-lived mRNAs and that these mRNAs tend to encode factors involved in cell cycle and transcription regulation. Stabilizing elements were also identified. By comparing mRNA decay rates in C2C12 cells with those previously measured for pluripotent and differentiating embryonic stem (ES cells, we identified several groups of transcripts that exhibit cell-type specific decay rates. Further, whereas in C2C12 cells the impact of GREs on mRNA decay appears to be greater than that of AREs, AREs are more significant in ES cells, supporting the idea that cis elements make a cell-specific contribution to mRNA stability. GREs are recognized by CUGBP1, an RNA-binding protein and instability factor whose function is affected in several neuromuscular diseases. We therefore utilized RNA immunoprecipitation followed by microarray (RIP-Chip to identify CUGBP1-associated transcripts. These mRNAs also showed dramatic enrichment of GREs in their 3'UTRs and encode proteins linked with cell cycle, and intracellular transport. Interestingly several CUGBP1 substrate mRNAs, including those encoding the myogenic transcription factors Myod1 and Myog, are also bound by the stabilizing factor HuR in C2C12 cells. Finally, we show that several CUGBP1-associated mRNAs containing 3'UTR GREs, including Myod1, are stabilized in cells depleted of CUGBP1

  11. Selective blockade of dopamine D3 receptors enhances while D2 receptor antagonism impairs social novelty discrimination and novel object recognition in rats: a key role for the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David J G; Loiseau, Florence; Ingallinesi, Manuela; Millan, Mark J; Marsden, Charles A; Fone, Kevin C F

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists exert pro-cognitive effects in both rodents and primates. Accordingly, this study compared the roles of dopamine D(3) vs D(2) receptors in social novelty discrimination (SND), which relies on olfactory cues, and novel object recognition (NOR), a visual-recognition task. The dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist, S33084 (0.04-0.63 mg/kg), caused a dose-related reversal of delay-dependent impairment in both SND and NOR procedures in adult rats. Furthermore, mice genetically deficient in dopamine D(3) receptors displayed enhanced discrimination in the SND task compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, acute treatment with the preferential dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, L741,626 (0.16-5.0 mg/kg), or with the dopamine D(3) agonist, PD128,907 (0.63-40 μg/kg), caused a dose-related impairment in performance in rats in both tasks after a short inter-trial delay. Bilateral microinjection of S33084 (2.5 μg/side) into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats increased SND and caused a dose-related (0.63-2.5 μg/side) improvement in NOR, while intra-striatal injection (2.5 μg/side) had no effect on either. In contrast, bilateral microinjection of L741,626 into the PFC (but not striatum) caused a dose-related (0.63-2.5 μg/side) impairment of NOR. These observations suggest that blockade of dopamine D(3) receptors enhances both SND and NOR, whereas D(3) receptor activation or antagonism of dopamine D(2) receptor impairs cognition in these paradigms. Furthermore, these actions are mediated, at least partly, by the PFC. These data have important implications for exploitation of dopaminergic mechanisms in the treatment of schizophrenia and other CNS disorders, and support the potential therapeutic utility of dopamine D(3) receptor antagonism.

  12. 构成“智慧校园”的关键要素%The Key Elements of Constituent"Smart Campus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任斌

    2014-01-01

    At present, the nationwide construction and exploration are all carrying out the smart campus in many col-leges and universities, the concept of smart cumpus is developed from the traditional smart campus, this paper introduces mainly the constituent elements and characteristics of smart campus, to describe how to make use of existing resources of digitalized campus for the construction of smart campus.%目前,全国很多高校都在进行智慧校园的建设和探索,智慧校园是对传统智慧校园概念的发展,本文着重介绍了智慧校园主要的构成要素及特点,叙述了在如何利用现有的数字化校园资源建设智慧校园。

  13. The value of identity: olfactory notes on orbitofrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jay A; Zelano, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscientific research has emphatically promoted the idea that the key function of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to encode value. Associative learning studies indicate that OFC representations of stimulus cues reflect the predictive value of expected outcomes. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that the OFC distills abstract representations of value from discrete commodities to optimize choice. Although value-based models provide good explanatory power for many different findings, these models are typically disconnected from the very stimuli and commodities giving rise to those value representations. Little provision is made, either theoretically or empirically, for the necessary cooperative role of object identity, without which value becomes orphaned from its source. As a step toward remediating the value of identity, this review provides a focused olfactory survey of OFC research, including new work from our lab, to highlight the elemental involvement of this region in stimulus-specific predictive coding of both perceptual outcomes and expected values.

  14. Key-Factor analysis of elements affecting women’s employment in small and medium enterprises (SME among women living in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zarandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent global developments followed by altered attitudes have improved women’s contribution to small and medium enterprises. However, women’s employment in Iranian SME is not in a good condition. In fact, attitude of society towards women together with socio-cultural environments have resulted in reduced rate of women’s employment in developing companies. However, for changing these attitudes the relevant layout should be created anyway. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to enumerate factors affecting women’s employment in Tehran SME from those women’s views. In this regard, we applied Lerner's model which is more comprehensive than the other similar models. The analysis was carried out through distribution of some questionnaires among a statistical population including 384 women living in the city of Tehran. After data analysis and hypothesis testing, it was concluded that economic elements (as an environmental factor, achievement requirement (as an individual factor and encouragement (as an organizational factors respectively affect women’s employment.

  15. High precision tilt stage as a key element to a universal test mirror for characterization and calibration of slope measuring instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Artemiev, Nikolay A; Centers, Gary; Chaubard, Arthur; Geckeler, Ralf D; Lacey, Ian; Marth, Harry; McKinney, Wayne R; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Winter, Mathias; Zeschke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The ultimate performance of surface slope metrology instrumentation, such as long trace profilers and auto-collimator based deflectometers, is limited by systematic errors that are increased when the entire angular range is used for metrology of significantly curved optics. At the ALS X-Ray Optics Laboratory, in collaboration with the HZB/BESSY-II and PTB (Germany) metrology teams, we are working on a calibration method for deflectometers, based on a concept of a universal test mirror (UTM) [V. V. Yashchuk et al., Proc. SPIE 6704, 67040A (2007)]. Potentially, the UTM method provides high performance calibration and accounts for peculiarities of the optics under test (e.g., slope distribution) and the experimental arrangement (e.g., the distance between the sensor and the optic under test). At the same time, the UTM calibration method is inherently universal, applicable to a variety of optics and experimental arrangements. In this work, we present the results of tests with a key component of the UTM system, a custom high precision tilt stage, which has been recently developed in collaboration with Physik Instrumente, GmbH. The tests have demonstrated high performance of the stage and its capability (after additional calibration) to provide angular calibration of surface slope measuring profilers over the entire instrumental dynamic range with absolute accuracy better than 30 nrad. The details of the stage design and tests are presented. We also discuss the foundation of the UTM method and calibration algorithm, as well as the possible design of a full scale UTM system.

  16. Upregulation of inflammatory genes and downregulation of sclerostin gene expression are key elements in the early phase of fragility fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Caetano-Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fracture healing is orchestrated by a specific set of events that culminates in the repair of bone and reachievement of its biomechanical properties. The aim of our work was to study the sequence of gene expression events involved in inflammation and bone remodeling occurring in the early phases of callus formation in osteoporotic patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-six patients submitted to hip replacement surgery after a low-energy hip fracture were enrolled in this study. The patients were grouped according to the time interval between fracture and surgery: bone collected within 3 days after fracture (n = 13; between the 4(th and 7(th day (n = 33; and after one week from the fracture (n = 10. Inflammation- and bone metabolism-related genes were assessed at the fracture site. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was increased in the first days after fracture. The genes responsible for bone formation and resorption were upregulated one week after fracture. The increase in RANKL expression occurred just before that, between the 4(th-7(th days after fracture. Sclerostin expression diminished during the first days after fracture. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of inflammation-related genes, especially IL-6, is highest at the very first days after fracture but from day 4 onwards there is a shift towards bone remodeling genes, suggesting that the inflammatory phase triggers bone healing. We propose that an initial inflammatory stimulus and a decrease in sclerostin-related effects are the key components in fracture healing. In osteoporotic patients, cellular machinery seems to adequately react to the inflammatory stimulus, therefore local promotion of these events might constitute a promising medical intervention to accelerate fracture healing.

  17. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Baba Ali magnetite skarn deposit, western Iran – a key to determine conditions of mineralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baba Ali skarn deposit, situated 39 km to the northwest of Hamadan (Iran, is the result of a syenitic pluton that intruded and metamorphosed the diorite host rock. Rare earth element (REE values in the quartz syenite and diorite range between 35.4 and 560 ppm. Although the distribution pattern of REEs is more and less flat and smooth, light REEs (LREEs in general show higher concentrations than heavy REEs (HREEs in different lithounits. The skarn zone reveals the highest REE-enriched pattern, while the ore zone shows the maximum depletion pattern. A comparison of the concentration variations of LREEs (La–Nd, middle REEs (MREEs; Sm–Ho and HREEs (Er–Lu of the ore zone samples to the other zones elucidates two important points for the distribution of REEs: 1 the distribution patterns of LREEs and MREEs show a distinct depletion in the ore zone while representing a great enrichment in the skarn facies neighbouring the ore body border and decreasing towards the altered diorite host rock; 2 HREEs show the same pattern, but in the exoskarn do not reveal any distinct increase as observed for LREEs and MREEs. The ratio of La/Y in the Baba Ali skarn ranges from 0.37 to 2.89. The ore zone has the highest La/Y ratio. In this regard the skarn zones exhibit two distinctive portions: 1 one that has La/Y >1 beingadjacent to the ore body and; 2 another one with La/Y < 1 neighbouring altered diorite. Accordingly, the Baba Ali profile, from the quartz syenite to the middle part of the exoskarn, demonstrates chiefly alkaline conditions of formation, with a gradual change to acidic towards the altered diorite host rocks. Utilising three parameters, Ce/Ce*, Eu/Eu* and (Pr/Ybn, in different minerals implies that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for epidote and garnet were mostly of magmatic origin and for magnetite, actinolite and phlogopite these were of magmatic origin with low REE concentration or meteoric water involved.

  18. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different funct...

  19. The ATF/CREB site is the key element for transcription of the human RNA methyltransferase like 1 (RNMTL1) gene, a newly discovered 17p13.3 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN; XU; JING; DE; ZHU; MIN; NI; DA; FANG; WAN; JIAN; REN; GU

    2002-01-01

    The human RNA methyltransferase like i gene (RNMTL1) is one of thirteen newly discovered geneswithin a 116 Kb segment of the chromosome 17p13.3 that suffers from a high frequent loss of heterozygosityin human hepatocellular carcinoma in China[1-5]. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlyingtranscription control of the RNMTL1 gene in human cancers, we decline using of the conventional approachwhere the cis-elements bound by the known transcription factors are primary targets, and carried out thesystematic analyses to dissect the promoter structure and identify/characterize the key cis-elements thatare responsible for its strong expression in cell. The molecular approaches applied included 1, the primerextension for mapping of the transcription starts; 2, the transient transfection/reporter assays on a largenumber of deletion and site-specific mutants of the promoter segment for defining the minimal promoterand the crucial elements within; and 3, the electrophoresis mobility shift assay with specific antibodies forreconfirming the nature of the transcription factors and their cognate cis-elements. We have shown that theinteraction of an ATF/CREB element (-38 to -31) and its cognate transcription factors play a predominantrole in the promoter activity of the RNMTL1 gene. The secondary DNA structures of the ATF/CREBelement play a more vital role in the protein-DNA interaction. Finally, we reported a novel mechanismunderlying the YY1 mediated transcription repression, namely, the ATF/CREB dependent transcription-repression by YY1 is executed in absence of its own sequence-specific binding.

  20. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin (comps.)

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  1. Key elements of psoriasis immunogenetics: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Cardona, Leidy Yohana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting 2% to 3% of the world population. It occurs at any stage of life. “Early” psoriasis or type I manifests before 40 years, and “late” psoriasis or type II, after 40 years. It has a strong genetic basis and the probability of inheriting the disease when both parents are affected is up to 50%. Different susceptibility regions associated with psoriasis, called PSORS, have been described, PSORS-1 being the most frequent one. It is in chromosome 6 and in this region HLA-Cw6 is located, which is until now the gene more associated with psoriasis. The role of HLA-Cw6 in psoriasis is not fully understood, but it has a relationship with type I psoriasis, guttate psoriasis and presentation of an array of antigens including those derived from Streptococcus pyogenes. Furthermore, some single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α or its receptors are associated with the immunopathogenesis of the disease.

  2. Key Elements of Protection for Military Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    a ballistic vest system consisting of composite, high-strength para -aramid fi bers (Kevlar), and boron carbide ceramic plates wrap- ped in ultra...iridescence because they possess no physiological means to control the refl ected colors aside from changing the angle of the iridescent surface...armor plates, e.g. boron nitride, tungsten carbide, tungsten disulfi de, aluminum nitride, and so forth, coated or contained in high-mod- ulus organic

  3. Research and Application of Key Elements of Domain -driven Design Method%领域驱动设计方法的关键要素研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌雨; 王善勤; 李云松; 刘青; 邹军国

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem that Analysis and design are isolated in traditional software design,the paper studies the relevant theories ,domain -driven design elements and characteristics ,expounds how to construct the domain model,and proposes some ideas and methods to implement domain -driven design based on hexagonal ar-chitecture.Taking the carrier of design and implementation of the teaching resource sharing platform,some key ele-ments are analyzed and compared ,providing reference for the development of domain -driven design.%针对传统软件设计中分析与设计割裂等问题,研究了领域驱动设计的相关理论、要素及特点,阐述了如何构建领域模型,并在其分层结构的基础上提出了基于六边形架构实现领域驱动设计的思路与方法,以高校教学资源共享平台设计与实现为载体,对领域驱动设计中一些关键要素的设计与实现进行了分析和对比,为开展领域驱动设计提供借鉴。

  4. 高校“精细化”职业指导的“四性”要素探析%Four Key Elements of Detailed Career Guidance at Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏忠钊

    2014-01-01

    Employment crisis and intensive stress are crucial problems in current situations among graduates. The key to the arrangement of employment work at colleges and universities is to overcome deficiencies and provide detailed guidance in career in-struction. Detailed career guidance consists of four key elements: standardized systems, pertinent service, feasible measures and sustainable processes.%就业难、压力大是当前高校就业工作面临的一个重要问题。如何克服职业指导工作中存在的不足,强化“精细化”职业指导工作,这是当前高校做好就业工作的关键。“精细化”职业指导包括“四性”要素,即规范性的职业指导系统、针对性的职业指导服务、可操作性的职业指导举措、可持续性的职业指导过程。

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses differ in meninges and associated vasculature, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic amphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Saini, Upasana T; Patterson, Tucker A; Hanig, Joseph P; Bowyer, John F

    2010-08-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, but it can produce neurotoxicity and adverse vascular effects at high doses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) entails the unfolded protein response, which helps to avoid or minimize ER dysfunction. ERSR is often associated with toxicities resulting from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and has been associated with methamphetamine toxicity in the striatum. The present study evaluates the effect of AMPH on several ERSR elements in meninges and associated vasculature (MAV), parietal cortex, and striatum. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to saline, environmentally induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four consecutive doses of AMPH that produce hyperthermia. Expression changes (mRNA and protein levels) of key ERSR-related genes in MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex at 3 h or 1 day postdosing were monitored. AMPH increased the expression of some ERSR-related genes in all tissues. Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4, an indicator of Perk pathway activation), Hspa5/Grp78 (Glucose regulated protein 78, master regulator of ERSR), Pdia4 (protein disulfide isomerase, protein-folding enzyme), and Nfkb1 (nuclear factor of kappa b, ERSR sensor) mRNA increased significantly in MAV and parietal cortex 3 h after AMPH. In striatum, Atf4 and Hspa5/Grp78 mRNA significantly increased 3 h after AMPH, but Pdia4 and Nfkb11 did not. Thus, AMPH caused a robust activation of the Perk pathway in all tissues, but significant Ire1 pathway activation occurred only after AMPH treatment in the parietal cortex and striatum. Ddit3/Chop, a downstream effector of the ERSR pathway related to the neurotoxicity, was only increased in striatum and parietal cortex. Conversely, Pdia4, an enzyme protective in the ERSR, was only increased in MAV. The overall ERSR manifestation varied significantly between MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic exposure to AMPH.

  6. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  7. Effects of BDE-153 Exposure on Rats' Cortex Cholinergic System Key Enzymes and Intracellular Calcium Concentration%BDE-153暴露对大鼠中枢胆碱能系统关键酶活力及细胞内钙离子浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 聂继盛; 吴智文; 刘晓虎; 王亮; 康慧杰; 牛侨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lactation BDE-153 exposure on the activity of key enzymes in rat cortex cholinergic system and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Methods Forty newborn clean male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups at postnatal day 4 (PND4) according to their body weights, 10 in each group, 1,5,10 mg/kg of BDE-153 group and olive oil solvent control group. At PNDlO,the rats were administrated BDE -153 olive oil solution by intraperitoneal injection at 0.01 ml/g body weight for one time. Two months later,rats were anesthetized and followed the cortex separation for the intracellular Ca2+ concentration determination by flow cytometry and for the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and true cholinesterase (TchE) detection by colorimetric methods. Results Compared with the control group,cortical intracellular Ca2* concentration were significantly decreased in all the BDE-153 treated groups(P<0.05),while the cortical ChAT and TchE activities were significantly declined in the 10 mg/kg BDE-153 treated group. Conclusion Lactation BDE-153 exposure can inhibit the cholinergic system function of rats' cortex,and reduce the intracellular Ca2* concentration, which may be one of the mechanisms of BDE-153 neurotoxicity.%目的 研究哺乳期BDE-153暴露对大鼠成年后大脑皮质胆碱能系统关键酶的活力及细胞内Ca2+浓度的影响.方法 将40只出生第4天的雄性清洁级SD大鼠按体重随机分成4组,分别为溶剂对照(橄榄油)组和低(1 mg/kg)、中(5 mg/kg)、高剂量(10 mg/kg)BDE-153染毒组,每组10只.在仔鼠出生第10天,采用一次性腹腔注射方式进行染毒,染毒容量为0.01 ml/g.染毒两个月后,采用流式细胞仪测定大脑皮质细胞内Ca2+的浓度,采用比色法测定皮质乙酰胆碱转移酶(ChAT)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(TchE)的活力.结果 与溶剂对照组比较,各剂量BDE-153染毒组大鼠大脑皮质神经细胞内Ca2浓度均降

  8. Determination of 11 Kinds of Inorganic Elements in Cortex Spondiacis by Microwave Digestion/ICP-MS Method%微波消解-ICP-MS测定傣药嘎哩啰树皮中的11种无机元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雯; 马金晶; 张龙旺; 陈聪; 叶艳青

    2012-01-01

    The present research aimed to establish a kind of simple and rapid method to detect metal elements in Cortex Spondiacis were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The sample was digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. Instead of using concent rated acid, this experiment not only can leave out the process of drying or dilution and save time, and extend the life of the instrument, but also eliminates the errors of the inconsistency between digestion solutions and standard solutions. The experimental results showed that Cortex Spondiacis is rich in beneficial elements such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, and nickel. And the content of harmful elements of the drug, such as mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic, is under the national rule, which have some medicinal value. Under the optimum working conditions of the instrument, the detection limits were all smaller than 0. 052 1 μg · L‐1, the recovery ratios by standard addition were in the range of 90. 8%~113. 8% and the RSD was smaller than 5. 10% for all elements. Precision and accuracy of determining results are satisfactory. This results are reliable. These results are reliable. The method can meet the need for simultaneity determination of high content element and trace element in Cortex Spondiacis.%建立快速而简便的微波消解-电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法测定傣药嘎哩啰树皮中砷、铅、汞、镉、镍、硒、钙、镁、铁、钾、钠11种无机元素的含量.采用HNO3-H2O2酸溶体系对样品进行消解,以便简化操作,降低空白值.实验避免采用浓酸,可省去赶酸或稀释的步骤,节省时间,延长仪器使用寿命,消除样品溶液与标准溶液酸度之间的误差.实验结果表明,嘎哩啰树皮中富含对人体有利的钾、钙、镁、铁、钠、镍,其有害元素汞、铅

  9. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  10. Key Technology for Manufactory Prefabrication of Tube Elements of Large-scale Immersed Tunnels%大型沉管隧道管节工厂化预制关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓春

    2011-01-01

    基于大型沉管隧道的节段式管节设计施工理念,以厄勒海峡沉管隧道管节的工厂化制作为工程背景,对沉管隧道管节预制的一种新技术——工厂化预制技术的基本原理、场地布置、工艺流程以及工厂化预制所涉及的模板工艺、混凝土浇筑及管节顶推等关键技术点进行介绍。工程实践表明该方法具有占地少、经济环保、施工周期短、质量可靠性高、全天候施工等优点,能大大提高管节的制作速度与质量,降低工程成本。%The main principle,site layout,typical sequences and key technologies such as rebar installation,formwork erection,concrete casting and segment pushing of the manufactory fabrication of tube elements of immersed tunnels are presented,with the manufactory of the tube elements of Oresund immersed tunnel as an example.The construction practice shows that the mentioned technology has such advantages as small land requirement,cost saving,environment friendly,short construction cycle,high quality reliability and free of influence by the weather.

  11. Addiction and the adrenal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumption of drug intake. The possible interactions between brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products and the systemic HPA, and additionally with the local CRH–POMC system in the adrenal gland itself, are complex. Nevertheless, the evidence increasingly suggests that all may be interlinked and that CRH in the brain and brain POMC products interact with the blood-borne HPA directly or indirectly. Corticosteroids themselves are known to affect mood profoundly and may themselves be addictive. Additionally, there is a heightened susceptibility for addicted subjects to relapse in conditions that are associated with change in HPA activity, such as in stress, or at different times of the day. Recent studies give compelling evidence that a significant part of the array of addictive symptoms is directly attributable to the secretory activity of the adrenal cortex and the actions of corticosteroids. Additionally, sex differences in addiction may also be attributable to adrenocortical function: in humans, males may be protected through higher secretion of DHEA (and DHEAS), and in rats, females may be more susceptible because of higher corticosterone secretion. PMID:23825159

  12. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Niessen

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly.

  13. Depth keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  14. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  15. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  16. Sensing with the Motor Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development.

  17. Evidence for inhibitory deficits in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhu, Natasha; Garcia Dominguez, Luis; Farzan, Faranak; Richter, Margaret A; Semeralul, Mawahib O; Chen, Robert; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibitory neurotransmission is a key pathophysiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be combined with electroencephalography to index long-interval cortical inhibition, a measure of GABAergic receptor-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission from the frontal and motor cortex. In previous studies we have reported that schizophrenia is associated with inhibitory deficits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective of the current study was to replicate and extend these initial findings by evaluating long-interval cortical inhibition from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A total of 111 participants were assessed: 38 patients with schizophrenia (average age: 35.71 years, 25 males, 13 females), 27 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (average age: 36.15 years, 11 males, 16 females) and 46 healthy subjects (average age: 33.63 years, 23 females, 23 males). Long-interval cortical inhibition was measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortex through combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, long-interval cortical inhibition was significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.004) and not significantly different between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and healthy subjects (P = 0.5445). Long-interval cortical inhibition deficits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were also significantly greater in patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (P = 0.0465). There were no significant differences in long-interval cortical inhibition across all three groups in the motor cortex. These results demonstrate that long-interval cortical inhibition deficits in the

  18. 基于淘宝网的创业关键要素优化设计研究%A Study on Optimal Design for Key Elements of Imbark Based on Taobao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭楚钧

    2012-01-01

    受到全球金融危机蔓延深化的影响,我国多数行业都受到了不同程度的冲击,但网络零售的电子商务行业发展却一路繁荣,网络购物如火如荼地发展,导致网上商店如雨后春笋般兴起。淘宝网作为中国网络市场龙头品牌,具有举足轻重的地位。本文以淘宝网为例探析优化设计网上创业的关键要素,包括适合在网上销售的商品、合理的进货渠道、设置店铺名和宝贝的相关技巧、合适的网络营销方式,以期对网上创业者提供参考借鉴。%By the global financial crisis spreading,most industries in our country are influenced by the different degrees of impact.But the network retail e-commerce industry development has a massive boom,and the network shopping like a raging fire development,which results in online stores springing up rise.Taobao as China's Internet market leading brands has the pivotal status.In this paper key elements of online business are optimized based on Taobao: goods suitable for online sales,reasonable purchase channels,setting skills for store name and goods,appropriate network marketing methods.The study results of this paper can provide a reference for online entrepreneurs.

  19. 基于培训效果的培训师成功培训的关键要素分析%Analysis of key elements of successful training of trainers based on training effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潜

    2015-01-01

    随着培训行业的高速发展,培训师的队伍日益庞大,企业对培训师的要求越来越高,培训师作为整个培训项目中的重要环节,需要不断修炼自身才能更好地适应行业发展。笔者从多年的培训工作经验角度出发,分别从四个角度来阐述培训师成功培训的关键要素:培训师的知己知彼的角色定位、培训师课前的精心准备、培训师授课中的完美呈现、培训师授课过程的全程引导学员等,通过一系列的举措来提升企业的培训效果。%With the rapid development of the training industry, there have been more and more trainers and they meet higher demands of the enterprises. As an important part of the training program, they need constant self cultivation in order to better adapt to the development of the industry. According to the work experience of many years, the author elaborates the key elements of a successful training from four aspects:trainer's role orientation, careful preparation before class, perfect presentation in class and the whole leading in the teaching process. A series of measures are taken to enhance the training effect.

  20. 动力定位系统故障模式与后果分析中的关键点%Key Elements of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for Dynamic Positioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 冯舒

    2012-01-01

    Position loss is the main risk of the application of Dynamic Positioning (DP) system in offshore industry. To avoid position loss accident, DP reliability is achieved through the redundancy design of the system. Major classification societies require a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to be performed to verify the redundancy of the DP system. Level of details and quality of the FMEA work directly affects the reliability design of the system. This paper introduces the DP FMEA methodology and discusses the key elements of DP FMEA with examples. Recommendations are also proposed accordingly to include industry best practice in the future DP FMEA work.%移位风险是动力定位(Dynamic Positioning,简称DP)系统在海洋工程领域应用过程中的最主要风险,设计中通过采用较高级别的冗余度提高系统的可靠性,避免移位事故的发生.各大船级社都要求通过故障模式与后果分析(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis,简称FMEA)的方式对动力定位系统的冗余度进行验证,分析的深度和质量直接关系到动力定位系统的可靠性设计.本文介绍了DP FMEA分析方法,并通过实例讨论了成功开展DP FMEA分析的几个关键点,为未来开展类似的工作提出相关建议.

  1. The orbitofrontal cortex and beyond: from affect to decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian

    2008-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex represents the reward or affective value of primary reinforcers including taste, touch, texture, and face expression. It learns to associate other stimuli with these to produce representations of the expected reward value for visual, auditory, and abstract stimuli including monetary reward value. The orbitofrontal cortex thus plays a key role in emotion, by representing the goals for action. The learning process is stimulus-reinforcer association learning. Negative reward prediction error neurons are related to this affective learning. Activations in the orbitofrontal cortex correlate with the subjective emotional experience of affective stimuli, and damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs emotion-related learning, emotional behaviour, and subjective affective state. With an origin from beyond the orbitofrontal cortex, top-down attention to affect modulates orbitofrontal cortex representations, and attention to intensity modulates representations in earlier cortical areas of the physical properties of stimuli. Top-down word-level cognitive inputs can bias affective representations in the orbitofrontal cortex, providing a mechanism for cognition to influence emotion. Whereas the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of reward or affective value on a continuous scale, areas beyond the orbitofrontal cortex such as the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 are involved in binary decision-making when a choice must be made. For this decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of each specific reward in a common currency.

  2. Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Damasio, A R

    2000-03-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis provides a systems-level neuroanatomical and cognitive framework for decision making and the influence on it by emotion. The key idea of this hypothesis is that decision making is a process that is influenced by marker signals that arise in bioregulatory processes, including those that express themselves in emotions and feelings. This influence can occur at multiple levels of operation, some of which occur consciously and some of which occur non-consciously. Here we review studies that confirm various predictions from the hypothesis. The orbitofrontal cortex represents one critical structure in a neural system subserving decision making. Decision making is not mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex alone, but arises from large-scale systems that include other cortical and subcortical components. Such structures include the amygdala, the somatosensory/insular cortices and the peripheral nervous system. Here we focus only on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in decision making and emotional processing, and the relationship between emotion, decision making and other cognitive functions of the frontal lobe, namely working memory.

  3. Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen M; Brimijoin, W Owen; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2017-06-01

    A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding). This coordinate frame ambiguity can be resolved by studying freely moving subjects; here we recorded spatial receptive fields in the auditory cortex of freely moving ferrets. We found that most spatially tuned neurons represented sound source location relative to the head across changes in head position and direction. In addition, we also recorded a small number of neurons in which sound location was represented in a world-centered coordinate frame. We used measurements of spatial tuning across changes in head position and direction to explore the influence of sound source distance and speed of head movement on auditory cortical activity and spatial tuning. Modulation depth of spatial tuning increased with distance for egocentric but not allocentric units, whereas, for both populations, modulation was stronger at faster movement speeds. Our findings suggest that early auditory cortex primarily represents sound source location relative to ourselves but that a minority of cells can represent sound location in the world independent of our own position.

  4. Aberrant functional connectivity differentiates retrosplenial cortex from posterior cingulate cortex in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Kim N H; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kukolja, Juraj; von Reutern, Boris; Richter, Nils; Onur, Özgür A; Dronse, Julian; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-08-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key hub of the default mode network, a resting-state network involved in episodic memory, showing functional connectivity (FC) changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, PCC is a cytoarchitectonically heterogeneous region. Specifically, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), often subsumed under the PCC, is an area functionally and microanatomically distinct from PCC. To investigate FC patterns of RSC and PCC separately, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy aging participants, patients with subjective cognitive impairment, and prodromal AD. Compared to the other 2 groups, we found higher FC from RSC to frontal cortex in subjective cognitive impairment but higher FC to occipital cortex in prodromal AD. Conversely, FC from PCC to the lingual gyrus was higher in prodromal AD. Furthermore, data indicate that RSC and PCC are characterized by differential FC patterns represented by hub-specific interactions with memory and attentions scores in prodromal AD compared to cognitively normal individuals, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms for RSC and neurodegenerative processes for PCC. Data thus confirm and extend previous studies suggesting that the RSC is functionally distinct from PCC.

  5. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  6. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.cnrs-gif.fr; Clochiatti, Roberto [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carrot, Francine [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Daudin, Laurent [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bennett, James P. [U. S. Geological Survey and Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 {mu}m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  8. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Clochiatti, Roberto; Carrot, Francine; Daudin, Laurent; Bennett, James P

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 microm. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  9. Paradigmas Estratégicos de Gestão da Manufatura (PEGEMs: elementos-chave e modelo conceitual Strategic Manufacturing Management Paradigms (SMMPs: key elements and conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Godinho Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe um novo termo em Gestão da Produção: Paradigmas Estratégicos de Gestão da Manufatura (PEGEMs. Este novo conceito objetiva tratar de forma integrada e comparativa os paradigmas de gestão da manufatura surgidos ao longo do século XX. Para isto, além de sua conceituação, são identificados quatro elementos-chave comuns a todos os PEGEMs: direcionadores (condições do mercado que possibilitam ou requerem a implantação do PEGEM; objetivos de desempenho (os objetivos estratégicos da produção priorizados pelo PEGEM; princípios (as idéias que norteiam o PEGEM; e capacitadores (as ferramentas, tecnologias e métodos de cada PEGEM. As principais contribuições deste trabalho são: i apresentar um modelo conceitual que relacione os PEGEMs aos objetivos estratégicos da produção; e ii permitir comparações e análises dos paradigmas de manufatura, facilitando o estudo e aplicações práticas. O modelo proposto fornece um tratamento bastante pragmático das questões estratégicas no âmbito da Gestão da Produção.This paper proposes a new concept in Production Management: Strategic Manufacturing Management Paradigms (SMMPs. This new concept involves an integrated and comparative approach to the manufacturing management paradigms that emerged along the 20th century. To this end, four key elements that are common to all SMMPs are identified: guiders (market conditions that allow for or require SMMP implementation; performance goals (the strategic manufacturing goals prioritized by the SMMPs; principles (the basic ideas that guide the SMMPs; and enablers (the SMMPs' tools, technologies and methods. The main contributions of this paper are: i the presentation of a conceptual model that associates the SMMPs to strategic manufacturing goals; and ii to allow for comparisons and analyses of manufacturing paradigms, facilitating their study and practical application. The proposed model takes a highly pragmatic

  10. Key elements of the audiovisual policy of the International Organization of la Francophonie / Líneas generales de la política audiovisual de la Organización Internacional de la Francofonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Félix Redondo Casado; fredondo@inst.uc3m.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of the audiovisual policy of the International Organization of la Francophonie (OIF. The hypothesis to be tested is that the audiovisual policy of la Francophonie presents a fundamental concept of the audiovisual.This study is exploratory in nature and considers only the last ten years of la Francophonie. The research presents a mixed methodological approach that combines quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis.Many items have been analyzed: frameworks for action and declarations, the structure of the organization in the audiovisual area and programs and major projects. One of the most important conclusions of this study is that audiovisual policy of the OIF is characterized by diversity, as well as by its link with culture. However, the OIF tries to ensure the presence of the French universe, ignoring the voices of the rest of the organization.Este trabajo aborda las líneas generales de la política audiovisual de la Organización Internacional de la Francofonía (OIF. La hipótesis que ha guiado el estudio es que la política audiovisual de la Francofonía presenta una concepción fundamental del audiovisual. El estudio es de carácter exploratorio y se ha centrado en los últimos diez años de la Francofonía. La investigación empleó un enfoque mixto que combinó datos cualitativos y cuantitativos en la recogida y en el análisis.Se han analizado varios elementos: los marcos de actuación y declaraciones, la estructura de la organización en el área audiovisual y los programas y principales proyectos. Una de las conclusiones más importantes del estudio es que la política audiovisual de la OIF se caracteriza por su diversidad, así como por su ligazón con la cultura. Sin embargo, la OIF trata de garantizar la presencia del universo francés, olvidando las voces del conjunto de la organización.

  11. Functional interaction of hepatic nuclear factor-4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha in CYP7A1 regulation is inhibited by a key lipogenic activator, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Fang, Sungsoon; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2007-11-01

    Insulin inhibits transcription of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a key gene in bile acid synthesis, and the hepatic nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) site in the promoter was identified as a negative insulin response sequence. Using a fasting/feeding protocol in mice and insulin treatment in HepG2 cells, we explored the inhibition mechanisms. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), an insulin-induced lipogenic factor, inversely correlated with Cyp7a1 expression in mouse liver. Interaction of HNF-4 with its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), was observed in livers of fasted mice and was reduced after feeding. Conversely, HNF-4 interaction with SREBP-1c was increased after feeding. In vitro studies suggested that SREBP-1c competed with PGC-1alpha for direct interaction with the AF2 domain of HNF-4. Reporter assays showed that SREBP-1c, but not of a SREBP-1c mutant lacking the HNF-4 interacting domain, inhibited HNF-4/PGC-1alpha transactivation of Cyp7a1. SREBP-1c also inhibited PGC-1alpha-coactivation of estrogen receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and farnesoid X receptor, implying inhibition of HNF-4 by SREBP-1c could extend to other nuclear receptors. In chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, HNF-4 binding to the promoter was not altered, but PGC-1alpha was dissociated, SREBP-1c and histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) were recruited, and acetylation of histone H3 was decreased upon feeding. Adenovirus-mediated expression of a SREBP-1c dominant-negative mutant, which blocks the interaction of SREBP-1c and HNF-4, partially but significantly reversed the inhibition of Cyp7a1 after feeding. Our data show that SREBP-1c functions as a non-DNA-binding inhibitor and mediates, in part, suppression of Cyp7a1 by blocking functional interaction of HNF-4 and PGC-1alpha. This mechanism may be relevant to known repression of many other HNF-4 target genes upon

  12. Increased amygdala and visual cortex activity and functional connectivity towards stimulus novelty is associated with state anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga T Ousdal

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli often require a rapid reallocation of sensory processing resources to determine the significance of the event, and the appropriate behavioral response. Both the amygdala and the visual cortex are central elements of the neural circuitry responding to novelty, demonstrating increased activity to new as compared to highly familiarized stimuli. Further, these brain areas are intimately connected, and thus the amygdala may be a key region for directing sensory processing resources to novel events. Although knowledge regarding the neurocircuit of novelty detection is gradually increasing, we still lack a basic understanding of the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for novelty-specific responses in human amygdala and the visual cortices, and if these brain areas interact during detection of novelty. In the present study, we investigated the response of amygdala and the visual cortex to novelty, by comparing functional MRI activity between 1st and 2nd time presentation of a series of emotional faces in an event-related task. We observed a significant decrease in amygdala and visual cortex activity already after a single stimulus exposure. Interestingly, this decrease in responsiveness was less for subjects with a high score on state anxiety. Further, novel faces stimuli were associated with a relative increase in the functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18. Thus, we suggest that amygdala is involved in fast sensory boosting that may be important for attention reallocation to novel events, and that the strength of this response depends on individual state anxiety.

  13. Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The entorhinal cortex is thought to support rapid encoding of new associations by serving as an interface between the hippocampus and neocortical regions. Although the entorhinal-hippocampal interaction is undoubtedly essential for initial memory acquisition, the entorhinal cortex contributes to memory retrieval even after the hippocampus is no longer necessary. This suggests that during memory consolidation additional synaptic reinforcement may take place within the cortical network, which may change the connectivity of entorhinal cortex with cortical regions other than the hippocampus. Here, I outline behavioral and physiological findings which collectively suggest that memory consolidation involves the gradual strengthening of connection between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/ACC), a region that may permanently store the learned association. This newly formed connection allows for close interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the mPFC/ACC, through which the mPFC/ACC gains access to neocortical regions that store the content of memory. Thus, the entorhinal cortex may serve as a gatekeeper of cortical memory network by selectively interacting either with the hippocampus or mPFC/ACC depending on the age of memory. This model provides a new framework for a modification of cortical memory network during systems consolidation, thereby adding a fresh dimension to future studies on its biological mechanism.

  14. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  15. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  16. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, E; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2014-01-01

    Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a frequent and outcome-relevant sequel of left hemispheric stroke. Deficient pantomiming of object use constitutes a key symptom of apraxia and is assessed when testing for apraxia. To date the neural basis of pantomime remains controversial. We here review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the relevant structural and functional imaging (fMRI/PET) studies. Based on a systematic literature search, 10 structural and 12 functional imaging studies were selected. Structural lesion studies associated pantomiming deficits with left frontal, parietal and temporal lesions. In contrast, functional imaging studies associate pantomimes with left parietal activations, with or without concurrent frontal or temporal activations. Functional imaging studies that selectively activated parietal cortex adopted the most stringent controls. In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal)-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies) and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies) may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly.

  17. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The adrenal cortex and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gavin P

    2009-03-05

    The template for our understanding of the physiological role of the adrenal cortex was set by Hans Selye, who demonstrated its key involvement in the response to stress, of whatever origin, and who also introduced the terms glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. Despite this, from the late 1940s on there was certainly general awareness of the multiple actions of glucocorticoids, including effects on the thymus and immune system, cardiovascular system, water balance, and the CNS. For these reasons, and perhaps because in the early studies of the actions of individual steroids there was less clear-cut difference between them, there was some initial resistance to the use of these terms. Today they are universal and unchallenged. It can be argued that, with respect to the glucocorticoids, this term colours our perception of their physiological importance, and may be misleading. By taking evidence from disease states, emphasis is placed on extreme conditions that do not necessarily reveal normal physiology. In particular, evidence for the role of glucocorticoid regulation of gluconeogenesis and blood glucose in the normal subject or animal is inconclusive. Similarly, while highly plausible theories explaining glucocorticoid actions on inflammation or the immune system as part of normal physiology have been presented, direct evidence to support them is hard to find. Under extreme conditions of chronic stress, the cumulative actions of glucocorticoids on insulin resistance or immunocompromise may indeed seem to be actually damaging. Two well-documented and long recognized situations create huge variation in glucocorticoid secretion. These are the circadian rhythm, and the acute response to mild stress, such as handling, in the rat. Neither of these can be adequately explained by the need for glucocorticoid action, as we currently understand it, particularly on carbohydrate metabolism or on the immune system. Perhaps we should re-examine other targets at the physiological

  19. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  20. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  1. Supporting good practice in the provision of services to people with comorbid mental health and alcohol and other drug problems in Australia: describing key elements of good service models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merkes, Monika; Lewis, Virginia; Canaway, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    ... the range of service delivery models is apparent internationally or at the national level. The aims of the current research were to identify and describe elements of good practice in current service models of treatment of comorbidity in Australia...

  2. Layer-specific chromatin accessibility landscapes reveal regulatory networks in adult mouse visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lucas T; Yao, Zizhen; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Kim, Tae Kyung; Zeng, Hongkui; Tasic, Bosiljka

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cortex is a laminar structure, with each layer composed of a characteristic set of cell types with different morphological, electrophysiological, and connectional properties. Here, we define chromatin accessibility landscapes of major, layer-specific excitatory classes of neurons, and compare them to each other and to inhibitory cortical neurons using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq). We identify a large number of layer-specific accessible sites, and significant association with genes that are expressed in specific cortical layers. Integration of these data with layer-specific transcriptomic profiles and transcription factor binding motifs enabled us to construct a regulatory network revealing potential key layer-specific regulators, including Cux1/2, Foxp2, Nfia, Pou3f2, and Rorb. This dataset is a valuable resource for identifying candidate layer-specific cis-regulatory elements in adult mouse cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21883.001 PMID:28112643

  3. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eRolls

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory-taste and visual-taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavour. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavour reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual / olfactory / taste / input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations with the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety are implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention.

  4. Key Elements of Building Coordinated Health Care Delivery System in China%我国目前分级诊疗工作中的几个关键环节探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑞; 赵琨; 齐雪然

    2016-01-01

    本文依据“知信行”行为改变理论,探讨分级诊疗体系建设中政府管医、医生行医、患者就医行为改变的关键要素,并探讨实现“大医院愿意放、基层愿意接、患者愿意去”的政策支撑和制度环境。本文提出:在认知上,分级诊疗是区域医疗服务体系规划的核心,是医改工作的风向标,是一项复杂的长期任务。在意愿上,若要大医院愿意放,需同步推进传统的财政补助方式、当前医疗服务定价机制的改革;若要基层愿意接,应设立财政专项补助、拉大绩效工资差;若要患者愿意去,应鼓励大医院专科医生坐诊基层、正确宣传基层首诊内涵、完善医保管理方式。在行动上,实行机构差异化考核、设立大医院基层部、打通药物目录等管理措施必须兼顾,协同推进分级诊疗体系建设。%According to the behavior changing theory of knowledge - attitude - practice,we explored the key elements regarding how government manages medical services,how doctors practice medicine,and how patients have medical services in the coordinated health care delivery system in China,and also explored the supporting polices and institutional environment to encourage major hospitals to make patient referral down to primary - level medical settings,primary - level medical settings to receive referral patients,and patients to have medical services in primary - level medical settings. This paper came up with following suggestions. In terms of cognition,we should realize that the coordinated health care delivery system is the core of planning for regional health care delivery system and benchmark of health care system reform,and is a complex long - term task. In terms of willingness,given the willingness of major hospitals to make patient referral down to primary - level medical settings,the reform of traditional financial aid mode and the current pricing mechanism of medical services

  5. An Internet Key Exchange Protocol Based on Public Key Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 马建峰

    2004-01-01

    Internet key exchange (IKE) is an automated key exchange mechanism that is used to facilitate the transfer of IPSec security associations (SAs). Public key infrastructure (PKI) is considered as a key element for providing security to new distributed communication networks and services. In this paper, we concentrate on the properties of the protocol of Phase 1 IKE. After investigating IKE protocol and PKI technology, we combine IKE protocol and PKI and present an implementation scheme of the IKE based on PKI. Then, we give a logic analysis of the proposed protocol with the BAN-logic and discuss the security of the protocol. The result indicates that the protocol is correct and satisfies the security requirements of Internet key exchange.

  6. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  7. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  8. The expression of EPOR in renal cortex during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiao

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO, known for its role in erythroid differentiation, has been shown to be an important growth factor for brain and heart. EPO is synthesized by fibroblast-like cells in the renal cortex. Prompted by this anatomical relationship and its significant impact on the maturation process of brain and heart, we asked whether EPO could play a role during the development of renal cortex. The relationship between the development of renal cortex and the change of EPO receptor (EPOR, through which EPO could act as a renotropic cytokine, became interesting to us. In this study, the day of birth was recorded as postnatal day 0(P0. P7, P14, P21, P28, P35, P42 and mature mice (postnatal days>56 were used as the animal model of different developmental stages. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of EPOR in mouse renal cortex. Results showed that expression of EPOR decreased with the development of renal cortex and became stable when kidney became mature. The expression of EPOR was detected at the renal tubule of all developmental stages and a relatively higher expression was observed at P14. However, at the renal corpuscle the expression was only observed at P7 and quickly became undetectable after that. All these suggested that a translocation of EPOR from renal corpuscle to renal tubule may take place during the developmental process of renal cortex. Also, EPO may be an essential element for the maturation of renal cortex, and the requirement for EPO was changed during postnatal development process.

  9. Orbitofrontal cortex and its contribution to decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    Damage to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) produces an unusual pattern of deficits. Patients have intact cognitive abilities but are impaired in making everyday decisions. Here we review anatomical, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological evidence to determine the neuronal mechanisms that might underlie these impairments. We suggest that OFC plays a key role in processing reward: It integrates multiple sources of information regarding the reward outcome to derive a value signal. In effect, OFC calculates how rewarding a reward is. This value signal can then be held in working memory where it can be used by lateral prefrontal cortex to plan and organize behavior toward obtaining the outcome, and by medial prefrontal cortex to evaluate the overall action in terms of its success and the effort that was required. Thus, acting together, these prefrontal areas can ensure that our behavior is most efficiently directed towards satisfying our needs.

  10. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so...

  11. Prefrontal cortex and neural mechanisms of executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro; Andreau, Jorge Mario

    2013-12-01

    Executive function is a product of the coordinated operation of multiple neural systems and an essential prerequisite for a variety of cognitive functions. The prefrontal cortex is known to be a key structure for the performance of executive functions. To accomplish the coordinated operations of multiple neural systems, the prefrontal cortex must monitor the activities in other cortical and subcortical structures and control and supervise their operations by sending command signals, which is called top-down signaling. Although neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex sends top-down signals to the posterior cortices to control information processing, the neural correlate of these top-down signals is not yet known. Through use of the paired association task, it has been demonstrated that top-down signals are used to retrieve specific information stored in long-term memory. Therefore, we used a paired association task to examine the neural correlates of top-down signals in the prefrontal cortex. The preliminary results indicate that 32% of visual neurons exhibit pair-selectivity, which is similar to the characteristics of pair-coding activities in temporal neurons. The latency of visual responses in prefrontal neurons was longer than bottom-up signals but faster than top-down signals in inferior temporal neurons. These results suggest that pair-selective visual responses may be top-down signals that the prefrontal cortex provides to the temporal cortex, although further studies are needed to elucidate the neural correlates of top-down signals and their characteristics to understand the neural mechanism of executive control by the prefrontal cortex.

  12. Evaluation of an approach for the characterization of reactive and available pools of twenty potentially toxic elements in soils: Part I – The role of key soil properties in the variation of contaminants’ reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful effects of potentially toxic elements (PTE’s) in soils relate to their geochemically reactive fraction. To assess the degree of the reactivity, specific extractions or models are needed. Here we applied a 0.43 M HNO3 chemical extraction to assess reactive pools of a broad range of PTE’s in 1

  13. Evaluation of an approach for the characterization of reactive and available pools of twenty potentially toxic elements in soils: Part I – The role of key soil properties in the variation of contaminants’ reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Henriques, B.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful effects of potentially toxic elements (PTE’s) in soils relate to their geochemically reactive fraction. To assess the degree of the reactivity, specific extractions or models are needed. Here we applied a 0.43 M HNO3 chemical extraction to assess reactive pools of a broad range of PTE’s in 1

  14. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  15. The neurophysiology of figure^ground segregation in primary visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recorded neuronal activity in the monkey primary visual cortex while Ss were viewing full screen arrays of either oriented line segments or moving random dots. Almost every cell gave a significantly larger response for texture elements perceived as a figure (FI) than for background elements. Cell re

  16. Neural mechanisms of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Lihua; HAN Shihui; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yi

    2004-01-01

    The current work examined neural substrates of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex using event-related potential (ERP) recording. Stimulus arrays consisted of local elements that were either evenly spaced (uniform stimuli) or grouped into columns or rows by proximity or color similarity (grouping stimuli). High-density ERPs were recorded while subjects identified orientations of perceptual groups in stimulus arrays that were presented randomly in one of the four quadrants of the visual field. Both uniform and grouping stimulus arrays elicited an early ERP component (C1), which peaked at about 70 ms after stimulus onset and changed its polarity as a function of stimulated elevations. Dipole modeling based on realistic- head boundary-element models revealed generators of the C1 component in the calcarine cortex. The C1 was modulated by perceptual grouping of local elements based on proximity, and this grouping effect was stronger in the upper than in the lower visual field. The findings provide ERP evidence for the engagement of human primary visual cortex in the early stage of perceptual grouping.

  17. Weak-Keys in Public Key Cryptosystems Based on Discrete Logarithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Suiyan; LUO Ping; PENG Xiaoning; WANG Daoshun

    2005-01-01

    The discrete logarithm method is the foundation of many public key algorithms. However, one type of key, defined as a weak-key, reduces the security of public key cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm method. The weak-key occurs if the public key is a factor or multiple of the primitive element, in which case the user's private key is not needed but can be obtained based on the character of the public key. An algorithm is presented that can easily test whether there is a weak-key in the cryptosystem. An example is given to show that an attack can be completed for the Elgamal digital signature if a weak-key exists, therefore validating the danger of weak-keys. Methods are given to prevent the generation of these weak-keys.

  18. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  19. Cerebral Cortex Expression of Gli3 Is Required for Normal Development of the Lateral Olfactory Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni-Maria Amaniti

    Full Text Available Formation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT and innervation of the piriform cortex represent fundamental steps to allow the transmission of olfactory information to the cerebral cortex. Several transcription factors, including the zinc finger transcription factor Gli3, influence LOT formation by controlling the development of mitral cells from which LOT axons emanate and/or by specifying the environment through which these axons navigate. Gli3 null and hypomorphic mutants display severe defects throughout the territory covered by the developing lateral olfactory tract, making it difficult to identify specific roles for Gli3 in its development. Here, we used Emx1Cre;Gli3fl/fl conditional mutants to investigate LOT formation and colonization of the olfactory cortex in embryos in which loss of Gli3 function is restricted to the dorsal telencephalon. These mutants form an olfactory bulb like structure which does not protrude from the telencephalic surface. Nevertheless, mitral cells are formed and their axons enter the piriform cortex though the LOT is shifted medially. Mitral axons also innervate a larger target area consistent with an enlargement of the piriform cortex and form aberrant projections into the deeper layers of the piriform cortex. No obvious differences were found in the expression patterns of key guidance cues. However, we found that an expansion of the piriform cortex temporally coincides with the arrival of LOT axons, suggesting that Gli3 affects LOT positioning and target area innervation through controlling the development of the piriform cortex.

  20. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  1. Evolutionary specializations of human association cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, R.B.; Passingham, R.E.; Neubert, F.X.; Verhagen, L.; Sallet, J.

    2017-01-01

    Is the human brain a big ape brain? We argue that the human association cortex is larger than would be expected for an equivalent ape brain, suggesting human association cortex is a unique adaptation. The internal organization of the human association cortex shows modifications of the ape plan in

  2. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  3. Key to Language Learning Success

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these rol...

  4. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  5. Supporting good practice in the provision of services to people with comorbid mental health and alcohol and other drug problems in Australia: describing key elements of good service models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaway Rachel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-occurrence of mental illness and substance use problems (referred to as "comorbidity" in this paper is common, and is often reported by service providers as the expectation rather than the exception. Despite this, many different treatment service models are being used in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD and mental health (MH sectors to treat this complex client group. While there is abundant literature in the area of comorbidity treatment, no agreed overarching framework to describe the range of service delivery models is apparent internationally or at the national level. The aims of the current research were to identify and describe elements of good practice in current service models of treatment of comorbidity in Australia. The focus of the research was on models of service delivery. The research did not aim to measure the client outcomes achieved by individual treatment services, but sought to identify elements of good practice in services. Methods Australian treatment services were identified to take part in the study through a process of expert consultation. The intent was to look for similarities in the delivery models being implemented across a diverse set of services that were perceived to be providing good quality treatment for people with comorbidity problems. Results A survey was designed based on a concept map of service delivery devised from a literature review. Seventeen Australian treatment services participated in the survey, which explored the context in which services operate, inputs such as organisational philosophy and service structure, policies and procedures that guide the way in which treatment is delivered by the service, practices that reflect the way treatment is provided to clients, and client impacts. Conclusions The treatment of people with comorbidity of mental health and substance use disorders presents complex problems that require strong but flexible service models. While the treatment

  6. Supporting good practice in the provision of services to people with comorbid mental health and alcohol and other drug problems in Australia: describing key elements of good service models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkes, Monika; Lewis, Virginia; Canaway, Rachel

    2010-12-03

    The co-occurrence of mental illness and substance use problems (referred to as "comorbidity" in this paper) is common, and is often reported by service providers as the expectation rather than the exception. Despite this, many different treatment service models are being used in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD) and mental health (MH) sectors to treat this complex client group. While there is abundant literature in the area of comorbidity treatment, no agreed overarching framework to describe the range of service delivery models is apparent internationally or at the national level. The aims of the current research were to identify and describe elements of good practice in current service models of treatment of comorbidity in Australia. The focus of the research was on models of service delivery. The research did not aim to measure the client outcomes achieved by individual treatment services, but sought to identify elements of good practice in services. Australian treatment services were identified to take part in the study through a process of expert consultation. The intent was to look for similarities in the delivery models being implemented across a diverse set of services that were perceived to be providing good quality treatment for people with comorbidity problems. A survey was designed based on a concept map of service delivery devised from a literature review. Seventeen Australian treatment services participated in the survey, which explored the context in which services operate, inputs such as organisational philosophy and service structure, policies and procedures that guide the way in which treatment is delivered by the service, practices that reflect the way treatment is provided to clients, and client impacts. The treatment of people with comorbidity of mental health and substance use disorders presents complex problems that require strong but flexible service models. While the treatment services included in this study reflected the diversity of

  7. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the hydro(geo)lo

  8. Plasticity in the rat prefrontal cortex: linking gene expression and an operant learning with a computational theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rapanelli

    Full Text Available The plasticity in the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC of rodents or lateral prefrontal cortex in non human primates (lPFC, plays a key role neural circuits involved in learning and memory. Several genes, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cAMP response element binding (CREB, Synapsin I, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc, c-jun and c-fos have been related to plasticity processes. We analysed differential expression of related plasticity genes and immediate early genes in the mPFC of rats during learning an operant conditioning task. Incompletely and completely trained animals were studied because of the distinct events predicted by our computational model at different learning stages. During learning an operant conditioning task, we measured changes in the mRNA levels by Real-Time RT-PCR during learning; expression of these markers associated to plasticity was incremented while learning and such increments began to decline when the task was learned. The plasticity changes in the lPFC during learning predicted by the model matched up with those of the representative gene BDNF. Herein, we showed for the first time that plasticity in the mPFC in rats during learning of an operant conditioning is higher while learning than when the task is learned, using an integrative approach of a computational model and gene expression.

  9. Structural Optimizatin Design of Key Part of High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrograph Based on Finite Element Method%基于等离子体X射线多通道弯晶谱仪的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志江; 孟东东; 杨国洪; 刘小波; 宋代平

    2012-01-01

    为诊断0.165~0.775 nm和0.014~0.165 nm范围的软硬X射线,研制了一台多通道(四个反射通道和一个透射通道)柱面晶体谱仪.利用光电检测单元获得了由Qz、LiF和Ge制成的多种不同晶体取向弯晶衍射等离子X射线谱相.谱仪采用离线标定和在线复位技术,可降低由于光源不准引起的光谱偏差,已应用在激光装置的诊断实验上,达到了惯性约束核聚变(ICF)实验要求.%To diagnose X-ray of wavelength in 0. 165 -0. 775 nm and 0. 014 -0. 165 nm region,a cylinder curved crystal spectrometer has been developed, which have have several channels ( four reflection channels and a transmission channel). Photoelectric detection unit is used to obtain photographys of spectra,which come from the diffraction of many different crystal wafer orientation bending crystal,made of Qz,LiF and Ge elements. According to the technology of offline calibration and online reduction, spectral bias caused by source can be reduced. The spectrometer has already been used in the experiment on the diagnosis of laser device, achieving the experimental requirements of inertial confinement fusion (ICF).

  10. Coding of melodic gestalt in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Herdener, Marcus; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The perception of a melody is invariant to the absolute properties of its constituting notes, but depends on the relation between them-the melody's relative pitch profile. In fact, a melody's "Gestalt" is recognized regardless of the instrument or key used to play it. Pitch processing in general is assumed to occur at the level of the auditory cortex. However, it is unknown whether early auditory regions are able to encode pitch sequences integrated over time (i.e., melodies) and whether the resulting representations are invariant to specific keys. Here, we presented participants different melodies composed of the same 4 harmonic pitches during functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Additionally, we played the same melodies transposed in different keys and on different instruments. We found that melodies were invariantly represented by their blood oxygen level-dependent activation patterns in primary and secondary auditory cortices across instruments, and also across keys. Our findings extend common hierarchical models of auditory processing by showing that melodies are encoded independent of absolute pitch and based on their relative pitch profile as early as the primary auditory cortex.

  11. The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2004-04-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex is an important brain region for the processing of rewards and punishments, which is a prerequisite for the complex and flexible emotional and social behaviour which contributes to the evolutionary success of humans. Yet much remains to be discovered about the functions of this key brain region, and new evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology is affording new insights into the different functions of the human orbitofrontal cortex. We review the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature on the human orbitofrontal cortex, and propose two distinct trends of neural activity based on a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. One is a mediolateral distinction, whereby medial orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to monitoring the reward value of many different reinforcers, whereas lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to the evaluation of punishers which may lead to a change in ongoing behaviour. The second is a posterior-anterior distinction with more complex or abstract reinforcers (such as monetary gain and loss) represented more anteriorly in the orbitofrontal cortex than simpler reinforcers such as taste or pain. Finally, we propose new neuroimaging methods for obtaining further evidence on the localisation of function in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

  12. Linking trait-based phenotypes to prefrontal cortex activation during inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Achala H; Di Domenico, Stefano I; Graves, Bryanna; Lam, Jaeger; Ayaz, Hasan; Bagby, R Michael; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control is subserved in part by discrete regions of the prefrontal cortex whose functionality may be altered according to specific trait-based phenotypes. Using a unified model of normal range personality traits, we examined activation within lateral and medial aspects of the prefrontal cortex during a manual go/no-go task. Evoked hemodynamic oxygenation within the prefrontal cortex was measured in 106 adults using a 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy system. Within lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation was associated with higher trait levels of extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and lower neuroticism. Higher agreeableness was also related to more activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during inhibitory control. These results suggest that personality traits reflecting greater emotional stability, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness may be associated with more efficient recruitment of control processes subserved by lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight key links between trait-based phenotypes and neural activation patterns in the prefrontal cortex underlying inhibitory control.

  13. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  14. Quantum key management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from Cortex Albiziae

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Kun; Zhao, Yuying

    2004-01-01

    Cortex Albiziae, the dried stem bark of a leguminous plant, Albizia julibrissin Durazz, was specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edit.) as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used.to relieve melancholia and uneasiness of body and mind, to invigorate the circulation of blood and subside a swelling. In a course of our quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines, the n-BuOH soluble part of 95% EtOH extracts from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin was subjected to a series of sol...

  17. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  18. Virtual reality and the role of the prefrontal cortex in adults and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Jäncke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review the neural underpinnings of the experience of presence are outlined. Firstly, it will be shown that presence is associated with an activation of a distributed network including the dorsal and ventral visual stream, the parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, mesial temporal areas, the brainstem and the thalamus. Second, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is identified as a key node of this network in that it modulates the activity of this network and the associated experience of presence. Third, because of their unmatured frontal cortex, children lack the strong modulatory influence of the DLPFC on this network. Fourth, it is shown that by manipulating the activation in the DLPFC using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS while participants are exposed to the virtual roller coaster ride presence-related measures are influenced. Finally, these findings are discussed in the context of current models explaining the experience of presence, the rubber hand illusion, and out of body experiences.

  19. SNTP program fuel element design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Ales, Matthew W.

    1993-06-01

    The SNTP program is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing a particle bed reactor to develop a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. The optimum fuel element arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the fuel element have been developed and are being tested.

  20. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  1. Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshu, Ch.

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses Quantum Mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages.

  2. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  3. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  4. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  5. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  6. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  7. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  8. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  9. A Synaptic Basis for Memory Storage in the Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Mark F.

    1996-11-01

    A cardinal feature of neurons in the cerebral cortex is stimulus selectivity, and experience-dependent shifts in selectivity are a common correlate of memory formation. We have used a theoretical ``learning rule,'' devised to account for experience-dependent shifts in neuronal selectivity, to guide experiments on the elementary mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and neocortex. These experiments reveal that many synapses in hippocampus and neocortex are bidirectionally modifiable, that the modifications persist long enough to contribute to long-term memory storage, and that key variables governing the sign of synaptic plasticity are the amount of NMDA receptor activation and the recent history of cortical activity.

  10. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  11. Multiscale mapping of frequency sweep rate in mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, John B; Haeffele, Benjamin D; Young, Eric D; Yue, David T

    2017-02-01

    Functional organization is a key feature of the neocortex that often guides studies of sensory processing, development, and plasticity. Tonotopy, which arises from the transduction properties of the cochlea, is the most widely studied organizational feature in auditory cortex; however, in order to process complex sounds, cortical regions are likely specialized for higher order features. Here, motivated by the prevalence of frequency modulations in mouse ultrasonic vocalizations and aided by the use of a multiscale imaging approach, we uncover a functional organization across the extent of auditory cortex for the rate of frequency modulated (FM) sweeps. In particular, using two-photon Ca(2+) imaging of layer 2/3 neurons, we identify a tone-insensitive region at the border of AI and AAF. This central sweep region behaves fundamentally differently from nearby neurons in AI and AII, responding preferentially to fast FM sweeps but not to tones or bandlimited noise. Together these findings define a second dimension of organization in the mouse auditory cortex for sweep rate complementary to that of tone frequency.

  12. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  13. What about the self is processed in the posterior cingulate cortex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judson eBrewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, neuroimaging research has begun to identify key brain regions involved in self-referential processing, most consistently midline structures such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The majority of studies have employed cognitive tasks such as judgment about trait adjectives or mind-wandering, that have been associated with increased PCC activity. Conversely, tasks that share an element of present centered attention (being on task, ranging from working memory to meditation, have been associated with decreased PCC activity. Given the complexity of cognitive processes that likely contribute to these tasks, the specific contribution of the PCC to self-related processes still remains unknown. Building on this prior literature, recent studies have employed sampling methods that more precisely link subjective experience to brain activity, such as real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This recent work suggests that PCC activity may represent a sub-component cognitive process of self-reference – getting caught up in one’s experience. For example, getting caught up in a drug craving or a particular viewpoint. In this paper, we will review evidence across a number of different domains of cognitive neuroscience that converges in activation and deactivation of the PCC including recent neurophenomenological studies of PCC activity using real-time fMRI neurofeedback.

  14. Napoleon’s Cavalry: A Key Element to Decisive Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    command between himself and General Wittgenstein . This, combined with the other complications of waging war by coalition, left the Allied headquarters...contact and the battle of Lutzen began as approximately 73,000 Allied forces, led by Russian General Wittgenstein , attacked into the French flank...Starssiedel Eisdorf Klein- Gorschen Rahna Kaja Gross- Gorschen Rocken Rippach Lutzen XXXX Napoleon XXX GRD XXXX Wittgenstein XXX IV Bertrand XXX VI Marmont XXX

  15. Open Government Data - A key Element in the Digital Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Schrøder, Lise

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade several initiatives have worked towards open and freely available data. First, the success by the OpenStreetMap and partly the free use of Google Maps have been a revelation for many users, both in the public sector as well as in the private sector. Additionally, several le...... projects, and the current research focuses on the role of open public sector information as a major step towards a digital society by analysing the background, extent and expected impact of the Danish open government data initiative....

  16. Open Government Data - A key Element in the Digital Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Schrøder, Lise

    2013-01-01

    legal frameworks like the EU directive on Re-use of Public Sector Information and the INSPIRE Directive on geographic information have in various ways encouraged the re-use of public sector information. As a consequence, a minor group of European countries have launched their own open government data...... projects, and the current research focuses on the role of open public sector information as a major step towards a digital society by analysing the background, extent and expected impact of the Danish open government data initiative.......During the last decade several initiatives have worked towards open and freely available data. First, the success by the OpenStreetMap and partly the free use of Google Maps have been a revelation for many users, both in the public sector as well as in the private sector. Additionally, several...

  17. Functional Nanofibers and Colloidal Gels: Key Elements to Enhance Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy Amanda

    Nanomaterials bridge the gap between bulk materials and molecular structures and are known for their unique material properties and highly functional nature which make them attractive for a variety of potential applications, from energy storage and pollution sensors to agricultural and biomedical products. These potential applications, coupled with advances in nanotechnology, have generated considerable interest in nanostructure research. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on two such nanostructures, electrospun nanofibers and nanodiamond particles, with an overarching goal of tailoring the material behavior for a desired outcome. Our first research theme focuses on realizing the full potential of chitosan electrospinning by understanding the mechanism that enables fiber formation through cyclodextrin complexation as a function of solution properties, solvent types, and cyclodextrin content. We demonstrate that cyclodextrin addition not only enables chitosan fiber formation, but also extends the composition and solvent window for nanofiber synthesis while introducing a variety of mat topologies, including three-dimensional, self-supporting mats. These fiber formation improvements cannot be fully explained by conventional electrospinning parameters, but instead seem to be related to the molecular interactions between chitosan and cyclodextrin. Our second research theme entails the modification of highly water soluble, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers dissolution properties via atomic layer deposition (ALD) post treatments. In this work, we demonstrate that applying different thicknesses of aluminum oxide nano-coatings can improve the stability of PVA nanofibers in high humidity conditions and significantly decrease the solubility of electrospun PVA mats in water, from seconds to multiple weeks. Controlling mat dissolution allows for the unique opportunity to modulate small molecule, such as drug, release from nanofibers without altering the core material so that prolonged release can be readily achieved from highly water soluble nanofibers. The final research theme focuses on gaining a fundamental understanding of a new class of materials, nanodiamond, so that a desired microstructure can be achieved via functionalization or manipulating processing parameters. In particular, we utilize both steady and dynamic rheology techniques to systematically investigate systems of nanodiamonds dispersed in model nonpolar (mineral oil) and polar (glycerol) media. In both cases, selfsupporting colloidal gels form at relatively low nanodiamond content; however, the gel behavior is highly dependent on the type of media used. Nanodiamonds dispersed in mineral oil exhibit characteristic colloidal gel behavior, with a rheological response that is independent of both frequency and time. However, nanodiamonds dispersed in glycerol exhibit a time dependent response, with the strength of the colloidal gels increasing several orders of magnitude. We attribute these rheological differences to changes in solvent complexity, where new particle-solvent and particle-particle interactions have the potential to delay optimal gel formation. In addition to colloidal gel formation, we use large oscillatory strains to probe the effect of processing parameters on microstructure disruption and recovery. The results indicate that the formation and rearrangement of the nanodiamond microstructures are concentration dependent for both media types; however, the recovery after breakdown is different for each system. Recovery of the nanodiamond/mineral oil gels is incomplete, with the strength of the recovered gel being significantly reduced. In contrast, the original strength of the nanodiamond/glycerol gels is recoverable as the system restructures with time. The practical implications of these results are significant as it suggest that shear history and solvent polarity play a dominant role in nanodiamond processing.

  18. Corporate Governance - Key element in the Growth of Audit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Almaşi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, because of the many financial scandals, we have witnessed numerous debates concerning topics, such as government enterprises or aspects of participants reporting process. It is obviously that it is necessary to examine the corporate governance issues and those relating to the audit committee; that’s why, even if the financial statements are the responsibility of the management, it’s important to ensure the provision of information taking into account the principles of true and fair play, in the audit committees and through the external auditors.

  19. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    companies need to be stakeholder confident (Ernst & Young,. 2011) to be ... comparative study of festivals. Marisa P. de ... three tourism journals for the past 20 years. This goes ... environmental value for events, so that sustainable hospitality can be a ..... the practices include renewable energy: e.g. used kitchen oil from the ...

  20. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and pop-up events, with adepts of pop-up culture becoming increasingly .... Group is an independent, pan European and cross industry think-tank to inspire people ...... International Marketing (Advances in International Marketing, vol. 23), (pp.

  1. Key Elements Controlling Oil Accumulation within the Tight Sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Hu; Zhiping Zeng; Jianzhang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Tight oil sandstone reservoirs with low porosity and permeability, which are an uncon-ventional petroleum resource, have been discovered in the Jurassic intervals of the central Junggar Ba-sin, the northwestern China. To reveal the accumulation mechanism, a relatively comprehensive re-search was conducted, including oil-source correlation, porosity evolution, and hydrocarbon charging history. The results show that crude oil of these tight sandstone reservoirs were mainly from Permian source rocks with some contribution from Jurassic source rocks. The reservoirs were buried at shallow depth (5%). In contrast, the sandstone reservoir had already become tight and did not provide available space to ac-cumulate oil due to severe compaction and cementation when hydrocarbon from Jurassic source rock filled, evidenced by low GOI values (<5%). Therefore, reservoir porosity controls the oil accumulation within tight sandstone. Whether tight sandstone reservoirs accumulate oil depends on the reservoir quality when hydrocarbons charge. Before the exploration of tight oil sandstone reservoirs, it should be required to investigate the relationship between oil charging history and porosity evolution to reduce the exploration risk and figure out the available targets.

  2. Color contrast and stability as key elements for effectivewarning signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Arenas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vivid warning signals (aposematism have evolved repeatedly throughout the animal kingdom. However, relatively few studies consider what makes an effective signal, such as in terms of preventing attack and promoting avoidance learning by predators. Signal form varies substantially among and sometimes within species, but there has also been apparent convergence on relatively few main color types. We aimed to determine why warning signals often combine red, orange, yellow and black colors, and specifically to determine whether these colors provide highly salient and reliable visual signals under a range of environmental conditions. Using digital image analysis, we modeled ladybird (ladybug coloration to an avian visual system. We calculated the contrast of several different ladybird species against an average green background, based on predicted opponent color channel responses in bird vision. Our results suggest that longwave colors (i.e. red, orange are more contrasting than colors such as blue, against green natural backgrounds. Moreover, these colors yield relatively unchanging (stable signals throughout the day and under different weather conditions. These analyses show how aposematic signals have evolved under selection to be more effective by being more conspicuous and reliable to the visual system of their potential avian predators.

  3. Operational Design: A Key Element in Successful Battalion Level Counterinsurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    efin in g su ccess . S u b -o b jective o...assessm ent -L in es o f o p eratio n (LO O ) id en tificatio n an d d efin itio n s -L O O assessm en ts -C am p aig n p lan en d state o b jectives...8217co~ « D efined by enem y,Friendly, H N 1 unitdid notactually state they developed en d state by L O a, >=, security forces, local governm

  4. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  5. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both children and adults. Research indicates that physical activity is important because it promotes: general health through cardiovascular fitness mental alertness weight control improved sleep quality ...

  6. Key elements for a measurement framework for public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Carter Walter; Lopez-Bassols, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent NESTI work on developing guidelines for measuring public sector innovation (PSI). The paper includes an update on various ongoing activities which will contribute to the development of a measurement framework for PSI and outlines a number of areas which...... could be further addressed in a final report. Delegates are invited to discuss the proposals and provide inputs on the next steps of the work, particularly regarding the use of multiple approaches, the scope of the measurement framework, the need for core definitions,and priorities for indicators...

  7. Key elements on team achievement: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Alvaro D

    2008-07-01

    This study is a historical reconstruction and in-depth scrutiny of one very successful team initiative within a Quality Improvement (QI) program in a municipal government organization. The identification of the essential concepts that contributed to the team's success and their integration into a local explanatory theory of team achievement is the final purpose of the study. The focus of this retrospective study is on the team process, with primary attention given to team members' perspectives and reflections on the project development. Data collection and analysis were conducted with methods drawn from the qualitative research tradition and from Quality Management. Main findings point to the importance of consistent management support, correct team composition with an emphasis on the team leader choice and demeanor, and to the central role of training in the group conduct. The negotiated approach to decision-making employed by the team, which reflected its organizational context, and the effort and mechanisms that allowed the group to reach equilibrium between internal and external interests proved critical for its ultimate achievement.

  8. PROFESSIONALIZATION, KEY ELEMENT TO THE SUCCESS OF A FAMILY ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Francisco, Rueda Galvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While diagnosing the current situation of small and medium sized family enterprises in Latin America, it is common to find that one of its greatest weaknesses lies in the poor administrative management developed by its directors and / or owners, a fact resulting from the low levels of professionalization held by members of the organization. In this regard, strive for a balanced and efficient management committed to the training of leaders capable of ensuring profitability and growth processes of trade for these companies, within a coherent framework consistent with the requirements set by the current environment of globalization markets.

  9. Leadership – The Key Element in Improving Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Paulová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution is processed partial results of the survey application of leadership as one of the fundamental principles of quality management in organizations in the Slovak Republic. This survey was conducted in the research project VEGA No. 1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market. Results from the survey were the basis for proposals to improve the quality management in Slovak industrial organizations

  10. Tourism attractions: Key elements of tourism resource base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that theory of tourism lags behind increased tourism practice. In order to decrease such gap, theoretical work in tourism must be intensified and permanently reconsidered in future period. Consequently, it is necessary to pay attention to complex analysis and explicit interpretation of important notions that are integral parts of tourism practice, as well as objects of scientific investigations. The subject of this paper is analysis of complex structure of tourism resource base. Specially are focused two relevant tourism notions - tourist resources and tourist attractions (tourist motives. Analysis of their meaning, interrelationship and differences is made, relying on basic tourismological principles and critical review of contemporary experts opinions in this domain. Correct interpretation, setting the correlation and distinction between tourism relevant notions, at the same time require great responsibility and duty of tourismologists, tourism geographers, economists and other experts in the field of tourism to contribute to strengthening of tourism theory, adequately influencing on growing tourism practice.

  11. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Key Elements of the Tutorial Support Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Grace; Paasuke, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In response to an exponential growth in enrolments the "Tutorial Support Management" (TSM) model has been adopted by Open Universities Australia (OUA) after a two-year project on the provision of online tutor support in first year, online undergraduate units. The essential focus of the TSM model was the development of a systemic approach…

  13. Muscular dystrophies: key elements for everyday diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Palladino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that share similar clinical features and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy, associated with progressive weakness. Weakness may be noted at birth or develop in late adult life. In recent years, cardiac involvement has been observed in a growing number of genetic muscle diseases, and considerable progress has been made in understanding the relationships between disease skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle disease. This review will focus on the skeletal muscle diseases most commonly associated with cardiac complications that can be diagnosed by echocardiography, such as dystrophinopathies including Duchenne (DMD and Becker (BMD muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathy of DMD/BMD carriers and X-L dilated cardiomyopathy.

  14. The Homomorphic Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are various challenges that are faced in group communication, so it is necessary to ensure session key. Key agreement is the fundamental cryptographic primitive for establishing a secure communication. It is a process of computing a shared secret contributed by two or more entities such that no single node can predetermine the resulting value. An authenticated key agreement is attained by combining the key agreement protocol with digital signatures. After a brief introduction to existing key agreement in group communication, Making use of the additive-multiplicative homomorphism in the integer ring defined by Sander and Tschudin: A new protocols, called the homomorphism key agreement, was designed, which can be self-contributory, robust, scalable and applicable in group communication.

  15. Dissecting the actin cortex density and membrane-cortex distance in living cells by super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M. P.; Colin-York, H.; Schneider, F.; Eggeling, C.; Fritzsche, M.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoscale spacing between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton profoundly modulates cellular morphology, mechanics, and function. Measuring this distance has been a key challenge in cell biology. Current methods for dissecting the nanoscale spacing either limit themselves to complex survey design using fixed samples or rely on diffraction-limited fluorescence imaging whose spatial resolution is insufficient to quantify distances on the nanoscale. Using dual-color super-resolution STED (stimulated-emission-depletion) microscopy, we here overcome this challenge and accurately measure the density distribution of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and the distance between the actin cortex and the membrane in live Jurkat T-cells. We found an asymmetric cortical actin density distribution with a mean width of 230 (+105/-125) nm. The spatial distances measured between the maximum density peaks of the cortex and the membrane were bi-modally distributed with mean values of 50  ±  15 nm and 120  ±  40 nm, respectively. Taken together with the finite width of the cortex, our results suggest that in some regions the cortical actin is closer than 10 nm to the membrane and a maximum of 20 nm in others.

  16. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu; Liliana Cristina Soare

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  17. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  18. Key Account Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    This note tries to explain concept of key account management (KAM), factors leading to importance of this emerging concept, criteria to determine key accounts from customer base, benefits to both buyers and sellers agreeing to practice it, stages of KAM relationship, conditions under which power lies with buyer or seller, outlines risks faced by both the parties, key success factors, challenges faced in implementing this concept and relevance to infrastructure sector.

  19. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  20. Error-likelihood prediction in the medial frontal cortex: A critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Scheizer, T.S.; Mars, R.B.; Botvinick, M.M.; Hajcal, G.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study has proposed that posterior regions of the medial frontal cortex (pMFC) learn to predict the likelihood of errors ccurring in a given task context. A key prediction of the errorlZelihood (EL) hypothesis is that the pMFC should exhibit enhanced activity to cues that are predictive of h

  1. Prelimbic prefrontal cortex mediates respiratory responses to mild and potent prolonged, but not brief, stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, E; Hodgson, D M; Nalivaiko, E

    2014-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex is one of the key areas of the central mechanism of cardiovascular and respiratory control. Disinhibition of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex elicits tachypnoeic responses in anesthetized rats (Hassan et al., J. Physiol. 591: 6069-6088, 2013). The current study examines the effects of inhibition of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex during presentation of stressors of various lengths and intensities in conscious unrestrained rats. 8 Wistar rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulas targeting the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and received microinjections of either saline of GABAA agonist muscimol prior to recording sessions. Inhibition of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex significantly attenuated respiratory responses to a novel environment stress, 30s light stimulus and restraint stress. It did not affect respiratory responses to 500 ms acoustic stimuli of varying intensities (40-90 dB). We conclude that the prelimbic prefrontal cortex contributes to generation of tachypnoeic responses to prolonged stressors, but does not contribute to respiratory arousal in response to brief stressors.

  2. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  4. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  5. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  6. The compact key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1966-01-01

    Here is given a sample of a new sort of identification key, recently developed by Dr. P. W. Leenhouts of the Rijksherbarium. Having to sort many specimens of Sapindaceae into genera, he became dissatisfied with the common dichotomous key, which too often does not work when the material is not comple

  7. Prefrontal cortex and social cognition in mouse and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy King Bicks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and Schizophrenia (SCZ. Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain

  8. Element Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  9. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  11. An Alternative to Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, James

    1977-01-01

    For the secondary school, the author discourages the use of dichotomous keys in favor of a punch-card system. The system is readily constructed by students for use in plant and animal classification. (CP)

  12. Tonotopic organization of human auditory association cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, S; Williamson, S J; Karron, D

    1994-11-07

    Neuromagnetic studies of responses in human auditory association cortex for tone burst stimuli provide evidence for a tonotopic organization. The magnetic source image for the 100 ms component evoked by the onset of a tone is qualitatively similar to that of primary cortex, with responses lying deeper beneath the scalp for progressively higher tone frequencies. However, the tonotopic sequence of association cortex in three subjects is found largely within the superior temporal sulcus, although in the right hemisphere of one subject some sources may be closer to the inferior temporal sulcus. The locus of responses for individual subjects suggests a progression across the cortical surface that is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the tone frequency, as observed previously for primary cortex, with the span of 10 mm for each decade in frequency being comparable for the two areas.

  13. Fezf2 expression in layer 5 projection neurons of mature mouse motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantirigama, Malinda L S; Oswald, Manfred J; Clare, Alison J; Wicky, Hollie E; Day, Robert C; Hughes, Stephanie M; Empson, Ruth M

    2016-03-01

    The mature cerebral cortex contains a wide diversity of neuron phenotypes. This diversity is specified during development by neuron-specific expression of key transcription factors, some of which are retained for the life of the animal. One of these key developmental transcription factors that is also retained in the adult is Fezf2, but the neuron types expressing it in the mature cortex are unknown. With a validated Fezf2-Gfp reporter mouse, whole-cell electrophysiology with morphology reconstruction, cluster analysis, in vivo retrograde labeling, and immunohistochemistry, we identify a heterogeneous population of Fezf2(+) neurons in both layer 5A and layer 5B of the mature motor cortex. Functional electrophysiology identified two distinct subtypes of Fezf2(+) neurons that resembled pyramidal tract projection neurons (PT-PNs) and intratelencephalic projection neurons (IT-PNs). Retrograde labeling confirmed the former type to include corticospinal projection neurons (CSpPNs) and corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPNs), whereas the latter type included crossed corticostriatal projection neurons (cCStrPNs) and crossed-corticocortical projection neurons (cCCPNs). The two Fezf2(+) subtypes expressed either CTIP2 or SATB2 to distinguish their physiological identity and confirmed that specific expression combinations of key transcription factors persist in the mature motor cortex. Our findings indicate a wider role for Fezf2 within gene expression networks that underpin the diversity of layer 5 cortical projection neurons.

  14. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  15. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  16. Secret Key Crypto Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Guido Marco; Melzani, Filippo

    This chapter presents the algorithm selected in 2001 as the Advanced Encryption Standard. This algorithm is the base for implementing security and privacy based on symmetric key solutions in almost all new applications. Secret key algorithms are used in combination with modes of operation to provide different security properties. The most used modes of operation are presented in this chapter. Finally an overview of the different techniques of software and hardware implementations is given.

  17. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  18. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa De Rose; Giusy Guzzi; Domenico Bosco; Mary Romano; Serena Marianna Lavano; Massimiliano Plastino; Giorgio Volpentesta; Rosa Marotta; Angelo Lavano

    2012-01-01

    Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment...

  19. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-09

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection.

  20. [Investigation on chemical constituents of processed products of Eucommiae Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Sheng, Chen; Li, Wei-dong; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2014-11-01

    According to the 2010 Chinese pharmacopeia, salt processed and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were pre- pared. HPLC-DAD analysis of the content of the bark and leaf of Eucommiae Cortex showed that the bark of Eucommiae Cortex mainly contained lignans such as pinoresinol glucose and iridoid including genipin, geniposide, geniposidic acid, while the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex consisted of flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic compound such as chlorogenic acid. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 18 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased approximately by 30% and 85%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times, 23 times, 28 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in salted Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 25%, 40% and 40%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 98%, 70%, 70%, respectively. The content of caffeic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of caffeic acid was decreased by about 50% in the salted Eucommiae Cortex. While the content of caffeic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex was decreased approximately 75%; the content of chlorogenic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 1/6 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of chlorogenic acid in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased by 40% and 75%, respectively; the content of quercetin in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was only 1/40 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of quercetin in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 60% and 50%, respectively.

  1. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  2. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  3. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  4. Elemental distribution in lichens transplanted to polluted forest sites near Krakow (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budka, Dobroslawa; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J. E-mail: przybylowicz@nac.ac.za; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna

    2002-04-01

    This study describes elemental distribution in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., with emphasis on heavy metals. Micro-PIXE measurements were performed using the nuclear microprobe at the iThemba LABS, South Africa. Detailed information from different thallus layers was obtained by performing true elemental mapping using the dynamic analysis method, complemented by analyses of selected smaller areas and point analyses. Cl and K concentrations were high near the algal layer whilst S concentrated mostly in the algal and lower cortex layers. The highest concentrations of P were found in the lower cortex. Mn and Zn were mostly concentrated in the algal layer and lower cortex while high concentrations of Fe were noted in the lower cortex. The highest concentrations of Ca and Pb were found in the medullary layer. Mapping of lichen samples soaked in Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution proved that the highest Pb concentration occurred in the upper and lower cortex.

  5. Neural estimates of imagined outcomes in the orbitofrontal cortex drive behavior and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji K; Chang, Chun Yun; Lucantonio, Federica; Haney, Richard Z; Berg, Benjamin A; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bonci, Antonello; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2013-10-16

    Imagination, defined as the ability to interpret reality in ways that diverge from past experience, is fundamental to adaptive behavior. This can be seen at a simple level in our capacity to predict novel outcomes in new situations. The ability to anticipate outcomes never before received can also influence learning if those imagined outcomes are not received. The orbitofrontal cortex is a key candidate for where the process of imagining likely outcomes occurs; however, its precise role in generating these estimates and applying them to learning remain open questions. Here we address these questions by showing that single-unit activity in the orbitofrontal cortex reflects novel outcome estimates. The strength of these neural correlates predicted both behavior and learning, learning that was abolished by temporally specific inhibition of orbitofrontal neurons. These results are consistent with the proposal that the orbitofrontal cortex is critical for integrating information to imagine future outcomes.

  6. Keys through ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Mohamed Abdel; Gamal, Hesham El

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a novel framework for sharing secret keys using the well-known Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol. The proposed key sharing protocol does not assume any prior knowledge about the channel state information (CSI), but, harnesses the available opportunistic secrecy gains using only the one bit feedback, in the form of ACK/NACK. The distribution of key bits among multiple ARQ epochs, in our approach, allows for mitigating the secrecy outage phenomenon observed in earlier works. We characterize the information theoretic limits of the proposed scheme, under different assumptions on the channel spatial and temporal correlation function, and develop low complexity explicit implementations. Our analysis reveals a novel role of "dumb antennas" in overcoming the negative impact of spatial correlation, between the legitimate and eavesdropper channels, on the achievable secrecy rates. We further develop an adaptive rate allocation policy which achieves higher secrecy rates by exploiting the channe...

  7. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  8. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eBiagini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perirhinal cortex – which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory - plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  9. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  10. A dorsolateral prefrontal cortex semi-automatic segmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Fallon, James; Nain, Delphine; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-03-01

    Structural, functional, and clinical studies in schizophrenia have, for several decades, consistently implicated dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of the disease. Functional and structural imaging studies, combined with clinical, psychometric, and genetic analyses in schizophrenia have confirmed the key roles played by the prefrontal cortex and closely linked "prefrontal system" structures such as the striatum, amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, and anterior cingulate cortices. The nodal structure of the prefrontal system circuit is the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or Brodmann area 46, which also appears to be the most commonly studied and cited brain area with respect to schizophrenia. 1, 2, 3, 4 In 1986, Weinberger et. al. tied cerebral blood flow in the DLPFC to schizophrenia.1 In 2001, Perlstein et. al. demonstrated that DLPFC activation is essential for working memory tasks commonly deficient in schizophrenia. 2 More recently, groups have linked morphological changes due to gene deletion and increased DLPFC glutamate concentration to schizophrenia. 3, 4 Despite the experimental and clinical focus on the DLPFC in structural and functional imaging, the variability of the location of this area, differences in opinion on exactly what constitutes DLPFC, and inherent difficulties in segmenting this highly convoluted cortical region have contributed to a lack of widely used standards for manual or semi-automated segmentation programs. Given these implications, we developed a semi-automatic tool to segment the DLPFC from brain MRI scans in a reproducible way to conduct further morphological and statistical studies. The segmenter is based on expert neuroanatomist rules (Fallon-Kindermann rules), inspired by cytoarchitectonic data and reconstructions presented by Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic. 5 It is semi-automated to provide essential user interactivity. We present our results and provide details on

  11. Characterization of postsynaptic calcium signals in the pyramidal neurons of anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Hui; Song, Qian; Chen, Tao; Zhuo, Min

    2017-01-01

    Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons. Single and multi-action potentials evoked significant suprathreshold Ca(2+) increases in somas and spines. Both NMDA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels contributed to this increase. Postsynaptic Ca(2+)signals were induced by puff-application of glutamate, and a NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 blocked these signals in both somas and spines. Finally, long-term potentiation inducing protocols triggered postsynaptic Ca(2+) influx, and these influx were NMDA receptor dependent. Our results provide the first study of calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex and demonstrate that NMDA receptors play important roles in postsynaptic calcium signals in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons.

  12. Small scale module of the rat granular retrosplenial cortex: an example of minicolumn-like structure of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka eIchinohe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structures associated with the small scale module called minicolumn can be observed frequently in the cerebral cortex. However, the description of functional characteristics remains obscure. A significant confounding factor is the marked variability both in the definition of a minicolumn and in the diagnostic markers for identifying a minicolumn (see for review, Jones, 2000, DeFelipe et al., 2003; Rockland and Ichinohe, 2004. Within a minicolumn, cell columns are easily visualized by conventional Nissl staining. Dendritic bundles were first discovered with Golgi methods, but are more easily seen with MAP2-immunohistochemisty. Myelinated axon bundles can be seen by Tau-immunohistochemistry or myelin staining. Axon bundles of double bouquet cell can be seen by calbindin-immunohistochemistry. The spatial interrelationship among these morphological elements is more complex than expected and is neither clear nor unanimously agreed upon. In this review, I would like to focus first on the minicolumnar structure found in layers 1 and 2 of the rat granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS. This modular structure was first discovered as a combination of prominent apical dendritic bundles from layer 2 pyramidal neurons and spatially-matched thalamocortical patchy inputs (Wyss et al., 2000. Further examination showed more intricate components of this modular structure, which will be reviewed in this paper. Second, the postnatal development of this structure and potential molecular players for its formation will be reviewed. Thirdly, I will discuss how this modular organization is transformed in mutant rodents with a disorganized layer structure in the cerebral cortex (i.e., reeler mouse and Shaking Rat Kawasaki. Lastly, the potential significance of this type of module will be discussed.

  13. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  14. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  15. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  16. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  17. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  18. Deep prepiriform cortex kindling and amygdala interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D Y; Moshé, S L

    1987-03-01

    The deep prepiriform cortex (DPC) has been recently suggested to be a crucial epileptogenic site in the rat brain. We investigated the susceptibility of the DPC to the development of electrical kindling as compared to that of the superficial prepiriform cortex (SPC) and amygdala as well as the transfer interactions between the two prepiriform sites and amygdala. Adult rats with electrodes implanted in the right prepiriform cortex (DPC or SPC) and left amygdala were divided into a DPC-amygdala and SPC-amygdala group while a third group consisted of rats with electrodes implanted in the ipsilateral DPC and amygdala. Within each group the rats were initially kindled from one site selected randomly and then rekindled from the other site. Both DPC and SPC were as sensitive to the development of kindling as the amygdala. The behavioral seizures elicited with DPC or SPC primary kindling were identical to those induced by amygdala kindling. Initial DPC kindling facilitated the development of kindling from either ipsilateral or contralateral amygdala with the ipsilateral transfer being significantly more potent than the contralateral. SPC kindling also facilitated the development of contralateral amygdala kindling but was less effective than DPC kindling. On the other hand, amygdala kindling did not facilitate contralateral SPC or DPC kindling although it transferred to the ipsilateral DPC. These results indicate that the prepiriform cortex can be readily kindled but not faster than the amygdala and that there are unequal kindling transfer interactions between prepiriform cortex and amygdala.

  19. Motor cortex neuroplasticity following brachial plexus transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eDimou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27 year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralised to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced phantom limb pain.

  20. [Prefrontal cortex in memory and attention processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, R F; Harris, P

    The role of the prefrontal cortex still remains poorly understood. Only after 1970, the functions of the frontal lobes have been conceptualized from different points of view (behaviorism, cognitivism). Recently,different parallel circuits connecting discrete cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal lobes have been described. Three of these circuits are the most relevant to understanding of behavior: the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, that mediates executive behavior; the orbitofrontal prefrontal circuit, mediating social behavior, and the medial frontal circuit, involved in motivation. Damage to the frontal cortex impairs planning, problem solving, reasoning, concept formation, temporal ordering of stimuli, estimation, attention, memory search, maintaining information in working memory, associative learning,certain forms of skilled motor activities, image generation and manipulation of the spatial properties of a stimulus, metacognitive thinking, and social cognition. Several theories have been proposed to explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex. Currently,the most influential cognitive models are: the Norman and Shallice supervisory attentional system, involved in non-routine selection; the Baddeley working memory model with the central executive as a supervisory controlling system, in which impairment leads to a 'dysexecutive syndrome'; and the Grafman's model of managerial knowledge units, stored as macrostructured information in the frontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is essential for attentional control, manipulation of stored knowledge and modulation of complex actions, cognition, emotion and behavior.

  1. New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-01-01

    Primary ("early") sensory cortices have been viewed as stimulus analyzers devoid of function in learning, memory, and cognition. However, studies combining sensory neurophysiology and learning protocols have revealed that associative learning systematically modifies the encoding of stimulus dimensions in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to accentuate behaviorally important sounds. This "representational plasticity" (RP) is manifest at different levels. The sensitivity and selectivity of signal tones increase near threshold, tuning above threshold shifts toward the frequency of acoustic signals, and their area of representation can increase within the tonotopic map of A1. The magnitude of area gain encodes the level of behavioral stimulus importance and serves as a substrate of memory strength. RP has the same characteristics as behavioral memory: it is associative, specific, develops rapidly, consolidates, and can last indefinitely. Pairing tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis induces RP and implants specific behavioral memory, while directly increasing the representational area of a tone in A1 produces matching behavioral memory. Thus, RP satisfies key criteria for serving as a substrate of auditory memory. The findings suggest a basis for posttraumatic stress disorder in abnormally augmented cortical representations and emphasize the need for a new model of the cerebral cortex.

  2. Binding 3-D object perception in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Boehler, C N; Nönnig, Nina; Düzel, Emrah; Hopf, Jens-Max; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2008-04-01

    How do visual luminance, shape, motion, and depth bind together in the brain to represent the coherent percept of a 3-D object within hundreds of milliseconds (msec)? We provide evidence from simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) data that perception of 3-D objects defined by luminance or motion elicits sequential activity in human visual cortices within 500 msec. Following activation of the primary visual cortex around 100 msec, 3-D objects elicited sequential activity with only little overlap (dynamic 3-D shapes: MT-LO-Temp; stationary 3-D shapes: LO-Temp). A delay of 80 msec, both in MEG/EEG responses and in reaction times (RTs), was found when additional motion information was processed. We also found significant positive correlations between RT, and MEG and EEG responses in the right temporal location. After about 400 msec, long-lasting activity was observed in the parietal cortex and concurrently in previously activated regions. Novel time-frequency analyses indicate that the activity in the lateral occipital (LO) complex is associated with an increase of induced power in the gamma band, a hallmark of binding. The close correspondence of an induced gamma response with concurrent sources located in the LO in both experimental conditions at different points in time ( approximately 200 msec for luminance and approximately 300 msec for dynamic cues) strongly suggests that the LO is the key region for the assembly of object features. The assembly is fed forward to achieve coherent perception of a 3-D object within 500 msec.

  3. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable of providing...... part; at least one display unit capable of providing light to the plurality of transmitting parts via the optical element; and wherein the light provided to a transmitting part defines a visual value of the corresponding key element.; In this way, the keyboard is dynamic and further is able to provide...... a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard....

  4. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  5. Detecting Cortex Fragments During Bacterial Spore Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michael B; Sorg, Joseph A

    2016-06-25

    The process of endospore germination in Clostridium difficile, and other Clostridia, increasingly is being found to differ from the model spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Germination is triggered by small molecule germinants and occurs without the need for macromolecular synthesis. Though differences exist between the mechanisms of spore germination in species of Bacillus and Clostridium, a common requirement is the hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan-like cortex which allows the spore core to swell and rehydrate. After rehydration, metabolism can begin and this, eventually, leads to outgrowth of a vegetative cell. The detection of hydrolyzed cortex fragments during spore germination can be difficult and the modifications to the previously described assays can be confusing or difficult to reproduce. Thus, based on our recent report using this assay, we detail a step-by-step protocol for the colorimetric detection of cortex fragments during bacterial spore germination.

  6. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  7. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  8. Efficient Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ardehali, M; Chau, H F; Lo, H K

    1998-01-01

    We devise a simple modification that essentially doubles the efficiency of a well-known quantum key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84). Our scheme assigns significantly different probabilities for the different polarization bases during both transmission and reception to reduce the fraction of discarded data. The actual probabilities used in the scheme are announced in public. As the number of transmitted signals increases, the efficiency of our scheme can be made to approach 100%. The security of our scheme (against single-photon eavesdropping strategies) is guaranteed by a refined analysis of accepted data which is employed to detect eavesdropping: Instead of lumping all the accepted data together to estimate a single error rate, we separate the accepted data into various subsets according to the basis employed and estimate an error rate for each subset individually. Our scheme is the first quantum key distribution with an efficiency greater than 50%. We remark that our idea is rath...

  9. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  10. Ancel Keys: a tribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2005-02-14

    Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study - which was immediately recognized to be a classic - continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  11. Directional tunings independent of orientation in the primary visual cortex of the cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈垚; 李兵; 李宝旺; 刁云程

    2001-01-01

    A family of moving ‘random-line' patterns was developed and used to study the directional tuning of 91 single units in cat primary visual cortex (V1). The results suggest that, in addition to the well-known orientation-dependent mechanism, there is also some kind of orientation-independent mechanism underlying the direction selectivity. The directional tuning of the neurons varies in accordance with the increase of orientation or non-orientation element in the stimulus.

  12. Dopamine Modulates the Functional Organization of the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-02-08

    Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC. To this end, we combined double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacology [D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist amisulpride] in humans with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and clustering methods. In the placebo group, we replicated previously observed parcellations of the OFC into two and six subregions based on connectivity patterns with the rest of the brain. Most importantly, while the twofold clustering did not differ significantly between groups, blocking D2Rs significantly changed the composition of the sixfold parcellation, suggesting a dopamine-dependent reconfiguration of functional OFC subregions. Moreover, multivariate decoding analyses revealed that amisulpride changed the whole-brain connectivity patterns of individual OFC subregions. In particular, D2R blockade shifted the balance of OFC connectivity from associative areas in the temporal and parietal lobe toward functional connectivity with the frontal cortex. In summary, our results suggest that dopamine alters the composition of functional OFC circuits, possibly indicating a broader role for neuromodulators in the dynamic reconfiguration of functional brain networks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key role of any neuromodulator may be the reconfiguration of functional brain circuits. Here we test this idea with regard to dopamine and the organization of functional networks in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). We show that blockade of dopamine D2 receptors has profound effects on the functional connectivity patterns of

  13. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Pain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Neil Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to higher order pain processing in rodents.

  14. Coding of movements in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P; Carpenter, Adam F

    2015-08-01

    The issue of coding of movement in the motor cortex has recently acquired special significance due to its fundamental importance in neuroprosthetic applications. The challenge of controlling a prosthetic arm by processed motor cortical activity has opened a new era of research in applied medicine but has also provided an 'acid test' for hypotheses regarding coding of movement in the motor cortex. The successful decoding of movement information from the activity of motor cortical cells using their directional tuning and population coding has propelled successful neuroprosthetic applications and, at the same time, asserted the utility of those early discoveries, dating back to the early 1980s.

  15. Postictal inhibition of the somatosensory cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Jovanovic, Marina; Atkins, Mary Doreen

    2011-01-01

    Transient suppression of the motor cortex and of the speech areas cause well-described postictal phenomena following seizures involving the respective cortical areas. Pain is a rare symptom in epileptic seizures. We present a patient with painful tonic seizures in the left leg. The amplitude...... of the cortical component of the somatosensory evoked potential following stimulation of the left tibial nerve was reduced immediately after the seizure. Our findings suggest that the excitability of the sensory cortex is transiently reduced following a seizure involving the somatosensory area....

  16. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S Vismer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of the limbic and cortical regions of the mammalian brain provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with epilepsy and seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC, perirhinal (PRC, and entorhinal cortex (ERC in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis.

  17. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismer, Marta S; Forcelli, Patrick A; Skopin, Mark D; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis.

  18. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation.

  19. Stimulus-specific delay activity in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serences, John T; Ester, Edward F; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2009-02-01

    Working memory (WM) involves maintaining information in an on-line state. One emerging view is that information in WM is maintained via sensory recruitment, such that information is stored via sustained activity in the sensory areas that encode the to-be-remembered information. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that key sensory regions such as primary visual cortex (V1) showed little evidence of sustained increases in mean activation during a WM delay period, though such amplitude increases have typically been used to determine whether a region is involved in on-line maintenance. However, a multivoxel pattern analysis of delay-period activity revealed a sustained pattern of activation in V1 that represented only the intentionally stored feature of a multifeature object. Moreover, the pattern of delay activity was qualitatively similar to that observed during the discrimination of sensory stimuli, suggesting that WM representations in V1 are reasonable "copies" of those evoked during pure sensory processing.

  20. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Onisawa, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness may require neuronal circuit mechanisms for the "binding" of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron-olfactory bulb-olfactory cortex-orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  1. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex and orbitofrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron – olfactory bulb – olfactory cortex – orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  2. Rare earth elements in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kodina G.E.; Kulakov V.N.; Sheino I.N.

    2014-01-01

    The review focuses on the key applications of stable and radioactive isotopes of rare earth elements in the technology of nuclear medicine, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and binary radiotherapy technologies.

  3. Rare earth elements in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodina G.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review focuses on the key applications of stable and radioactive isotopes of rare earth elements in the technology of nuclear medicine, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and binary radiotherapy technologies.

  4. Key elements of swat physical training and its implementation strategy:a case study of Nanjing Forest Police College Swat Training%特警身体素质训练的关键要素分析与实施策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 刘昱欣; 周维方

    2015-01-01

    培养出真正能够胜任重担的特警是公安教育10余年来一直努力探索的重要问题之一,特别是特警身体素质的训练问题。南京森林警察学院有着近15年特警培养历史,在公安特警教育方面处于领头羊位置,以其特警培养为例展开研究。研究认为,特警队员的自身条件、教官的训练水平、管理水平、训练装备与场馆、营养补给、机能恢复与心理干预情况和训练时间保障在特警身体素质训练中起着关键性作用,并藉此进行了实施策略的研究。%Swat,as a new police classification in China,bear the responsibility in the emergencies.How to cultivate truly competent swat is one of the important problems of the heavy burden of police education for more than10 years,especially swat physical training. Nanjing Forest Police Collage is in the leading position which has over 15 years of history in swat education,so it is taken as a case study in this paper.The study suggests that swat team members'physical conditions,instructors'training and management level,training equipment and venues,nutritional supplement,functional recovery and psychological intervention and the training time is the key elements of swat's physical training,and research the implementation of the strategy.

  5. Acupoint specificity on acupuncture regulation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-jun; Zhang, Jiao-jiao; Yang, Hao-yan; Wang, Fang; Li, Si-ting

    2015-03-27

    The hypothalamus is an essential part of the brain that responds to a variety of signaling including stressful stimulations and acupuncture signals. It is also the key element of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis(HPAA). The effect of acupuncture is transmitted into the brain from the distance sensory receptor around the acupoints via peripheral nerves and body fluid. In vivo recording the activities of stress reaction neurons (SRNs, CRH-like neurons) in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to the stimulations from different acupoints could therefore objectively reflect the acupuncture afferent effect. In this study, the electrophysiological method was adopted to record synchronously the activities of 43 CRH-like neurons after acupuncture stimulations at 33 acupoints located at the different regions. The acupoints that specifically activate certain CRH-like neurons (specificity acupoints) were selected. Furthermore, we investigated in a rat model of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) whether these specificity acupoints regulate HPAA function. The endpoints of measurement include corticosterone (CORT) level in peripheral blood, the expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in PVN and the animal behavioral performance. Our results reveal that Shenshu (BL23), Ganshu (BL18), Qimen (LR14), Jingmen (GB25), Riyue (GB24), Zangmen (LR13), Dazui (DU14) and auricular concha region (ACR) are the specificity acupoints; and Gallbladder, Liver and Du Channels were the specificity Channels. The acupoints on Gallbladder Channel and the acupoints innervated by the same spinal cord segments as the adrenal gland demonstrated dramatic effects. This study provides a new platform to further explore acupoints specificity in the regulation of HPAA activities.

  6. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M; Kishi, K; Kato, S

    2007-09-01

    The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.

  7. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of a Method for Content Determination of Polysaccharide in Membranous milkveteh root Applied in Fisheries Yu Xiao-qing et al. (1) Abstract Some chemical component in the traditional Chinese medicine Membranous milkvetch root can improve the ability of disease-prevention of animal and it can be applied in fisheries. In the paper, the method about content determination of polysaccharide in the root was established based on orthogonal experimental design Key words medicine; polysaccharide in Membranous milkvetch root; method of determination

  8. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    OpenAIRE

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recogni...

  9. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  10. Identification key to Quivira milkweeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a key to milkweed identification at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. It contains a dichotomous key as well as a picture key. Milkweeds found on the...

  11. The role of long-range connectivity for the characterization of the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation. Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed. We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant, and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms, and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  12. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Knösche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high-degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation.Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed.We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  13. Error Negativity Does Not Reflect Conflict: A Reappraisal of Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Our ability to detect and correct errors is essential for our adaptive behavior. The conflict-loop theory states that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in detecting the need to increase control through conflict monitoring. Such monitoring is assumed to manifest itself in an electroencephalographic (EEG) component, the "error negativity" (Ne or "error-related negativity" [ERN]). We have directly tested the hypothesis that the ACC monitors conflict through simulation and expe...

  14. Microglia in the Cerebral Cortex in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Jiang, Sue; Williams, Brian A.; Allman, Elizabeth; Wold, Barbara J.; Allman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    We immunocytochemically identified microglia in fronto-insular (FI) and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically quantified the microglial densities. Densities were determined blind to phenotype using an optical fractionator probe. In FI, individuals with autism had…

  15. Structure of Orbitofrontal Cortex Predicts Social Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador

    2012-01-01

    to guide choices and behaviour. These values can often be updated by the expressed preferences of other people as much as by independent experience. In this correspondence, we report a linear relationship between grey matter volume (GM) in a region of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFCGM) and the tendency...

  16. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  17. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eVaughan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in humans. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  18. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  19. Contour extracting networks in early extrastriate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Hess, Robert F.; May, Keith A.; Harvey, Ben M.; Rokers, Bas; Barendregt, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex process a local region of visual space, but in order to adequately analyze natural images, neurons need to interact. The notion of an ''association field'' proposes that neurons interact to extract extended contours. Here, we identify the site and properties of contour

  20. Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R M; Moore, BCJ; Patterson, RD; Winter, IM; Carlyon, RP; Gockel, HE

    2013-01-01

    Tonotopy is arguably the most prominent organizational principle in the auditory pathway. Nevertheless, the layout of tonotopic maps in humans is still debated. We present neuroimaging data that robustly identify multiple tonotopic maps in the bilateral auditory cortex. In contrast with some earlier

  1. The Harmonic Organization of Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds.

  2. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  3. Hierarchical error representation in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Brown, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is reliably activated by both performance and prediction errors. Error signals have typically been treated as a scalar, and it is unknown to what extent multiple error signals may co-exist within mPFC. Previous studies have shown that lateral frontal cortex (LFC) is arranged in a hierarchy of abstraction, such that more abstract concepts and rules are represented in more anterior cortical regions. Given the close interaction between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, we explored the hypothesis that mPFC would be organized along a similar rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction, such that more abstract prediction errors are represented further anterior and more concrete errors further posterior. We show that multiple prediction error signals can be found in mPFC, and furthermore, these are arranged in a rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction which parallels that found in LFC. We used a task that requires a three-level hierarchy of rules to be followed, in which the rules changed without warning at each level of the hierarchy. Task feedback indicated which level of the rule hierarchy changed and led to corresponding prediction error signals in mPFC. Moreover, each identified region of mPFC was preferentially functionally connected to correspondingly anterior regions of LFC. These results suggest the presence of a parallel structure between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, with the medial regions monitoring and evaluating performance based on rules maintained in the corresponding lateral regions.

  4. Contour extracting networks in early extrastriate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Hess, Robert F.; May, Keith A.; Harvey, Ben M.; Rokers, Bas; Barendregt, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex process a local region of visual space, but in order to adequately analyze natural images, neurons need to interact. The notion of an ''association field'' proposes that neurons interact to extract extended contours. Here, we identify the site and properties of contour i

  5. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past ... scans showed that their brains' outer mantle, or cortex, thickens more rapidly during childhood, reaching its peak ...

  6. Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex Interacts with Nucleus Accumbens Shell to Unmask Expression of Outcome-Selective Pavlovianto- Instrumental Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keistler, Colby; Barker, Jacqueline M.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the subcortical circuitry underlying Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), the role of medial prefrontal cortex in this behavior is largely unknown. Elucidating the cortical contributions to PIT will be key for understanding how reward-paired cues control behavior in both adaptive and maladaptive context…

  7. A switch from inter-ocular to inter-hemispheric suppression following monocular deprivation in the rat visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrasanta, M.; Restani, L.; Cerri, C.; Olcese, U.; Medini, P.; Caleo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Binocularity is a key property of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons that is widely used to study synaptic integration in the brain and plastic mechanisms following an altered visual experience. However, it is not clear how the inputs from the two eyes converge onto binocular neurons, and how their

  8. Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over the lateral prefrontal cortex alters reinforcement learning bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, D.V.M.; Ullsperger, M.; Jocham, G.; Neumann, J.; Klein, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to play a key role in higher-order cognitive functions. Recently, we showed that this brain region is active in reinforcement learning, during which subjects constantly have to integrate trial outcomes in order to optimize performance. To further elucidate the role of

  9. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with Private-Public Key

    OpenAIRE

    Serna, Eduin H.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum cryptographic protocol based in public key cryptography combinations and private key cryptography is presented. Unlike the BB84 protocol [1] and its many variants [2,3] two quantum channels are used. The present research does not make reconciliation mechanisms of information to derive the key. A three related system of key distribution are described.

  10. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  11. ID-based Key-insulated Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuan; CHENG Xiao-ming; CHAI Zhen-chuan

    2007-01-01

    The basic idea behind an ID-based cryptosystem is that end user's public key can be determined by his identity information. Comparing with the traditional certificate-based cryptography, identity-based cryptography can eliminate much of the overhead associated with the deployment and management of certificate. However, exposure of private keys can be the most devastating attack on a public key based cryptosystem since such that all security guarantees are lost. In this paper, an ID-based authenticated key agreement protocol was presented. For solving the problem of key exposure of the basic scheme, the technique of key insulation was applied and a key insulated version is developed.

  12. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kensaku eMori; Hiroyuki eManabe; Kimiya eNarikiyo; Naomi eOnisawa

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory senso...

  13. Premotor cortex modulates somatosensory cortex during voluntary movements without proprioceptive feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2007-01-01

    Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. This act......Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex...

  14. Projection from the perirhinal cortex to the frontal motor cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuhou, Shin ichi; Gemba, Hisae

    2002-03-01

    Stimulation of the anterior perirhinal cortex (PERa) induced marked surface-negative and depth-positive field potentials in the rat frontal motor cortex (MC) including the rostral and caudal forelimb areas. Injection of biotinylated dextran into the PERa densely labeled axon terminals in the superficial layers of the MC, where vigorous unit responses were evoked after PERa stimulation, indicated that the perirhinal-frontal projection preferentially activates the superficial layer neurons of the MC.

  15. Orbitofrontal cortex, decision-making and drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Roesch, Matthew R.; Stalnaker, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex, as a part of prefrontal cortex, is implicated in executive function. However, within this broad region, the orbitofrontal cortex is distinguished by its unique pattern of connections with crucial subcortical associative learning nodes, such as basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. By virtue of these connections, the orbitofrontal cortex is uniquely positioned to use associative information to project into the future, and to use the value of perceived or expecte...

  16. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  17. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the Estrogen Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A in Marine Sediments by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Deng Xu-xiu et al. (1) Abstract Octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A are recognized environmental endocrine disruptors. A quantitative method was established for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A in marine sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The test sample was extracted by methanol with ultrasonic technique, purified with copper powder and carbon solid phase extraction column, and derived with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Then the analytes were separated on HP-5ms column and determined by gas chromatography-mass. The recovery of the method was between 84.3% and 94.5%, and the LOQ of 4-N- octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was 0.25 g/kg, 0.15 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg. Key words octylphenol; nonylphenol; bisphenol A; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  18. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  19. Cholecystokinin from the entorhinal cortex enables neural plasticity in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Kai; Zhang, Zicong; Sun, Wenjian; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Jingyu; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Yi Ping; He, Jufang

    2014-03-01

    Patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe show deficits in forming new declarative memories but can still recall older memories, suggesting that the medial temporal lobe is necessary for encoding memories in the neocortex. Here, we found that cortical projection neurons in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices were mostly immunopositive for cholecystokinin (CCK). Local infusion of CCK in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats induced plastic changes that enabled cortical neurons to potentiate their responses or to start responding to an auditory stimulus that was paired with a tone that robustly triggered action potentials. CCK infusion also enabled auditory neurons to start responding to a light stimulus that was paired with a noise burst. In vivo intracellular recordings in the auditory cortex showed that synaptic strength was potentiated after two pairings of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity in the presence of CCK. Infusion of a CCKB antagonist in the auditory cortex prevented the formation of a visuo-auditory association in awake rats. Finally, activation of the entorhinal cortex potentiated neuronal responses in the auditory cortex, which was suppressed by infusion of a CCKB antagonist. Together, these findings suggest that the medial temporal lobe influences neocortical plasticity via CCK-positive cortical projection neurons in the entorhinal cortex.

  20. Sensitive Dependence of Mental Function on Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    This study offers evidence to suggest that both normalcy and psychiatric illness are sensitively dependent upon prefrontal cortex function. In general, the emergence of psychiatric symptoms coincide with diminished influence of prefrontal cortex function. The mediating influence of prefrontal cortex may be independent of molecular and regional brain dysfunctions contributory to psychiatric illness.

  1. The prefrontal cortex and variants of sequential behaviour: indications of functional differentiation between subdivisions of the rat's prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Holm, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, sekventiel adfærd, rotte, adfærdsprogrammering, informationsbearbejdning...

  2. How electrode montage affects transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; Nitsche, Michael A; Miranda, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    Several different electrode configurations were originally proposed to induce excitability changes in the hand area of the motor cortex in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). However only one was found to efficiently affect cortical excitability: anode/cathode over the primary motor cortex and return electrode placed over the contralateral orbit (M-CF configuration). In this work we used the finite element method to calculate the electric field (E-field) induced in a realistic human head model in all the proposed electrode configurations. In order to analyze the results, average values of the E-field's magnitude and polar/azimuthal angles were calculated in several cortical motor and premotor areas which may have an effect on the output of the primary motor cortex. The average E-field's magnitude at the hand-knob (HK) was similar between the M-CF configuration (0.16 V/m) and a few other tested configurations, the same happening for the average polar angle (129°). However this configuration achieved the highest mean E-field values over premotor (PM) areas (0.21 V/m). These results show that the polar angle and the average magnitude of the E-field evaluated at the HK and at the PM cortex might be important parameters in predicting the success of a specific electrode montage in tDCS.

  3. Projections from Orbitofrontal Cortex to Anterior Piriform Cortex in the Rat Suggest a Role in Olfactory Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    ILLIG, KURT R.

    2005-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been characterized as a higher-order, multimodal sensory cortex. Evidence from electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat has suggested that OFC plays a role in modulating olfactory guided behavior, and a significant projection to OFC arises from piriform cortex, the traditional primary olfactory cortex. To discern how OFC interacts with primary olfactory structures, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was injected into orbi...

  4. Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reason, Rationality and Reasonableness: An Essay Inspired by Chen Jia-ying's Dianoesis Abstract: The theme of Chen Jia-ying's Dianoesis should be understood as "on the reasoning for reasoning" rather than simply "on reasoning". In order to understand "the reasoning for reasoning", it may be better to review the history of Western philosophy, in which the focus of attention has been moved from"reason" through "rationality" to "reasonableness". Moreover, interpreting "reason" not only as rationality but also as reasonableness may help us overcome the dilemma between reason-dogmatism and reason-nihilism. The idea of "reasonableness" that has been discussed by various contemporary Western philosophers is very similar to the idea of "li xing" that was proposed by Chinese philosopher Liang Shu-ming on the basis of his comparison between Chinese and Western cultures. For the sake of developing our tradition of li xing or reasonableness, however, we should not ignore some serious weaknesses in this tradition while cherishing its valuable elements.

  5. Age-related gene expression change of GABAergic system in visual cortex of rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chenghong; Han, Qian; Ma, Yuanye; Su, Bing

    2016-09-30

    Degradation of visual function is a common phenomenon during aging and likely mediated by change in the impaired central visual pathway. Treatment with GABA or its agonist could recover the ability of visual neurons in the primary visual cortex of senescent macaques. However, little is known about how GABAergic system change is related to the aged degradation of visual function in nonhuman primate. With the use of quantitative PCR method, we measured the expression change of 24 GABA related genes in the primary visual cortex (Brodmann's 17) of different age groups. In this study, both of mRNA and protein of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results revealed that the level of GAD65 message was not significantly altered, but the proteins were significantly decreased in the aged monkey. As GAD65 plays an important role in GABA synthesis, the down-regulation of GAD65 protein was likely the key factor leading to the observed GABA reduction in the primary visual cortex of the aged macaques. In addition, 7 of 14 GABA receptor genes were up-regulated and one GABA receptor gene was significantly reduced during aging process even after Banjamini correction for multiple comparisons (Pvisual dysfunctions and most of GABA receptor genes induce a clear indication of compensatory effect for the reduced GABA release in the healthy aged monkey cortex.

  6. Anticipatory activity in rat medial prefrontal cortex during a working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwen Bai; Tiaotiao Liu; Hu Yi; Shuangyan Li; Xin Tian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Working memory is a key cognitive function in which the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role.This study aimed to show the firing patterns of a neuronal population in the prefrontal cortex of the rat in a working memory task and to explore how a neuronal ensemble encodes a working memory event.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Y-maze until they reached an 80% correct rate in a working memory task.Then a 16-channel microelectrode array was implanted in the prefrontal cortex.After recovery,neuronal population activity was recorded during the task,using the Cerebus data-acquisition system.Spatio-temporal trains of action potentials were obtained from the original neuronal population signals.Results During the Y-maze working memory task,some neurons showed significantly increased firing rates and evident neuronal ensemble activity.Moreover,the anticipatory activity was associated with the delayed alternate choice of the upcoming movement.In correct trials,the averaged pre-event firing rate (10.86 ± 1.82 spikes/bin) was higher than the post-event rate (8.17 ± 1.15 spikes/bin) (P <0.05).However,in incorrect trials,the rates did not differ.Conclusion The results indicate that the anticipatory activity of a neuronal ensemble in the prefrontal cortex may play a role in encoding working memory events.

  7. Nanofluids research: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing

    2010-05-22

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  8. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities. Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  9. Social distance evaluation in human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. "close friends" "high lord"). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space.

  10. Determining physical properties of the cell cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, A; Behrndt, M; Heisenberg, C -P; Jülicher, F; Grill, S W

    2015-01-01

    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example,the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time)in the actomyosin sets the time scale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer (in vivo). For this we investigate the relaxation dynamics of the cortex in response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage {\\it C. elegans} embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using ...

  11. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  12. Effects of aging on motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether aging is associated with changes in excitability of the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the excitability of the motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared TMS related measures obtained in a group of young people with those of a group of old people. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude was significantly smaller in older than in younger controls (1.3+/-0.8 mV versus 2.7+/-1.1 mV; p<0.0071). Mean cortical silent period (CSP) duration was shorter in older than in younger controls (87+/-29 ms versus 147+/-39 ms; p<0.0071). SP duration/MEP amplitude ratios were similar in both groups. Our results are consistent with an impaired efficiency of some intracortical circuits in old age.

  13. Orbitofrontal Cortex, Associative Learning, and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Roesch, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex is characterized by its unique pattern of connections with subcortical areas, such as basolateral amygdala. Here we distinguish between the critical role of these areas in associative learning and the pivotal contribution of OFC to the manipulation of this information to control behavior. This contribution reflects the ability of OFC to signal the desirability of expected outcomes, which requires the integration of associative information with information concerning internal states and goals in representational memory. PMID:16129393

  14. Cone inputs to murine striate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouras Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recorded responses from single neurons in murine visual cortex to determine the effectiveness of the input from the two murine cone photoreceptor mechanisms and whether there is any unique selectivity for cone inputs at this higher region of the visual system that would support the possibility of colour vision in mice. Each eye was stimulated by diffuse light, either 370 (strong stimulus for the ultra-violet (UV cone opsin or 505 nm (exclusively stimulating the middle wavelength sensitive (M cone opsin, obtained from light emitting diodes (LEDs in the presence of a strong adapting light that suppressed the responses of rods. Results Single cells responded to these diffuse stimuli in all areas of striate cortex. Two types of responsive cells were encountered. One type (135/323 – 42% had little to no spontaneous activity and responded at either the on and/or the off phase of the light stimulus with a few impulses often of relatively large amplitude. A second type (166/323 – 51% had spontaneous activity and responded tonically to light stimuli with impulses often of small amplitude. Most of the cells responded similarly to both spectral stimuli. A few (18/323 – 6% responded strongly or exclusively to one or the other spectral stimulus and rarely in a spectrally opponent manner. Conclusion Most cells in murine striate cortex receive excitatory inputs from both UV- and M-cones. A small fraction shows either strong selectivity for one or the other cone mechanism and occasionally cone opponent responses. Cells that could underlie chromatic contrast detection are present but extremely rare in murine striate cortex.

  15. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Funahashi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified.

  16. Processing of sound location in human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Riederer, Klaus A J; Lentz, Tobias; Meister, Ingo G

    2008-03-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was focused on the neural substrates underlying human auditory space perception. In order to present natural-like sound locations to the subjects, acoustic stimuli convolved with individual head-related transfer functions were used. Activation foci, as revealed by analyses of contrasts and interactions between sound locations, formed a complex network, including anterior and posterior regions of temporal lobe, posterior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal cortex. The distinct topography of this network was the result of different patterns of activation and deactivation, depending on sound location, in the respective voxels. These patterns suggested different levels of complexity in processing of auditory spatial information, starting with simple left/right discrimination in the regions surrounding the primary auditory cortex, while the integration of information on hemispace and eccentricity of sound may take place at later stages. Activations were identified as being located in regions assigned to both the dorsal and ventral auditory cortical streams, that are assumed to be preferably concerned with analysis of spatial and non-spatial sound features, respectively. The finding of activations also in the ventral stream could, on the one hand, reflect the well-known functional duality of auditory spectral analysis, that is, the concurrent extraction of information based on location (due to the spectrotemporal distortions caused by head and pinnae) and spectral characteristics of a sound source. On the other hand, this result may suggest the existence of shared neural networks, performing analyses of auditory 'higher-order' cues for both localization and identification of sound sources.

  17. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingu...

  18. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  19. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  20. Binocular form deprivation influences the visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Liu; Chuanhuang Weng; Hanping Xie; Wei Qin

    2012-01-01

    1a-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors are considered to play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity in the developing visual cortex. In this study, we established a rat model of binocular form deprivation by suturing the rat binocular eyelids before eye-opening at postnatal day 14. During development, the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by 1a-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors of normal rats became longer after eyeopening; however, the decay time did not change significantly in binocular form deprivation rats. The peak value in the normal group became gradually larger with age, but there was no significant change in the binocular form deprivation group. These findings indicate that binocular form deprivation influences the properties of excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by β-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in the rat visual cortex around the end of the critical period, indicating that form stimulation is associated with the experience-dependent modification of neuronal synapses in the visual cortex.

  1. Rhythmic spontaneous activity in the piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Descalzo, V F; Reig, R; Figueroa, N A; Compte, A; Gallego, R

    2008-05-01

    Slow spontaneous rhythmic activity is generated and propagates in neocortical slices when bathed in an artificial cerebrospinal fluid with ionic concentrations similar to the ones in vivo. This activity is extraordinarily similar to the activation of the cortex in physiological conditions (e.g., slow-wave sleep), thus representing a unique in vitro model to understand how cortical networks maintain and control ongoing activity. Here we have characterized the activity generated in the olfactory or piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus (piriform network). Because these structures are prone to generate epileptic discharges, it seems critical to understand how they generate and regulate their physiological rhythmic activity. The piriform network gave rise to rhythmic spontaneous activity consisting of a succession of up and down states at an average frequency of 1.8 Hz, qualitatively similar to the corresponding neocortical activity. This activity originated in the deep layers of the piriform network, which displayed higher excitability and denser connectivity. A remarkable difference with neocortical activity was the speed of horizontal propagation (114 mm/s), one order of magnitude faster in the piriform network. Properties of the piriform cortex subserving fast horizontal propagation may underlie the higher vulnerability of this area to epileptic seizures.

  2. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  3. An integrator circuit in cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maex, Reinoud; Steuber, Volker

    2013-09-01

    The brain builds dynamic models of the body and the outside world to predict the consequences of actions and stimuli. A well-known example is the oculomotor integrator, which anticipates the position-dependent elasticity forces acting on the eye ball by mathematically integrating over time oculomotor velocity commands. Many models of neural integration have been proposed, based on feedback excitation, lateral inhibition or intrinsic neuronal nonlinearities. We report here that a computational model of the cerebellar cortex, a structure thought to implement dynamic models, reveals a hitherto unrecognized integrator circuit. In this model, comprising Purkinje cells, molecular layer interneurons and parallel fibres, Purkinje cells were able to generate responses lasting more than 10 s, to which both neuronal and network mechanisms contributed. Activation of the somatic fast sodium current by subthreshold voltage fluctuations was able to maintain pulse-evoked graded persistent activity, whereas lateral inhibition among Purkinje cells via recurrent axon collaterals further prolonged the responses to step and sine wave stimulation. The responses of Purkinje cells decayed with a time-constant whose value depended on their baseline spike rate, with integration vanishing at low ( 30 per s). The model predicts that the apparently fast circuit of the cerebellar cortex may control the timing of slow processes without having to rely on sensory feedback. Thus, the cerebellar cortex may contain an adaptive temporal integrator, with the sensitivity of integration to the baseline spike rate offering a potential mechanism of plasticity of the response time-constant.

  4. Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sing; Mumford, David

    2003-07-01

    Traditional views of visual processing suggest that early visual neurons in areas V1 and V2 are static spatiotemporal filters that extract local features from a visual scene. The extracted information is then channeled through a feedforward chain of modules in successively higher visual areas for further analysis. Recent electrophysiological recordings from early visual neurons in awake behaving monkeys reveal that there are many levels of complexity in the information processing of the early visual cortex, as seen in the long-latency responses of its neurons. These new findings suggest that activity in the early visual cortex is tightly coupled and highly interactive with the rest of the visual system. They lead us to propose a new theoretical setting based on the mathematical framework of hierarchical Bayesian inference for reasoning about the visual system. In this framework, the recurrent feedforward/feedback loops in the cortex serve to integrate top-down contextual priors and bottom-up observations so as to implement concurrent probabilistic inference along the visual hierarchy. We suggest that the algorithms of particle filtering and Bayesian-belief propagation might model these interactive cortical computations. We review some recent neurophysiological evidences that support the plausibility of these ideas. 2003 Optical Society of America

  5. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. A threshold key escrow scheme based on public key cryptosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In key escrow field it is important to solve the problem thatuser's secret key completely depends on the trusted escrow agency. In 1995, some methods of solving the problem were presented. But these methods are no better than that of directly using threshold cryptography. In this paper, we present a common pattern of threshold key escrow scheme based on public key cryptosystem, and a detailed design based on the improved RSA algorithm is given. The above problem is solved by this scheme.

  7. Cortex-M0处理器初探%Cortex-M0 Processor:An Initial Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范云龙; 方安平; 李宁

    2010-01-01

    介绍Cortex-M0处理器的特点;详细分析Cortex-M0处理器的编程模型、存储模型、异常处理和功耗管理,并将Cortex-M0与Cortex-M3和基于8/16位架构的处理器作了对比分析;最后简要介绍Cortex-M0处理器的相关开发工具.

  8. Associative Encoding in Anterior Piriform Cortex versus Orbitofrontal Cortex during Odor Discrimination and Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Matthew R.; Stalnaker, Thomas A.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Recent proposals have conceptualized piriform cortex as an association cortex, capable of integrating incoming olfactory information with descending input from higher order associative regions such as orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). If true, encoding in piriform cortex should reflect associative features prominent in these areas during associative learning involving olfactory cues. To test this hypothesis, we recorded from neurons in OFC and anatomically related parts of the anterior piriform cortex (APC) in rats, learning and reversing novel odor discriminations. Findings in OFC were similar to what we have reported previously, with nearly all the cue-selective neurons exhibiting substantial plasticity during learning and reversal. Also, many of the cue-selective neurons were originally responsive in anticipation of the outcomes early in learning, thereby providing a single-unit representation of the cue-outcome associations. Some of these features were also evident in firing activity in APC, including some plasticity across learning and reversal. However, APC neurons failed to reverse cue selectivity when the associated outcome was changed, and the cue-selective population did not include neurons that were active prior to outcome delivery. Thus, although representations in APC are substantially more associative than expected in a purely sensory region, they do appear to be somewhat more constrained by the sensory features of the odor cues than representations in downstream areas of OFC. PMID:16699083

  9. Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Diz-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Cell shape and motility are primarily controlled by cellular mechanics. The attachment of the plasma membrane to the underlying actomyosin cortex has been proposed to be important for cellular processes involving membrane deformation. However, little is known about the actual function of membrane-to-cortex attachment (MCA in cell protrusion formation and migration, in particular in the context of the developing embryo. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to study MCA in zebrafish mesoderm and endoderm (mesendoderm germ layer progenitor cells, which migrate using a combination of different protrusion types, namely, lamellipodia, filopodia, and blebs, during zebrafish gastrulation. By interfering with the activity of molecules linking the cortex to the membrane and measuring resulting changes in MCA by atomic force microscopy, we show that reducing MCA in mesendoderm progenitors increases the proportion of cellular blebs and reduces the directionality of cell migration. We propose that MCA is a key parameter controlling the relative proportions of different cell protrusion types in mesendoderm progenitors, and thus is key in controlling directed migration during gastrulation.

  10. Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Krieg, Michael; Bergert, Martin; Ibarlucea-Benitez, Itziar; Muller, Daniel J; Paluch, Ewa; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2010-11-30

    Cell shape and motility are primarily controlled by cellular mechanics. The attachment of the plasma membrane to the underlying actomyosin cortex has been proposed to be important for cellular processes involving membrane deformation. However, little is known about the actual function of membrane-to-cortex attachment (MCA) in cell protrusion formation and migration, in particular in the context of the developing embryo. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to study MCA in zebrafish mesoderm and endoderm (mesendoderm) germ layer progenitor cells, which migrate using a combination of different protrusion types, namely, lamellipodia, filopodia, and blebs, during zebrafish gastrulation. By interfering with the activity of molecules linking the cortex to the membrane and measuring resulting changes in MCA by atomic force microscopy, we show that reducing MCA in mesendoderm progenitors increases the proportion of cellular blebs and reduces the directionality of cell migration. We propose that MCA is a key parameter controlling the relative proportions of different cell protrusion types in mesendoderm progenitors, and thus is key in controlling directed migration during gastrulation.

  11. Physical model of Nernst element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki [Venture Business Lab., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    1998-08-01

    Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)

  12. Sets, Subsets, and Dichotomous Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E. James

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the procedures that should be observed in constructing a dichotomous key. The keying exercise described was used as a laboratory activity in a biology course for elementary education majors, however it could be used in other courses. (JR)

  13. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  14. Underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Lynch, Charles J; Cheng, Katherine M; Phillips, Jennifer; Supekar, Kaustubh; Ryali, Srikanth; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2013-07-16

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often show insensitivity to the human voice, a deficit that is thought to play a key role in communication deficits in this population. The social motivation theory of ASD predicts that impaired function of reward and emotional systems impedes children with ASD from actively engaging with speech. Here we explore this theory by investigating distributed brain systems underlying human voice perception in children with ASD. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 20 children with ASD and 19 age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of voice-selective bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Children with ASD showed a striking pattern of underconnectivity between left-hemisphere pSTS and distributed nodes of the dopaminergic reward pathway, including bilateral ventral tegmental areas and nucleus accumbens, left-hemisphere insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Children with ASD also showed underconnectivity between right-hemisphere pSTS, a region known for processing speech prosody, and the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, brain regions critical for emotion-related associative learning. The degree of underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward pathways predicted symptom severity for communication deficits in children with ASD. Our results suggest that weak connectivity of voice-selective cortex and brain structures involved in reward and emotion may impair the ability of children with ASD to experience speech as a pleasurable stimulus, thereby impacting language and social skill development in this population. Our study provides support for the social motivation theory of ASD.

  15. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  16. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA, leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  17. A dendritic mechanism for decoding traveling waves: principles and applications to motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Heitmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves of neuronal oscillations have been observed in many cortical regions, including the motor and sensory cortex. Such waves are often modulated in a task-dependent fashion although their precise functional role remains a matter of debate. Here we conjecture that the cortex can utilize the direction and wavelength of traveling waves to encode information. We present a novel neural mechanism by which such information may be decoded by the spatial arrangement of receptors within the dendritic receptor field. In particular, we show how the density distributions of excitatory and inhibitory receptors can combine to act as a spatial filter of wave patterns. The proposed dendritic mechanism ensures that the neuron selectively responds to specific wave patterns, thus constituting a neural basis of pattern decoding. We validate this proposal in the descending motor system, where we model the large receptor fields of the pyramidal tract neurons - the principle outputs of the motor cortex - decoding motor commands encoded in the direction of traveling wave patterns in motor cortex. We use an existing model of field oscillations in motor cortex to investigate how the topology of the pyramidal cell receptor field acts to tune the cells responses to specific oscillatory wave patterns, even when those patterns are highly degraded. The model replicates key findings of the descending motor system during simple motor tasks, including variable interspike intervals and weak corticospinal coherence. By additionally showing how the nature of the wave patterns can be controlled by modulating the topology of local intra-cortical connections, we hence propose a novel integrated neuronal model of encoding and decoding motor commands.

  18. Neural structures underlying set-shifting: roles of medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Powell, Elizabeth M; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-08-01

    Impaired attentional set-shifting and inflexible decision-making are problems frequently observed during normal aging and in several psychiatric disorders. To understand the neuropathophysiology of underlying inflexible behavior, animal models of attentional set-shifting have been developed to mimic tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), which tap into a number of cognitive functions including stimulus-response encoding, working memory, attention, error detection, and conflict resolution. Here, we review many of these tasks in several different species and speculate on how prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex might contribute to normal performance during set-shifting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective Suppression of Local Circuits during Movement Preparation in the Mouse Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hasegawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepared movements are more efficient than those that are not prepared for. Although changes in cortical activity have been observed prior to a forthcoming action, the circuits involved in motor preparation remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to uncover changes in the motor cortex during variable waiting periods prior to a forepaw reaching task in mice. Consistent with previous reports, we observed a subset of neurons with increased activity during the waiting period; however, these neurons did not account for the degree of preparation as defined by reaction time (RT. Instead, the suppression of activity of distinct neurons in the same cortical area better accounts for RT. This suppression of neural activity resulted in a distinct and reproducible pattern when mice were well prepared. Thus, the selective suppression of network activity in the motor cortex may be a key feature of prepared movements.

  20. Diversity and complexity of roles of granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2012-03-01

    The cerebellar granule cell, the most numerous neurons in the brain, forms the main excitatory neuron of the cerebellar cortical circuitry. Granule cells are synaptically connected with both mossy fibers and Golgi cells inside specialized structures called glomeruli, and thereby, they are subject to both feed-forward and feed-back inhibition. Their unique architecture with about four dendrites and a single axon ascending in the cerebellar cortex to bifurcate into two parallel fibers making synapses with Purkinje neurons has attracted numerous scientists. Recent advances show that they are much more than just relays of mossy fibers. They perform diverse and complex transformations in the spatiotemporal domain. This special issue highlights novel avenues in our understanding of the roles of this key neuronal population of the cerebellar cortex, ranging from developmental up to physiological and pathological points of view.

  1. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  2. Acute phencyclidine treatment induces extensive and distinct protein phosphorylation in rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    assessment of the regulated proteins biological function revealed that PCP perturbs key processes in the frontal cortex including calcium homeostasis, organization of cytoskeleton, endo/exocytosis, and energy metabolism. This study on acute PCP treatment provides the largest proteomics and phosphoproteomics......Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, induces psychotomimetic effects in humans and animals. Administration of PCP to rodents is used as a preclinical model for schizophrenia; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms remain largely unknown....... Acute PCP treatment rapidly induces behavioral and cognitive deficits; therefore, post-translational regulation of protein activity is expected to play a role at early time points. We performed mass-spectrometry- driven quantitative analysis of rat frontal cortex 15, 30, or 240 min after...

  3. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC with posi......Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC...... with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water (H(15)2O) uptake in brain of 14 healthy subjects. The subjects performed either a less demanding or a more demanding task of attention while they watched neutral and emotive images of people in realistic indoor or outdoor situations. In the less demanding...... task, subjects used the index finger to press any key when a new image appeared. In the more demanding task, subjects chose the index or middle finger to press separate keys for outdoor and indoor scenes. Compared to the less demanding task, in a global search of all gray matter, the more demanding...

  4. 我国电动汽车产业链延伸发展的关键要素分析与对策%The Analysis of Key Elements and Recommendation for Extended Development of Electric Vehicles Industry Chains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱萍

    2015-01-01

    电动汽车产业的发展是解决资源短缺、环境污染以及汽车行业结构升级的重要途径,经济危机后,发达国家纷纷对发展电动汽车提出战略性规划以重振汽车产业来带动经济发展,面对世界汽车产业再次崛起,电动汽车发展与未来中国汽车产业命运息息相关。从产业链的上中下游三个阶段分别分析了我国电动汽车产业链的现状及主要问题,电动汽车原材料品质不高,电池、电机、电控研发能力有限以及产业配套设施不足等问题严重制约我国电动汽车产业链延伸发展,从顶层规划、技术创新、产品品牌、基础设施四个关键要素角度提出了解决电动汽车产业链延伸的战略思考,并针对实现该战略提出了相应的对策。%The development of electric vehicles industry is an important way to address the resources shortage, environmental pol-lution and the automotive industry structure upgrading. After the economic crisis, developed countries proposed the strategic develop-ment plan to revive the vehicle industry as well as promoting economic development. Facing the rise of world vehicle industry, the fu-ture fate of the Chinese vehicle industry is tied closely with Chinese electric vehicle industry. This paper analyzed the current situation and main problems of industrial chain of Chinese electric vehicles industry from the lower, middle and higher three phase. The low quality of raw materials, the inadequate R&D capabilities in batteries, motors and electronically controlled system and the shortage of industrial facilities and other issues hampered the development of the electric vehicle industry chain seriously. Respectively, the strate-gic thinking to solving the plight of the electric vehicles industry is put forward from four aspects of key elements of the top floor plan-ning, technology innovation, product brand, infrastructure, as well as the corresponding countermeasures for

  5. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  6. Projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus: differential effects of chronic khat and ethanol exposure in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alele, Paul E; Matovu, Daniel; Imanirampa, Lawrence; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Kasule, Gyaviira T

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group. Treatments were administered orally for 28 continuous days; brains were then harvested, sectioned, and routine hematoxylin–eosin staining was done. Following photomicrography, ImageJ® software captured data regarding neuron number and size. Results No differences occurred in counts of both granular and pyramidal projection neurons in the motor cortex and all four subfields of the hippocampal formation. Khat dose-dependently increased pyramidal neuron size in the motor cortex and the CA3 region, but had different effects on granular neuron size in the dentate gyrus and the motor cortex. Mean pyramidal neuron size for the ethanol-only treatment was larger than that for the 2 g/kg khat group, and the saline control group, in CA3 and in the motor cortex. Concomitant khat and ethanol increased granular neuron size in the motor cortex, compared to the 2 g/kg khat group, the 4 g/kg khat group, and the 4 g/kg ethanol group. In the CA3 region, the 4 g/kg ethanol group showed a larger mean pyramidal neuron size than the combined khat and ethanol group. Conclusion These results suggest that concomitant khat and ethanol exposure changes granular and pyramidal projection neuron sizes differentially in the motor cortex and hippocampus, compared to the effects of chronic exposure to these two drugs separately.

  7. Orbitofrontal cortex function and structure in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Wayne C

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression by evidence obtained using neuroimaging, neuropathologic, and lesion analysis techniques. The abnormalities revealed by these techniques show a regional specificity, and suggest that some OFC regions which appear cytoarchitectonically distinct also are functionally distinct with respect to mood regulation. For example, the severity of depression correlates inversely with physiological activity in parts of the posterior lateral and medial OFC, consistent with evidence that dysfunction of the OFC associated with cerebrovascular lesions increases the vulnerability for developing the major depressive syndrome. The posterior lateral and medial OFC function may also be impaired in individuals who develop primary mood disorders, as these patients show grey-matter volumetric reductions, histopathologic abnormalities, and altered hemodynamic responses to emotionally valenced stimuli, probabilistic reversal learning, and reward processing. In contrast, physiological activity in the anteromedial OFC situated in the ventromedial frontal polar cortex increases during the depressed versus the remitted phases of major depressive disorder to an extent that is positively correlated with the severity of depression. Effective antidepressant treatment is associated with a reduction in activity in this region. Taken together these data are compatible with evidence from studies in experimental animals indicating that some orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex regions function to inhibit, while others function to enhance, emotional expression. Alterations in the functional balance between these regions and the circuits they form with anatomically related areas of the temporal lobe, striatum, thalamus, and brain stem thus may underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders, such as major depression.

  8. Inhibition by somatostatin interneurons in olfactory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Large

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST interneurons onto pyramidal cells, parvalbumin (PV interneurons and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre and G42 that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS interneurons rather than regular (RS or low threshold spiking (LTS phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that somatostatin interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing.

  9. Determining Physical Properties of the Cell Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Jülicher, Frank; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-03-01

    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example,the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time)in the actomyosin sets the time scale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer (in vivo). For this we investigate the relaxation dynamics of the cortex in response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage {\\it C. elegans} embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using a coarse grained physical description of the cortex in terms of a two dimensional thin film of an active viscoelastic gel. To determine the Maxwell time, the hydrodynamic length and the ratio of active stress and per-area friction, we evaluated the response to laser ablation in two different ways: by quantifying flow and density fields as a function of space and time, and by determining the time evolution of the shape of the ablated region. Importantly, both methods provide best fit physical parameters that are in close agreement with each other and that are similar to previous estimates in the two systems. We provide an accurate and robust means for measuring physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer.It can be useful for investigations of actomyosin mechanics at the cellular-scale, but also for providing insights in the active mechanics processes that govern tissue-scale morphogenesis.

  10. KeyChains: A Decentralized Public-Key Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    exposed. This problem is easily solved in KeyChains, taking inspiration from existing techniques: certificate expiration, revocation lists and online...the peer. The peer maintains an access control list indicating what operations (key storage, key retrieval, and peer management) are permitted to a...2002, Norfolk, VA, September 2002. [9] http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/˜mmarsh/ CODEX /. [10] A. Datta, M. Hauswirth, and K. Aberer. Beyond ”web of trust

  11. Modeling and optoelectronic realization of an artificial cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Ramin

    Cortex, the outermost layer of the cerebrum, is recognized as the most developed part of the brain. It is believed that the higher-level functionality of the brain, the operations such as perception, cognition, and learning of both static and dynamic sensory information, originates from the dynamics of the massively interconnected gray cells of cortex. Because of the compact three-dimensional architecture of this biological computational paradigm, realization of bio-inspired machines that imitate such functionalities, including all the cellular details, is prohibitively difficult even if we consider the available nano-fabrication technologies. Based on this logical deduction, instead of considering each single neuron, an intriguing conjecture is to build aggregate level models that mimic the behavior of a population of neurons with collective emergent properties. In our approach, which is presented in this dissertation, cortex is assumed to be a composition of a sequence of discernable interconnected cortical patches. Each concerned patch is a network of asymmetrically coupled complex processing elements whose dynamics contain not only fixed-point and periodic attractors but also bifurcation and chaos. Dynamics of the complex processing elements, in this dissertation, is mathematically modeled by a slight modification of the time evolution of netlets adapted from computational neuroscience. Regarding this modification, the dynamics of a netlet is approximated by that of a quadratic return map. Studying the previous experimental observations demonstrates that a smart way of coupling such processing units is to couple them through their bifurcation parameters. Putting all pieces of this puzzle together, we model each cortical patch by a network of parametrically coupled quadratic return maps. Our simulations prove the ability of this network to emulate many salient features of cortical information processing, such as clustering, classification, generation of sparse

  12. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  13. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements (101), each key element (101) comprises a transmitting part (102) capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat (105) comprising a plurality of elevated elements......). In this way, the dynamic display keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard. Further, the only power requiring element in the keyboard is the display unit....

  14. An improved cortex-like neuromorphic system for target recognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Chen, Tong; Ibrahim, Izzati; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the enhancement of biologically-inspired machine vision through a rotation invariance mechanism. Research over the years has suggested that rotation invariance is one of the fundamental generic elements of object constancy, a known generic visual ability of the human brain. Cortex-like vision unlike conventional pixel based machine vision is achieved by mimicking neuromorphic mechanisms of the primates' brain. In this preliminary study, rotation invariance is implemented through histograms from Gabor features of an object. The performance of rotation invariance in the neuromorphic algorithm is assessed by the classification accuracies of a test data set which consists of image objects in five different orientations. It is found that a much more consistent classification result over these five different oriented data sets has been achieved by the integrated rotation invariance neuromorphic algorithm compared to the one without. In addition, the issue of varying aspect ratios of input images to these models is also addressed, in an attempt to create a robust algorithm against a wider variability of input data. The extension of the present achievement is to improve the recognition accuracies while incorporating it to a series of different real-world scenarios which would challenge the approach accordingly.

  15. Dual functions of perirhinal cortex in fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The present review examines the role of perirhinal cortex (PRC) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The focus is on rats, partly because so much is known, behaviorally and neurobiologically, about fear conditioning in these animals. In addition, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of rat PRC have been described in considerable detail at the cellular and systems levels. The evidence suggests that PRC can serve at least two types of mnemonic functions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The first function, termed "stimulus unitization," refers to the ability to treat two or more separate items or stimulus elements as a single entity. Supporting evidence for this perceptual function comes from studies of context conditioning as well as delay conditioning to discontinuous auditory cues. In a delay paradigm, the conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) overlap temporally and co-terminate. The second PRC function entails a type of "transient memory." Supporting evidence comes from studies of trace cue conditioning, where there is a temporal gap or trace interval between the CS offset and the US onset. For learning to occur, there must be a transient CS representation during the trace interval. We advance a novel neurophysiological mechanism for this transient representation. These two hypothesized functions of PRC are consistent with inferences based on non-aversive forms of learning.

  16. Neurons and circuits for odor processing in the piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, John M; Suzuki, Norimitsu

    2013-07-01

    Increased understanding of the early stages of olfaction has lead to a renewed interest in the higher brain regions responsible for forming unified 'odor images' from the chemical components detected by the nose. The piriform cortex, which is one of the first cortical destinations of olfactory information in mammals, is a primitive paleocortex that is critical for the synthetic perception of odors. Here we review recent work that examines the cellular neurophysiology of the piriform cortex. Exciting new findings have revealed how the neurons and circuits of the piriform cortex process odor information, demonstrating that, despite its superficial simplicity, the piriform cortex is a remarkably subtle and intricate neural circuit.

  17. Finger somatotopy in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisteiner, R; Windischberger, C; Lanzenberger, R; Edward, V; Cunnington, R; Erdler, M; Gartus, A; Streibl, B; Moser, E; Deecke, L

    2001-06-01

    Although qualitative reports about somatotopic representation of fingers in the human motor cortex exist, up to now no study could provide clear statistical evidence. The goal of the present study was to reinvestigate finger motor somatotopy by means of a thorough investigation of standardized movements of the index and little finger of the right hand. Using high resolution fMRI at 3 Tesla, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in a group of 26 subjects were repeatedly measured to achieve reliable statistical results. The center of mass of all activated voxels within the primary motor cortex was calculated for each finger and each run. Results of all runs were averaged to yield an individual index and little finger representation for each subject. The mean center of mass localizations for all subjects were then submitted to a paired t test. Results show a highly significant though small scale somatotopy of fingerspecific activation patterns in the order indicated by Penfields motor homunculus. In addition, considerable overlap of finger specific BOLD responses was found. Comparing various methods of analysis, the mean center of mass distance for the two fingers was 2--3 mm with overlapping voxels included and 4--5 mm with overlapping voxels excluded. Our data may be best understood in the context of the work of Schieber (1999) who recently described overlapping somatotopic gradients in lesion studies with humans. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  19. Motor cortex stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Marisa; Guzzi, Giusy; Bosco, Domenico; Romano, Mary; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Plastino, Massimiliano; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27-31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39), and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27-31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  20. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa De Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27–31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39, and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD. During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27–31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  1. Frequency specific modulation of human somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eFeurra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oscillatory neuronal activities are commonly observed in response to sensory stimulation. However, their functional roles are still the subject of debate. One way to probe the roles of oscillatory neural activities is to deliver alternating current to the cortex at biologically relevant frequencies and examine whether such stimulation influences perception and cognition. In this study, we tested whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS over the primary somatosensory cortex (SI could elicit tactile sensations in humans in a frequency dependent manner. We tested the effectiveness of tACS over SI at frequency bands ranging from 2 to 70 Hz. Our results show that stimulation in alpha (10-14 Hz and high gamma (52-70 Hz frequency range produces a tactile sensation in the contralateral hand. A weaker effect was also observed for beta (16-20 Hz stimulation. These findings highlight the frequency-dependency of effective tACS over SI with the effective frequencies corresponding to those observed in previous EEG/MEG studies of tactile perception. Our present study suggests that tACS could be used as a powerful online stimulation technique to reveal the causal roles of oscillatory brain activities.

  2. Effects of the Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture on the Neurotransmitters of the Rat Brain Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of bee venom Herbal Acupuncture on neurotransmitters in the rat brain cortex, herbal acupuncture with bee venom group and normal saline group was performed at LI4 bilaterally of the rat. the average optical density of neurotransmitters from the cerebral cortex was analysed 30 minutes after the herbal aqupuncture, by the immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. The density of NADPH-diaphorase in bee venom group was increased significantly at the motor cortex, visual cortex, auditory cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex compared to the normal saline group. 2. The average optical density of vasoactive intestinal peptide in bee venom group had significant changes at the insular cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 3. The average optical density of neuropeptide-Y in bee venom group increased significantly at the visual cortex and cingulate cortex, compared to the normal saline group.

  3. Regulation of prefrontal cortex myelination by the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, A E; Stilling, R M; Ryan, F J; Shanahan, F; Dinan, T G; Claesson, M J; Clarke, G; Cryan, J F

    2016-04-05

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key region implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and autism. In parallel, the role of the gut microbiota in contributing to these disorders is emerging. Germ-free (GF) animals, microbiota-deficient throughout life, have been instrumental in elucidating the role of the microbiota in many aspects of physiology, especially the role of the microbiota in anxiety-related behaviours, impaired social cognition and stress responsivity. Here we aim to further elucidate the mechanisms of the microbial influence by investigating changes in the homeostatic regulation of neuronal transcription of GF mice within the PFC using a genome-wide transcriptome profiling approach. Our results reveal a marked, concerted upregulation of genes linked to myelination and myelin plasticity. This coincided with upregulation of neural activity-induced pathways, potentially driving myelin plasticity. Subsequent investigation at the ultrastructural level demonstrated the presence of hypermyelinated axons within the PFC of GF mice. Notably, these changes in myelin and activity-related gene expression could be reversed by colonization with a conventional microbiota following weaning. In summary, we believe we demonstrate for the first time that the microbiome is necessary for appropriate and dynamic regulation of myelin-related genes with clear implications for cortical myelination at an ultrastructural level. The microbiota is therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders involving dynamic myelination in the PFC.

  4. Speaking modifies voice-evoked activity in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curio, G; Neuloh, G; Numminen, J; Jousmäki, V; Hari, R

    2000-04-01

    The voice we most often hear is our own, and proper interaction between speaking and hearing is essential for both acquisition and performance of spoken language. Disturbed audiovocal interactions have been implicated in aphasia, stuttering, and schizophrenic voice hallucinations, but paradigms for a noninvasive assessment of auditory self-monitoring of speaking and its possible dysfunctions are rare. Using magnetoencephalograpy we show here that self-uttered syllables transiently activate the speaker's auditory cortex around 100 ms after voice onset. These phasic responses were delayed by 11 ms in the speech-dominant left hemisphere relative to the right, whereas during listening to a replay of the same utterances the response latencies were symmetric. Moreover, the auditory cortices did not react to rare vowel changes interspersed randomly within a series of repetitively spoken vowels, in contrast to regular change-related responses evoked 100-200 ms after replayed rare vowels. Thus, speaking primes the human auditory cortex at a millisecond time scale, dampening and delaying reactions to self-produced "expected" sounds, more prominently in the speech-dominant hemisphere. Such motor-to-sensory priming of early auditory cortex responses during voicing constitutes one element of speech self-monitoring that could be compromised in central speech disorders.

  5. Simultaneous high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Bryan S; Edelman, Bradley; Zhang, Xiaotong; Roy, Abhrajeet; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to affect the excitability of neurons within the cerebral cortex. Improvements in motor learning have been found in multiple studies when tDCS was applied to the motor cortex during or before task learning is performed. The application of tDCS to motor imagery, a cognitive task showing activation in similar areas to motor execution, has resulted in differing effects based on the amplitude and duration of stimulation. We utilize high definition tDCS, a more spatially localized version of tDCS, to investigate the effect of anodal stimulation on human motor imagery performance. In parallel, we model this stimulation using a finite element model to calculate stimulation area and electrical field amplitude within the brain in the motor cortex and non-stimulated frontal and parietal regions. Overall, we found a delayed increase in resting baseline power 30 minutes post stimulation in both the right and left sensorimotor cortices which resulted in an increase in event-related desynchronization.

  6. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network model of motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaday, Charles; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Given the non-linearities of the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect cortical circuits to respond non-linearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motor cortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responses evoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transfer function is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must be effectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composed of multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show how non-linearities in neuronal transfer functions are eschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, the simultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respective outputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when one or more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear over an approximately two- to three-fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This result supports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points to generate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gain control. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonal connectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless, functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linear interactions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  7. Key Findings for Interpersonal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    2005). Beyond difference and domination? Intercultural communication in legal contexts. Intercultural discourse and communication . The essential...trainable and consequential to warfighters in being good strangers. These key skills include observing and adapting to variation in communicative norms...warfighters in being good strangers. These key skills include observing and adapting to variation in communicative norms; allowing civilian

  8. Keys to the Natural World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Frank L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson that uses the learning cycle to introduce the concept of classification and the use of dichotomous keys to identify plants and animals. Encourages students to become better observers and helps them gain confidence and experience in using simple classification keys. (JRH)

  9. Electrophysiology of regular firing cells in the rat perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, M; Biagini, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2001-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of neurons in the rat perirhinal cortex were analyzed with intracellular recordings in an in vitro slice preparation. Cells included in this study (n = 59) had resting membrane potential (RMP) = -73.9 +/- 8.5 mV (mean +/- SD), action potential amplitude = 95.5 +/- 10.4 mV, input resistance = 36.1 +/- v 15.7 M omega, and time constant = 13.9 +/- 3.4 ms. When filled with neurobiotin (n = 27) they displayed a pyramidal shape with an apical dendrite and extensive basal dendritic tree. Injection of intracellular current pulses revealed: 1) a tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM)-sensitive, inward rectification in the depolarizing direction (n = 6), and 2) a time- and voltage-dependent hyperpolarizing sag that was blocked by extracellular Cs+ (3 mM, n = 5) application. Prolonged (up to 3 s) depolarizing pulses made perirhinal cells discharge regular firing of fast action potentials that diminished over time in frequency and reached a steady level (i.e., adapted). Repetitive firing was followed by an afterhyperpolarization that was decreased, along with firing adaptation, by the Ca(2+)-channel blocker Co2+ (2 mM, n = 6). Action potential broadening became evident during repetitive firing. This behavior, which was more pronounced when larger pulses of depolarizing current were injected (and thus when repetitive firing attained higher rates), was markedly decreased by Co2+ application. Subthreshold membrane oscillations at 5-12 Hz became apparent when cells were depolarized by 10-20 mV from RMP, and action potential clusters appeared with further depolarization. Application of glutamatergic and GABAA receptor antagonists (n = 4), CO2+ (n = 6), or Cs+ (n = 5) did not prevent the occurrence of these oscillations that were abolished by TTX (n = 6). Our results show that pyramidal-like neurons in the perirhinal cortex are regular firing cells with electrophysiological features resembling those of other cortical pyramidal elements. The ability to

  10. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A

    2001-07-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others.

  11. 国家创业系统的结构层次及关键要素识别--基于DEMATEL与ISM的集成法%The Hierarchy Structure and Key Elements Identification of the National System of Entrepreneurship:Based on the Integration of DEMATEL and ISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃睿; 王瑞; 秦雪

    2014-01-01

    国家创业系统是由相互作用的众多参与者及其所扮演的角色以及各种制度和环境要素构成的促进创业事件持续发生和演替的集合体。在以深度访谈与德尔菲法得出国家创业系统构成要素直接影响关系和强度的基础上,采用DEMATEL与ISM集成法解析国家创业系统。国家创业系统可划分为6个层次以及结果子系统和原因子系统,其中结果子系统中的创业企业发起者、创业事件、创业机会3个要素在国家创业系统中发挥着核心作用,而原因子系统中的创业事件推动者、高等教育和城镇化3个要素处于基础性地位,创业相关法规政策的影响范围最广。%A national system of entrepreneurship ( NSE) encompasses a set of elements , including interactions among diverse actors , the roles that these actors play , and various institutional and environmental factors , that com-bine to promote the continued occurrence and succession of entrepreneurial events .The integration of DEMATEL and ISM is applied to parse NES after the corresponding process and algorithms of it are analyzed .The research reveals that an NSE is composed of two subsystems , namely an effect subsystem and a cause subsystem , each of which fea-tures a number of constituent elements .In particular , the three effect subsystem elements of promoters of individual business ventures , entrepreneurial events , and entrepreneurial opportunities are the core elements of an NSE , where-as the three cause subsystem elements of facilitators of entrepreneurial events , universities , and urbanization are the basal elements of an NSE .Entrepreneurship-related regulations and policies have the broadest effects on an NSE .

  12. Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats (n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Chronic corticosterone-mediated dysregulation of microRNA network in prefrontal cortex of rats: relevance to depression pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Y; Roy, B; Lugli, G; Rizavi, H; Zhang, H; Smalheiser, N R

    2015-11-17

    Stress plays a major role in inducing depression, which may arise from interplay between complex cascades of molecular and cellular events that influence gene expression leading to altered connectivity and neural plasticity. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have carved their own niche owing to their innate ability to induce disease phenotype by regulating expression of a large number of genes in a cohesive and coordinated manner. In this study, we examined whether miRNAs and associated gene networks have a role in chronic corticosterone (CORT; 50 mg  kg(-1) × 21 days)-mediated depression in rats. Rats given chronic CORT showed key behavioral features that resembled depression phenotype. Expression analysis revealed differential regulation of 26 miRNAs (19 upregulated, 7 downregulated) in prefrontal cortex of CORT-treated rats. Interaction between altered miRNAs and target genes showed dense interconnected molecular network, in which multiple genes were predicated to be targeted by the same miRNA. A majority of altered miRNAs showed binding sites for glucocorticoid receptor element, suggesting that there may be a common regulatory mechanism of miRNA regulation by CORT. Functional clustering of predicated target genes yielded disorders such as developmental, inflammatory and psychological that could be relevant to depression. Prediction analysis of the two most prominently affected miRNAs miR-124 and miR-218 resulted into target genes that have been shown to be associated with depression and stress-related disorders. Altogether, our study suggests miRNA-mediated novel mechanism by which chronic CORT may be involved in depression pathophysiology.

  14. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  15. HDAC2 expression in parvalbumin interneurons regulates synaptic plasticity in the mouse visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexi Nott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience-dependent postnatal increase in GABAergic inhibition in the visual cortex is important for the closure of a critical period of enhanced synaptic plasticity. Although maturation of the subclass of parvalbumin (Pv–expressing GABAergic interneurons is known to contribute to critical period closure, the role of epigenetics on cortical inhibition and synaptic plasticity has not been explored. The transcription regulator, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2, has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity and learning processes in hippocampal excitatory neurons. We found that genetic deletion of HDAC2 specifically from Pv interneurons reduces inhibitory input in the visual cortex of adult mice and coincides with enhanced long-term depression that is more typical of young mice. These findings show that HDAC2 loss in Pv interneurons leads to a delayed closure of the critical period in the visual cortex and supports the hypothesis that HDAC2 is a key negative regulator of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain.

  16. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice.

  17. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P C; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-09-15

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Role of cerebral cortex in the neuropathology of Huntington´s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Estrada-Sánchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An expansion of glutamine repeats in the N-terminal domain of the huntingtin protein leads to Huntington´s disease (HD, a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the presence of involuntary movements, dementia, and psychiatric disturbances. Evaluation of postmortem HD tissue indicates that the most prominent cell loss occurs in cerebral cortex and striatum, forebrain regions in which cortical pyramidal neurons (CPNs and striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs are the most affected. Subsequent evidence obtained from HD patients and especially from transgenic mouse models of HD indicates that long before neuronal death, patterns of communication between CPNs and MSNs become dysfunctional. In fact, electrophysiological signaling in transgenic HD mice is altered even before the appearance of the HD behavioral phenotype, suggesting that dysfunctional cortical input to the striatum sets the stage for the emergence of HD neurological signs. Striatal MSNs, moreover, project back to cortex via multi-synaptic connections, allowing for even further disruptions in cortical processing. An effective therapeutic strategy for HD, therefore, may lie in understanding the synaptic mechanisms by which it dysregulates the corticostriatal system. Here, we review literature evaluating the molecular, morphological, and physiological alterations in the cerebral cortex, a key component of brain circuitry controlling motor behavior, as they occur in both patients and transgenic HD models.

  19. Optimizing the imaging of the monkey auditory cortex: sparse vs. continuous fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Christopher I; Kayser, Christoph; Augath, Mark; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2009-10-01

    The noninvasive imaging of the monkey auditory system with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can bridge the gap between electrophysiological studies in monkeys and imaging studies in humans. Some of the recent imaging of monkey auditory cortical and subcortical structures relies on a technique of "sparse imaging," which was developed in human studies to sidestep the negative influence of scanner noise by adding periods of silence in between volume acquisition. Among the various aspects that have gone into the ongoing optimization of fMRI of the monkey auditory cortex, replacing the more common continuous-imaging paradigm with sparse imaging seemed to us to make the most obvious difference in the amount of activity that we could reliably obtain from awake or anesthetized animals. Here, we directly compare the sparse- and continuous-imaging paradigms in anesthetized animals. We document a strikingly greater auditory response with sparse imaging, both quantitatively and qualitatively, which includes a more expansive and robust tonotopic organization. There were instances where continuous imaging could better reveal organizational properties that sparse imaging missed, such as aspects of the hierarchical organization of auditory cortex. We consider the choice of imaging paradigm as a key component in optimizing the fMRI of the monkey auditory cortex.

  20. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. You and your kin: Neural signatures of family-based group perception in the subgenual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Bado, Patricia; Zahn, Roland; Bramati, Ivanei E; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Attachment to one's kin as an in-group emerges from a fundamental human motivation and is vital for human survival. Despite important recent advances in the field of social neuroscience, the neural mechanisms underlying family-related in-group perception remain obscure. To examine the neural basis of perceiving family-related in-group boundaries in response to written kinship scenarios, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy adults and obtained self-report ratings of family-related entitativity, which measures to what degree participants perceive their family as a coherent and distinct group in society. We expected that activity in the subgenual cingulate cortex and septo-hypothalamic region would track individual differences in entitativity. Perceiving one's family as a distinct and cohesive group (high entitativity) was associated with increased subgenual cortex response to kinship scenarios. The subgenual cingulate cortex may represent a key link between kin-related emotional attachment and group perception, providing a neurobiological basis for group belongingness.

  2. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  3. Visual spatial attention has opposite effects on bidirectional plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Ryan, Alexander E; Sale, Martin V; Campbell, Megan E J; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2014-01-22

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are key mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that are thought to act in concert to shape neural connections. Here we investigated the influence of visual spatial attention on LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. Plasticity was induced using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which involves repeated pairing of peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter functional responses in the thumb area of the primary motor cortex. PAS-induced changes in cortical excitability were assessed using motor-evoked potentials. During plasticity induction, participants directed their attention to one of two visual stimulus streams located adjacent to each hand. When participants attended to visual stimuli located near the left thumb, which was targeted by PAS, LTP-like increases in excitability were significantly enhanced, and LTD-like decreases in excitability reduced, relative to when they attended instead to stimuli located near the right thumb. These differential effects on (bidirectional) LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity suggest that voluntary visual attention can exert an important influence on the functional organization of the motor cortex. Specifically, attention acts to both enhance the strengthening and suppress the weakening of neural connections representing events that fall within the focus of attention.

  4. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-03

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information.

  5. Anodic or cathodic motor cortex stimulation for pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.; Manola, L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. In motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for central and trigeminal pain Resume leads are placed epidurally over the motor and sensory cortex. Several bipolar combinations are used to identify the cortical target corresponding to the painful body segment. The cathode giving the largest motor r

  6. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  7. Representation of Reward Feedback in Primate Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrosch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1 the reward expectancy for each trial, (2 the reward size received and (3 the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  8. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Heys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB. To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed towards identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in entorhinal cortex that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in entorhinal cortex that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in entorhinal cortex that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in entorhinal cortex. Finally, the local circuits of entorhinal cortex demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of entorhinal cortex to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory.

  9. Representation of reward feedback in primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Scheich, Henning

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys' performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that reflected (1) the reward expectancy for each trial, (2) the reward-size received, and (3) the mismatch between the expected and delivered reward. These results, together with control experiments suggest that auditory cortex receives reward feedback that could be used to adapt auditory cortex to task requirements. Additionally, the results presented here extend previous observations of non-auditory roles of auditory cortex and shows that auditory cortex is even more cognitively influenced than lately recognized.

  10. Prefrontal Cortex: A Mystery of Belated Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2017-06-05

    A recent study suggests that the prefrontal cortex gradually becomes critical as a storage site for remotely acquired memories. How do we interpret this observation in light of the well-known functional role of the prefrontal cortex in cognition and memory? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metaphorically Feeling: Comprehending Textural Metaphors Activates Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  12. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  13. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  14. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  15. Auditory Cortex Characteristics in Schizophrenia: Associations With Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Lange, Elisabeth H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Kompus, Kristiina; Westerhausen, René; Osnes, Kåre; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Agartz, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between smaller auditory cortex volume and auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia. Reduced cortical volume can result from a reduction of either cortical thickness or cortical surface area, which may reflect different neuropathology. We investigate for the first time how thickness and surface area of the auditory cortex relate to AH in a large sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients. Schizophrenia spectrum (n = 194) patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Mean cortical thickness and surface area in auditory cortex regions (Heschl's gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT], and superior temporal gyrus [STG]) were compared between patients with (AH+, n = 145) and without (AH-, n = 49) a lifetime history of AH and 279 healthy controls. AH+ patients showed significantly thinner cortex in the left HG compared to AH- patients (d = 0.43, P = .0096). There were no significant differences between AH+ and AH- patients in cortical thickness in the PT or STG, or in auditory cortex surface area in any of the regions investigated. Group differences in cortical thickness in the left HG was not affected by duration of illness or current antipsychotic medication. AH in schizophrenia patients were related to thinner cortex, but not smaller surface area of the left HG, a region which includes the primary auditory cortex. The results support that structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex underlie AH in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Spontaneous pattern formation and pinning in the visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tanya I.

    Bifurcation theory and perturbation theory can be combined with a knowledge of the underlying circuitry of the visual cortex to produce an elegant story explaining the phenomenon of visual hallucinations. A key insight is the application of an important set of ideas concerning spontaneous pattern formation introduced by Turing in 1952. The basic mechanism is a diffusion driven linear instability favoring a particular wavelength that determines the size of the ensuing stripe or spot periodicity of the emerging spatial pattern. Competition between short range excitation and longer range inhibition in the connectivity profile of cortical neurons provides the difference in diffusion length scales necessary for the Turing mechanism to occur and has been proven by Ermentrout and Cowan to be sufficient to explain the generation of a subset of reported geometric hallucinations. Incorporating further details of the cortical circuitry, namely that neurons are also weakly connected to other neurons sharing a particular stimulus orientation or spatial frequency preference at even longer ranges and the resulting shift-twist symmetry of the neuronal connectivity, improves the story. We expand this approach in order to be able to include the tuned responses of cortical neurons to additional visual stimulus features such as motion, color and disparity. We apply a study of nonlinear dynamics similar to the analysis of wave propagation in a crystalline lattice to demonstrate how a spatial pattern formed through the Turing instability can be pinned to the geometric layout of various feature preferences. The perturbation analysis is analogous to solving the Schrodinger equation in a weak periodic potential. Competition between the local isotropic connections which produce patterns of activity via the Turing mechanism and the weaker patchy lateral connections that depend on a neuron's particular set of feature preferences create long wavelength affects analogous to commensurate

  17. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar MOMEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz city, which was presented with status epilepticus associated with developmental delay and finally diagnosed as double cortex syndrome, because band heterotopia cases especially for continuous or generalized form is rare.A 4.5-year-old developmentally delayed girl was admitted for generalized tonic clonic seizure attack of 1 hr, upward gaze, locked mouth, and urinary incontinence (status epilepticus in the child neurology ward. She had a history of recurrent seizures that started as febrile seizures since she was 12 months of age and had frequent admissions for having recurrent seizure attacks. She was the only child of consanguineous parents with negative family history of any neurologic problems. She was a product of uneventful term pregnancy, vaginal delivery with a low Apgar score at birth who was admitted for six days in the neonatal ward for hypotonia and cyanosis. At 4.5 years of age, she had HC: 45cm (<3% Length: 102 cm (25–75%, and BW: 18kg (75%.She was able to sit, walk with support, speak a few words, and communicate with others. A physical exam was unremarkable. Lab data including CBC, blood biochemical, and urinalysis results were all within normal limits, but the electroencephalography (EEG revealed generalized poly spike-wave discharges. A brain MRI showed corpus callosal dysplasia, generalized band heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. She was discharged home with oral valproate and regular outpatient follow-ups.In the diagnostic evaluation of

  18. Neurocomputational Consequences of Evolutionary Connectivity Changes in Perisylvian Language Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomers, Malte R; Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-03-15

    The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory-a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities-but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing. Here, we provide a possible explanation and link, by using neurocomputational simulations in neuroanatomically structured models of the perisylvian language cortex. We compare networks mimicking key features of cortical connectivity in monkeys and humans, specifically the presence of relatively stronger higher-order "jumping links" between nonadjacent perisylvian cortical areas in the latter, and demonstrate that the emergence of working memory for syllables and word forms is a functional consequence of this structural evolutionary change. We also show that a mere increase of learning time is not sufficient, but that this specific structural feature, which entails higher connectivity degree of relevant areas and shorter sensorimotor path length, is crucial. These results offer a better understanding of specifically human anatomical features underlying the language faculty and their evolutionary selection advantage.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Why do humans have superior language abilities compared to primates? Recently, a uniquely human neuroanatomical feature has been demonstrated in the strength of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a fiber pathway interlinking the left-hemispheric language areas. Although AF anatomy has been related to linguistic skills, an explanation of how this fiber bundle may support language abilities is still missing. We use neuroanatomically structured computational models to investigate the consequences of evolutionary changes in language area

  19. Neurocomputational Consequences of Evolutionary Connectivity Changes in Perisylvian Language Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-01-01

    The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory—a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities—but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing. Here, we provide a possible explanation and link, by using neurocomputational simulations in neuroanatomically structured models of the perisylvian language cortex. We compare networks mimicking key features of cortical connectivity in monkeys and humans, specifically the presence of relatively stronger higher-order “jumping links” between nonadjacent perisylvian cortical areas in the latter, and demonstrate that the emergence of working memory for syllables and word forms is a functional consequence of this structural evolutionary change. We also show that a mere increase of learning time is not sufficient, but that this specific structural feature, which entails higher connectivity degree of relevant areas and shorter sensorimotor path length, is crucial. These results offer a better understanding of specifically human anatomical features underlying the language faculty and their evolutionary selection advantage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Why do humans have superior language abilities compared to primates? Recently, a uniquely human neuroanatomical feature has been demonstrated in the strength of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a fiber pathway interlinking the left-hemispheric language areas. Although AF anatomy has been related to linguistic skills, an explanation of how this fiber bundle may support language abilities is still missing. We use neuroanatomically structured computational models to investigate the consequences of evolutionary changes in

  20. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinarayan Tiwari; Nayan Sharma

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents fundamental outcomes from an experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). Hydrodynamic performance was tested in a circulated open channel that comprised of PKW and sand bed (d50 = 0.25 mm). Instantaneous velocities were measured at 20 cross sections using Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) with constant discharge and depth. Average velocity and turbulence intensities in both directions were investigated. Average longitudinal velocities are found very much consistent at every point and maximum around the midway of inlet key. In transverse direction, flow is bifurcating in two directions which are also confirmed by average transverse velocity estimation. Variation of turbulence intensity presents average 10 times higher transverse turbulence than longitudinal turbulence near inlet key of PKW.

  1. Neuroarchitecture of the auditory cortex in the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke-Schuller, S

    2001-07-01

    This study describes the location and anatomical subdivisions of the auditory cortex of the horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. The basic cyto- and myeloarchitectural features and cytochrome oxidase reactivity patterns are evaluated in brains where auditory fields have been previously established neurophysiologically (Radtke-Schuller and Schuller 1995). Thus, the neuroanatomical findings from these brains and additional analyzed material are related to neurophysiological characteristics. The neocortex of Rhinolophus shows a typical mammalian six-layered organization. It is poorly laminated, has a low density of granular elements, a wide layer I, and a phylogenetically old pyramidal cell type in a sharply accentuated layer II. These features are generally considered 'primitive' or conservative. Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions can be distinguished. In the temporal cortex, layers III and IV are found to be markedly thicker than layer V, in contrast to the parietal region, where a prominent layer V, containing a high concentration of large pyramidal cells is the most outstanding feature. The entire temporal region, most of the parietal and parts of the occipital region are responsive to auditory stimuli. The primary auditory field corresponds to most of the temporal region. The fields of the parietal region almost completely coincide with the dorsal fields of the auditory cortex. Border zones between the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions correspond to the posterior auditory field. The non-primary fields of the auditory cortex occupy a larger area of the bat's neocortex than the primary field. The accentuated neuroarchitectural features, like cortical thickness and staining intensity, are shown to coincide with the physiological representation of biologically significant parameters.

  2. Does the orbitofrontal cortex signal value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Takahashi, Yuji; Liu, Tzu-Lan; McDannald, Michael A

    2011-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in associative learning. Early work by Mishkin and Rolls showed that the OFC was critical for rapid changes in learned behavior, a role that was reflected in the encoding of associative information by orbitofrontal neurons. Over the years, new data-particularly neurophysiological data-have increasingly emphasized the OFC in signaling actual value. These signals have been reported to vary according to internal preferences and judgments and to even be completely independent of the sensory qualities of predictive cues, the actual rewards, and the responses required to obtain them. At the same time, increasingly sophisticated behavioral studies have shown that the OFC is often unnecessary for simple value-based behavior and instead seems critical when information about specific outcomes must be used to guide behavior and learning. Here, we review these data and suggest a theory that potentially reconciles these two ideas, value versus specific outcomes, and bodies of work on the OFC.

  3. Conserved Sequence Processing in Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing. The findings carry implications for the origins of domain-general capacities underlying core language functions in humans. Here, we synthesize this research into a 'ventrodorsal gradient' model, where frontal cortex engagement along this axis depends on sequencing complexity, mapping onto the sequencing capacities of different species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  5. An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Ng, Lydia; Williams, Derric; Valley, Matthew; Li, Yang; Garrett, Marina; Waters, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Visual perception and behavior are mediated by cortical areas that have been distinguished using architectonic and retinotopic criteria. We employed fluorescence imaging and GCaMP6 reporter mice to generate retinotopic maps, revealing additional regions of retinotopic organization that extend into barrel and retrosplenial cortices. Aligning retinotopic maps to architectonic borders, we found a mismatch in border location, indicating that architectonic borders are not aligned with the retinotopic transition at the vertical meridian. We also assessed the representation of visual space within each region, finding that four visual areas bordering V1 (LM, P, PM and RL) display complementary representations, with overlap primarily at the central hemifield. Our results extend our understanding of the organization of mouse cortex to include up to 16 distinct retinotopically organized regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18372.001 PMID:28059700

  6. Sex, beauty and the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Alumit

    2007-02-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed neural system in the human brain. Attention, memory and emotion modulate the neural activation evoked by faces, however the effects of gender and sexual orientation are currently unknown. To test whether subjects would respond more to their sexually-preferred faces, we scanned 40 hetero- and homosexual men and women whilst they assessed facial attractiveness. Behaviorally, regardless of their gender and sexual orientation, all subjects similarly rated the attractiveness of both male and female faces. Consistent with our hypothesis, a three-way interaction between stimulus gender, beauty and the sexual preference of the subject was found in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In heterosexual women and homosexual men, attractive male faces elicited stronger activation than attractive female faces, whereas in heterosexual men and homosexual women, attractive female faces evoked stronger activation than attractive male faces. These findings suggest that the OFC represents the value of salient sexually-relevant faces, irrespective of their reproductive fitness.

  7. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  8. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i) the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii) the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii) the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv) the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  9. Functioning of Circuits Connecting Thalamus and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S Murray

    2017-03-16

    Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver, which carries the main information between cells, and modulator, which modifies how driver inputs function. Identifying driver inputs helps to reveal functional computational circuits, and one set of such circuits identified by this approach are cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic corticocortical) circuits. This, in turn, leads to the conclusion that there are two types of thalamic relay: first order nuclei (such as the lateral geniculate nucleus) that relay driver input from a subcortical source (i.e., retina), and higher order nuclei (such as the pulvinar) which are involved in these transthalamic pathways by relaying driver input from layer 5 of one cortical area to another. This thalamic division is also seen in other sensory pathways and beyond these so that most of thalamus by volume consists of higher-order relays. Many, and perhaps all, direct driver connections between cortical areas are paralleled by an indirect cortico-thalamo-cortical (transthalamic) driver route involving higher order thalamic relays. Such thalamic relays represent a heretofore unappreciated role in cortical functioning, and this assessment challenges and extends conventional views regarding both the role of thalamus and mechanisms of corticocortical communication. Finally, many and perhaps the vast majority of driver inputs relayed through thalamus arrive via branching axons, with extrathalamic targets often being subcortical motor centers. This raises the possibility that inputs relayed by thalamus to cortex also serve as efference copies, and this may represent an important feature of information relayed up the cortical hierarchy via transthalamic circuits. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:713-739, 2017.

  10. Neuronal Correlates of Multiple Top–Down Signals during Covert Tracking of Moving Objects in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Ayano; Tanaka, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to distraction is a key component of executive functions and is strongly linked to the prefrontal cortex. Recent evidence suggests that neural mechanisms exist for selective suppression of task-irrelevant information. However, neuronal signals related to selective suppression have not yet been identified, whereas nonselective surround suppression, which results from attentional enhancement for relevant stimuli, has been well documented. This study examined single neuron activities ...

  11. Contrasting reward signals in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jonathan D; Kennerley, Steven W

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) impairs decision making, but the underlying value computations that cause such impairments remain unclear. Both the OFC and ACC encode a wide variety of signals correlated with decision making. The current challenge is to determine how these two different areas support decision-making processes. Here, we review a series of experiments that have helped define these roles. A special population of neurons in the ACC, but not the OFC, multiplex value information across decision parameters using a unified encoding scheme, and encode reward prediction errors. In contrast, neurons in the OFC, but not the ACC, encode the value of a choice relative to the recent history of choice values. Together, these results suggest complementary valuation processes: OFC neurons dynamically evaluate current choices relative to the value contexts recently experienced, while ACC neurons encode choice predictions and prediction errors using a common valuation currency reflecting the integration of multiple decision parameters.

  12. Retinotopy versus face selectivity in macaque visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajimehr, Reza; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Vanduffel, Wim; Tootell, Roger B H

    2014-12-01

    Retinotopic organization is a ubiquitous property of lower-tier visual cortical areas in human and nonhuman primates. In macaque visual cortex, the retinotopic maps extend to higher-order areas in the ventral visual pathway, including area TEO in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Distinct regions within IT cortex are also selective to specific object categories such as faces. Here we tested the topographic relationship between retinotopic maps and face-selective patches in macaque visual cortex using high-resolution fMRI and retinotopic face stimuli. Distinct subregions within face-selective patches showed either (1) a coarse retinotopic map of eccentricity and polar angle, (2) a retinotopic bias to a specific location of visual field, or (3) nonretinotopic selectivity. In general, regions along the lateral convexity of IT cortex showed more overlap between retinotopic maps and face selectivity, compared with regions within the STS. Thus, face patches in macaques can be subdivided into smaller patches with distinguishable retinotopic properties.

  13. The discovery of motor cortex and its background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Charles G

    2007-01-01

    In 1870 Gustav Fritsch and Edvard Hitzig showed that electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex of a dog produced movements. This was a crucial event in the development of modern neuroscience because it was the first good experimental evidence for a) cerebral cortex involvement in motor function, b) the electrical excitability of the cortex, c) topographic representation in the brain, and d) localization of function in different regions of the cerebral cortex. This paper discusses their experiment and some developments in the previous two centuries that led to it including the ideas of Thomas Willis and Emanuel Swedenborg, the widespread interest in electricity and the localizations of function of Franz Joseph Gall, John Hughlings Jackson, and Paul Broca. We also consider the subsequent study of the motor cortex by David Ferrier and others.

  14. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion.

  15. Self-identity: Key to Emerson’s Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晶鑫

    2014-01-01

    Emerson established a systematic philosophy of individualism at his early stage.The basic three elements of individualism described in Emerson’s works are:freedom,selfidentity and independence to others.the most valuable trait for any individual is a sense of self-identity,which mainly relies on selfrealization and self-acknowledgement.It is the key to realize the individualism.

  16. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  17. Chemical Discrimination of Cortex Phellodendri amurensis and Cortex Phellodendri chinensis by Multivariate Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuhong; Meng, Xiangcai; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    As herbal medicines have an important position in health care systems worldwide, their current assessment, and quality control are a major bottleneck. Cortex Phellodendri chinensis (CPC) and Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) are widely used in China, however, how to identify species of CPA and CPC has become urgent. In this study, multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigation of chemical discrimination of CPA and CPC. Principal component analysis showed that two herbs could be separated clearly. The chemical markers such as berberine, palmatine, phellodendrine, magnoflorine, obacunone, and obaculactone were identified through the orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers for discrimination of CPA and CPC. Of them, phellodenrine is significantly higher in CPC than that of CPA, whereas obacunone and obaculactone are significantly higher in CPA than that of CPC. The present study proves that multivariate analysis approach based chemical analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of CPA and CPC, and showed that the identified chemical markers as a whole should be used to discriminate the two herbal medicines, and simultaneously the results also provided chemical information for their quality assessment. Multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigate the herbal medicineThe chemical markers were identified through multivariate analysis approachA total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based multivariate analysis method for the herbal medicine samples Abbreviations used: CPC: Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, CPA: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis, PCA: Principal component analysis, OPLS-DA: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, BPI: Base peaks ion intensity.

  18. Smartphones Could Make Keys Obsolete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt Richtel

    2011-01-01

    @@ Front pockets and purses are slowly being emptied of one of civilization's most basic and enduring tools: the key.It's being swallowed by the cellphone.New technology lets smartphones unlock hotel, office and house doors and open garages and even car doors. It's a not-too-distant cousin of the technology that allows key fobs to remotely unlock automobiles or key cards to be waved beside electronic pads at office entrances.What's new is that it is on the device more people are using as the Swiss Army knife of electronics, in equal parts phone, memo pad, stereo, map, GPS unit, and camera and game machine.

  19. A Comparative Study of Group Key Management in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Bashary,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a self organized network, with no fixed infrastructure, limited resources and limited physical security. Security in such an environment is an essential requirement. Key management is a salient element in MANET security. It is responsible for key generation, storage, distribution, updating, revocation, deleting, and archiving. Key management protocols are classified into symmetric, asymmetric, group, and hybrid. Group key management is a point of interest for researchers with the growing usage of mobile devices and the rising of multicast communication. This paper surveys different approaches in group key management schemes. A comparative study is demonstrated in terms of reliability, computational complexity, storage cost, communication overheads, pre-requirements, security levels, robustness, vulnerabilities, scalability, energy and mobility. Finally, the study concludes the pros and cons of each protocol.

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Prefrontal Cortex htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Prefrontal_Cortex.bed ...

  3. Characterization of the fiber connectivity profile of the cerebral cortex in schizotypal personality disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter (WM tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from twenty subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 yrs and eighteen healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 yrs. To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA9 and BA10 and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected. Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02. Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  4. Sharp wave-associated synchronized inputs from the piriform cortex activate olfactory tubercle neurons during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikiyo, Kimiya; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, anterior piriform cortex neurons show highly synchronized discharges that accompany olfactory cortex sharp waves (OC-SPWs). The OC-SPW-related synchronized activity of anterior piriform cortex neurons travel down to the olfactory bulb and is thought to be involved in the reorganization of bulbar neuronal circuitry. However, influences of the OC-SPW-related activity on other regions of the central olfactory system are still unknown. Olfactory tubercle is an area of OC and part of ventral striatum that plays a key role in reward-directed motivational behaviors. In this study, we show that in freely behaving rats, olfactory tubercle receives OC-SPW-associated synchronized inputs during slow-wave sleep. Local field potentials in the olfactory tubercle showed SPW-like activities that were in synchrony with OC-SPWs. Single-unit recordings showed that a subpopulation of olfactory tubercle neurons discharged in synchrony with OC-SPWs. Furthermore, correlation analysis of spike activity of anterior piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle neurons revealed that the discharges of anterior piriform cortex neurons tended to precede those of olfactory tubercle neurons. Current source density analysis in urethane-anesthetized rats indicated that the current sink of the OC-SPW-associated input was located in layer III of the olfactory tubercle. These results indicate that OC-SPW-associated synchronized discharges of piriform cortex neurons travel to the deep layer of the olfactory tubercle and drive discharges of olfactory tubercle neurons. The entrainment of olfactory tubercle neurons in the OC-SPWs suggests that OC-SPWs coordinate reorganization of neuronal circuitry across wide areas of the central olfactory system including olfactory tubercle during slow-wave sleep.

  5. Characterization of the Fiber Connectivity Profile of the Cerebral Cortex in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Yueji; Wu, Jianlin; Lei, Yi; Chu, Winnie C W; Mok, Vincent C T; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs) by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from 20 subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 years) and 18 healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 years). To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD) value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA 9 and BA 10) and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected). Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02). Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  6. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function.

  7. Amygdala perfusion is predicted by its functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and negative affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Coombs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect. It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1 amygdala over-activity and 2 reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. METHODS: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA, and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach.

  8. Age-Related Deterioration of Perineuronal Nets in the Primary Auditory Cortex of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin H Brewton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in inhibitory neurotransmission in sensory cortex may underlie deficits in sensory function. Perineuronal nets (PNNs are extracellular matrix components that ensheath some inhibitory neurons, particularly parvalbumin positive (PV+ interneurons. PNNs may protect PV+ cells from oxidative stress and help establish their rapid spiking properties. Although PNN expression has been well characterized during development, possible changes in aging sensory cortex have not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that PNN+, PV+ and PV/PNN co-localized cell densities decline with age in the primary auditory cortex (A1. This hypothesis was tested using immunohistochemistry in two strains of mice (C57BL/6 and CBA/CaJ with different susceptibility to age-related hearing loss and at three different age ranges (1-3, 6-8 and 14-24 months old. We report that PNN+ and PV/PNN co-localized cell densities decline significantly with age in A1 in both mouse strains. In the PNN+ cells that remain in the old group, the intensity of PNN staining is reduced in the C57 strain, but not the CBA strain. PV+ cell density also declines only in the C57, but not the CBA, mouse suggesting a potential exacerbation of age-effects by hearing loss in the PV/PNN system. Taken together, these data suggest that PNN deterioration may be a key component of altered inhibition in the aging sensory cortex, that may lead to altered synaptic function, susceptibility to oxidative stress and processing deficits.

  9. The metabolism of histamine in rat hypothalamus and cortex after reserpine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Martin; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The effect of reserpine on histamine (HA) and tele-methylhistamine (N(τ)-MHA) in hypothalamus and cortex of rats was analyzed and compared to catecholamines. IP injection of reserpine (5 mg/kg) confirmed the effectiveness of reserpine treatment on noradrenaline and dopamine levels. Our in-vitro experiment with synaptosomal/crude mitochondrial fraction from hypothalamus and cortex confirmed that while mono amine oxidase (MAO) is an efficient metabolic enzyme for catecholamines, HA is not significantly affected by its enzymatic action. HMT activity after reserpine, pargyline and L-histidine treatment showed no differences compared to the control values. However HDC was significantly increased in both hypothalamus and cortex. In this study, Ws/Ws rats with deficiency of mast cells were used to clarify aspects of HA metabolism in HAergic neurons by eliminating the contribution of mast cells. The irreversible MAO-B inhibitor Pargyline (65 mg/kg) failed to accumulate N(τ)-MHA in the hypothalamus. However, when animals treated with reserpine and pargyline/reserpine were compared, the last group showed higher N(τ)-MHA values (p hypothalamus to 166% and the cortex to 348%. In conclusion, our results suggest that the effect of reserpine on the HA pools in the brain might be different. The neuronal HA pools are more resistant to reserpine as compared to those of catecholamine. Moreover, the HAergic pool appears to be more resistant to depletion than mast cells' pool, and thus HDC/HMT activity and its localization may play a key role in the understanding of HA metabolism in brain after reserpine treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  11. A Historical Review of the Representation of the Visual Field in Primary Visual Cortex with Special Reference to the Neural Mechanisms Underlying Macular Sparing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article comprises a historical review of the literature pertaining to the representation of the visual field in human primary visual cortex. A brief survey of the anatomy of the visual system is followed by a critical evaluation of the key studies that have informed both the issue of the disproportionate representation of central vision…

  12. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  13. Element-ary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  14. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan

    2009-01-01

    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  15. Remodeling of retrotransposon elements during epigenetic induction of adult visual cortical plasticity by HDAC inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartsson, Andreas; Arner, Erik; Fagiolini, Michela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The capacity for plasticity in the adult brain is limited by the anatomical traces laid down during early postnatal life. Removing certain molecular brakes, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), has proven to be effective in recapitulating juvenile plasticity in the mature visual cortex...... and reactivate plasticity in the adult cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with HDAC inhibitors increases accessibility to enhancers and repetitive elements underlying brain-specific gene expression and reactivation of visual cortical plasticity....

  16. Slips of the Typewriter Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Presents an analysis of 500 submorphemic slips of the typewriter key that escaped the notice of authors and other proofreaders and thereby made their way into the published records of scientific research. (Author/VWL)

  17. Secret Key Generation From Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gungor, Onur; Koksal, C Emre

    2011-01-01

    We consider secret key generation from relative localization information of a pair of nodes in a mobile wireless network in the presence of a mobile eavesdropper. Our scheme consists of two phases: in the first phase, legitimate node pair exchanges beacon signals to establish localization information based on noisy observations of these beacons; in the second phase, nodes generate secret key bits via a public discussion. Our problem can be categorized under the source models of information theoretic secrecy, where the distance between the legitimate nodes acts as the observed common randomness. We characterize the achievable secret key bit rate in terms of the observation noise variance at the legitimate nodes and the eavesdropper. This work provides a framework that combines information theoretic secrecy and wireless localization, and proves that the localization information provides a significant additional resource for secret key generation in mobile wireless networks.

  18. Security of Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, R

    2005-01-01

    We propose various new techniques in quantum information theory, including a de Finetti style representation theorem for finite symmetric quantum states. As an application, we give a proof for the security of quantum key distribution which applies to arbitrary protocols.

  19. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  20. Wiki keys on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Gisela; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The development of increasingly powerful mobile devices like PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Smartphones, with larger displays and greater resolution makes them increasingly suitable for identification tools available directly “in the field”. One of several approaches towards this aim in the KeyToNature project is based on wiki-stored documents. Important features of wiki-based keys, such as hidden text and media information as well as links to glossary entries are su...

  1. GENERALIZED MATRIXES OF GALOIS PROTOCOLS EXCHANGE ENCRYPTION KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Beletsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of construction of matrix formation the secret protocols legalized subscribers of public communications networks encryption keys. Based key exchange protocols laid asymmetric cryptography algorithms. The solution involves the calculation of one-way functions and is based on the use of generalized Galois arrays of isomorphism relationship with forming elements, and depending on the selected irreducible polynomial generating matrix. A simple method for constructing generalized Galois matrix by the method of filling the diagonal. In order to eliminate the isomorphism of Galois arrays and their constituent elements, limiting the possibility of building one-way functions, Galois matrix subjected to similarity transformation carried out by means of permutation matrices. The variant of the organization of the algebraic attacks on encryption keys sharing protocols and discusses options for easing the consequences of an attack.

  2. 一种基于PKI的密钥%An Internet Key Exchange Protocol Based on Public Key Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建明; 马建峰

    2004-01-01

    Internet key exchange (IKE) is an automated key exchange mechanism that is used to facilitate the transfer of IPSec security associations (SAs).Public key infrastructure (PKI) is considered as a key element for providing security to new distributed communication networks and services.In this paper, we concentrate on the properties of the protocol of Phase 1 IKE.After investigating IKE protocol and PKI technology, we combine IKE protocol and PKI and present an implementation scheme of the IKE based on PKI.Then, we give a logic analysis of the proposed protocol with the BAN-logic and discuss the security of the protocol.The result indicates that the protocol is correct and satisfies the security requirements of Internet key exchange.

  3. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  4. Finite-key security analysis for multilevel quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Fickler, Robert; Broadbent, Anne; Boyd, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed security analysis of a d-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on two and three mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) both in an asymptotic and finite-key-length scenario. The finite secret key rates (in bits per detected photon) are calculated as a function of the length of the sifted key by (i) generalizing the uncertainly relation-based insight from BB84 to any d-level 2-MUB QKD protocol and (ii) by adopting recent advances in the second-order asymptotics for finite block length quantum coding (for both d-level 2- and 3-MUB QKD protocols). Since the finite and asymptotic secret key rates increase with d and the number of MUBs (together with the tolerable threshold) such QKD schemes could in principle offer an important advantage over BB84. We discuss the possibility of an experimental realization of the 3-MUB QKD protocol with the orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom of photons.

  5. Behavioural changes after ablation of subdivisions of the rat prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Divac, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, exploration, betinget smagsaversion, spontan alternation, operant udslukning......Neurobiologi, præfrontal cortex, exploration, betinget smagsaversion, spontan alternation, operant udslukning...

  6. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jobin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P Aά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P Aά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.

  7. A Family of Uniform Strain Tetrahedral Elements and a Method for Connecting Dissimilar Finite Element Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a collection of papers on a family of uniform strain tetrahedral finite elements and their connection to different element types. Also included in the report are two papers which address the general problem of connecting dissimilar meshes in two and three dimensions. Much of the work presented here was motivated by the development of the tetrahedral element described in the report "A Suitable Low-Order, Eight-Node Tetrahedral Finite Element For Solids," by S. W. Key {ital et al.}, SAND98-0756, March 1998. Two basic issues addressed by the papers are: (1) the performance of alternative tetrahedral elements with uniform strain and enhanced uniform strain formulations, and (2) the proper connection of tetrahedral and other element types when two meshes are "tied" together to represent a single continuous domain.

  8. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  9. Musikalske elementer i musikaler

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linnea Reitan

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven undersøker hvordan musikalske elementer kan bli brukt i musikaler for å påvirke den dramaturgiske helheten. Gjennom både musikalsk og dramaturgisk analyse viser jeg hvordan elementer i musikk kan ha innvirkning på forestillingens dramaturgi. In this master thesis I am aiming to examine the musical elements used in the songs in musicals. Music is an important element in the musical, and therefore I want to look at how some musical elements can contribute to the musical'...

  10. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Connie; Hamilton, Liberty S; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    In humans, listening to speech evokes neural responses in the motor cortex. This has been controversially interpreted as evidence that speech sounds are processed as articulatory gestures. However, it is unclear what information is actually encoded by such neural activity. We used high-density direct human cortical recordings while participants spoke and listened to speech sounds. Motor cortex neural patterns during listening were substantially different than during articulation of the same sounds. During listening, we observed neural activity in the superior and inferior regions of ventral motor cortex. During speaking, responses were distributed throughout somatotopic representations of speech articulators in motor cortex. The structure of responses in motor cortex during listening was organized along acoustic features similar to auditory cortex, rather than along articulatory features as during speaking. Motor cortex does not contain articulatory representations of perceived actions in speech, but rather, represents auditory vocal information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12577.001 PMID:26943778

  11. Visual field map clusters in human frontoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Wayne E; Winawer, Jonathan; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-06-19

    The visual neurosciences have made enormous progress in recent decades, in part because of the ability to drive visual areas by their sensory inputs, allowing researchers to define visual areas reliably across individuals and across species. Similar strategies for parcellating higher-order cortex have proven elusive. Here, using a novel experimental task and nonlinear population receptive field modeling, we map and characterize the topographic organization of several regions in human frontoparietal cortex. We discover representations of both polar angle and eccentricity that are organized into clusters, similar to visual cortex, where multiple gradients of polar angle of the contralateral visual field share a confluent fovea. This is striking because neural activity in frontoparietal cortex is believed to reflect higher-order cognitive functions rather than external sensory processing. Perhaps the spatial topography in frontoparietal cortex parallels the retinotopic organization of sensory cortex to enable an efficient interface between perception and higher-order cognitive processes. Critically, these visual maps constitute well-defined anatomical units that future studies of frontoparietal cortex can reliably target.

  12. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  13. The Functioning of a Cortex without Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown. Here we present our insights from the reeler mutant mouse, a model for a developmental, “molecular lesion”-induced loss of cortical layering that could serve as ground truth of what an intact layering adds to the cortex in terms of functionality. We could demonstrate that the reeler neocortex shows no inversion of cortical layers but rather a severe disorganization that in the primary somatosensory cortex leads to the complete loss of layers. Nevertheless, the somatosensory system is well organized. When exploring an enriched environment with specific sets of whiskers, activity-dependent gene expression takes place in the corresponding modules. Precise whisker stimuli lead to the functional activation of somatotopically organized barrel columns as visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Similar results were obtained in the reeler visual system. When analyzing pathways that could be responsible for preservation of tactile perception, lemniscal thalamic projections were found to be largely intact, despite the smearing of target neurons across the cortical mantle. However, with optogenetic experiments we found evidence for a mild dispersion of thalamic synapse targeting on layer IV-spiny stellate cells, together with a general weakening in thalamocortical input strength. This weakening of thalamic inputs was compensated by intracortical mechanisms involving increased recurrent excitation and/or reduced feedforward

  14. Hydrolysis of cortex peptidoglycan during bacterial spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shio; Moriyama, Ryuichi

    2002-06-01

    Despite the most extreme dormancy and resistance properties among living systems, bacterial endospores retain an alert sensory mechanism to respond to the germinants and initiate germination. Although the molecular mechanism of the germination process is not completely described, current progress in the studies on the enzymes involved in the process gave us a somewhat clearer picture of the process of spore peptidoglycan (cortex) hydrolysis, a major biochemical event in germination. Germination-specific cortex-lytic enzymes require muramic acid d-lactam in their substrates. At least two types of enzymes are involved in the germination process: a spore cortex-lytic enzyme (SCLE) and a cortical fragment-lytic enzyme (CFLE). Except for their peptidoglycan-binding regions, the primary structures of SCLE and CFLE vary according species. Both enzymes differ in their hydrolytic bond-specificities and recognition of the substrates morphology. SCLE appears to initiate germination by uncrosslinking the intract cortex, and the CFLE further degrades the polysaccharide moiety of the SCLE-modified cortex. In vivo CFLE activity is likely regulated by its requirement for partially un-crosslinked cortex, while SCLE requires activation process. Clostridium perfringens SCLE is activated by a germination-specific serine protease during germination, but the activation mechanism of SCLE in Bacillus species is unknown. Cortex-lytic enzymes are expressed at the early stage of sporulation but the compartment of expression depends on proteins. However, all enzymes are located outside the cortex layer in dormant spores, suggesting that the hydrolysis process initiates at the exterior side of the cortex. The assembly of the germination apparatus is also discussed.

  15. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  16. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for establishing cognitive sets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Lund, Torben E;

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence from neuroimaging that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in establishing task set activity in advance of presentation of the task itself. To find out whether it plays an essential role, we examined patients with unilateral lesions of the rostral prefrontal cortex. They were...... regions, as evidenced by reduced correlations between them during instruction delays. The results suggest that the left rostral prefrontal cortex is indeed required for establishing a cognitive set but that the essential function is to support the functional connectivity among the task-related regions....

  17. 术语解惑 ARM Cortex A9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Cortex A9是ARM公司最新的核心架构,相比前辈Cortex A8。Cortex A9的最大优势在于它引入了多核心架构,Cortex—A9的微体系结构既可用于可伸缩的多核处理器(Cortex—A9 MPcore多核处理器),也可用于更传统的处理器(Cortex—A9单核处理器)。

  18. Motor cortex changes in spinal cord injury: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Eleonora; Bonato, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Lazzaro, Vincenzodi; Callea, Leonardo

    2008-12-01

    Using paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms, we studied cortical excitability in a patient with spinal cord lesion. During posterior tibial nerve stimulation, the contextual flexion of hand fingers contralateral to the stimulated lower limb had suggested a change in motor cortex excitability. Results showed a decrease in the activity of motor cortex inhibitory circuits. This could suggest that in spinal cord injury, just as in stroke and peripheral deafferentation, a disinhibition of latent synapses within the motor cortex and the rewriting of a new motor map can occur.

  19. Responses of medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to interpersonal conflict for resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Leonie; Pichon, Swann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about brain mechanisms recruited during the monitoring and appraisal of social conflicts--for instance, when individuals compete with each other for the same resources. We designed a novel experimental task inducing resource conflicts between two individuals. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design, participants played with another human participant or against a computer, who across trials chose either different (no-conflict) or the same tokens (conflict trials) in order to obtain monetary gains. In conflict trials, the participants could decide whether they would share the token, and the resulting gain, with the other person or instead keep all points for themselves. Behaviorally, participants shared much more often when playing with a human partner than with a computer. fMRI results demonstrated that the dorsal mediofrontal cortex was selectively activated during human conflicts. This region might play a key role in detecting situations in which self- and social interest are incompatible and require behavioral adjustment. In addition, we found a conflict-related response in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that correlated with measures of social relationship and individual sharing behavior. Taken together, these findings reveal a key role of these prefrontal areas for the appraisal and resolution of interpersonal resource conflicts.

  20. Biphasic activation of the mTOR pathway in the gustatory cortex is correlated with and necessary for taste learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belelovsky, Katya; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Elkobi, Alina; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2009-06-10

    Different forms of memories and synaptic plasticity require synthesis of new proteins at the time of acquisition or immediately after. We are interested in the role of translation regulation in the cortex, the brain structure assumed to store long-term memories. The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR (also known as FRAP and RAFT-1), is part of a key signal transduction mechanism known to regulate translation of specific subset of mRNAs and to affect learning and synaptic plasticity. We report here that novel taste learning induces two waves of mTOR activation in the gustatory cortex. Interestingly, the first wave can be identified both in synaptoneurosomal and cellular fractions, whereas the second wave is detected in the cellular fraction but not in the synaptic one. Inhibition of mTOR, specifically in the gustatory cortex, has two effects. First, biochemically, it modulates several known downstream proteins that control translation and reduces the expression of postsynaptic density-95 in vivo. Second, behaviorally, it attenuates long-term taste memory. The results suggest that the mTOR pathway in the cortex modulates both translation factor activity and protein expression, to enable normal taste memory consolidation.