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Sample records for cortex glycyrrhizae radix

  1. [Effect of aconiti laterlis radix compatibility of glycyrrhizae radix on CYP3A4 in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Zhu, Lijun; Zhou, Juan; Tang, Lan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Ye, Zuguang

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective was to develope a UPLC method for determine the concentration of buspirone hydroxychloride in plasma and to evaluate the effects of Aconiti Laterlis Radix and Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix on CYP3A4 in vivo. ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 10 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for the gradient elution with a 2.0 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 7.4, A)-acetonitrile (B) solution, 0-2.2 min, 10% - 60% B, 2.2-2.5 min, 60% B, 2.5-3.0 min, 60%-75% B, 3.0-3.5 min, 75% B, 3.5-4.0 min, 75%-10% B, at the flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1) at room temperature. The UV wavelenght was detected at 243 nm. The linear calibration curve ranged between 0.078 125-20.0 microg (r = 0.9975). The average recovery (n = 6) of buspirone hydroxychloride was 85.62% (RSD 6.8%). The results showed that this method has good specificity and repeatability, and which can be used for the determination of buspirone hydrochlorid in serum. In animial studies, single dose Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract treatment (0.5 g x kg(-1)) decreased buspirone hydroxychloride AUC(0-2 h) (52.8%, P = 0.020), increased CL/F (122%, P = 0.045). Compared to the saline treatment group, Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract treatment has no effect on CYP3A4 in rat. The results indicated that Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract induced CYP3A4 while Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract had no effect on CYP3A4 in vivo. Aconiti Laterlis Radix had been detoxified when be used as compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix.

  2. [Effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Sui, Jing-Jing; Li, Ru-Liu; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Lu, Wen-Biao; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well,and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO (a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  3. 粉甘草去除栓皮的净制加工合理性研究和探讨%Studies on the Processing Rationality of Glycyrrhizae Radix ET Rhizoma Peeling Cork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许华容; 石柏川; 赵志刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:对比甘草Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中的化学成分,探讨粉甘草净制加工中去除栓皮的合理性.方法:采用TLC法,分析甘草栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中化学成分的差异,以乙酸乙酯-甲酸-冰醋酸-水(15:1:1:2)为展开剂,10%硫酸乙醇溶液显色,在紫外灯(365nm)下检视.结果:甘草栓皮供试品色谱中,在与未去栓皮甘草供试品色谱和甘草对照药材色谱相应的位置上,均未显相同颜色和大小的荧光斑点.结论:甘草栓皮与未去栓皮甘草中的化学成分有较明显的不同,推测粉甘草在净制加工中去除栓皮是有一定原因的.%Objective: To compare the chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork in order to study on the processing rationality of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma peeling cork. Methods: Use TLC method, to analyze the differences of the chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork. Developing agent: ethyl acetate-formic acid-glacial acetic acid-water ( 15:1: 1: 2 ); chromogenic agent: 10% sulphuric acid-ethanol; UV detector wavelength was set at 365nm.Results: In the chromatography of the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma assayed sample, different fluorescent spots were present compared with the position of the Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork assayed sample and the Glycyrrhizae Radix el Rhizoma reference material medical. Conclusion: The chemical constituents in the cork of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was considerably different from that in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma not peeled cork, and presumably, the processing of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma peeling cork may have some reasons.

  4. [Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma combined with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on p53 and p21 gene expression of IEC-6 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang; Jiang, Ze-bo; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Jin-ping; Li, Si-ming; Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

  5. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  6. 三个不同品种甘草多糖的含量测定%Content determination of polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae from three different species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 宋新波; 孙成荣; 夏晴

    2013-01-01

    [目的]建立甘草多糖含量定量的测定方法,为评估甘草药材的质量提供方法.[方法]甘草样品经95%乙醇除去小极性的杂质后,采用水提醇沉的方法,再通过多步除杂质得精制多糖.采用苯酚-硫酸法测定甘草多糖与葡萄糖的换算因子,并以此测定不同品种甘草药材中多糖的含量.[结果]三个不同品种间甘草生药中甘草多糖的含量为光果>胀果>乌拉尔.乌拉尔甘草多糖平均加样回收率为98.23%,RSD为1.63%.[结论]此方法简便可行,甘草多糖供试液在4h内显色稳定,重复性较好,平均加样回收率高,可作为甘草多糖的含量测定方法.%[Objective] An phenol-H2SO4 colorimetry method was developed for the determination of polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples from different species in order to provide a scientific basis for a quality evaluation of Materia Medica. [Methods] The samples were extracted with 95% ethanol to remove the little polarity interference components during the pretreatment process, then water extraction and alcohol precipitation were performed, then the obtained polysaccharides were refined by passing many processes. A corrected factor was used to minimize the error between determinations of glucose and polysaccharides. The contents of the polysaccharides in Radix Glycyrrhizae of different samples were determined by phenol- H2SO4 colorimetry method. [Results] The content of three different species' raw material polysaccharides was Radix Glycyrrhizae Glabrae >Radix Glycyrrhizae Inflatae >Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The average recovery rate for the Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides was 98.23% with 1.63% of RSD (n=6). [Conclusion] This determination method is simple, practical, with good reproducibility, high average recovery rate and the color of the treated samples are stabilized within 4h. So this method can be used to determine of Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharides.

  7. A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-01-18

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  9. Effect of PGPR inoculum on growth of Radix glycyrrhizae%植物促生菌剂对甘草生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文彬; 王占军; 姚拓; 张玉霞; 王国基

    2014-01-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)strains (RS1,RS5,RP1,Jm170,Jm92)isola-ted and screened from the rhizosphere of Radix glycyrrhizae were used to produce single inoculants and then its effect on the growth of R.glycyrrhizae was studies.The result indicated that the inoculants could increase the plant height,biomass,mean diameter and length of main root and the order of promotion effect of 5 strains was Jm 92>Jm170>RS1>RS5>RP1.Jm92 had a significant effect on plant height,aboveground biomass,root dry weight,root surface area,root volume and root length,which were enhanced by 32.8%,5 1.5%,202.3 %, 1 68.1% and 180.3% respectively compared to the control (P Jm170>RS1>RS5>RP1。与对照相比,促生菌接种剂 Jm92对甘草幼苗株高、地上生物量、地下生物量、根表面积及根体积增加达极显著水平(P <0.01),分别增加32.8%、51.5%、202.3%、168.1%和180.3%,其次为 Jm170,其以上指标分别增加27.1%、27.4%、164.0%、177.0%和121.2%。Jm92、Jm170、RS1在研制甘草根际专用肥中具有较大潜力。

  10. 不同比例制川乌配伍甘草对单酯型生物碱煎出量的影响%Effect of Aconiti Radix Preparata combined with Glycyrrhizae Radix in different ratios on monoester alkaloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰峰; 宋兆辉; 张兰兰; 周水平; 冯锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究制川乌配伍甘草对制川乌中多种单酯型生物碱煎出量的影响,探索其变化规律,以指导制川乌与甘草的合理配伍.方法 HPLC法测定制川乌与甘草不同比例配伍时煎出液中单酯型生物碱的总量,并通过对比,分析不同配比对煎出量的影响.结果 随着甘草配伍量的增加,煎煮液中单酯型生物碱总量逐渐降低,每种单酯型生物碱煎出量趋于单煎液煎出量的40%.结论 甘草配伍制川乌时,甘草的使用量应是制川乌的一半以上,既可以保证煎出液中单酯型生物碱总量稳定可控,又可以防止制川乌毒性过大造成使用危险.%Objective To study the effect of Aconiti Radix Preparata (RAP) combined with Glycyrrhizae Radix (RG) in different ratios on the decocted yield of monoester-type alkaloid from RAP and to investigate the disciplines of various compatibilities. Methods HPLC was adopted to determine the monoester-type alkaloid in decoction with different ratios of RAP and RG The influence of the various compatibilities or alkaloid was analyzed. Results The total decocted yields of monoester-type alkaloid in the decoction decreased with the increasing of RG in the decoction. The monoester-type alkaloid in compatibility tended to be 20% of RAP single decoction. Conclusion The usage of RG should be more than half of that of RAP when using together, which could make the yields of monoester-type alkaloid stable and controllable and avoid the danger for use from the excessive toxicity of RAP.

  11. Glycyrrhiza glabra:

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar Glavač, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract inflammation and ulcer disease. In the article, a review of therapeutic uses, pharmacological activities, and toxicological effects are presented. Sladki koren (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) uporabljamo pri zdravljenju vnetja zgornjih dihalnih poti in ulkusne bolezni. V članku predstavljamo pregled njegove terapevtske uporabe, farmakoloških lastnosti in toksikoloških učinkov

  12. Methodological Research on Color Digitalization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Based on Colorimetry Theory%基于色度学理论的甘草颜色数字化方法学研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹慧琴; 李硕; 林相龙; 苏玉贞; 吴浩忠; 闫永红

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于色度学理论,引入分光测色计,建立甘草断面及表皮颜色指标数字化的方法。为传统中药性状鉴别中感官颜色的客观化、数字化提供新方法、新思路。方法:基于CIE1976L*a*b*均匀色空间系统,以甘草为研究对象,针对样品断面及表皮的具体情况,选用2种分光测色计分别制订了甘草断面和表皮颜色的测量方法。结果:确定了去皮打粉的断面颜色量化方法和以直接测量为主、湿法施压剥皮测量为辅的表皮颜色量化方法,摸索并确定了RSD和dE*ab双指标评价方法。结果表明此方法有效、可行。结论:本颜色测量方法简便、可靠,测量结果可以如实的反映药材颜色情况,并将主观的颜色描述用客观的数据表示,为揭示中药传统性状鉴别深层内涵提供了实验依据。%This study was aimed to establish a method for sensorial color digitalization of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) with the application of spectrocolorimeter. The discussion was focused on difficulties of distinguishing surface and section color of CHMs. Based on uniform color space system of CIE1976L*a*b*, two methods for determination of section and surface color were constructed with two different kinds of spectrocolorimeters taking Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma as the experimental objective. In this paper, different kinds of sample preparation methods were used. Based on results, the method of scraping and grinding was proposed to prepare samples for section color determination. The method of wet pressing and peeling was proposed to prepare samples for surface color determination. Besides, RSD and dE*ab were served as evaluation indexes. This paper provided a simple, rapid and reliable analysis method for the color determination of CHMs. It also gave insight to future research on digitalization and modernization of CHMs' organoleptic characteristics based on traditional macroscopic identification.

  13. 甘草糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞迁移及多胺含量影响的研究%Effect of Polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on Migration and Polyamines Contents of IEC-6 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏; 随晶晶; 李茹柳; 赵世清; 卢文彪; 陈蔚文

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察甘草糖提取物对小肠上皮细胞( IEC-6)迁移及细胞内多胺(腐胺、精脒和精胺)含量的影响.方法:划痕法造细胞损伤后迁移模型,柱前衍生-高效液相色谱法测定细胞内多胺含量.观察甘草糖复合物对细胞迁移及细胞内多胺含量的影响;观察甘草糖复合物对二氟甲基鸟氨酸( DFMO)致细胞迁移抑制和多胺合成抑制的影响.结果:甘草糖提取物(50、100 mg/L)能促进细胞迁移;可逆转由DFMO所致的细胞迁移抑制;可提高细胞迁移过程中细胞内多胺含量;可逆转由DFMO所致的多胺含量降低.结论:甘草对胃肠黏膜损伤的修复作用可能与其提高细胞多胺含量、促进细胞迁移有关.%Objective: To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines ( putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Methods: Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well, and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO ( a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. Results:The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines ( putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines ( putrescine,spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. Conclusion: The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  14. Radix Entomolaris

    OpenAIRE

    Filloy DDS, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the root canal morphology and its variations is a basic requisite for the success of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular molars may present a third or additional root, which if located lingually is called radix entomolaris or bucally is referred as radix paramolaris. This case report shows an endodontic retreatment of a radix entomolaris and details some variations in the approach to guarantee a successful terapy. El conocimiento de la morfología y posibles va...

  15. Principle of active component dissolution in extract of different compatibility proportions of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma%白芍-甘草药对不同配伍比例提取物中有效成分溶出规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 杨燕云; 张振秋; 谢剑琳; 王美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the RP-HPLC method for the determination of twelve active components in the combination of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GRR) and to further analyze the principle of the active component dissolution with the proportion changing. Methods The separation was performed on a Dikma Technologies-C18 BDS (200 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with the gradient elution: 0-5 min, 5%-10% A; 5-10 min, 10%-12% A; 10-15 min, 12%-14% A; 15-20 min, 14%-16% A; 20-25 min, 16%-18% A; 25-30 min, 18%-20% A; 30-40 min, 20%-25% A; 40-50 min, 25%-40% A; 50-62 min, 40%-55% A; 62-72 min, 55%-70% A; 72-85 min, 70%-55% A; 85-95 min, 55%-5% A using acetonitrile (A)-water of 0.1% phosphoric acid (B) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; Detection wavelength was 267 nm (0-13 min), 258 nm (13-17 min), 230 nm (17-27 min), 276 nm (27-32 min), 230 nm (32-42 min), 360 nm (42-46 min), 276 nm (46-50 min), 230 nm (50-53 min), 275 nm (53-55 min), and 250 nm (55-95 min); The column temperature was 30℃. Results Among the observed nine compatibility proportions (PRA-GRR as 0 : 1, 0.3 : 1, 0.6 : 1,1 : 1, 2 : 1,3: 1, 4 : 1,5: 1, and 1 : 0), the active component dissolution amounts in 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 groups were the highest, and 0.6 : 1 group also showed higher dissolution amount. Conclusion The scientificity of 1 : 1 combination of PRA and GRR in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases by ZHANG Zhong-jing has been proved using modern research method and also the rationality of the modem classical 3 : 1 ratio has been further confirmed in clinic from the active components aspect.%目的 通过建立RP-HPLC法测定白芍-甘草药对中12种有效成分,并用此方法探讨有效成分随白芍-甘草配比变化的溶出规律.方法 采用Dikma Technologies-C18色谱柱(200 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈(A)-0.1%磷酸水溶液(B),梯度洗脱:0~5 min,5%~10%A; 5~10 min,10%~12%A; 10~15min,12%~14%A;15~20min,14%~16%A;20~25 min,16

  16. GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA IN ACUTE CONJUNCTIVITIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivas

    1986-01-01

    Conjunctivitis and its treatment have been widely described in ancient Indian medicine, 50 cases of Conjunctivitis (Acute) were clinically studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra along with comparative approach of Chlorophenicol. 25 cases studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra have shown encouraging results from which the author concludes that, the drug has got a definite role in Conjunctivitis

  17. The incompatibility mechanism based on the interaction of multiple-components for Flos Genkwa and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae%基于化学成分相互作用探讨芫花与甘草配伍禁忌的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳琰; 钱大玮; 尚尔鑫; 钱叶飞; 刘培; 宿树兰; 郭建明; 唐于平; 段金廒

    2012-01-01

    通过研究芫花与甘草合煎液中化学成分相互作用及其变化特点,揭示其“反”的可能特征与机制.以中药“十八反”中芫花/醋芫花-甘草多个不同配比组合为研究对象,采用超高效液相色谱串联四级杆飞行时间质谱(UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)及超高效液相色谱串联三重四级杆质谱(UPLC-TQ/MS)联用集成技术,分析其化学成分相互作用及其变化特点.结果表明,芫花/醋芫花-甘草不同配比合煎对其中化学物质的溶出具有一定的规律性,芫花不论醋炙与否,与甘草合煎时,随甘草比例升高,芫花中二萜类等毒性成分溶出明显提高,尤其对芫花酯甲、芫花酯乙及芫花酯已的溶出影响最为显著.从反药合煎过程化学物质相互作用促使毒性成分的溶出释放增加导致配伍禁忌的角度,揭示了甘草所含化学成分促使芫花中二萜类等毒性物质的溶出释放增加是芫花与甘草配伍禁忌的物质基础和可能机制之一.%By investigating the interaction between components from Flos Genkwa (FG) and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae (RRG) and the dissolution profile of toxic components in co-decoction, the characteristics and possible mechanism of incompatibility were revealed. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ/MS) were used to analyze multi-components in different herb extractions prepared by different ratios of FG/FG processed by vinegar (FGV) and RRG, which reflect the interaction and characteristics of multiple components in incompatibility combinations. The results showed that the components dissolution was influenced by compatibility ratio with certain regularity. Whether FG processed by vinegar or not, with the increase of RRG in co-decoction, the dissolution of diterpenes, especially for yuanhuacine, yuanhuadine and yuanhuajine, the

  18. Combined Radix-10 and Radix-16 Division Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    appropriate for the radix-16 case. Moreover, to reduce the latency in the radix-10 the most-significant portion of the datapath, including the selection function, has been implemented in radix-2, so that the modifications of that part to include radix-16 consists mainly in combining the two modules to obtain...

  19. Effects of Haizao Yuhu Decoction with different proportions of Sargassum and Radix Glycyrrhizae on hepatic functions and pathomorphology in goiter rats%基于均匀设计的海藻玉壶汤中海藻与甘草不同比例配伍对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝脏功能及病理形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡文; 钟赣生; 柳海艳; 刘云翔; 葛东宇; 李根茂; 欧丽娜; 王茜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxic reactions of Haizao Yuhu Decoction with different proportion of Sargassum and Radix Glycyrrhizae in goiter rats through hepatic functions and pathomorphology. Methods: We set up seven matched groups according to the principle uniform design (two factors seven level) compared with normal, model, positive group. At the end of experiment, we determined alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, globulin by automatic analyzer. The data statistic analysis was processed by ANOVA (analysis of variance) in combination with optimized formula soft. Results: The rats' general conditions such as eating, body weight and organization form were not affected; the serum ALT of group 2, group 3 and group 6 had decreased compared with model group; the serum AST of group 3 and group 6 also decreased; compared with model group (P<0.05), the serum ALP of group 5 had significantly increased compared with model group (P<0.05). AST/ALT ratio of group 5 had decreased compared with model group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The drugs, being opposite, may be complementary to each other after compatibility, but should be analyzed synthetically according to different dose and different processed products in order to expound the conclusions of 'Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments'.%目的:通过海藻与甘草不同比例配伍的海藻玉壶汤对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝功能相关指标的检测及病理形态学观察,考察含“十八反”中海藻、甘草这对反药组合的复方海藻玉壶汤对肝脏系统的影响.方法:将海藻与甘草按照2因素7水平的均匀设计实验原则设置不同配伍比例,灌胃14d,观察海藻与甘草不同配比的海藻玉壶汤对甲状腺肿大大鼠模型肝脏系数、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、球蛋白(GLB)以及肝组织病理形态的影响.

  20. DNA barcoding provides distinction between Radix Astragali and its adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on variable nuclear and/or organellar DNA sequences among vastly divergent species as well as morphologically indistinguishable species, DNA barcoding is widely applicable in species identification, biodiversity studies, forensic analyses, and authentication of medicinal plants. The roots of Astragalus membranaceus and A. membranaceus var. mongholica are commonly used as Radix Astragali in several Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea. However, in addition to the two species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, there are twenty-three species from different genera including Astragalus, Oxytropis, Hedysarum, and Glycyrrhiza, which have been used as adulterants not only in trading markets but also by the herbal medicine industry. Therefore, a simple, reliable, and accurate classification method is important for distinguishing authentic Radix Astragali from its adulterants. In this study, we acquired data for 37 samples from four related genera within the family Fabaceae. Then we compared four candidate DNA barcoding markers using ITS, matK, rbcL, and coxI sequences from nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes, all commonly used for plants to identify genetic variations among genera, intraspecies, and interspecies. We observed higher divergences among genera and interspecies for ITS, which have the average Kimura 2-parameter distances of 4.5% and 14.1%, respectively, whereas matK was found to have sufficient divergence at the intraspecific level. Moreover, two indels detected in the matK sequence are useful for PCR studies in distinguishing Radix Astragali from its adulterants. This study suggests that the combined barcoding regions of ITS and matK are superior barcodes for Radix Astragali and further studies should focus on evaluating the applicability and accuracy of such combined markers for a wide range of traditional Chinese herbs.

  1. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen Wang; Ya Xu; Yanshu Pan; Weihong Li; Wei Zhang; Yang Liu; Jing Jia; Pengtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract.

  2. Review - Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Rizvi, Muhammad Afzal

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints. The plant is used as anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-depressive, anti-ulcer and anti-diabetic. The present review focuses Glycyrrhiza glabra distribution, ethno botany, ethno pharmacology, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, cultivation and trade. Plant requires a lot of attention as it has been reduced in population due to over-use in Baluchistan. The plant conservationists should consider this herb as priority species and should start its cultivation on the commercial scale to fulfill the requirements of the local markets and pharmaceutical industries as well as reduce the pressure on the wild plants.

  3. A New Dihydroflavone Glycoside from Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xia LIU; Wen Han LIN; Jun Shan YANG

    2004-01-01

    A new dihydroflavone glycoside was isolated from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Its structure was elucidated as 7-hydroxyl-4'-O-β-D-(6"-O-α-hydroxylpropionyl) glucopyranosyl dihydroflavone by spectral methods.

  4. 附子、肉桂、仙茅对正常大鼠药物代谢酶CYP3A和GST活性的影响%Effects of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata、 Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae、 Curculiginis Rhizoma on the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes CYP3A and GST in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春苗; 张冰; 刘小青; 李连珍; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨辛热药附子、肉桂、仙茅对正常大鼠药物代谢酶细胞色素P4503A( CYP3A)和谷胱甘肽-S转移酶(GST)活性的影响,为辛热药性的科学阐释及临床安全合理用药提供依据.方法:SD雄性大鼠随机分为4组,空白组灌服自来水,其他各组分别灌胃附子(12g· kg-1·d-1)、肉桂(30g· kg-1·d-1)、仙茅(20g·kg-1·d-1)水煎液,连续7d后,检测肝、小肠微粒体CYP3A活性及肝微粒体和血浆GST活性.结果:与正常组比,附子、肉桂、仙茅组大鼠肝微粒体CYP3A和GST活性显著升高(P<0.01),而小肠微粒体CYP3A活性变化不明显,血浆GST活性有下降趋势.结论:附子、肉桂、仙茅能明显升高大鼠肝脏CYP3A和GST活性,可能是其辛热药性表达的生物学基础之一.%Objective: To discuss the effects of pungent-hot medicine Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizoma on the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes CYP3A and GST in rats. This would provide the experimental evidences for the research of pungent-hot medicine and clinical rational use. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Drinking water was .given ig to normal group rats. Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (12g-kg -1-d-1), Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae (30g-kg-1-d-1) and Curculiginis Rhizoma (20g-kg-1-d-1) water extracts were given ig to the other three groups rats for 7 consecutive days. The activities of CYP3A in liver and small intestinal microsomes were measured. The activities of GST in liver microsomes and plasma were determinated. Results: The activities of liver microsomes CYP3A and GST were increased in the rats treated with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cinnamomi Cortex Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizomafor 7 days (P<0.01), no significantly changes of small intestinal microsomes CYP3A and plasma GST activities. Conclusions: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Cortex Cinnamomi Cassiae and Curculiginis Rhizoma increased

  5. Review of Astragali Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; ZHAO Zhong-zhen; CHEN Hu-biao

    2011-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR), known as Huangqi in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines learnt worldwide to reinforce Qi (the vital energy). AR is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus or A. membranaceus var. mongholicus. It has been reported to have cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, immunostimulant, anti-aging, anti-oxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The bioactive compounds were found to be flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, amino acids, and some trace elements. The present paper reviews the studies on AR including history, phytochemistry studies, pharmacological functions, and clinical application in recent years.

  6. Affect of Radix Glycyrrhizae Residue and Atractylodes Japonica Stems and Leaves on Muscovy Duck Production Performance and Immune Performance%甘草残渣、关苍术茎叶对番鸭生产性能和免疫性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 赵景辉; 王英平; 闫梅霞; 刘宏群; 陈少麟

    2011-01-01

    甘草残渣、关苍术茎叶等中药生产副产物粉碎后作为饲料添加剂饲喂番鸭,观察对番鸭生产性能和免疫性能的影响.结果表明:甘草残渣作为饲料添加剂,在添加剂量为12.0%、6.0%、3.0%时,能显著提高番鸭的生产性能,对免疫器官的生长有促进作用,显著提高外周血总蛋白、白蛋白的含量,各项指标各剂量组与空白组比较在P< 0.05水平上差异显著,但各剂量组之间差异不显著.关苍术茎叶添加剂量为6.0%、3.0%、1.5%时,能显著提高番鸭的生产性能,对免疫器官的生长有促进作用,显著提高外周血总蛋白、白蛋白的含量,并且随添加剂量的增加促进作用增强.%The residues of Radix Clycyrrhizae, the steins and leaves of Atractylodes japonica which are the by-products during the production of traditional Chinese medicine, as additives which be fed Muscovy duck, Muscovy duck production performance and the immune performance were observed. The results showed that: R. Clycyrrhizae residue as feed additives, when the additive amount was 12.0%, 6.0%, 3.0%, the production of muscovy duck can significantly improve performance and the growth of immune organs, markedly increase the content of blood total protein, white protein. It was significant difference between each dose group and control group at P<0.05 level, but the difference between each dose group was not significant. When the additive amount of the stems and leaves of A. Japonican was 6.0%.. 3.0% ,1.5%, the production performance of Muscovy duck can significantly improve performance and the growth of immune organs, markedly increase the content of blood total protein, white protein, and the promoting performance would enhanced with the additive increasing.

  7. [Quality specification of Curcumae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingjing; Zhang, Qingzhe; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-08-01

    To establish and revise the quality specification of Curcumae Radix. TLC identification was carried out by the method in Appendix VI B in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005th Edition) and the contents of volatile oil was determined by the method describing in Appendix XD. Twenty-four Samples from four different curcuma species were performed TLC qualitative analysis and volatile determination, respectively. The established method can be used for the quality control of Curcumae Radix.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek K; Fatima, Atiya; Faridi, Uzma; Negi, Arvind S; Shanker, Karuna; Kumar, J K; Rahuja, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Sisodia, Brijesh S; Saikia, Dharmendra; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2008-03-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. Antimycobacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found at 500 microg/mL concentration. Bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis identified glabridin as potentially active against both Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra and H(37)Rv strains at 29.16 microg/mL concentration. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate potential use of licorice as antitubercular agent through systemic experiments and sophisticated anti-TB assay.

  9. Effects of Active Components of Epimedium,Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the Expression of FPN1 in Cerebral Cortex in Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice%淫羊藿、黄芪、葛根有效组分复方对 AD 模型小鼠大脑皮质 FPN1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董贤慧; 高维娟; 赵家晴; 贺小平; 柴锡庆

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of the active components of epimedium,astragalus and radix puerariae on FPN1 expression in the cerebral cortex of APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic Alzheimer's disease(AD) model mice.METH-ODS A total of 60 specific pathogen-free male APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice aged 6 months were equally and ran-domly divided into the model group,epimedium group,astragalus group,radix puerariae group,compound group and deferox-amine(DFO) group.Additional 10 of 6 months old C57BL/6J mice were chosen as normal control group.After the medica-tion,the mouse brain tissue of every group were collected,and immunohistochemistry,Real time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the effects of active components of epimedium,astragalus and radix puerariae on FPN1 expression in the cerebral cortex of APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mouse model of AD.RESULTS No FPN1 positional cells was observed in nega-tive control group.The mRNA and protein expression of FPN1 decreased in the cerebral cortex of the model group(P <0.05), compared with the control group.The mRNA and protein expression of FPN1 increased in the compound group and DFO group,compared to the model group.Compared to DFO group,no significant difference was observed in compounde group in the mRNA and protein expression of FPN1 in cerebral cortex;FPN1 mRNA expression decreased in the epimedium group,as-tragalus group and radix puerariae group.CONCLUSION Active components of epimedium,astragalus and radix puerariae can up-regulate FPN1 expression and inhibit the iron-overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer's disease,which will mitigate the iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system.%目的:观察淫羊藿、黄芪、葛根有效组分复方对阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)APPswe/PS1dE9双转基因小鼠模型大脑皮质 FPN1表达的影响。方法6月龄雄性 APPswe/PS1dE9双转基因小鼠60只,随机分为6组,模

  10. Combined Radix-10 and Radix-16 Division Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    the selection constants. The rest of the modifications relate to the generation of multiples, to the carry-save adder, to the carry-propagate adder, and to the on-the-fly conversion and rounding. The implementation results show that the delay of an iteration is similar to that of the radix-10 case...

  11. Glycyrrhiza glabra- A PLANT FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARSHA SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A review article on Glycyrrhiza glabra, A plant which have lots of medicinal properties. So it may be known as plant for the future. The present article is an effort to highlight the role of a few major constituents of this plant, which have multifaceted pharmacological actions and could be used as a template for designing new herbal medicines. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human cultivation. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements etc.Conclusion :Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is an old age plant used in traditional medicine across the globe for its ethanopharmacological value to cure varieties of ailments from simple cough to hepatitis to more complexes like SARS and CANCER. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn used as a mild laxative, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-tissive, anti-oxidant, estrogenic, anti-diuretic, hypolipidmic agent. It is reported to contain important phytoconstituents such as glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid, glabrin A&B, triterpene sterols, saponin, and isoflavons.

  12. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movassagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris or buccal root (radix paramolaris can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, constant pain in the lower mandibular molars was referred to the department of endodontics of Hamedan Dental university. The patient’s medical history was noncontributory. The buccal object rule (same-lingual opposite-buccal technique confirmed the additional root as a distolingual root (radix entomolaris. Following the evaluation of vitality tests, we began endodontic treatment for this patient, after administration of local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Daroupakhsh, Tehran, Iran and rubber dam isolation. The working length was determined by a Root ZX apex locator (Dentaport ZX, J Morita and later confirmed by parallel periapical radiograph. Canals were shaped in a crown down fashion with Protaper Nickel Titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply, Maillefer under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and lubrication with RC-Prep. After drying the canals with paper points, the master gutta-percha points were fitted within the canals and confirmation radiography was taken. The root canal system was obturated with the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions This case is about a mandibular molar with radix entomolaris and the radiographic exploration and endodontic order. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular molars. The initial diagnosis of a radix entomolaris or paramolaris before root canal treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure.

  13. Aim for production of Glycyrrhizae Radix in Japan (3): development of a new licorice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kazuo; Shibano, Makio

    2014-04-01

    The development of cultivars is indispensable for the establishment of a method aimed at producing licorice in Japan. The cultivar should have the following attributes: (1) the underground parts should grow vigorously; (2) the glycyrrhizin (GL) content must be 2.5 % or greater; and (3) the architecture of the aerial parts should be erect. A new cultivar suitable for the domestic production of licorice was developed by crossbreeding between strain A-19 (with a high GL content) as the mother and strain G-6 (with vigorous growth) as the father. After 2 years of cultivation, strain C-2 exhibited vigorous growth; the fresh weight and stem diameter were 148.8 g and 0.89 mm, respectively. Moreover, the dry-weight GL and total flavonoid contents of the new cultivar (strain C-2) from cultured plants were 3.61 and 1.365 %, respectively.

  14. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  15. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  16. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  17. Effects of effective fraction of Epimedium,Astragalus,Radix Puerariae on the expression of DMT1 in the cerebral cortex of transgenic mice model of Alzheimer′s disease%淫羊藿、黄芪、葛根有效组分复方对阿尔茨海默病转基因模型小鼠大脑皮质DM T1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董贤慧; 高维娟; 贺小平; 崔志超; 柴锡庆; 赵家晴

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨淫羊藿、黄芪、葛根有效组分复方对阿尔茨海默症(AD)APPswe/PS1ΔE9双转基因小鼠模型大脑皮质二价金属离子转运蛋白1(DM T1)表达的影响。方法将APPswe/PS1ΔE9双转基因小鼠60只,分为模型组、淫羊藿组、黄芪组、葛根组、复方组、去铁胺(DFO )组,C57BL/6J小鼠作为健康对照组。用药结束后,取各组小鼠脑组织,分别采用免疫组织化学、实时荧光定量PCR(RT‐PCR)和蛋白免疫印迹法(Western blot)检测各组小鼠大脑皮质DMT1的表达情况。结果免疫组织化学结果显示:阴性对照未见DM T1阳性细胞。与健康对照组相比,模型组DM T1的表达增高;与模型组相比,复方组和DFO组DM T1的表达降低(P<0.05);DFO组与复方组DM T1的表达无明显差异。RT‐PCR结果、Western blot结果与免疫组织化学结果相一致。结论淫羊藿、黄芪、葛根有效组分复方可以下调AD模型小鼠大脑皮质DM T1的表达,从而抑制小鼠脑铁超载,缓解铁超载带来的中枢神经系统功能衰退。%Objective To investigate the effects of Epimedium ,Astragalus ,Radix Puerariae on DMT1 expression in the cere‐bral cortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice model of AD .Methods A total of 60 specific‐pathogen‐free male APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice aged 6 months were equally and randomly assigned to model ,Epimedium ,Astragalus ,Radix puerari‐ae ,compound and DFO groups .An additional 10 6‐month‐old C57BL/6J mice served as negative control group .Using immunohisto‐chemistry and molecular biology methods to investigate the effects of a compound combining the effective components of Epimedi‐um ,Astragalus ,Radix puerariae on DMT1 expression in the cerebral cortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice model of AD . Results Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that DM T 1 positive cell did not show in negative control

  18. Calculation of Computational Complexity for Radix-2 (p) Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms for Medical Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirfattahi, Rassoul

    2013-10-01

    Owing to its simplicity radix-2 is a popular algorithm to implement fast fourier transform. Radix-2(p) algorithms have the same order of computational complexity as higher radices algorithms, but still retain the simplicity of radix-2. By defining a new concept, twiddle factor template, in this paper, we propose a method for exact calculation of multiplicative complexity for radix-2(p) algorithms. The methodology is described for radix-2, radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) algorithms. Results show that radix-2 (2) and radix-2 (3) have significantly less computational complexity compared with radix-2. Another interesting result is that while the number of complex multiplications in radix-2 (3) algorithm is slightly more than radix-2 (2), the number of real multiplications for radix-2 (3) is less than radix-2 (2). This is because of the twiddle factors in the form of which need less number of real multiplications and are more frequent in radix-2 (3) algorithm.

  19. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  20. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Han, Jong-Min; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  1. Anti-tubercular agents from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity guided isolation of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae / Fabaceae) roots resulted in the characterization of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid as a major anti-tubercular agent. Further, GA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into its nine derivatives, which were in-vitro evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using BACTEC-460 radiometric susceptibility assay. All the derivatives were active, but the benzylamide (GA-8, MIC 12.5μg/ml) and ethyl oxylate (GA-3, MIC 25.0 μg/ml) derivatives were significantly active against the pathogen. This was further supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for GA-3 (120.3) and GA-8 (112.6) with respect to the standard anti-tubercular drug, rifampicin (92.94) on the DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) target site. Finally, the in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that GA-3 and GA- 8 possesses drug-like properties. This is the first ever report on the anti-tubercular potential of GA and its derivatives. These results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non toxic natural product.

  2. [Glabrizoflavone--a novel isoflavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuldashev, M P; Batirov, E Kh; Vdovin, A D; Abdullaev, N D

    2000-11-01

    7-O-Methylglabranin, 6-C-prenylpinocembrin, glabranin, pinocembrin, galangin, and a novel isoflavonoid, (E)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-(3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl)isoflavone (glabrisoflavone) were isolated from the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The structure of the novel isoflavonoid was elucidated on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral data.

  3. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Mol, L.A.M.; The, S.A.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Luijendijk, T.J.C.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions,

  4. [Metabolomics study of anti-platelet effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba by UPLC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Li; Xiong, Aizhen; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-03-01

    To study the anti-platelet effect and influence of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba on rat's endogenous metabolites by animal experiment and UPLC-MS based metabolomic method. After administration of 80% ethanol extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba for 6 d, the serum samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to find out the potential biomarker. Both of the extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba have good effects of inhibition on platelet coacervation, and the effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba is better than that of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Malic acid, alpha-acetone dicarboxylic acid, leukotrieneA4 (LTA4), prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) are proved to be significant expressed biomarkers. Metabolomics is helpful for the further research of the mechanism of anti-platelet action of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba.

  5. Radix-16 Combined Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Division and square root, based on the digitrecurrence algorithm, can be implemented in a combined unit. Several implementations of combined division/square root units have been presented mostly for radices 2 and 4. Here, we present a combined radix-16 unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4...... result digit selection functions, as it is normally done for division only units. The latency of the unit is reduced by retiming and low power methods are applied as well. The proposed unit is compared to a radix-4 combined division/square root unit, and to a radix-16 unit, obtained by cascading two...

  6. Radix-16 Combined Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Division and square root, based on the digitrecurrence algorithm, can be implemented in a combined unit. Several implementations of combined division/square root units have been presented mostly for radices 2 and 4. Here, we present a combined radix-16 unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4...... result digit selection functions, as it is normally done for division only units. The latency of the unit is reduced by retiming and low power methods are applied as well. The proposed unit is compared to a radix-4 combined division/square root unit, and to a radix-16 unit, obtained by cascading two...

  7. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  8. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  9. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  10. Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Minghui; Shi, Rui

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of radix Sophorae fiavescentis for chronic hepatitis B, a systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted. Randomized trials comparing extract of radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo, no intervention, non-specific treatment, other active medicines......, or interferon for chronic hepatitis B were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of Sophorae herb plus other drugs versus other drugs alone were also included. No blinding and language limitations were applied. The methodological quality of trials was assessed by the Jadad scale plus allocation...... biochemical effects, and improved symptoms and signs compared with non-specific treatment and other herbal medicines. The combination of matrine and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), thymosin, or basic treatment showed better effects on viral and liver biochemical responses. The antiviral and biochemical...

  11. Reviewing High-Radix Signed Digit Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Higher radix values of the form $\\beta=2^r$ have been employed traditionally for recoding of multipliers, and for determining quotient- and root-digits in iterative division and square root algorithms, usually only for quite moderate values of $r$, like 2 or 3. For fast additions, in particular f......, on the contrary, there are significant savings in using standard 4-to-2 adders, even saving half of the operations in multi-operand addition....

  12. Antiviral biflavonoids from Radix Wikstroemiae (Liaogewanggen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wencai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Wikstroemiae is a common Chinese herbal medicine. The ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanolic extract of W. indica possesses potent in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. This study aims to identify the antiviral components of the active fraction. Methods The active fraction of the Radix Wikstroemiae extract was isolated with chromatographic methods such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC columns. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses. The in vitro antiviral activity of the compounds against RSV was tested with the cytopathic effect (CPE reduction assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method. Results Four biflavonoids, namely neochamaejasmin B, genkwanol B, genkwanol C and stelleranol, were isolated and characterized. Genkwanol B, genkwanol C and stelleranol, which are stereo isomers of spirobiflavonoids, showed potent anti-RSV activity whereas neochamaejasmin B did not. Conclusion Neochamaejasmin B, genkwanol B, genkwanol C and stelleranol were isolated from Radix Wikstroemiae and the complete absolute configurations of five chiral carbons in stelleranol were substantiated for the first time. Furthermore, the anti-RSV activity of genkwanol B, genkwanol C and stelleranol was reported for the first time.

  13. Comparison of biological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chun-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of Glycyrrhiza (GLs extracts (GL-1, Glycyrrhiza glabra from Eumseong, Korea; GL-2, G. uralensis from Eumseong, Korea; GL-3, G. uralensis from Yeongcheon, Korea; GL-4, G. uralensis from Neimenggu, China: GL-5, G. uralensis purchased from Korea Medicine Herbal Association, Korea were investigated. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and OH radicals than G. glabra (GL-1. In addition, all GLs had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and H. pylori. GL-3 inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, while GL-1 had antibacterial activity against H. pylori. All GL extracts tested inhibited the lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inflammatory activity of RAW 264.7 cells. G. glabra and G. uralensis reduced NO generation. GL-3 also inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GLs-3 and -4 showed the inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase. GL-4 had a higher total content of glycyrrhizin (1, glycyrrhetinic acid (2, glabridin (3, and isoliquiritigenin (4. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 is thus more effective than G. glabra (GL-1.

  14. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SUPPOSITORY ON THE BASIS OF GLYCYRRHIZA EXTRACT AND PARACETAMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdrakhmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study results of technologies of double-layer suppositories development of a new drug of combined effect using dense extract of Glycyrrhiza and paracetamol

  15. The Bibilographic studies on Aconiti Ciliare Tuber and Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Kil Yoo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Through the literature on the effect of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti, we are finding out the clinical posibility and revealing the more effective to intractable disease. Methods : We inverstigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti. Results : 1. The taste of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti is hot, sweet, bitter, warm and hot, and the effect is dehumidification, warm up and relieve the pain, so it can be used for arthritis, hemiplegia, carpopedal spasm, sciatica, cancer, numbness. 2. A toxic constituent of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconitiis is induced by aconitine alkaloid, develope toxic symptoms and result in death. So it needs suitabe treatment for safety. 3. It is known that the toxicopathy due to Radix Aconiti was 3-30g(dosage for adult and Aconiti Ciliare Tuber was 1-9g. But only using aconitine alkaloid to oral feeding, the toxicopathy due to 0.2mg/kg and lethal dose is 3-4mg. So we using this for treating, we must be careful and need more varialble study about toxicopathy, lethal dose. 4. On clinical treatment, we thought Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti is so effective to intractable disease after control the toxicity, it may be need variable study on toxicity and clinical effects.

  16. Chemical Constituents in Charred Sanguisorbae Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-li; ZHONG Ying; XIA Hong-min; ZHOU Qian; LV Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents in the effective fractions of charred Sanguisorbae Radix.Methods The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results Five compounds were isolated and identified as 3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-17,19,21-trien (1),3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-12,17-dien (2),3 β,19α-dihydroxyurs-13 (18)-en-28-oic acid (3),3β-[(α-L-arabin-opyranosyl) oxy]-28-norurs-12,17-dien (4),and pomolic acid (5).Conclusion Compounds 1,3,and 4 are novel compounds belong to triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins,named as sanguisorbigenins Z,Y1,and Y2,respectively.

  17. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  18. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract protects plants against important phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S; Schmitt, A

    2010-01-01

    In previous investigations an ethanolic plant extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra (2.5% w/v) showed 100% efficacy against late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on detached tomato leaves. Based on these findings, the objective of this work was to investigate the effect of this extract against different important plant pathogenic fungi. Tests were carried out on potted plants. Against P. infestans, efficacies of 75% and 58% were achieved on tomato and potato plants with 5% extract concentration, respectively. Against another Oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, on cucumber, application of a 2.5% extract led to an efficacy of above 90%. The EC50-value was calculated to be 0.5% In a trial on beans against bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), G. glabra extract (5% concentration) showed 92% efficacy. In contrast, against powdery mildew on cucumber (Podosphaera xanthii), no disease reduction was found. Overall, the results indicate a high potential for the extract of G. glabra to control a number of important plant pathogens.

  19. The Morphological and Histological Study of Cultivated and Wild Glycyrrhiza%栽培甘草与野生甘草的形态组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝玲; 王英华; 刘晓芳

    2005-01-01

    甘草为常用中药材,《中国药典》(2000年版一部)收载为豆科植物甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.、胀果甘草Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.或光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra.的干燥根及根茎。

  20. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  1. The Regulatory Action of Radix Astragali on M-Cholinergic Receptor of the Brain of Senile Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The changes in density of M-cholinergic receptors in different areas of senile rats and the regulatory action of Huang Qi (黄芪Radix Astragali, a drug for warming yang and replenishing qi) were observed by autoradiography. The results showed that the gray scale displayed in brain sections was clear and mainly distributed in the cortex, hippocampus and striate body, while that due to nonspecific combination was negligible. The gray scale in the cortex, hippocampus and striate body of the experimental group was markedly lower than that in the young control rats, decreased respectively by 24.87%, 14.12% and 12.76% (all P<0.05); but it was obviously higher than those in the senile control rats, increased respectively by 24.15%, 14.38% and 13.47% (P<0.05). The data indicate that Huang Qi (黄芪Radix Astragali) may up-regulate the decreased density of M-cholinergic receptors in the brain of senile rats.

  2. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lin; Fan, Cai-rong; Li, Huang; Huang, Ming-qing; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-dan; Lin, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore the differences of chemical constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra, a qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an HPLC-DAD analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 14 major compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, paeoniflorin sulfonate, protocatechuic aldehyde, methyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, benzoic acid, pentagaloylglucose, benzoyl-paeoniflorin, and paeonol) in Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Q-TOF/MS qualitative analysis was performed under negative ion mode and inferred 38 components of Paeoniae Radix Alba and 30 components of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. HPLC-DAD quantitative method result showed the contents of 8 ingredients were different between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra.

  3. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos a fondo y sellarlos completamente con un material inerte. El endodoncista debe conocer la morfología interna de los dientes permanentes y las posibles variaciones que estos puedan tener como es el caso de una raíz adicional situada en lingual (el radix entomolaris o en vestibular (el radix paramolaris. La anatomía del conducto radicular es muy compleja e impredecible, y la comprensión de la presencia de una raíz adicional es esencial ya que determinara el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. El presente caso clínico describe un primer molar inferior con RE sometido a tratamiento endodóntico con tres raíces: una mesial (con un conducto mesio vestibular y otro mesio lingual, una distal (con un conducto y otra raíz disto lingual: radix entomolaris (con un conducto. (DUAZARY 2011, 74 - 79 AbstractThe most important anatomical variant which presents the first molar is third distolingual additional root called radix entomolaris paramolaris call or oral. In root canal treatment is important to have complete information on variations of the root canals to the extent that this ensures the result substantially. For endodontic treatment to succeed, it is necessary to locate all the canals, clean them thoroughly and completely sealed with an inert material. The endodontist must know the internal morphology of permanent teeth and possible variations that they can have as is the case of an additional root located on the tongue (the radix entomolaris or

  4. Comparison of the Immunoregulatory Function of Different Constituents in Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubiao Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA, known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ. Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ, which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays.

  5. A Radix-10 Digit-Recurrence Division Unit: Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm. The previous decimal division designs do not include recent developments in the theory and practice of this type of algorithm, which were developed for radix-2^k dividers. In addition...... to the adaptation of these features, the radix-10 quotient digit is decomposed into a radix-2 digit and a radix-5 digit in such a way that only five and two times the divisor are required in the recurrence. Moreover, the most significant slice of the recurrence, which includes the selection function, is implemented...

  6. Radix-2α/4β Building Blocks for Efficient VLSI’s Higher Radices Butterflies Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan A. Jaber

    2014-01-01

    has been formulated as the combination of radix-2α/4β butterflies implemented in parallel. By doing so, the VLSI butterfly implementation for higher radices would be feasible since it maintains approximately the same complexity of the radix-2/4 butterfly which is obtained by block building of the radix-2/4 modules. The block building process is achieved by duplicating the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module that is materialized by means of a feed-back network which will reuse the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module.

  7. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Narayan Murty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new radix-3 algorithm for realization of discrete Fourier transform (DFT of length N = 3m (m = 1, 2, 3,... is presented. The DFT of length N can be realized from three DFT sequences, each of length N/3. If the input signal has length N, direct calculation of DFT requires O (N 2 complex multiplications (4N 2 real multiplications and some additions. This radix-3 algorithm reduces the number of multiplications required for realizing DFT. For example, the number of complex multiplications required for realizing 9-point DFT using the proposed radix-3 algorithm is 60. Thus, saving in time can be achieved in the realization of proposed algorithm.

  8. Possible Pharmacological Basis for Antithrombotic Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Jain M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously identified that 3-aryl comarin derivative, GU-7 isolated from Liquorice posses Antiplatelet activity. It inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing intraplatelet cyclic AMP concentration. Here we report the in-vivo effects of extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and also the combined effect with Vitamin K and Heparin. Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra increased the bleeding time when given in the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg. Blood loss was evaluated 60 minute later as a function of absorbance at 540 nm due to hemoglobin content in water solution. Altogether data indicates that Glycyrrhiza glabra is an effective anti thrombotic agent in vivo, which may account for its known pharmacological properties.

  9. Comparison of Glycyrrhiza glabra Inorabase With Triamcinolone Acetonide Orabase in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

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    Najafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is most commonly found in middle-aged women. A wide spectrum of topical and systemic therapies have been applied for treatment of this condition. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 1% Glycyrrhiza glabra in orabase with 0.1% Triamcinolone Acetonide paste in treating oral lichen planus (OLP. Patients and Methods In this study, 22 patients were randomly assigned to one of two equal groups. They received either Glycyrrhiza glabra or Triamcinolone Acetonide four times daily for a total of one month and were followed-up for three months. The patients were assessed for painful symptoms, measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS, and lesion size via Thongaprassom. The analysis and comparison of pain scores and the size of the lesions' clinical and symptomatic response rates between the two groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and SPSS 13.0 computer software. Results Ten patients in the Glycyrrhiza glabra group and 12 patients in the triamcinolone acetonid group completed the four-month trial course. Both Glycyrrhiza glabra and Triamcinolone Acetonid reduced burning symptoms. Clinical scores in both groups also significantly improved over the one-month treatment period. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.442. Conclusions This study showed that topical Glycyrrhiza glabra appeared to be a promising alternative in the treatment of OLP. Further studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

  10. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  11. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    OpenAIRE

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros; Raul Fortich Carballo; Antonio Diaz C

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos...

  12. Antiandrogenic activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sarookhani, Mohammad-Reza; Jahani-Hashemi, Hassan; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-08-01

    Abnormal levels of androgens cause many diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia and hormone dependent cancers. Although the reduction in serum testosterone (T) by Glycyrrhiza glabra has been reported, its effects on seminal vesicle (SV) and prostate tissues have never been reported. This study was carried out to investigate different aspects of antiandrogenic properties of this plant. Immature male rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): castrated rats without any treatment received only vehicle; castrated rats plus T replacement; three castrated groups with T replacement plus various doses of G. glabra extract (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg). All of the injections were carried out once daily in subcutaneous manner for 7 days. On the eighth day, blood samples were collected for total T measurement. Ventral prostate (VP), SV and levator ani muscle were dissected and weighed. Slides prepared from prostate were assessed histologically. The variation in the relative and absolute volume of the prostate tissue compartments was determined. Those receiving the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p glabra has antiandrogenic properties.

  13. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice has been used since ages as expectorant, antitussive and demulcent. G. glabra has been indicated in Ayurveda as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of respiratory infections and tuberculosis. Aims: To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of acetone extract of G. glabra by in vitro techniques. Methods: The anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity was determined by Resazurin Microtiter Plate Assay (REMA and colony count method. Further, the anti-tubercular activity of acetone extract of G. glabra was determined in human macrophage U937 cell lines and was compared against that of the standard drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: G. glabra extract showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, when evaluated by REMA/colony count methods and in U937 human macrophage cell lines infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity of the extract was comparable to those of standard drugs. It was observed that the extract showed time and concentration dependent antimycobacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals that G. glabra extract has promising anti-tubercular activity by preliminary in vitro techniques and in U937 macrophage cell line. Therefore, it has the definite potential to be developed as an affordable, cost-effective drug against tuberculosis.

  14. Conditions and Stimulation for Germination in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of seed quality is the key to seed distributing and seeding of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, as an important species for pharmacy and soil conservation. Here, we study the effects of light and temperature on seed germination and mechanical and chemical scarification on breaking the seed coat. Seeds were collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006, placed in Petri dishes, and incubated at constant temperature 20, 25, and 30℃, and alternating temperature 15-25, 20-30, 15-30, and 20-35℃ under either an 8 h photoperiod or total darkness for 28 consecutive days. Different methods were used to break the dormancy owing to hard seededness in this species such as chemical scarification by immersing in concentrated sulphuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, in 0.2% KNO3 solution to saturate the seedbed, and prechilling for 7 d at 7℃ and mechanical scarification by cutting. The results showed that alternating temperature at 20-30℃ with 8 h photoperiod and 16 h darkness was optimum for G. Uralensis seed germinating in the laboratory. Hard seeds were broken by concentrated sulphuric acid soaking or mechanical scarification by cutting. Germination of seeds harvested in two different years was both promoted by immersing for 30-45 min in concentrated sulphuric acid. KNO3 solution was ineffective for reducing hard seeds. During seed germinating, the first count was on the 7th day and the last count was on the 14th day.

  15. [Investigation on correlation between ratio of xylem to phloem of Radix Isatidis and efficacy, chemical composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Han, Yu-mei; Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Shao-feng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-01-01

    Explore contribution of ratio of xylem to phloem(RXP) to evaluate the quality of Radix Isatidis. Antivirus activity and chemical compositions of xylem, phloem and Radix Isatidis of different RXP were determined by RBC agglutination test and unique chromatogram. Meanwhile, correlation between RXP and bioactivity,components was investigated. the activity of medical material of Radix Isatidis whose RXP was 1:2 or 1:1 is equal to that of phloem sample, while is stronger than that of cylem sample. There was a good consistency among the chemical figureprints of three samples (Radix Isatidis, xylem and phloem). When the RXP was 2:1, the medical material of Radix Isatidi and its xylem had the same activity. But the activity of phloem was not obvious. Their consistency of chemical fingerprint was bad, and the activity of Radix Isatidis which had RXP of 1:2 or 1:1 was better than that formed by xylem and phloem of 2:1. The Radix Isatidis of RXP of 1:2 or 1:1 had less similarity of chemical figureprint with that having RXP of 2:1. The quality of Radix Isatidis made up by the various RXP had significant difference. Radix Isatidis whose RXP is less than 1:1 had good quality and better activity. As a characteristic parameter of biologic morpha, the RXP can be applied to identifying the quality of Radix Isatidis, and also provided a reference to evaluation of other medical material of roots.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis and Development of SSR Molecular Markers in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

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    Yaling Liu

    Full Text Available Licorice is an important traditional Chinese medicine with clinical and industrial applications. Genetic resources of licorice are insufficient for analysis of molecular biology and genetic functions; as such, transcriptome sequencing must be conducted for functional characterization and development of molecular markers. In this study, transcriptome sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform generated a total of 5.41 Gb clean data. De novo assembly yielded a total of 46,641 unigenes. Comparison analysis using BLAST showed that the annotations of 29,614 unigenes were conserved. Further study revealed 773 genes related to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites of licorice, 40 genes involved in biosynthesis of the terpenoid backbone, and 16 genes associated with biosynthesis of glycyrrhizic acid. Analysis of unigenes larger than 1 Kb with a length of 11,702 nt presented 7,032 simple sequence repeats (SSR. Sixty-four of 69 randomly designed and synthesized SSR pairs were successfully amplified, 33 pairs of primers were polymorphism in in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. This study not only presents the molecular biology data of licorice but also provides a basis for genetic diversity research and molecular marker-assisted breeding of licorice.

  17. Unequivocal glycyrrhizin isomer determination and comparative in vitro bioactivities of root extracts in four Glycyrrhiza species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step.

  18. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Mol, Loes A M; The, Susan A M; Bovee, Toine F H; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions, which were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for activity in yeast estrogen bioassays. One third of the fractions displayed estrogenic activity towards either one or both estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ). Glabrene-rich fractions displayed an estrogenic response, predominantly to the ERα. Surprisingly, glabridin did not exert agonistic activity to both ER subtypes. Several fractions displayed higher responses than the maximum response obtained with the reference compound, the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E(2)). The estrogenic activities of all fractions, including this so-called superinduction, were clearly ER-mediated, as the estrogenic response was inhibited by 20-60% by known ER antagonists, and no activity was found in yeast cells that did not express the ERα or ERβ subtype. Prolonged exposure of the yeast to the estrogenic fractions that showed superinduction did, contrary to E(2), not result in a decrease of the fluorescent response. Therefore, the superinduction was most likely the result of stabilization of the ER, yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, or a combination of both. Most fractions displaying superinduction were rich in flavonoids with single prenylation. Glabridin displayed ERα-selective antagonism, similar to the ERα-selective antagonist RU 58668. Whereas glabridin was able to reduce the estrogenic response of E(2) by approximately 80% at 6 × 10(-6) M, glabrene-rich fractions only exhibited agonistic responses, preferentially on ERα.

  19. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF THE ALKALOIDS FROM Radix Caulophylli ON THE PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To find an angiogenetic inhibitor from Radix Caulophylli (RC). Methods The extract of Radix Caulophylli was obtained by using 95% alcohol in water as solvent. Then, the total alkaloids of Radix Caulophylli was isolated from the extract by using a positive ion exchange resin column. An active part was found by a screening model of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and further tested by the MTT method with emodin as a control. Results The total alkaloids of Radix Caulophylli was the active part by CMC and could significantly inhibit proliferation of ECV304 cells in MTT test. The inhibitory rate was 56.06% while the concentration of the total alkaloids of Radix Caulophylli was 19.63μg/mL. Conclusion The total alkaloids from Radix Caulophylli may be a new angiogenetic inhibitor, and mechanism of the total alkaloids on inhibitory angiogenesis still need to be further investigated.

  20. A Study on in vitro antiviral activities of lyophilized extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Vani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the effect of lyophilized extracts of different solvents of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B. The lyophilized plant extracts were collected and studied for its cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in vitro antiviral activity of these extracts was investigated by HBs Ag binding Inhibition Assay, Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase Inhibition Assay using fluorescent probes. The results from Glycyrrhiza glabra were promising in acting as a potent antiviral agent.

  1. Research Status of Astragali Radix on Nerve Cells and Nerve System Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Zeng-qiang; ZHAO Ping-li; CAO Wen-fu

    2012-01-01

    Astragali Radix has a wide application in the nerve system diseases because of its obvious nerve cell protection and recovery effects.Astragali Radix has good clinical effects both in acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases and neurological degenerative diseases.This paper reviews the experimental and clinical research status of Astragali Radix on nerve system and nerve system diseases,which may promote its experimental research and clinical application.

  2. Palynological characters of Glycyrrhiza,Glycyrrhizopsis,and Meristotropis(Leguminosae),with special reference to their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MENG; Xiang-Yun ZHU

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 species of the genus Glycyrrhiza L.with one from each of the genera Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss.& Bal.and Meristotropis Fisch.& C.A.Mey.was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.In pollen morphology,the main differences between Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza are: Glycyrrhizopsis-pollen grains 36.63× 40.42 μm in size,oblate spheroidal in shape; and Glycyrrhiza-pollen grains 24.47-33.18 × 23.82-31.83 μm in size,prolate spheroidal in shape.Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza should be recognized as two distinct genera based on palynologicai and morphological characters.Meristotropis and Glycyrrhiza are similar in many important palynological and morphological characters,suggesting that the two should be merged.In Glycyrrhiza,two types of pollen grains,3-lobed-circular or subtriangular in polar view,are found in different species,in accordance with morphological differences in the two groups,shedding light on the classification and evolution of the genus.

  3. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  4. Dynamic Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Radix Scutellariae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction(DMAE) of flavonoids from Radix Scutellarie was described in this article. A TM010 microwave resonant cavity was used as the energy coupler. Several parameters of DMAE, including concentration, flow rate, volume of the extraction solvent, and irradiation power, were optimized. The extraction was performed under the optimum conditions for the extraction of total flavonoids. The total flavonoids were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The main bioactive components, including baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were determined by HPLC. The extraction yields of the flavonoids obtained by DMAE were compared with those obtained by pressurized microwave assisted extraction( PMAE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE ), soxhlet extraction ( SE ), and reflux extraction( RE), and these results indicate that DMAE is a good alternative method for the extraction of flavonoids from Radix Scutellarie.

  5. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for Radix balthica (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, M; Pfenninger, M

    2009-07-01

    We present data for eight polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from a microsatellite-enriched DNA library for the freshwater snail Radix balthica. Three of them were specific for R. balthica while five also amplified polymorphic products in two congeneric species. Test application on populations from all over the species range has shown that these loci are highly informative for analysing population structure and estimating migration rates. Observed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are attributed to a mixed mating system.

  6. [Study on modern processing technologies of aconiti kusnezoffii radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Deng, Guang-hai; Gong, You-ming

    2014-07-01

    To compare different processing technologies of Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, and to optimize a kind of "low toxicity and high efficiency", simple and practical processing technology for Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix. HPLC method was used to determine the content of six kinds of alkaloids, and titration method to determine the content of total alkaloids. These contents combined with production were used to evaluate the modern processing technologies of Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix. There was serious drain of Aconitum alkaloids after treated by soaking, and the loss rates of the content of monoester alkaloids, diester alkaloids and total alkaloid were 20.97%, 31.13% and 14.57%, respectively. The content of alkaloids could maximize the retention using wetting method, the best methods for reducing poison were atmospheric pressure and high pressure steaming cooking methods, and its total diester alkaloids content was too low to be detected, the contents of alkaloids in samples of two kinds of high-temperature baking were 0.6903 mg/g and 0.5575 mg/g, which were higher than the requirement of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The content of monoester alkaloids was 0.6336 - 2.2721 mg/g of 10 kinds of processing technologies, between which there were nine kinds of processing technologies beyong the Chinese Pharmacopoeia requirement of 0.7 mg/g, while the total alkaloids content was 7.8019 - 11.2078 mg/g. The best method for reducing poison is high-pressure steaming, whose content of diester alkaloids can reach the Chinese Pharmacopoeia requirement after treatment of wet autoclaved products, with higher content of total alkaloids. It is simple, controllable, and suitable for processing of Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix.

  7. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors.

  8. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  9. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-san Miao; Lin Guo; Rui-qi Li; Xiao-lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the po...

  10. Study of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Cotoneaster medicus and Glycyrrhiza glabra Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Heravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Cotoneaster medicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, as endemic plants of Iran, along with mixture of them were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH reagent. UV-Vis spectrophotometry method was used to evaluate the ability of Cotoneaster and Glycyrrhiza glabra antioxidant to scavenge DPPH radical. The kinetic parameters such as rate constant and activation energy in experimental conditions were calculated. The rate constants of the H atom abstraction by DPPH (k1, in the presence of C. medicus and G. glabra antioxidant were obtained under pseudo-first-order conditions at different temperatures. The order in DPPH radical-scavenging was: mixture of C. medicus and G. glabra > C. medicus > G.  glabra plants. The numerical values of activation energy were found to be 45.84 kJ.mol-1for G. glabra and 62.02kJ.mol-1 for C. medicus.

  11. Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts and its active constituent glabridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Atiya; Gupta, Vivek K; Luqman, Suaib; Negi, Arvind S; Kumar, J K; Shanker, Karuna; Saikia, Dharmendra; Srivastava, Suchita; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2009-08-01

    Glabridin, an active constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, was found to be active against both yeast and filamentous fungi. Glabridin also showed resistance modifying activity against drug resistant mutants of Candida albicans at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 31.25-250 microg/mL. Although the compound was reported earlier to be active against Candida albicans, but this is the first report of its activity against drug resistant mutants.

  12. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB and drug-likeness (DL based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases.

  13. Quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra extract by validated HPTLC densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Arunava; Pandit, Subrata; Nema, Neelesh K; Mukjerjee, Pulok K

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn (Family-Fabaceae) is active as an anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, emmenagogue, and antidiabetic substance, and is widely used in the Indian system of medicine. The major bioactive constituent is glycyrrhizin. A simple HPTLC method has been developed to control the quality of raw as well as finished glycyrrhiza using glycyrrhizin as the bioactive marker. The solvent system was optimized to chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 36 + 7.5, v/v/v). Extract and standard were dissolved in 70% methanol and applied on a precoated TLC plate. After development, the plate was scanned at 254 nm to create a chromatogram, then the quantity of glycyrrhizin was determined in the extract. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, LOD, and LOQ. Linearity range was found to be 0.96-4.80 microg per spot. The linearity relationship was described by the equation: Y = 612.706 + 1.091X (with r = 0.99904 and SD = 2.52%), where Y is the area under curve and X is the amount of glycyrrhizin (ng). The amount of glycyrrhizin found in the extract was 9.1%. Thus, the method provides a rapid and cost-effective quality measure for Glycyrrhiza glabra hydroalcoholic extract.

  14. Biogeography of symbiotic and other endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism.

  15. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  16. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  17. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术, and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金, are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  18. [Ecological environment of cultivated Astragali radix and market specification of prepared slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunzi; Liu, Jing; Hong, Hao; Guo, Baolin; Cai, Shaoqing; Chen, Hubiao

    2010-05-01

    Astragali Radix is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. The exhaustion of wild Astragali Radix has made cultivated Astragali Radix possess the commercial market of Astragali Radix. So the ecological environment of cultivated Astragali Radix should be investigated through field survey. Through investigation, we found that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus are cultivated in Hengshan mountain of Shanxi province, Longnan of Gansu province, south of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai provinces. A. membranaceus var. mongholicus is almost planted on the plain, except in Shanxi province it grows on the sunny side of the mountain. What is more, soil type, elevation, annual temperature and annual rainfall of these locations are different. So the ecological environments of cultivated location of Astragali Radix are different from each other. A. membranaceus is wild in Heilongjiang and northeast of Inner Mongolia, but the resource is drying up. It is also planted in few places of the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei, Gansu, but cultivated scope of A. membranaceus is smaller than A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.. So A. membranaceus var. mongholicus possesses large part of Astragali Radix market. In market, there exists no unified specification fro slices of Astragali Radix, and specification of prepared slices will influence the contents of chemical components. Through investigation, different kind of prepared slices can be collected and compared, this provides evidences for quality control of prepared slices. Through investigation, five different specifications of prepared slices were found in market. The distributions of some specification of prepared slices are specified, like transverseprepared slices prepared from A. membranaceus only found in Heilongjiang province. Transverse prepared slices possess half part of prepared slice market, and can be used to identify original plant of Astragali Radix. So transverse prepared slices

  19. [Classification study on commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Han, Bang-Xing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Chen, Xue-Mei

    2014-08-01

    To study the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellaria Radix, for standardizing market order and achieving industrialization, standardization and modernization of Pseudostellariae Radix. The different areas and grade medicinal materials of Pseudostellariae Radix were respectively measured in quantitative characteristics of appearance, and the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was scientifically verified by the content of polysaccharide. Then the determination data were evaluated by spss correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. So combining with the actual production, the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix was formulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was reasonable, and the more the grade of Pseudostellariae Radix was high, the more the content of polysaccharide was high. Meanwhile, length as a classification index was not suitable for the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, combining actual production, the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber were filtrated and the grade was divided into 5 ranks: big, mid- dle, small selected goods, big ungraded goods and small ungraded goods. the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix that mainly included the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber was formulated, the standard was divided into 5 grade. Each grade was not only consistent with the present situation of medicinal materials market, it could also reflected the intrinsic quality of Pseudostellariae Radix. In conclusion, the standard could be used as a classifica- tion basis to the commodity specification and grade.

  20. Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria closely associated with liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza inflate BAT. in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhao, Chong; Liao, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Maoke; Ao, Xiaoling; Gu, Yunfu; Liao, Decong; Xu, Kaiwei; Yu, Xiumei; Xiang, Quanju; Huang, Chengyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri

    2016-07-01

    A total of 218 actinobacteria strains were isolated from wild perennial liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza. inflate BAT. Based on morphological characteristics, 45 and 32 strains from G. inflate and G. glabra, respectively, were selected for further analyses. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, most of the strains belonged to genus Streptomyces and a few strains represented the rare actinobacteria Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Tsukamurella. A total of 39 strains from G. inflate and 27 strains from G. glabra showed antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator organism. The range of the antimicrobial activity of the strains isolated from G. glabra and G. inflate was similar. A total of 34 strains from G. inflate and 29 strains from G. glabra carried at least one of the genes encoding polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and FADH2-dependent halogenase. In the type II polyketide synthase KSα gene phylogenetic analysis, the strains were divided into two major clades: one included known spore pigment production-linked KSα sequences and other sequences were linked to the production of different types of aromatic polyketide antibiotics. Based on the antimicrobial range, the isolates that carried different KSα types were not separated from each other or from the isolates that did not carry KSα. The incongruent phylogenies of 16S rRNA and KSα genes indicated that the KSα genes were possibly horizontally transferred. In all, the liquorice plants were a rich source of biocontrol agents that may produce novel bioactive compounds.

  1. A full parallel radix sorting algorithm for multicore processors

    OpenAIRE

    Maus, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is that we want to sort an integer array a [] of length n on a multi core machine with k cores. Amdahl’s law tells us that the inherent sequential part of any algorithm will in the end dominate and limit the speedup we get from parallelisation of that algorithm. This paper introduces PARL, a parallel left radix sorting algorithm for use on ordinary shared memory multi core machines, that has just one simple statement in its sequential part. It can be seen a...

  2. Case reports and clinical guidelines for managing radix entomolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bejoy J.; Nishad, A.; Paulaian, Benin; Sam, Jonathan Emil

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the external and internal anatomy of the tooth is essential for successful dental practice. Anomalies in the tooth are often encountered which poses difficulties in dental treatments. As like any other tooth, mandibular first molars are also prone for anatomic malformations. One such anatomic variation is the presence of extra root distolingually. This distolingual root is called radix entomolaris (RE). The presence of an additional root can lead to difficulties during endodontic therapy. This article is a report of two cases describing the management of the first mandibular molars with an RE and clinical guidelines for its management. PMID:27829770

  3. Effect of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Gut-Friendly Microorganisms, Commercial Probiotic Preparations, and Digestive Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Mannanthendil Kumaran; Debraj, Debnath; Dethe, Shekhar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2017-05-04

    Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase). Results of this study indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is compatible with the tested probiotic strains, probiotic drinks and digestive enzymes.

  4. Anti-tumor effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch%甘草的抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莉; 高晓黎

    2004-01-01

    甘草为豆科植物甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.)或光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)的干燥根及根茎,药用历史悠久。甘草中已分离得到100多种黄酮类化合物、60多种三萜类化合物以及香豆素类、18种氨基酸、多种生物碱、多糖、雌性激素和有机酸等。甘草具有止咳化痰,抗消化道溃疡,保肝,抗过敏,抗炎,降脂

  5. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  6. The effect of Puerariae radix on lipoprotein metabolism in liver and intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Nerissa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies investigating the beneficial effects of Puerariae radix on cardiovascular disease have suggested this plant possesses anti-diabetic and lipid lowering properties. However, the exact mechanism by which Puerariae radix affects lipid metabolism is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water extract of Puerariae radix on the secretion of VLDL and chylomicrons from HepG2 liver cells and CaCo2 cells, respectively, in humans. Methods The amount of apoB100 (a protein marker for VLDL and apoB48 (a protein marker for chylomicrons in cells and media were quantified by Western Blotting and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL. Total, free and esterified cholesterol concentrations were measured by gas liquid chromatography. Results Treatment of cells with water extract of Puerariae radix significantly decreased apoB100 production and secretion from HepG2 cells up to 66% in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular total cholesterol and free cholesterol concentration in HepG2 cells also decreased with increasing concentration of the Puerariae radix. In contrast, water extract of Puerariae radix attenuated apoB48 concentrations in cells, but not apoB48 secretion from CaCo2 enterocytes. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that the water extract of Puerariae radix attenuates the hepatic lipoprotein production and secretion. Our present cell culture findings may explain why circulating VLDL and LDL levels were attenuated in animals supplemented with Puerariae radix. Since decreasing the production and secretion of atherogenic lipoproteins decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular disease, diets supplemented with radix may provide a safe and effective beneficial cardioprotective effects in humans.

  7. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  8. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  9. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  10. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.

  11. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  12. Thermodynamic Study on Antibacterial Effect of Different Extracts from Radix Isatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study and analyze the antibacterial effects of different extracts from Radix Isatis. Methods: Staphylococcus aureus was used as the studied object in the experiment. Antibacterial effects of extracts from Radix Isatis were observed by thermocalrimetry on Staphylococcus aureus, together with common pharmacological experiments. Results: The total extract, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract, n-butylalcohol (nBuOH) extract, chloroform (CHCl3) extract and petroleum (P. E. ) extract had antiviral effects to some extent while the residue after extracting had no antibacterial activity. The potency of antiviral activity among them was as follows: nBuOH extract > EtOAc extract > CHCl3 extract> total extract >P. E. extract. Conclusion: The antibacteriall effects of Radix Isatis were not limited to any active portion, showing that Radix Isatis exerts its antibacterial effects by cooperation of different active fractions in varied ways.

  13. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sihao Zheng; Dewang Liu; Weiguang Ren; Juan Fu; Linfang Huang; Shilin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identific...

  14. Comparison of Intestinal Absorption and Disposition of Structurally Similar Bioactive Flavones in Radix Scutellariae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenrui; Li ZHANG; Zhou, Limin; Wo, Siu Kwan; LIN, GE; Zuo, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae is a commonly used herbal medicine. Baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A are three major bioactive flavones in Radix Scutellariae and share similar chemical structures. The intestinal absorption and disposition of baicalein have been systematically investigated by our group before. In this study, the intestinal absorption and disposition of wogonin and oroxylin A were further explored and compared with the profiles of baicalein to find potential structure–activity relationshi...

  15. Evaluation of anti-tumor activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice

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    Jayanthi M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The antitumor activity studies measuring the viability of cancer cells when exposed to the ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a potent cell-killing effect, indicating the presence of anti-cancer principles in the preparation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2153-2158

  16. Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Chun, Hong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of licorice against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in a dopaminergic cell line, SN4741. ISL (1 µM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA (50 µM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation and apoptotic cell death. ISL pretreatment effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated upregulation of Bax, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. In addition, ISL significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway reversed ISL-mediated neuroprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity in SN4741 cells. These results provide the first evidence that ISL can protect dopaminergic cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating the apoptotic process.

  17. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.

  18. Ecophysiological aspects of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. germination under different temperatures

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    ali ghanbari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza is an industrial/medicinal plant however, in Iran is known as a weedy species in dry lands and orchards. Germination of Glycyrrhiza seeds collected from Kermanshah and Fars (Zarghan were studied in a range of temperatures (0, 3, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 C. The highest germination percentage for both Kermanshah and Fars populations were obtained at 20 and 25 C while maximum germination percentage of Fars seeds was higher than Kermanshah. At 40 C maximum germination of 27 and 43% was observed for Kermanshah and Fars seeds, respectively. The same trend was observed for germination rate. Time period for 10, 50 and 90% germination was lowest between 20-30C for both seed populations. Base, optimum and ceiling temperatures were obtained respectively, 2.2, 29.1, and 45.3 C for Kermanshah and 2.4, 29,2 and 44 C for Fars populations.

  19. Analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulu; Wu, Debin; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Li; Guo, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Shaoyao-gancao-tang, a Chinese medicinal formula consisting of peony and licorice has been used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea for thousands of years. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a type of licorice). In vitro, isoliquiritigenin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus and the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as acetylcholine (Ach, 10 mM), KCl (40 mM) and oxytocin (1 mU/mL). The uterine contractile response to cumulative concentrations of CaCl₂ was blocked by 0.1 and 1 mM of isoliquiritigenin. The isoliquiritigenin-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nv-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 mM) and the COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mM). In vivo, isoliquiritigenin could cause a significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot-plate test at the high dose. These results indicate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, not only has a spasmolytic effect on uterine contraction, which is in relation to Ca²⁺ channels, NOS and COX, but also an effective activity in reducing pain.

  20. Antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadhura on stress induced Drosophila melanogaster

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    Sowmya M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as a condition that disturbs the normal function of the biological system or a condition that decreases fitness. The present study was to evaluate the antistress property of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Athimadura. Here the Antistress property was experimented on Drosophila melanogaster. Stress was induced by adding methotrixate (MTX to the media. The 4 groups of Drosophila melanogaster were cultured in the laboratory. In the first group only control flies. In the second group MTX induced flies, in the third group MTX along with plant powder induced flies. In the fourth group only plant powder induced flies were cultured. Stress related enzymes like Catalase (CAT and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD are most widely used paradigm for the evaluation of enzyme activity . SOD and CAT Activity in Stress induced flies was increased compared to that of normal flies. After incorporation of the plant powder to the media fed for Drosophila melanogaster, both SOD and CAT Activity was decreased indicating the reduction in Stress by the plant powder. Thus Glycyrrhiza glabra may have Antistress property, as it has reduced stress in Drosophila melanogaster induced by MTX at different concentration.

  1. Protective Effects of Radix Pseudostellariae Extract Against Retinal Laser Injury

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    Guo Rui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to analyze the protective effects of a saponin extract from Radix Pseudostellariae (RP on retinal laser injury based on a retinal photocoagulation model. Methods: Fifty-eight rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (saponin extract orally, Group B (physiological saline, and Group C (control. The animals were sacrificed 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days after photocoagulation and lesions were evaluated with fundus photography, light microscopy, and electron microscopy. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured, and expression levels of c-fos and Bax genes were also determined. Results: The lesion sizes in Group A were smaller than in Group B. The levels of SOD in Group B were significantly lower than in groups A and C (PConclusion: The saponin extract of RP can inhibit oxidative stress, downregulate the levels of c-fos and Bax gene expression, and inhibit apoptosis in the retina after photocoagulation.

  2. Miltiorins A-D, diterpenes from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ai; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kobayakawa, Natsuki; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Constituents of the anti-influenza A neuraminidase (NA) active extract from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae were investigated, resulting in the isolation of four new diterpenes, miltiorins A-D (1-4), together with eight known diterpenes. The structures of 1-4 were assigned by spectroscopic analysis. Miltiorins A-C (1-3) were abietane diterpenes possessing a 2α-acetoxy group and a 12-hydroxy group in common, while miltiorin D (4) was a 11,12-seco-abietane diterpene with a γ-lactone ring. Miltiorin D (4) is the first example of a 11,12-seco-abietane diterpene from natural sources. Anti-NA activities of the isolated diterpenes were evaluated.

  3. Implementation and Analysis of Interval SRT Radix-2 Division Algorithm

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    Milind R. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interval arithmetic gives computation for closed bound set of real numbers which provides two values for single result. It gives confirmation that the error which exists due to the mathematical computation does not exceed over defined accuracy. Interval arithmetic provides higher precision and accuracy than the floating point arithmetic. Software computation for interval arithmetic is quite slow. Hardware implementation of the interval arithmetic provides considerable improvement in speed with respect to its software approach. We have used floating point hardware for interval arithmetic to improve the speed of computation. We present the implementation and analysis of interval radix-2 SRT division algorithm in double precision. SRT division gives faster response when partial remainder is relatively small in computation.

  4. Screening of Anti-endotoxin Components from Radix Isatidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenqing; FANG Jianguo; LIU Yunhai; XIE Wei

    2006-01-01

    To find a component with the strongest anti-endotoxin effect from the four components (F021 , F022, F023, and F024 ) of chloroform extract (F02) of Radix Isatidis, the protective effects of the five components on endotoxin-challenged mice and their effects on the production of TNFα and IL-6 by macrophages from the endotoxin-challenged mice were compared. It was found that the five components all had protective effects on endotoxin-challenged mice in terms of mortality. The mortalities of the mice challenged by 2.42 mg/kg endotoxin were 30 %, 50 %, 20 %, 50 % and 60 %after treatment with F02, E021 , F022, F023, and F024. The 5 components all had inhibitory effects on the production of TNFα and IL-6 by macrophages from the mice. At a concentration of LPS of 50 ng/mL, the inhibitory rates of F02 , F021 1, F022 , F023 , and F024 for the production of TNFα and IL-6were 76.54 %, 30.86 %, 78. 60 %, 36.63 %, 2.06 % and 75.85 %, 18. 45 %, 77.68 %, 24.41%, 3.64% and at the dose of 100 ng/mL, the inhibitory rates were 49.65 %, 16.86 %, 66.97 %, 13.39 %, 7.16 % and 59.78 %, 1.28 %, 61.86 %, 2.08 %, 1.44 %, respectively. It is concluded that the component F022 of Radix Isatidis has the strongest anti-endotoxin effect.

  5. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus

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    Muhammad Ovais Omer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F. Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 μg/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.

  6. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

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    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  7. Synergistic interaction between Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix in a Chinese herbal formula to promote diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Man; Lai, Kwok-Kin; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Lau, Ching-Po; Ko, Chun-Hay; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Poon, Simon Kar-Sing; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2012-05-07

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR) are two traditional Chinese medicines widely used in China for treating diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic foot ulcer. In our previous study, a herbal formula NF3 comprising AR and RR in the ratio of 2:1 was found effective in enhancing diabetic wound healing in rats through the actions of tissue regeneration, angiogenesis promotion and inflammation inhibition. The aims of the present study were to investigate the herb-herb interaction (or the possible synergistic effect) between AR and RR in NF3 to promote diabetic wound healing and to identify the principal herb in the formula by evaluating the potencies of individual AR and RR in different mechanistic studies. A chemically induced diabetic foot ulcer rat model was used to examine the wound healing effect of NF3 and its individual herbs AR and RR. For mechanistic studies, murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) inflammation, human fibroblast (Hs27) proliferation and human endothelial cell (HMEC-1) migration assays were adopted to investigate the anti-inflammatory, granulation formation and angiogenesis-promoting activities of the herbal extracts, respectively. In the foot ulcer animal model, neither AR nor RR at clinical relevant dose (0.98g/kg) promoted diabetic wound healing. However, when they were used in combination as NF3, synergistic interaction was demonstrated, of which NF3 could significantly reduce the wound area of rats when compared to water group (pdiabetic foot ulcer and illustrated that AR is the principal herb in this herbal formula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Tian; Li, Rui; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu

    2016-05-01

    To collect the historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata in Compendium of Materia Medica, compare and analyze the theoretical knowledge and relevant practical operation of national physician master Jin Shiyuan, which is beneficial for the inheritance and development of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata's clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI was searched with "Rehmanniae Radix Preparata", "Processing method", "Clinical application" "Li Shizhen", "Jin Shiyuan", and "Dispensing technology" as keywords. In addition, Shennong's Herbal Classic, Bencao Tujing (illustrated Classics of Materia Medica), Compendium of Materia Medica, Jingyue Quanshu (Jingyue's Complete Works) and related ancient books were accessed systematically to summarize the historical change of processing methods and efficacy of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata. Professor Jin Shiyuan emphasizes the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, including its nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, prescription audit technology, prescription coping technology, drug delivery technology, clinical decocting technology, purchasing management technology as well as storage, maintenance and supply technology. Through the collation and research, it was confirmed that historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata were recorded in details in Compendium of Materia Medica. Steaming method of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata was originated from Synopsis of Golden Chamber. Li Shizhen attached great importance to the processing method of "steaming and drying alternatively for nine times" for Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, and differentiated it from Radix Rehmanniae Recen and fresh rehmannia root in clinical applications. Professor Jin Shiyuan has developed and improved the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and carried forward the essence of Li

  9. Effect of Ampelopsis Radix on wound healing in scalded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Lee, Byonghee; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Bumjung; Chinannai, Khanita Suman; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2015-07-08

    Ampelopsis Radix has been used as a traditional Korean medicine for the treatment of burns and scalds. However, there has been no scientific research to date on the wound healing properties of Ampelopsis Radix for scald burns. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effect of Ampelopsis japonica root tuber ethanol extract (AJE) on induced cutaneous scald injury in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Hot water scalds were induced in SD rats, who were then divided into the following 5 groups; 1) control group without treatment, 2) positive control group with 1% Silver sulfadiazine (SSD), 3) Vaseline group, and groups 4) and 5) that used Vaseline containing 5% and 20% AJE, respectively. The ointment was applied topically to the experimental rats, once daily for 21 days, starting at 24 h post induction of the scald injury. Gross examination, measurement of wound size, and histopathological examination were performed. And quantitative measurement of cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical evaluation showed that the AJE and Vaseline groups, rapidly desquamated scab on day 12 post-scalding; in particular, the 20% AJE group achieved the greatest extent of skin recovery. Sizes of scald wound were significantly lower on days 12, 15, 18, and 21 in the AJE treated groups compared to the control groups. Histopathological evaluation showed a well-organized epithelial layer, angiogenesis, tissue granulation and collagen formation with the exception of inflammatory cells in the AJE-treated groups compared to the control groups on day 14, indicating that tissue regeneration had occurred. AJE treatment decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels on days 2 and 14, indicating the anti-inflammatory action of AJE. The AJE groups also showed a decrease in TGF-β1 levels on day 7 and VEGF on day 14 in the

  10. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming-San; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragastrically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alterations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack.

  11. Radix Ilicis Pubescentistotal lfavonoidsameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-san Miao; Lin Guo; Rui-qi Li; Xiao-lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine RadixIlicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total lfavonoids extracted from RadixIlicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragas-trically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alter-ations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of RadixIlicis Pubescentis total lfavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack.

  12. [Production of ethanol and isoflavones from steam-pretreated Radix Puerariae by solid state fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoguo; Chen, Hongzhang; Wang, Weidong

    2008-06-01

    The gelatinization process of the starch is replaced by unpolluted steam-pretreatment on the base of the Radix Puerariae rich in fiber and isoflavones. The production of ethanol and isoflavones by simultaneous saccharification and solid state fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreatment Radix Puerariae is presented. The optimal technological conditions were obtained: Radix Puerariae being steam-pretreated at a saturated vapor pressure of 0.8 MPa for 3.5 min, glucoamylase(65 u/g), cellulase(1.5 u/g), 0.1%(NH4)2SO4, 0.1%KH2PO4 and activated yeasts being added in, and fermentation at 35-37 degrees C for 60 h. Under these conditions, the yield of ethanol and isoflavones from 100 g Radix Pureriae (dry basis) were 27.47 g and 4.43 g, respectively, the starch utilization rate was 95%. In comparison with the traditional fermentation technology, the simultaneous saccharification and SSF of steam-pretreatment Radix Puerariae is clean and energy-saving. It provides new way of the production of ethanol from the non-food starch material, and worthwhile to be explored and implemented in industry.

  13. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding

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    Sihao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identification using DNA barcoding that focuses on genetic distance, identification efficiency, inter- and intraspecific variation, and barcoding gap. We collected 478 sequences from six candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, ITS, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, and COI from 29 species of Radix Astragali and adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence was demonstrated as the optimal barcode for identifying Radix Astragali and its adulterants. This new analysis method is helpful in identifying Radix Astragali and expedites the utilization and data mining of DNA barcoding.

  14. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-08-12

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method.

  15. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration.

  16. Antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Sedighinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral infections and dental caries are still considered as serious public health problems and inflict a costly burden to health care services around the world and especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra against oral pathogens by diffusion methods and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by both broth and Agar dilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution methods. Results: In this study, G. glabra extract showed good antibacterial activity against six bacteria. No strain in this study showed resistance against this extract. Conclusion: G. glabrais suggested as an appropriate candidate to help us in order to control dental caries and endodontic infections.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and urease inhibition activities of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Mehreen; Iqbal, Lubna; Fatima, Nudrat; Siddiqui, Kauser; Afza, Nighat; Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. The parent extract is methanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Urease inhibition activities of these extracts were also evaluated. Chloroform fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.7% activity but the activity is less than the crude methanolic extract i.e. 90%. Chloroform fraction showed the same trend in reducing power as that in radical scavenging activity. However n- butanol extract was devoid of any activity when compared to standard BHA. Crude methanolic fraction and its sub-fractions were also screened for enzyme inhibition activities using jackbean urease as substrate. Significant anti urease activity i.e. 72 % was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction with respect to standard inhibitor thiourea.

  18. Phenolics from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots and their PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Honda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hozumi; Yokota, Shinichi; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2010-01-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra roots), using a GAL-4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay method, resulted in the isolation of 39 phenolics, including 10 new compounds (1-10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 5'-formylglabridin (5), (2R,3R)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-prenylflavane (7), echinatin, (3R)-2',3',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan, kanzonol X, kanzonol W, shinpterocarpin, licoflavanone A, glabrol, shinflavanone, gancaonin L, and glabrone all exhibited significant PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. The activity of these compounds at a sample concentration of 10microg/mL was three times more potent than that of 0.5microM troglitazone.

  19. Structural features and in vivo antitussive activity of the water extracted polymer from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudipta; Nosál'ová, Gabriella; Ghosh, Debjani; Flešková, Dana; Capek, Peter; Ray, Bimalendu

    2011-05-01

    Antitussive drugs are amongst the most widely used medications worldwide; however no new class of drugs has been introduced into the market for many years. Herein, we have analyzed the water-extracted polymeric fraction (WE) of Glycyrrhiza glabra. This arabinogalactan protein enriched fraction, ≥ 85% of which gets precipitated with Yariv reagent, consisted mainly of 3- and 3,6-linked galactopyranosyl, and 5- and 3,5-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. Peroral administration of this polymer in a dose of 50mg/kg body weight decreases the number of citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs more effectively than codeine. It does not induce significant change in the values of specific airway resistance or provoked any observable adverse effects.

  20. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2......-8) chalcones were isolated as active principles from the acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata. Compounds 3 and 6 without prenyl group showed strong inhibitory effects on various neuraminidases from influenza viral strains, H1N1, H9N2, novel H1N1 (WT), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed...... in 293T cells. In addition, the efficacy of oseltamivir with the presence of compound 3 (5 μM) was increased against H274Y neuraminidase. This evidence of synergistic effect makes this inhibitor to have a potential possibility for control of pandemic infection by oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus....

  1. Purification, partial characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ci-Hai; Yu, Yue; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis, an important Chinese medicine, has a long history of use in China. In this study, three water-soluble polysaccharides fractions (GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3) were isolated and purified from the root of G. uralensis by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides were investigated. The molecular weights of GUPs-1, GUPs-2 and GUPs-3 were 10,160, 11,680 and 13,360 Da, and the ratios of glucose were 23.4%, 14% and 1.13%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the three purified polysaccharides followed the order: GUPs-1>GUPs-2>GUPs-3. GUPs with lower molecular weight and higher ratio of glucose, basically exhibited higher antioxidant activities at the same concentration. This indicated that the molecular weight and the ratio of monosaccharide composition of the GUPs could affect the antioxidant activities.

  2. Modulation of genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens by glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemopreventive effects of certain phytoconstituents can be exploited for their use as functional foods, dietary supplements and even as drugs. The natural compounds, acting as anti-genotoxic and free radical scavenging compounds, may serve as potent chemopreventive agents. These can inhibit DNA modulatory activities of mutagens and help preventing pathological processes. Objectives: Present study on Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a promising medicinal plant, widely used in traditional medicine, focused on the bioassay-guided fractionation of its extracts for the isolation of certain phytochemicals with anti-genotoxic potential against oxidative mutagens. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizomes was subjected to column chromatography, and isolated fraction was evaluated for its anti-genotoxic and antioxidant potential using SOS chromotest, Comet assay, and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: GLG fraction, which was characterized as Glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited the genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens viz., H 2 O 2 and 4NQOquite efficiently. In SOS chromotest, using E.coli PQ37 tester strain, it inhibited induction factor induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 75.54% and 71.69% at the concentration of 121.46 μM,respectively. In Comet assay, it reduced the tail moment induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 70.21% and 69.04%, respectively, at the same concentration in human blood lymphocytes. The isolated fraction also exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and was able to scavenge 85.95% radicals at a concentration of 120 μM. Conclusion: Glycyrrhizic acid is a potential modulator of genotoxins as well as efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  3. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Extract Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in RAW Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Eom, Taekil; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used in medicine for thousands of years. Our previous study revealed that the methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (EGGR) exhibits significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages among 100 other extracts. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR. The anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was measured by MTT assay, NO content analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level analysis, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA assay. Low doses of EGGR were non-toxic to macrophages and imparted protective effect against LPS induced cell death. Incubation of LPS-treated macrophages with 100 μg/mL EGGR led to an increase in cell viability from 66.6 to 99%. Moreover, EGGR led to down regulation of NO (NO2+NO3) and ROS productions in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, 100 μg/mL EGGR led to a reduction in NO2+NO3 level from 336.2 to 24.1 pM/mL, and ROS level from 483.5 to 128.4%. Consistent with the result related to NO production, EGGR suppressed the ability of LPS to induce mRNA and protein expressions of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 productions which were analyzed by an ELISA assay. These results provide a comprehensive approach into the anti-inflammatory effect of EGGR on LPS-stimulated macrophages; however, efforts are underway on gaining detailed insight into anti-inflammatory signaling pathways.

  4. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfajaro Mia Madel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7] strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans.

  5. [Study on detoxication of euphorbia pekinensis radix processed with vinegar on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Dan; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Li; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar in the toxicity on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar. With rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6 as the study object, the MTT method was adopted to detect the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar on IEC-6 cell activity. The morphology of cells were observed by the inverted microscope. The down-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of enterocytes caused by the vinegar processing was analyzed by using the high content screening. Compared with the negative control group, the proliferation inhibition experiment showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix showed a relatively high intestinal cell toxicity (P IEC-6 cell membrane, so as to provide a basis for further explanation of the detoxication mechanism of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar.

  6. Studies on Triterpenoids and Flavones in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. By HPLC-ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangyu; LI Huilin; SONG Fengrui; LIU Chunming; LIU Zhiqiang; LIU Shuying

    2009-01-01

    Seven compounds, four flavones and three triterpenoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Extract are identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn). The fragmentation pathways of these compounds are investigated by ESI-MSn and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MSn). Comparing the reten-tion times (tR) and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, seven components are identified in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. And their MSn data proposed plausible schemes for their fragmentation. All the experimental results show that ESI-MSn and FT-ICR-MSn are powerful tools for the structural characterization of triterpenoids and fla-vones.

  7. Rapid analysis of Radix puerariae by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Chan, Chi-On; Chau, Foo-Tim; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2009-03-13

    A new, rapid analytical method using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed to differentiate two species of Radix puerariae (GG), Pueraria lobata (YG) and Pueraria thomsonii (FG), and to determine the contents of puerarin, daidzin and total isoflavonoid in the samples. Five isoflavonoids, puerarin, daidzin, daidzein, genistin and genistein were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total isoflavonoid content was exploited as critical parameter for successful discrimination of the two species. Scattering effect and baseline shift in the NIR spectra were corrected and the spectral features were enhanced by several pre-processing methods. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), samples were separated successfully into two different clusters corresponding to the two GG species. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity of the classification models were determined to evaluate the performance. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the correlation models. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the prediction models are R=0.970 for the puerarin, R=0.939 for daidzin and R=0.969 for total isoflavonoid. The outcome showed that NIRS can serve as routine screening in the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

  8. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyao Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae, pentagalloylglucose (Pen, albiflorin (Ali, and protocatechuic acid (Pro, exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV, plasma viscosity (PV, APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect.

  9. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhang, Tian; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Wei-Lan; Li, Rui

    2016-05-01

    To collect Li Shizhen's experience in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata identification and clinical application, compare and analyze national physician master Jin Shiyuan's practical operation and theoretical knowledge, which is beneficial for the inheritance and improvement of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were searched with "Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata", "Li Shizhen", "pharmacological method state theory" "Jin Shiyuan" and "Chinese medicine dispensing technology" as the key words. In addition, Treatise on Febrile Disease, Compendium of Materia Medica, Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), Notes to Medical Professions(Yi Zong Shuo Yue), and other medicine books were accessed to summarize the processing methods and decoction dosage of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata in both ancient and modern medicine, and in consideration of technical research and practice operation, Li Shizhen's description of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Professor Jin Shiyuan's research on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata dispensing technology were analyzed and collected. Li Shizhen recorded the nature identification and clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by using pharmacological method state theory in Compendium of Materia Medica. National physician master Jin Shiyuan carries forward the essence of Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought with his own proficient knowledge structure in medicine, providing scientific pharmaceutical service for clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Professor. Jin Shiyuan put forward the dispensing technology for the first time, including nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, clinical decocting technology, prescription coping technology, and class specifications of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. In this paper, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was used as an example

  10. Progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Zhi-Jun Li; Da-Ren Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen with high mortality, multiple complications and complicated causes. There is no effective therapy for AP. Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen), a traditional herbal medicine, has a low price and a wide range of clinical applications. It is effective to promote blood lfow, eliminate stagnancy, and relieve pain. It is also found to be effective in treating AP. We reviewed the progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of AP. DATA SOURCES: An english-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1988-2005) on Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) and acute pancreatitis. RESULTS:The mechanisms of Danshen in the treatment of AP include improvement of microcirculatory disturbances;elimination of oxygen free radicals; modulation of the metabolism of lipid inlfammatory mediator;and blocking of calcium inlfow and prevention of calcium overload. CONCLUSION:Danshen can effectively reduce the mortality and complications of AP.

  11. Field Survey of Glycyrrhiza Plants in Central Asia (4). Characterization of G. glabra and G. bucharica Collected in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinya; Chiba, Ren; Fujii, Isao; Yoshikawa, Nobuji; Fattokhov, Inoyat; Saidov, Madibron

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of 2 Glycyrrhiza plants, G. glabra and G. bucharica (=Meristotropis bucharica), were investigated in Tajikistan. The glycyrrhizin content in the underground parts of G. glabra varied from 2.56 to 9.29% of the dry weight, and the content of glabridin, a species-specific flavonoid of G. glabra, varied from 0.09 to 0.92% of the dry weight. Seeds of G. glabra plants from Tajikistan were cultivated for 3 years in Japan, and the glycyrrhizin content of the harvested roots ranged from 0.75 to 1.82% of the dry weight. In addition, HPLC analysis of leaf extracts indicated that the G. glabra plants collected in Tajikistan could be divided into various types, according to the flavonoid contents of the leaves. The endemic G. bucharica was also collected. A phylogenetic tree of rbcL nucleotide sequences from various Glycyrrhiza plants indicated that G. bucharica was closely related to the three glycyrrhizin-producing Glycyrrhiza spp. (G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. glabra), even though G. bucharica does not produce glycyrrhizin.

  12. Strain Mesorhizobium sp. CCNWGX035: A Stress-Tolerant Isolate from Glycyrrhiza glabra Displaying a Wide Host Range of Nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-nine rhizobial isolates were isolated from the root nodules of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabrca,growing in the arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China,to test their taxonomic position and stress tolerance and to select one promising putative inocnlant strain for further studies.On the basis of 113 physiological and biochemical characteristics,the isolates were clustered into three groups.One isolate CCNWGX035 was found to have high tolerance to NaCl,pH,and temperature.By sequencing the 16S rDNA,isolate CCNWGX035 was placed in genus Mesorhizobiurm.Nodulation tests demonstrated that the isolate not only formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on its original host plant Gly-cyrrhiza glabra,but also on Sophora viciifolia,Lotus cornieulatus,Trifolium reperts,Melilotus suaveolens,and Sophora alopecuroides.On the basis of sequence analysis of the nodA gene,isolate CCNWGX035 was closely related to strains of the genus Mesorhizobiurm,exhibiting some novel characteristics of root nodule bacteria.

  13. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding β-amyrin synthase in the glycyrrhizic acid biosynthetic pathway in Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza uralensis is considered to be one of the most important herbs in traditional Chinese medicine due to its numerous pharmacological effects particularly its ability to relieve cough and act as a mucolytic. Based on previous research, these effects are mediated by a number of active ingredients, especially glycyrrhizic acid (GA. In the present study, a gene encoding β-amyrin synthase (β-AS involved in GA biosynthesis in G. uralensis has been cloned and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme showed similar activity to native enzymes isolated from other Glycyrrhiza species to catalyze the conversion of 2,3-oxidosqualene into β-amyrin. In fact the β-AS gene is particularly important in the GA biosynthetic pathway in G. uralensis. The complete sequence of the enzyme was determined and a phylogenetic tree based on the β-AS gene of G. uralensis and 20 other species was created. This showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra had the closest kinship with G. uralensis. The results of this work will be useful in determining how to improve the efficacy of G. uralensis by improving its GA content and in exploring the biosynthesis of GA in vitro.

  14. Biosynthesis-Based Quantitative Analysis of 151 Secondary Metabolites of Licorice To Differentiate Medicinal Glycyrrhiza Species and Their Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Chen, Kuan; Wang, Ying; Ji, Shuai; Feng, Jin; Li, Kai; Lin, Yan; Ye, Min

    2017-03-07

    Secondary metabolites are usually the bioactive components of medicinal plants. The difference in the secondary metabolisms of closely related plant species and their hybrids has rarely been addressed. In this study, we conducted a holistic secondary metabolomics analysis of three medicinal Glycyrrhiza species (G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata), which are used as the popular herbal medicine licorice. The Glycyrrhiza species (genotype) for 95 batches of samples were identified by DNA barcodes of the internal transcribed spacer and trnV-ndhC regions, and the chemotypes were revealed by LC/UV- or LC/MS/MS-based quantitative analysis of 151 bioactive secondary metabolites, including 17 flavonoid glycosides, 24 saponins, and 110 free phenolic compounds. These compounds represented key products in the biosynthetic pathways of licorice. For the 76 homozygous samples, the three Glycyrrhiza species showed significant biosynthetic preferences, especially in coumarins, chalcones, isoflavanes, and flavonols. In total, 27 species-specific chemical markers were discovered. The 19 hybrid samples indicated that hybridization could remarkably alter the chemical composition and that the male parent contributed more to the offspring than the female parent did. This is hitherto the largest-scale targeted secondary metabolomics study of medicinal plants and the first report on uniparental inheritance in plant secondary metabolism. The results are valuable for biosynthesis, inheritance, and quality control studies of licorice and other medicinal plants.

  15. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Type-II Discrete Sine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Murty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, radix-3 algorithm for computation of type-II discrete sine transform (DST-II of length N = 3 ( = 1,2, … . is presented. The DST-II of length N can be realized from three DST-II sequences, each of length N/3. A block diagram of for computation of the radix-3 DST-II algorithm is given. Signal flow graph for DST-II of length = 3 2 is shown to clarify the proposed algorithm.

  16. A New Position-Based Fast Radix-2 Algorithm for Computing the DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gautam A.; Rathore, Tejmal S.

    The radix-2 decimation-in-time fast Hartley transform algorithm for computing the DHT has been introduced by Bracewell. A set of fast algorithms were further developed by Sorenson et al. A new position-based fast radix-2 decimation-in-time algorithm that requires less number of multiplications than that of Sorenson is proposed. It exploits the characteristics of the DHT matrix and introduces multiplying structures in the signal flow-diagram (SFD). It exhibits an SFD with butterflies similar for each stage. The operation count for the proposed algorithm is determined. It is verified by implementing the program in C.

  17. [The extraction technology of epigoitri from isatidis radix by supercritical CO2 fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Si-Hui; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Li-Min; Yang, Li-Fen

    2013-07-01

    To study the extraction technology of epigoitri from Isatidis Radix by supercritical CO2 fluid. The effects of pressure, temperature, time, concentration and dosage of alcohol were studied by single factor analysis and orthogonal test. The optimized conditions were as follows: The pressure was 20 MPs, the temperature was 50 degrees C, the time was 2 h, concentration of alcohol was 100%, dosage was 80 mL. The content of epigoitri in the extract could reach 38.63% under the above conditions. This method is simple, rapid and it is suitable for the extraction of epigoitri from Isatidis Radix.

  18. Improved 64-bit Radix-16 Booth Multiplier Based on Partial Product Array Height Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an optimization for binary radix-16 (modified) Booth recoded multipliers to reduce the maximum height of the partial product columns to n/4 for [Formula: see text] unsigned operands. This is in contrast to the conventional maximum height of (n+1)/4. Therefor...... to be included in the partial product array without increasing the delay. The method can be extended to Booth recoded radix-8 multipliers, signed multipliers, combined signed/unsigned multipliers, and other values of n....

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  20. [Study on simplification of extraction kinetics model and adaptability of total flavonoids model of Scutellariae radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Jin; Ni, Jian; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Meng-Jie; Dou, Hao-Ran; Shen, Ming-Rui; Yang, Bo-Di; Fu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Because of irregular shapes of Chinese herbal pieces, we simplified the previously deduced general extraction kinetic model for TCMs, and integrated particle diameters of Chinese herbs that had been hard to be determined in the final parameter "a". The reduction of the direct determination of particle diameters of Chinese herbs was conducive to increase the accuracy of the model, expand the application scope of the model, and get closer to the actual production conditions. Finally, a simplified model was established, with its corresponding experimental methods and data processing methods determined. With total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix as the determination index, we conducted a study on the adaptability of total flavonoids extracted from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method in the model. The results showed a good linear correlation among the natural logarithm value of the mass concentration of total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix, the time and the changes in the natural logarithm of solvent multiple. Through calculating and fitting, efforts were made to establish the kinetic model of extracting total flavonoids from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method, and verify the model, with a good degree of fitting and deviation within the range of the industrial production requirements. This indicated that the model established by the method has a good adaptability.

  1. Publication trends in studies examining radix notoginseng as a treatment for ischemic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Qiang, Luo; Zhang, Chunyang; Wang, Chaohui; Mu, Zhenxing; Jiang, Ligang

    2014-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke has become a major disease burden with high mortality and morbidity rates. There is a lack of evidence-based medicine confirming the efficacy of common treatments. Panax notoginseng saponins, the main active ingredient of radix notoginseng, have a neuroprotective role in ischemic brain injury, and have been popularized as a maintenance treatment for acute cerebral infarction and its sequelae. We conducted literature searches on the Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Collaboration, CNKI, Wanfang and the China Scientific & Technological Achievements Database and analyzed the experimental and clinical outcomes of studies investigating the use of radix notoginseng in the treatment of ischemic brain injury to improve the understanding of relevant research trends and existing problems. We found that over the past 10 years, China has maintained its interest in Panax notoginseng research, while such studies are scarce on the Web of Science. However, Chinese researchers often focus on the neuroprotective role of radix notoginseng in ischemic brain injury, but there are no large-scale clinical data to confirm its efficacy and safety. There remains a need for more rigorous large-sample randomized controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up, to determine whether radix notoginseng lowers stroke recurrence and improves patient's quality of life. PMID:25368652

  2. [Research model on commodity specification standard of radix Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2016-03-01

    As an important part of the market commodity circulation, the standard grade of Chinese traditional medicine commodity is very important to restrict the market order and guarantee the quality of the medicinal material. The State Council issuing the "protection and development of Chinese herbal medicine (2015-2020)" also make clear that the important task of improving the circulation of Chinese herbal medicine industry norms and the commodity specification standard of common traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, as a large class of Chinese herbal medicines, the standard grade of the radix is more confused in the market circulation, and lack of a more reasonable study model in the development of the standard. Thus, this paper summarizes the research background, present situation and problems, and several key points of the commodity specification and grade standard in radix herbs. Then, the research model is introduced as an example of Pseudostellariae Radix, so as to provide technical support and reference for formulating commodity specifications and grades standard in other radix traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Radix entomolaris: 2 case reports and clinical guidelines for endodontic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S Jothi; Velmurugan, N; Kavitha, M; Kumar, A R Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Variations in dental anatomy and root canal systems are often reported in the dental literature. Among them, Radix entomolaris (RE) is the presence of an additional lingual root in mandibular molars. Though RE appears relatively infrequently, knowledge of the condition will aid in its management. This article presents 2 case reports of RE and clinical guidelines for endodontic management.

  4. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...

  5. Publication trends in studies examining radix notoginseng as a treatment for ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiping Li; Luo Qiang; Chunyang Zhang; Chaohui Wang; Zhenxing Mu; Ligang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke has become a major disease burden with high mortality and morbidity rates. There is a lack of evidence-based medicine conifrming the efifcacy of common treatments. Panax notoginseng saponins, the main active ingredient of radix notoginseng, have a neuro-protective role in ischemic brain injury, and have been popularized as a maintenance treatment for acute cerebral infarction and its sequelae. We conducted literature searches on the Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Collaboration, CNKI, Wanfang and the China Scientific&Technological Achievements Database and analyzed the experimental and clinical outcomes of studies investigating the use of radix notoginseng in the treatment of ischemic brain injury to improve the understanding of relevant research trends and existing problems. We found that over the past 10 years, China has maintained its interest in Panax notoginseng research, while such studies are scarce on the Web of Science. However, Chinese researchers often focus on the neuroprotective role of radix notoginseng in ischemic brain injury, but there are no large-scale clinical data to conifrm its efifcacy and safety. There remains a need for more rigorous large-sam-ple randomized controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up, to determine whether radix notoginseng lowers stroke recurrence and improves patient’s quality of life.

  6. Anatomy of the Digestive System of Radix sp. (Bassomatophora: Lymnaeidae from Lake Taal, Batangas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Joyce Cukingnan

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The digestive anatomy of Radix sp. from Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines, was studied. The major differences with the other known lymnaeids previously described from the Philippines are found in the radular formula, presence of intestinal caecum, the orientation of the pylorus and the intestine, and the number of loops made by the intestine around the stomach and the digestive gland.

  7. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  8. Evaluation of antigenotoxic activity of isoliquiritin apioside from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kumar, Subodh

    2009-06-01

    Prevention of manifestation of events characteristic of carcinogenesis is being emphasized a rational strategy to combat cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in tumor initiation through oxidative damage of DNA. In search for lead molecules in cancer chemoprevention from natural products, a fraction 'Rlicca' isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra was studied for modulatory effect against hydrogen peroxide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide induced genotoxicity in Escherichiacoli PQ37 using SOS chromotest and in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the Comet assay. The fraction 'Rlicca' at a concentration of 191 microM decreased the SOS inducing potency (SOSIP) of hydrogen peroxide (1.0mM) and NQO (20 microg/ml) by 83.72% and 68.77%, respectively. In the human blood lymphocytes, 'Rlicca' reduced the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (25 microM) and NQO (5 microg/ml) by 88.04% and 76.64%, respectively, using the Comet assay. The spectroscopic data of 'Rlicca' fraction revealed it to be isoliquiritin apioside, a chalcone oligoglycoside. This is the first report of isoliquiritin apioside with marked potential to combat oxidative stress-induced genotoxicity.

  9. Planting depth and rhizome size effects on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza vali allah poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of planting depth and rhizome sizes on below ground growth of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. at research glasshouse of Mashhad Unversity in 2001. Factorial experiment containing 2 factors of planting depth (10, 20 and 40‌cm and rhizome sizes (1,2 and 3 buds or 4,7 and 10 gr with two replications in completely randomized block design was employed. Development of different variables during growing season including root and mother rhizome dry weight were measured.The highest and the lowest root dry weight (RDWhave been seen in depth of 20 and 40 cm‌, respectively. About 100 days after planting (DAP, RDW increaseed very slowly but thenafter increased faster‌. Rhizome of any sizes in‌ 20 cm, gave the highest RDW‌. Three-bud rhizomes produced the highest RDW and 1-bud rhizome produced the lowest. Mother rhizome dry weight (MRDW reduced untill 60 days after planting. After 75th day, MRDW has increased and all plants started to fill their mother rhizome and finally rhizome of depth 20 cm produced the highest dry weight. In 160 days after planting, mother rhizomes started to lose their weight‌. 1and 3 -bud mother rhizome produce the lowest and highest MRDW, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  13. Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, H B; Thiyagarajan, P; Kathiresan, S; Sangli, Gopal Krishna; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-02-15

    Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents have been known to possess widespread pharmacological properties as an anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antitumour and hepatoprotective drug. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potential of extract of G. glabra (GutGard™) root and its phytoconstituents (glabridin, glycyrrhizin, and isoliquiritigenin) on both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) products in order to understand the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action. Inhibitory effect of GutGard™ and its phytoconstituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), calcimycin (A23187) induced thromboxane (TXB(2)), and leukotriene (LTB(4)) release was studied using murine macrophages (J774A.1) and human neutrophil (HL-60) cells. Results revealed that, G. glabra and glabridin significantly inhibited PGE(2), TXB(2) (COX) and LTB(4) (LOX), while, isoliquiritigenin exerted inhibitory effect only against COX products but failed to suppress LOX product. However, glycyrrhizin at the tested concentrations failed to exhibit inhibitory effect on both COX and LOX products. Here, we report for the first time that G. glabra (almost devoid of glycyrrhizin) exhibits anti-inflammatory property likely through the inhibition of PGE(2), TXB(2) and LTB(4) in mammalian cell assay system, which could be influenced in part by glabridin and isoliquiritigenin.

  14. Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza glabra and their inhibitory mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Lallo, Subehan; Nisa, Khoirun; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-15

    FtsZ is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, and an attractive and underexploited novel antibacterial target protein. Screening of Indonesian plants revealed the inhibitory activity of the methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on the Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (BsFtsZ) GTPase, and further bioassay-guided fractionation of the active methanol extract led to the isolation of seven known polyketides (1-7). Among them, gancaonin I (1), glycyrin (3), and isolicoflavanol (5) exhibited anti-BsFtsZ GTPase activities, at levels comparable to that of the synthetic FtsZ inhibitor, Zantrin Z3. Enzymatic assays using a BsFtsZ Val307R mutant protein and in silico simulations suggested that 1, 3, and 5 bind to the cleft on BsFtsZ, as in the case of the previously reported uncompetitive FtsZ inhibitor, PC190723, and thereby display their significant anti-BsFtsZ inhibitory activities. Furthermore, 1 also showed significant inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, with a MIC value of 5μM. The present study provides new insights into the naturally occurring B. subtilis growth inhibitors.

  15. Protective effect of polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Morana, Alessandra; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2009-12-01

    In the present article, we have investigated the antioxidant properties of methanolic liquorice polyphenol extracts (LPE(s)). Polyphenol extraction was performed with 60% and 100% methanol. Analysis of LPE(s) by thin-layer chromatography revealed that a higher amount of polyphenols was recovered by extraction with 60% methanol. Antioxidant activity measurement of the reducing power, scavenging effect on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability have been taken as the parameters for assessment of antioxidant potential of LPE(s). Results have been compared with both natural and synthetic antioxidants. All experimental data have indicated that LPE(s) possess strong antioxidant power proportional to their o-diphenolic and total polyphenolic content, independently from the assay used. Therefore, the LPE(s) antioxidant property was examined against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species in human colon carcinoma cells. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with liquorice polyphenolic extracts provided a remarkable protection against oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2). The highest oxidative stress protection (72% of cell vitality) was measured in cells pretreated with 0.54 mM polyphenols. This effect seems to be associated to the antioxidant activity of liquorice polyphenolic compounds. Our data suggest that polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra could exert a beneficial action in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to production of reactive oxygen species.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of standardized extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Sundarajan, K; Gupta, Anumita; Srikanth, H S; Edwin, Jothie; Agarwal, Amit

    2011-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (licorice) is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region and certain areas of Asia. Historically, the dried rhizome and root of the plant were used by the Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Indian, and Roman civilizations as expectorant and carminative. In the modern medicinal system, licorice is used to treat liver ailments, dyspepsia, bronchitis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Despite the extensive pharmacological applications, the genotoxic potential of G. glabra extract (GutGard™) has not been evaluated. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the genotoxic potential of GutGard™ using battery of in vitro test systems: bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames II™), chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. GutGard™ did not show significant increase in number of revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with/without S9 fraction. In CA and MN studies, GutGard™ did not show clastogenic effect at 4 and 18 h treatments with and without S9 fraction. Results indicated that GutGard™ is not mutagenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Soni, Badrish; Dalwadi, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts using in vitro models. The dose-dependent aqueous and ethanolic extracts demonstrated the scavenging activity against nitric oxide (concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals [IC(50)]=72 and 62.1 microg/ml, respectively), superoxide (IC(50)=64.2 and 38.4 microg/ml, respectively), hydroxyl (IC(50)=81.9 and 63 microg/ml, respectively), DPPH (IC(50)=43.6 and 28.3 microg/ml, respectively) and ABTS(*+) (IC(50)=77.3 and 57.2 microg/ml, respectively) radicals. Further, both extracts showed strong reducing power and iron-chelating capacities. In the Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, both extracts were found to inhibit mitochondrial fraction lipid peroxidation. In copper-catalyzed human serum and low-density lipoprotein oxidation models, both extracts significantly (Pglabra possess considerable antioxidant activity and protective effect against the human lipoprotein oxidative system.

  19. Effects of space flight on DNA mutation and secondary metabolites of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) seeds were flown on a recoverable satellite for 18 days(the average radiation dose in the flight recovery module was 0.102 mGy/d, the distance from flight apogee to earth was 350 km, gravity 10-6). After returning to earth, the seeds were germinated and grown to maturity. The parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The leaves of licorice were used for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and the two main secondary me-tabolites in one-year-old roots were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among 22 random primers used in this experiment, 6 primers generated different DNA band types. Analysis of HPLC showed that the content of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) in the roots from seeds flown in space was respectively 2.19, 1.18 times higher than that of the control group. The results demonstrated that the extraterrestrial environment induced mutagenic effects on licorice and affected its secondary metabolites. These changes indicated that extraterrestrial orbit is possible means of breeding of licorice so as to preserve this endangered medicinal plant.

  20. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  1. Correlation between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlan; Sun, Zhirong; Qu, Jixu; Yang, Chunning; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wei, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Root respiration was determined using a biological oxygen analyzer. Respiration-related enzymes including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plus 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase and succinate dehydrogenase, and respiratory pathways were evaluated. Biomass was determined by a drying-weighing method. In addition, the percentage of glycyrrhizic acid was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The association between root respiration and the levels of biomass and glycyrrhizic acid was investigated. The glycolysis pathway (EMP), tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate (PPP) pathway acted concurrently in the roots of G. uralensis. Grey correlation analysis showed that TCA had the strongest correlation (correlation coefficient, 0.8003) with biomass. Starch and acetyl coenzyme A had the closest association with above-ground biomass, while soluble sugar correlated less strongly with above-ground biomass. Grey correlation analysis between biochemical pathways and the intermediates showed that pyruvic acid had the strongest correlation with EMP, while acetyl coenzyme A correlated most strongly with TCA. Among the intermediates and pathways, pyruvic acid and EMP exhibited the greatest correlation with glycyrrhizic acid, while acetyl coenzyme A and TCA correlated with glycyrrhizic acid less closely. The results of this study may aid the cultivation of G. uralensis. However, these results require verification in further studies.

  2. Effects of space flight on DNA mutation and secondary metabolites of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO WenYuan; LI KeFeng; YAN Shuo; GAO XiuMei; HU LiMin

    2009-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) seeds were flown on a recoverable satellite for 18 days(the average radiation dose in the flight recovery module was 0.102 mGy/d, the distance from flight apogee to earth was 350 km, gravity 10~(-6)). After returning to earth, the seeds were germinated and grown to maturity. The parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The leaves of licorice were used for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and the two main secondary metabolites in one-year-old roots were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Among 22 random primers used in this experiment, 6 primers generated different DNA band types. Analysis of HPLC showed that the content of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) in the roots from seeds flown in space was respectively 2.19, 1.18 times higher than that of the control group. The results demonstrated that the extraterrestrial environment induced mutagenic effects on licorice and affected its secondary metabolites. These changes indicated that extraterrestrial orbit is possible means of breeding of licorice so as to preserve this endangered medicinal plant.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  4. TREATMENT OF 40 CASES OF CHRONIC ECZEMA WITH POINT-INJECTION OF COMPOUND RADIX SALVIAE MILTIORRHIZAE INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志伟; 陈汉章

    2000-01-01

    The authors have used point-injection of compound Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Injection to treat 40 cases of chronic eczema and achieved a satisfactory therapeutic effect. The total effective rate was 95%.

  5. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  6. Glycyrrhiza glabra protects from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir S

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra against ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R) induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) in rats. Ligation of LADCA for 45 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion has induced significant (pglabra significantly (pglabra also prevented GSH depletion and inhibited lipid peroxidation in heart. In addition to improving biochemical indices of myocardial function, G. glabra also significantly (pglabra. Taken together, results of the present study clearly suggest the cardioprotective potential of G. glabra against myocardial infarction by amelioration of oxidative stress and favorable modulation of cardiac function.

  7. Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: a wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Winston, Umakanth B; Surwase, Babasaheb S; Meshram, Nisha S; Sangle, V D; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2008-04-01

    Chemoprofile of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. a wild relative of commercial licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) is presented. Both T. cuneifolia and G. glabra L were found to be very similar phytochemically. At least eighteen chromatophores were found similar in both the plants including the sweetening principle, glycyrrhizin. The extracts of T. cuneifolia root, exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti germ tube formation (in Candida albicans), protection from mutagen toxicity and cytotoxic activities comparable to that of G. glabra. In general, the results suggest that T. cuneifolia could be used as substitute of G. glabra.

  8. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  9. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids combined with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-san Miao; Lin Guo; Rui-qi Li; Xiao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a neuroprotective effect, but it remains unclear whether Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids have a synergistic effect with the recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized bone marrow stem cell transplantation on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rat ischemia models were administered 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 g/kg Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids from 3 days before modeling to 2 ...

  10. Analysis of Pachymic Acid and Total Terpene Constituents of Poria, Poria cum Pini Radix, Pini Radix in Poria and Pini Radix%茯苓、茯神、茯神木及松根中茯苓酸及总萜类成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙; 聂磊; 沈佳瑜; 王光忠

    2015-01-01

    s:Objective To compare the contents of pachymic acid and total terpene of Poria, Poria cum Pini Radix, Pini Radix in Poria and Pini Radix.Methods HPLC was used in the determination of content of pachymic acid, colorimetric method was used in analysis of total terpenoid components.Comparison and analysis of total terpenoid components were carried out in different medicinal parts of Poria cocos ( Schw.) Wolf from different areas.Results The content of pachymic acid:Pini Radix in Poria>Poria cum Pini Radix >Poria,and Pini Radix did not.The content of total terpenoid:Pini Radix≈Pini Radix in Poria>Poria cum Pini Radix >Poria.Conclusion The study provides foundation for quality control and evaluation of different pieces of Poria cocos, and to provide scientific basis for the clinical selection of different pieces of Poria cocos.%目的:比较茯苓、茯神、茯神木及松根中茯苓酸及总萜类含量差异。方法采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC )法,测定茯苓酸含量;采用比色法测定总萜类成分含量。并对不同产地及来源的样品进行成分分析比较。结果茯苓酸含量:茯神木>茯神>茯苓,松根无;总萜含量:松根≈茯神木>茯神>茯苓。结论为茯苓不同饮片的质量控制与评价奠定了基础,并为临床选用茯苓不同饮片提供了科学依据。

  11. Radix Astragali-induced differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinsheng Wang; Haifeng Li; Ying Zhao; Xiaoli Zhang; Aihua Bo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemical induction has been shown to be effective at promoting the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, these inductors have cytotoxicity side effects that may damage cells over time. Traditional Chinese medicines avoid this disadvantage while still producing effective induction.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of Radix Astragali (Huangqi) on the differentiation of MSCs.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: In vitro study of traditional Chinese medicine in neural stem cell differentiation. The experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Hebei North University between April and June 2007.MATERIALS: Radix Astragafi solution (lot No. 060105; license No. Z53021585) was purchased from Daii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China; rabbit anti-rat nestin, rabbit anti-rat neuron-specific enolase (NSE), mouse anti-rat microtubule-associated protein 2, and rabbit anti-rat glial fibrillary acidic protein were purchased from Wuhan Boster, China.METHODS: Whole bone marrow was isolated from the femur and tibia of 6-week-old male Wistar rats and subcultured. The fourth passage of MSCs were harvested and induced by different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 g/L) of Radix Astragali.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe MSC morphology after 24 hours of induction. Immunocytochemistry was employed to observe the expression of NSE (specific neuronal marker), nestin (marker of neural stem cell), glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtubule-associated protein 2 (markers of astrocytes).RESULTS: Following Radix Astragafi treatment, changes occurred in cell morphology including: cell body pyknosis; thin and long processes formed in some cells, with growth corresponding to drug concentration and induction time; and the formation of network-like connections between some cells.With increasing drug concentration and induction time, nestin expression was upregulated, and the number of positive cells increased

  12. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  13. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  14. Fully parallel mixed-radix conversion algorithm for residue number applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.H.

    1983-04-01

    A new, fully parallel mixed-radix conversion (MRC) algorithm which utilises the maximum parallelism which exists in the residue (RNS) to mixed-radix (MR) digit conversion to achieve high throughput rate and very short conversion time is presented. The new algorithm has a conversion time of two table look-up cycles for moduli sets consisting of up to 15 moduli. As a comparison, the classical Szabo and Tanaka MRC algorithm has a conversion time of (n-1) clock cycles for an n-moduli rns. This algorithm can be implemented by off-the-shelf ECL ICS to achieve a conversion time of 50 ns and a throughput of 40 mhz for a 150-bit rns. 5 references.

  15. Radix-independent, efficient arrays for multi-level n-qudit quantum and reversible computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Multiple-valued quantum logic allows the designers to reduce the number of cells while obtaining more functionality in the quantum circuits. Large r-valued reversible or quantum gates ( r stands for radix and is more than 2) cannot be directly realized in the current quantum technology. Therefore, we are interested in designing the large reversible and quantum controlled gates using the arrays of one-quantum digit (qudit) or two-qudit gates. In our previous work, we proposed quantum arrays to implement the r-valued quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose novel efficient structures and arrays, for r-valued quantum logic gates. The quantum costs of the developed quantum arrays are independent of the radix of calculations in the quantum circuit.

  16. Design of High Speed Architecture of Parallel MAC Based On Radix-2 MBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Anwar Ahmed,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiplier and multiplier-and-accumulator (MAC are the essential elements of the digital signal processing such as filtering, convolution, transformations and Inner products. Parallel MAC is frequently used in digital signal processing and video/graphics applications. Fast multipliers are essential parts of digital signal processing systems. The speed of multiply operation is of great importance in digital signal processing as well as in the general purpose processors today, especially since the media processing took off. The MAC provides high speed multiplication and multiplication with accumulative addition. This paper presents a combined process of multiplication and accumulation based on radix-4 & radix-8 booth encodings. In this Paper, we investigate the method of implementing the Parallel MAC with the smallest possible delay. Enhancing the speed of operation of the parallel MAC is a major design issue. This has been achieved by developing a CLA adder for parallel MAC.

  17. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  18. [Extraction of praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction-CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-dong; Hou, Wei; Chen, Xue-song; Qiu, Zhi-dong

    2008-12-01

    To extract praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-CO2. After preliminary experiment, three main factors were acquired that could influence the result of SFE-CO2, including the time, pressure and temperature of the extraction. The optimal extraction process was carried out on orthogonal design, and SFE-CO2 was compared with the traditional methods. In the extraction of the praeruptorin A, the best extraction conditions were 60 degrees C, 20 MPa, and duration for three hours. As cosolvent alcohol was added, the amount of extraction of the praeruptorin A increased, and the amount of SFE-CO2 extraction was higher than those of decoction and heating reflux. The SFE-CO2 in extracting praeruptorin A from Radix Peucedani is feasible and reliable.

  19. 甘草及提取物在食品中的应用进展%Application of Glycyrrhiza and Its Extractive in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆康宁; 王飞; 罗海澜; 王富刚

    2014-01-01

    研究甘草在食品中应用,能够提高甘草的综合利用价值,制造出更多更好具有甘草特色的食品。甘草是药食两用资源,生理活性成分主要有三萜类化合物、黄酮类化合物及甘草多糖类化合物三大类成分。甘草提取物味甜,具有抑菌、抗病毒、抗氧化等诸多功能,在食品添加剂中作为甜味剂和抗氧化剂在饼干、肉制品等食品中使用,因具有生理活性功能在保健食品中应用广泛。目前甘草及提取物在粮油制品、肉制品、饮料、糖果、果冻、果脯、瓜子、酱油等食品中都有应用和研究。%Study on application of the glycyrrhiza and its extractive in the food industry can improve the comprehensive utilization of glycyrrhiza, which can promote to create more and better food with glycyrrhiza characteristics. Glycyrrhiza is medicine and food resources, physiological active ingredients are triterpenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharide. The glycyrrhiza and its extractive taste sweetly, that have antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and many other functions, the glycyrrhiza and its extractive are used in biscuit, meat and other foods as a sweetener and antioxidant, which also has been widely applied in health food because of physiological active functions. Now the application of glycyrrhiza and its extractive in grain and oil products, meat products, beverage, candy, jelly, dried fruit, seeds, soy sauce and so on are researched widely.

  20. Feeding Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-07-01

    The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

  1. 乌拉尔甘草中的化学成分%Chemical constituents from root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪民; 邸迎彤; 彭树林; 王明奎; 丁立生

    2003-01-01

    Object To investigate the chemical constituents from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Methods The constituents were isolated on normal and reversed silica gel column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectral evidence. Results A new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin and twelve known compounds, including two triterpenoid saponins, two cumarins and eight flavonoids, were isolated. Conclusion The new compound was elucidated as 3-O-[β-D-(6-methyl) glucuronopyranosyl (1→2)-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-24-hydroxy-glabrolide on the basis of ESI-MS, 1HNMR,13CNMR, HMQC and HMBC spectral evidence.%目的分析乌拉尔甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis的化学成分.方法采用正、反相硅胶柱层析分离,应用波谱方法进行结构鉴定.结果从甘草中共分离出3个三萜皂苷、2个香豆素和8个黄酮类化合物,其中一个三萜皂苷为新化合物.结论通过ESI-MS,1HNMR,13CNMR,HMQC和HMBC分析,将新三萜皂苷的结构鉴定为3-O-[β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯-(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸]-24-羟基-甘草内酯.

  2. QUANTIFICATION OF GLYCYRRHIZIN BIOMARKER IN GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA RHIZOME AND BABY HERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED RP-HPTLC METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Zaatout, Hala H.; T, Kamal Y; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A simple and sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations by validated Reverse Phase HPTLC method. Materials and Methods: RP-HPTLC Method was carried out using glass coated with RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates using methanol-water (7: 3 v/v) as mobile phase. Results: The developed plate was scanned and quantified densitometrically at 256 nm. Glycyrrhizin peaks from Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome and baby herbal formulations were identified by comparing their single spot at Rf = 0.63 ± 0.01. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between peak area and amount of glycyrrhizin in the range of 2000-7000 ng/band. Conclusion: The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. The proposed method will be useful to enumerate the therapeutic dose of glycyrrhizin in herbal formulations as well as in bulk drug. PMID:28573236

  3. Intestinal absorbability of three Radix Puerariae isoflavones including daidzein, daidzin and puerarin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Li; Pan Siu Antony; Lin Ge; Zuo Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Radix Puerariae (Gegen) contains abundant isoflavones in the forms of glycosides and aglycones, such as daidzein, daidzin and puerarin. This study aims to investigate the intestinal absorbability and mechanism of these three structurally related isoflavones. Methods The bi-directional transport of these three isoflavones in Caco-2 monolayer model was performed to evaluate their absorbability and involvement of transporters in Transwell. In vitro incubation of daidzin and p...

  4. High speed Radix-4 soft-decision Viterbi decoder for MB-OFDM UWB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guixuan; Portilla, Jorge; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a 64 state soft decision Viterbi Decoder (VD) system by using a high speed radix-4 Add Compare Select (ACS) architecture is presented. The proposed VD system can support different data rate (from 53.5 Mbps to 480 Mbps) for Multiband Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) system when implemented onto the FPGA board. The proposed VD employs efficient two steps Radix 4 architecture, which is responsible of calculating two steps of 64 state Radix 4 Branch Metrics (BM) within one clock cycle. The branch metrics are calculated using a uniform distance measurement algorithm, which equals to the symbol itself when compared to logic-0 and equal to its one's complement when compared to logic-1. By employing the modified Modulo Normalization algorithm, it is possible to use only a 10- bit memory block to restore each of the 64 state metrics, with the advantage of avoiding errors caused by overflow during the updating process for state metrics, and simplifying the comparator circuit of the ACS unit. The Two Pointer Even Algorithm, which is considered to be very simple and more hardware-efficient than the register exchange algorithm, is used for tracing back the survivor sequence and output the decoded data stream. 3-bit soft decision input sequences are used for gathering the experimental results. The sampling frequency of the MBOFDM UWB system is 528 MHz, by using the proposed two steps Radix 4 VD architecture we can process 4 input signals in parallel within one clock cycle, therefore only 132 MHz operating frequency is needed for the proposed VD system. This will dramatically reduce the dynamic power consumption for hardware implementation. Final results of the implementation show that the proposed VD architecture can support a maximum working frequency of 152.5 MHz on Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T Evaluation Platform.

  5. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of main components in linderae reflexae radix with one single marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Sui-Qing

    2016-05-08

    Establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by the single marker (QAMS) method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four main components in Linderae Reflexae Radix. Four main components of pinostrobin, pinosylvin, pinocembrin, and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(1-p-mentheneyl)-trans-stilbene were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality by RP-HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. The method was evaluated by a comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard method and QAMS with a different HPLC system. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of the four contents of Linderae Reflexae Radix determined by the external standard method and QAMS (RSD <3%). The contents of four analytes (pinosylvin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, and Reflexanbene I) in Linderae Reflexae Radix were determined by the single marker of pinosylvin. This fingerprint was the spectra determined by Shimadzu LC-20AT and Waters e2695 HPLC that were equipped with three different columns.

  6. Determination of Three Tanshinones from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza by Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN, Hongyuan; TIAN, Minglei; ROW, Kyung Ho

    2009-01-01

    A selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the selective separation of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples. Tanshinone ⅡA imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized in ethanol-dodecanol system show high affinity to tanshinone ⅡA and its structure analogs in aqueous environment and the affinity can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the eluents. By using 60% water-40% methanol (volume ratio) and 99.5% methanol-0.5% trifluoroacetic acid (volume ratio) as washing and eluting solvents, most interferences originating from the salvia matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean enough to be directly injected into HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.4 to 500.0 mg·L~(-1) (r~2=0.999) with the relative standard deviations less than 4.2%. The mean recoveries of tanshinone ⅡA in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza were more than 85.6% at three different concentrations and the limits of detection were 0.06-0.09 mg·L~(-1). This method is a viable alternative tool to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of the three tanshinones in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples.

  7. Astragali radix: could it be an adjuvant for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. PMID:28186109

  8. Novel functional polysaccharides from Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residue: Preliminary characterization and immunomodulatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Yi; Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cao, Kun; Fan, Qi

    2016-02-10

    The alkali-extractable polysaccharides (APMPs) were isolated from the water extracted residues of Radix Polygoni Multiflori, and further purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide (APMP-2) with molecular weights of 7724.8 Da. HPLC chromatography analysis identified that APMP-2 was a heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of Galactose and Xylose with a molar ratio of 4.31: 1.06. It was shown that both APMP and APMP-2 were of activation effects on splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and also significantly restore the proliferation rate, phagocytic index and cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) production level of 5-FU-treated splenocytes/peritoneal macrophages in a dosage-dependent manner. The results suggested that polysaccharides presented in Radix Polygoni Multiflori water-extracted residues possessed immunomodulatory activity and could be used as potential immunomodulators, and this finding could be a reference for the utilization of Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residues.

  9. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different funct...

  10. Development of cookies with residues of radix puerariae%葛渣曲奇饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅新; 施建斌; 蔡沙; 关健; 陈学玲; 何建军

    2015-01-01

    以葛粉加工后的葛渣为原料,先后采用单因素试验和正交试验,探讨了影响葛渣曲奇饼干感官评分值的因素如葛渣添加量、黄油添加量、麦芽糖醇添加量、奶粉添加量以及葛渣粉细度,最终确定了葛渣曲奇饼干配方为低筋粉100%、葛渣粉添加量15%、黄油添加量70%、麦芽糖醇添加量35%、奶粉添加量12%、鸡蛋液添加量10%,其中葛渣粉碎后过100目筛,所制作葛渣曲奇饼干因葛渣加入而呈焦黄色,口感松脆,甜而不腻。%Radix puerariae residues after radix puerariae starch being extracted were used as materials to make cookies,the effect of the factors,such as the addition of radix puerariae residues,butter,maltitol, milk powder and the particle size of radix puerariae residues,on the sensory evaluation score of the cook-ies were investigated by single factor test and orthogonal test successively.The cookies recipe was deter-mined ultimately,which included weak flour 100%,radix puerariae residues 15%,butter 70%,maltitol 35%,milk powder 12%,and eggs 10%.Radix puerariae residues passed through 100 mesh sieve after being ground.The cookies with radix puerariae residues appeared light brown color,tasted crunchy, sweet but not greasy.

  11. Perimenopause Amelioration of a TCM Recipe Composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii: An In Vivo Study on Natural Aging Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been extensively applied as preferable herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms. In the present work, the potential of a TCM recipe named RRF, composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii, was investigated on a natural aging rat model. After administration of RRF (141, 282, and 564 mg/kg/d, the circulated estradiol (E2 level increased accompanied by a reduction of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. But no significant impact on serum lutenizing hormone (LH level was observed. As a result of the E2-FSH-LH adjustment, the histomorphology degenerations of ovary, uterus, and vagina of the 11.5-month female rats were alleviated. And lumbar vertebrae trabecular microstructure was also restored under RRF exposure by means of increasing the trabecular area and area rate. Moreover, levels of hypothalamic dopamine (DA and norepinephrine (NE rallied significantly after RRF treatment. Results from our studies suggest that RRF possesses a positive regulation on the estrogen imbalance and neurotransmitter disorder, thereby restoring reproductive organ degeneration and skeleton deterioration. The above-mentioned benefits of RRF on the menopause syndromes recommend RRF as a potential candidate for the treatment of perimenopausal syndrome.

  12. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zierau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR, has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects.

  13. Characterization of Flavonoids in the Ethomedicine Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix and Its Adulterant Millettiae Pulchrae Radix by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn

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    Lan-Lan Fan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fordiae Cauliflorae Radix (FC, the root of Fordia cauliflora Hemsl and Millettiae Pulchrae Radix [MP, the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth. Kurz var. laxior (Dunn Z. Wei], which go under the same local name of “Daluosan”, have long been used in Southern China for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, dementia in children, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases. The same local name and similar functions always confuse users. To further utilize these two ethnodrugs and identify them unambiguously, an HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method was developed to separate and characterize the flavonoids in FC and MP. A total of 41 flavonoids were detected, of which six compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based on their tandem mass spectrometry data obtained in the positive ion detection mode. Nineteen of these characterized compounds are reported from these two plants for the first time.

  14. Preclinical evidence of rapid-onset antidepressant-like effect in Radix Polygalae extract.

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    Im-Joon Shin

    Full Text Available Radix Polygalae (the root of Polygala tenuifolia is a herb widely used in traditional Asian medicine that is thought to exert a variety of neuropsychiatric effects. Radix Polygalae extract can protect against N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA neurotoxicity and induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression, suggesting modulatory roles at glutamatergic synapses and possible antidepressant action. In accordance with this hypothesis, Radix Polygalae extract demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice by decreasing behavioral despair in the forced swim and tail suspension tasks and increasing hedonic-like behavior in the female urine sniffing test 30 minutes after a single oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Reduced latency to acquire a food pellet in the novely suppressed feeding paradigm, without change in anxiety-like behaviors suggested a rapid-onset nature of the antidepressant-like effect. In addition, it decreased the number of failed escapes in the learned helplessness paradigm after two oral administrations 24 hours and 30 minutes before the first test. Finally, it reversed anhedonia as measured by saccharin preference in mice exposed to the chronic stress model after two administrations of 0.1 mg/kg, in contrast to the repeated administration generally needed for similar effect by monoamergic antidepressants. Immobility reduction in tail suspension task was blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX, a pattern previously demonstrated by ketamine and other ketamine-like rapid-onset antidepressants. Also similarly to ketamine, Radix Polygalae appeared to acutely decrease phosphorylation of GluR1 serine-845 in the hippocampus while leaving the phosphorylation of hippocampal mTOR serine 2448 unchanged. These findings serve as preclinical evidence that Radix Polygalae extract exerts rapid-onset antidepressant effects by modulating glutamatergic synapses in

  15. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  16. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

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    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Quality evaluation of various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix and its dregs by determination of active compounds

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    Liang Zhitao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to market investigation, two kinds of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces with different specifications are commercially available: irregular thick slices (0.7-1.3 cm and length-wise into thin slices (0.11-0.2 cm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of various samples of Polygoni Multiflori Radix decoction pieces and its dregs. Results A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination the contents of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (THSG, emodin and physcion, which were considered to be potent active ingredients. The results showed that the contents of THSG, emodin and physcion varied in samples of different diameters and thicknesses. The results also indicated the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix still contained a considerable amount of THSG, emodin and physcion. Conclusion The various commercial specifications of Polygoni Multiflori Radix sold in the markets did not correlate with their prices, and the dregs of Polygoni Multiflori Radix can be further utilized.

  18. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Hong, Bo; Wang, Jia; Wang, Xi; Niu, Sijia; Zhao, Chunjie

    2012-11-01

    Based upon the regulations stipulated by the State Food and Drug Administration of China, only the processed, detoxified tubers and roots of Aconitum are allowed to be administered orally, used in clinical decoctions and adopted as raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing, so the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti is important for ensuring the Radix Aconiti praeparata quality. A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata. To compare their fingerprints, the processing principle of preparation of Radix Aconiti was developed. Twenty-nine compounds and 26 compounds were assigned to aconitine alkaloids and tentatively identified by comparing accurate mass and fragments information with that of the authentic standards or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literature. The nonester alkaloids were almost the same. The diester diterpene alkaloids were decreased, the monoester-diterpene alkaloids were increased and lipo-alkaloids decreased obviously in the processing of the preparation. These transformed components could be regarded as potential chemical markers that can be used to distinguish between raw and processed herbs.

  19. Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells by Radix Angelicae Sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaozhi Wang; Lile Zhou; Yong Guo; Guangyi Liu; Jiyan Cheng; Hong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissues are an ideal source of stem cells. It is important to find inducers that can safely and effectively differentiate stem cells into functional neurons for clinical use. In this study, we investigate the use of Radix Angelicae Sinensis as an inducer of neuronal differentiation. Primary human adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from adult subcutaneous fatty tissue, then pre-induced with 10%Radix Angelicae Sinensis injection for 24 hours, and incubated in serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 containing 40% Radix Angelicae Si-nensis to induce its differentiation into neuron-like cells. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a common in-ducer for neuronal differentiation, was used as the control. After human adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into neuron-like cells under the induction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis for 24 hours, the positive expression of neuron-specific enolase was lower than that of the butylated hydroxyani-sole-induced group, and the expression of glial fibril ary acidic protein was negative. After they were induced for 48 hours, the positive expression of neuron specific enolase in human adipose-derived stem cells was significantly higher than that of the butylated hydroxyanisole-induced group. Our experimental findings indicate that Radix Angelicae Sinensis can induce human adipose-derived stem celldifferentiation into neuron-like cells and produce less cytotoxicity.

  20. Determination of heavy metals in Radix glycyrrhizae etc. 5 traditional Chinese drugs%甘草等5种中药中重金属含量的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金仁达; 万红卫; 钱佳星

    2006-01-01

    目的:监测中药中重金属的含量和研究紫外分光光度法在监测中药中重金属含量的应用.方法:用紫外分光光度法测定甘草、川贝母、天竺黄3种植物药,蜈蚣、僵蚕2种动物药中重金属的含量.结果: 紫外分光光度法测定中药中重金属含量方法可靠,稳定性、重现性好.甘草、川贝母、蜈蚣、僵蚕4种药材重金属含量偏高.结论: 紫外分光光度法可用于监测中药中重金属含量.

  1. 近红外漫反射光谱技术在甘草指纹图谱中的研究%Application of Near-infrared spectrum(NIRS) in chromatographic fingerprinting of Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆淼; 金兴良; 庄峙厦; 王小如; 黎先春

    2004-01-01

    本文采用光纤近红外漫反射光谱技术对不同产地、不同采收时间、不同级别、不同部位的甘草进行考察,通过非侵入方式获得植物内在成分信息,应用系统聚类分析方法获得分类结果,探索了NIRS在植物分类中的应用途径和方法.方法学研究表明,本法具有快捷、无损和重现性高地表达植物化学信息的特点,可作为中药分类中的一个强有力的工具.

  2. Anti-Staphylococcal and wound healing activities of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra formulation in mice

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    Abdulghani - Ameri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Topical antimicrobial therapy is one of the most important methods of wound care. In this investigation, we evaluated topical gel preparations of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extracts alone and in combination for antimicrobial and wound healing activities in MRSA - infected excision and incision wound models in mice. Gel formulations containing 0.3% G. praelongum, 2.5% G. glabra and combination of the two were prepared and tested for their influence on wound infection, wound contraction and epithelization phases of wound healing. Mupirocin ointment was applied as a standard treatment antibiotic. Results indicated that all three gel formulations promoted wound healing in both models by influencing wound contraction and epithelization phases. Examination of wounds at the end of our study period revealed that wounds treated with G. praelongum and G. glabra gel  formulations (combination gel showed considerable contraction and epithelization as compared to the gel base – treated group (negative control. Assumption could be made that this wound promotion is due to the anti – Staphylococcal activity of Ganoderma and wound healing activity of G. glabra.   Industrial relevance: Medicine using fungal metabolites is now recognized. A mushroom that has gained worldwide attention is Ganoderma lucidum and has been used to treat a wide spectrum of ailments including fungal and bacterial infections for long periods of time throughout history of ancient traditional medicine. Previous reports indicate that ganoderma lucidum mycelia are usually prescribed in the form of soup, syrup, tea, tablets, capsules, tincture or bolus or injected as a solution of powdered spores. In this study, the combination gel containing aqueous extracts of G. praelongum and G. glabra effectively inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and promoted wound healing in mice. Further phytochemical studies are needed to

  3. The Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Effect on the Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Vero Cell Line

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    M. Sabouri Ghanad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The side effects of drug consumption and also HSV resistance to drugs have been the factors attracting the researchers to herbal drugs. The major aim of the present research was in vitro assessment of possible anti-herpetic activity of glycyrrhiza gla-bra (liquorices root methanolic extract in more details by performing Tissue Culture Infec-tive Dose fifty percent (TCID50 method. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study Vero cells were incubated with different con-centrations of methanolic extracts of glycyrrhiza glabra .Neutral red assay was performed in order to consider the appropriate concentration of the extract. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with glycyrrhiza glabra extract before viral infection, incubation of HSV-1 with glycyrrhiza glabra extract and treatment of vero cells with extract 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after viral in-fection, were exerted. TCID50 was performed in order to assess the antiviral activity of the extract. The results were analyzed after performing the experiments at least three times. Results: Pre-treatment of Vero cells with methanolic extract for two hours and incubation of virus with extract for one and two hours prior to viral infection resulted in remarkable drop in TCID50 amount by significant difference (P <0.001. Treatment of Vero cells with extract 1, 8 and 12 hours post-infection demonstrated significant changes in TCID50. We observed significant fluctuations and different efficacy of the extract between different incubation time at 1h & 4h, 1h & 24h, 4h & 8h, 4h & 12h, 8h & 24h, 12h & 24h. Conclusion: The current study resulted in more novel findings of anti herpetic activity of gly-cyrrhiza glabra extract. Time course of extract treatment with virus- infected cells was an ef-ficient factor. In addition, the pretreatment of virus and also Vero cells with glycyrrhiza gla-bra extract in our experiment had important effects on the anti-viral activity of the extract. (Sci J

  4. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

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    Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  5. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.

  6. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  7. 3种甘草属植物的核型研究%Karyotypes of three species in Glycyrrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔红

    2006-01-01

    用光学显微镜观察了豆科(Leguminosae)甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)3种荒漠植物的染色体,研究结果表明,3种植物的体细胞染色体数目2n=16,核型公式分别为:刺果甘草(G.pallidiflara)k(2n)=2x=16=4M+8m+4sm,光果甘草(G.glabra)k(2n)=2x=16=10M+6m,胀果某草(G.inflata)k(2n)=2x=16=6M+6m+4sm.

  8. Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Khiadani (Hajian), Mehdi; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants. PMID:23554821

  9. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perwez Alam; Mohamed Fahd Alajmi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Adnan J Al-Rehaily; Omar Ahmed Basudan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods:Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf=0.280±0.001). The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band), limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band), recovery (99.4%-99.8%) and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%;intraday and interday) were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20-200 ng (r2=0.996). The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions:This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  10. Determination of bioactive marker glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza glabra root and commercial formulation by validated HPTLC-densitometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perwez Alam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC- densitometric method for quantification of glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract. Methods: Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: methanol: water in proportion of 6:2:1:0.5, v/v/ v/v as mobile phase. Scanning and quantification of developed plate was done densitometrically at 254 nm. The method was validated for detection and quantification limits, precision, recovery and robustness according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The system gave compact spot for glycyrrhizin (Rf =0.280±0.001. The regression curve of standard was found to be Y=4.213x+22.078. The limit of detection (15.7 ng per band, limit of quantification (47.1 ng per band, recovery (99.4%-99.8% and precision (≤1.62% and ≤1.84%; intraday and interday were satisfactory for glycyrrhizin. Linearity range for glycyrrhizin was 20- 200 ng (r 2 =0.996. The content of glycyrrhizin was estimated as 5.9% and 11.2% w/w in glycyrrhizin in the Glycyrrhiza glabra root methanol extract and licorice root capsule methanol extract, respectively. Conclusions: This estimation technique is very much useful for the estimation of glycyrrhizin present in various formulations as well as for quality control of crude drugs containing glycyrrhizin.

  11. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

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    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  12. Bioactive profiles, antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging capacities and protective effects on H2O2-injured PC12 cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Zhao, Tiantian; Feng, Mengying; Chen, Huiping; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu

    2014-06-30

    This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  13. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-01-01

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six ot...

  14. Research progress of Radix Indigofera%苗药雪人参的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小果; 张汝国

    2015-01-01

    以国内外相关文献为基础,对苗药雪人参植物资源的分布及近年来的植物化学成分和药理活性研究概况进行综述,以期为进行雪人参药理活性及质量标准控制等研究提供参考。雪人参主要分布在贵州、云南、广西、湖北等地,泰国、缅甸、尼泊尔、印度及不丹也有分布。雪人参植物中含有挥发油、黄烷醇、甾醇体类化学成分,具有抗氧化、降血糖、降血脂、保肝、抗癌、抑菌、抗病毒等作用。今后应加强雪人参野生变家种的研究,建立雪人参栽培基地;对雪人参进行系统的化学成分、药理活性及质量标准控制等多方面的研究。%In the basis of relevant literature at home and abroad,research progress of Radix Indigofera were reviewed in the pa-per,including the plant resources,chemical constituents,and pharmacological actions in the past years.We want to provide reference for pharmacological action and quality control standards of Radix Indigofera.Radix Indigofera distributed mainly in the province of Guizhou,Yunnan,Guangxi,Hubei and other places,Thailand,Myanmar,Nepal,India and Bhutan have distributed too.Radix In-digofera contains volatile oils,flavanols and sterols,etc,possess lots of activies,such as antioxidation,lowering blood sugar and lipid, protecting liver,etc.Research on artificical planting,cultivation base,systemic chemical constituents,pharmacological actions and quality standard control systern.

  15. HPLC Fingerprint and LC/MS/MS Identification of the Active Components in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Ping; LIANG,Qiong-Lin; LUO,Guo-An; JIANG,Zhi-Hong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (丹参, RSM), an important Chinese Materia Medica, is widely used for cardiovascular diseases in China. Phenolic compounds[1] and diterpenoids[2] which are the major constituents of RSM have been reported to protect myocardium against ischemia-induced derangement, protect neural cells against injuries caused by anoxia,inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce hepatic fibrosis and depress the activities of HIV-1.[3] For the purposes of establishing quality standard of RSM and studying the relationship between the pharmacological activities and quantities of constituents, we conducted studies on HPLC fingerprint and LC-MS-MS identification of the active constituents of RSM.

  16. Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Process of Essential Oils from Glycyrrhiza by Response Surface Methodology%响应面优化超声波辅助提取甘草精油工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆康宁; 吕银德; 李玉兰; 谷存国

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza is both of medicine and food resources,and the essential oils of glycyrrhiza are extensively applied in the condiment.In this paper,the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of essential oils from glycyrrhiza is optimized by single factor and response surface experiment.The experimental results show that the optimum extraction conditions of essential oils from glycyrrhiza by steam distillation extraction is determined as follows:ultrasonic power is 270 W,time is 6 h,and concentration of glycyrrhiza solution is 5%.Under such experimental conditions,the yield of essential oils extracted from glycyrrhiza is 0.209%.The extraction time and concentration of glycyrrhiza solution affect the yield of essential oils significantly.%甘草为药食两用资源,甘草提取物甘草精油在调味品中有重要的应用价值。采用单因素及响应面实验设计优化了甘草精油提取条件。实验结果表明:用水蒸气蒸馏法提取甘草精油的最佳条件为超声波功率270 W、提取时间6 h、甘草溶液浓度5%。在该实验条件下,甘草精油提取率为0.209%。提取时间、甘草溶液浓度对甘草精油提取率影响显著。

  17. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  18. 西洋参与人参的简易鉴别方法%Difference and Simple Identification between Panax quinquefolium L. and Radix Ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀龙; 徐桂萍; 孙巍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prevent phenomena of using Radix Ginseng (dry Radix Ginseng and white sugar Radix Ginseng) instead of Panax quinquefolium L. and to avoid the occurrence of side effects. Methods Panax quinquefolium L and Radix Ginseng were distinguished by their characters and fluorescence identification. Results Fluorescence color was observed by using ultraviolet lamp (254 nm) under the light-shading condition. The hadromestome of Panax quinquefolium L showed amethyst fluorescence, the dry Radix Ginseng showed blue fluorescence, and the white sugar Radix Ginseng showed bright blue fluorescence. Conclusion Fluorometric method can be used to identify Panax quinquefolinm L and Radix Ginseng, This method is simple and easy for spread.%目的 防止以人参(生晒参、白参)伪充西洋参使用,避免发生副反应.方法 利用性状鉴别和荧光鉴别区分人参与西洋参.结果 在遮光条件下用紫外光灯(254 nm)观察荧光色泽,西洋参的断面木质部显蓝紫色荧光,生晒参的断面木质部显蓝色荧光,白参的断面木质部显亮蓝色荧光.结论 利用性状鉴别法和荧光法鉴别人参与西洋参,操作方法简便,易于推广.

  19. STUDY OF ANTITUSSIVE POTENTIAL OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AND ADHATODA VASICA USING A COUGH MODEL INDUCED BY SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Jahan* and H.H. Siddiqui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation. Therefore, there is a need to have effective antitussive agent which do not have respiratory depressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate antitussive activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. The effect of the ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica on SO2 gas induced cough in experimental animals have very significant effects at the level of p<0.01 in inhibiting the cough reflex at a dose of 800 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt. p.o., in comparison with the control group. Mice showed an inhibition of 35.62%, in cough on treatment with Glycyrrhiza glabra and 43.02% inhibition on treatment with Adhatoda vasica within 60 min of the experiment. The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine sulphate (10, 15, 20 mg/kg body wt., a standard anti-tussive agent. Codeine sulphate, as a standard drug for suppression of cough, produced 24.80%, 32.98%, and 45.73% inhibition in cough at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively, whereas, codeine sulphate (20 mg/kg showed maximum 45.73% (p<0.001 inhibition at 60 min of the experiment.

  20. 柴胡-白芍药对抗抑郁作用的实验研究%Study on the Antidepressant-like Effect of Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba in Different Doses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春泉; 李苒; 张敏; 高杉; 王怡

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同剂量柴胡-白芍药对及单用柴胡、白芍的抗抑郁作用.方法:雄性ICR小鼠按体重随机分为空白对照组、阳性药对照组(盐酸氟西汀0.015 g·kg-1)及柴胡-白芍(1:1)药对高、中、低剂量组(32,16,8 g·kg-1),柴胡高、中、低剂量组(32,16,8 g·kg-1),白芍高、中、低剂量组(32,16,8 g·kg-1)共计11组.各组小鼠灌胃给药7d后采用小鼠开场实验(OFT)排除假阳性结果,并通过小鼠悬尾实验(TST)、小鼠强迫游泳实验(FST)研究各药的抗抑郁作用.结果:在OFT中,各组小鼠实验结果无显著差异.在TST和FST中,各给药组小鼠的不动时间均显著减少,其中以柴胡-白芍药对高剂量组对小鼠不动时间的影响较为明显,在TST中不动时间为(51.3±31.7)s,在FST中不动时间为(86.3±25.9)s,分别与空白组比较均有显著性差异(P<0.01),并且TST和FST的结果具有一致性.结论:不同剂量的柴胡-白芍药对及单用柴胡、白芍均具有明显的抗抑郁作用,但它们抗抑郁作用强度存在差异.%Objective; To study the antidepressant-like effect of the coupled drug dispensing of Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba, single use of Bupleuri Radix and single use of Paeoniae Radix Alba in different doses. Method; Male ICR mice were divided into 11 groups; control group, fluoxetine (0.015 g-kg-1) group, the coupled drug dispensing of Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba ( 1: 1) in high, middle and low doses (32, 16, 8 g- kg ) groups, single use of Bupleuri Radix in high, middle and low doses (32, 16, 8 g - kg ) , single use of Paeoniae Radix Alba in high, middle and low doses (32, 16 , 8 g - kg-1 ) groups. The open field test (OFT) was used to exclude false-positive results at 7 d after the administration (ig). And the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) were used to study the antidepressant-like effect of different groups. Result; There was no significant difference in different

  1. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  2. EFFECTS OF RADIX SALVIAE MILTIORRHIZAE AND ITS COMPONENT "DANSHENSU" ON THE PRODUCTION OF PA, PAI, PGI2 AND EXPRESSION OF THROMBOMODULIN BY BOVINE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾扬洪; 张彩英; 黄桂秋; 王振义

    1992-01-01

    The effects of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae and its component "DANSHENSU" on the production of PA, PAI, PGI2 and expression of thrombomodulin by cultured bovine endothelial cells were studied. 6-Keto-PGF1α was measured with RIA. PA, PAI and thrombomodulin were measured with chromosenic substrate S2390 and S2238 respectively. The results showed that Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae could promote PA activity and PGI2 production by bovine endothelial cell (BEC). It could inhibt activity of PAI secreted by BEC. Its component "DANSHENSU" had the same effects. In addition, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae could also increase thrombomodulin activity on the surface of BEC, but "DANSHENSU" did not.

  3. Ecological distribution and propagative technique research of Glycyrrhiza resources in China%中国甘草资源的生态分布及其繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学斌; 陈林; 李国旗; 安慧

    2013-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza is a kind of raw goods that can be used for food, forage and light industry. Glycyrrhiza has the special morphological characteristics, color and luster, quality, and taste, especially the effective use by the traditional methods in China, which enjoys a high reputation in the world market. From taxonomy and biological characteristics, the paper summarizes the natural characteristic Glycyrrhiza resources in China. There are about 29 species and 6 varietas of Glycyrrhiza in china, and only the Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhiza inflate and Glycyrrhiza Glabra lists in China National Pharmacopoeia. Glycyrrhiza is deep-rooting plant, mainly through underground horizontal rhizomes to reproduce, and because of the high Seed hard-seed percentage, it is rarely in sexual reproduction in natural state. From the chorology characteristic, zoning characteristics and production characteristics, the ecological characteristic of Glycyrrhiza is being expounded. As one of the natural resources in the arid areas, Glycyrrhiza has wide ecological amplitude, wide distribution. Its distribution centre is the Old and arid plateau in central Asia, and mainly in Sinkiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu. Additionally, from the seed propagation, rhizomes asexual reproduction, seed micro-propagation, the paper analysis the development of propagative technique about Glycyrrhiza in recent years. Meanwhile, after anglicizing the trend, the paper consider the Cultivation technique system of form a complete set as fundamental way to the sustainable development Glycyrrhiza Resources exploration.%  甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)是一种重要的食用、饲用及轻工业用原料商品。中国甘草以其独特的形、色、质、味及传统的有效运用,在世界市场享有盛誉。从甘草分类学、生物学特征概述了中国甘草资源的自然特性:在中国,甘草属植物约有29种6个变种,其中只有乌拉尔甘草、胀果甘草和光

  4. Analysis of fingerprints features of infrared spectra of various processed products of Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu-ya; Yang, Ping; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun; Bao, Xiao-hua; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)) are employed to analyze various processed products and ether extracts of Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii. There is a resemblance among the spectra of different processed products. The major difference lies in the absorption peak at 1641 cm -1 in the IR spectra, which reflects the transformation of raw aconite to the processed products. There are distinctive differences in the absorption peaks in the range of 1800-1500 cm -1 in the second derivative spectra, which has better resolution, of different processed products. 2D-IR spectra, which elevate the resolution further, can present even more differences among the products in the range of 1800-800 cm -1. Analysis of ether extracts of various processed products proves that there are alcohols, esters, carboxylic acids or ketones in all of them. However, their contents in different samples have obvious differences. With the advantages of high resolution, high-speed and convenience, IR can quickly and precisely distinguish various processed products of Radix A. kusnezoffii, and can be applied to predict the tendency of transformation of the complicated chemical mixture systems under heat perturbation.

  5. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul [ORNL; Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  6. Fermentation effects of oligosaccharides of Radix Ophiopogonis on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Su, Wei-Wei; Cai, Xue-Ying; Luo, Lv-Keng; Li, Pei-Bo; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, oligosaccharides extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus vinegar (OOV) by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation with water extracts from Radix Ophiopogon and oligosaccharides extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (OOJ) were investigated. Characterization of the extracts indicated that OOV are proteoglycans, whereas OOJ are not. Moreover, compared with OOJ, monosaccharide compositions of OOV only include fructose and galactose and not glucose. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometric results showed that the molecular weight of OOV was smaller after fermentation. Changes in the characteristics of OOV would inevitably lead to changes in its hypoglycemic properties. The OOV inhibition activity against α-glucosidase was stronger than that of OOJ. The inhibition activity became stronger with higher dosages of OOV. The hypoglycemic effect of OOV on alloxan-induced diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. More important, the ability of OOV to reduce damage on islets in diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. Overall, alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation improved the hypoglycemic activity of OOJ.

  7. Chemical fingerprint analysis of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhong Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma (also called “Longdan” in Chinese is commonly used for eliminating damp-heat and quenching the fire of liver and gall bladder in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, a novel and reliable method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed both for quantitative analysis of four bioactive compounds (loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside and chemical fingerprint analysis of “Longdan”. In quantitative analysis, four compounds showed good regressions (R2>0.9987 within the test ranges and the recovery of the method was in the range 97.61−102.49%. In fingerprint analysis, ten characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of the crude drugs, and the HPLC chromatograms of twenty samples from different regions of China showed similar patterns. The results demonstrated that the combination of the quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analyses offered an efficient way to evaluate the quality consistency of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma.

  8. A Comparative Study on LUT and Accumulator Radix-4 Based Multichannel RNS FIR Filter Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto Pari. J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of two architectures proposed for multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter are performed in terms of complexity and speed. The proposed architectures, viz, dual port memory based LUT multiplier and accumulator based radix-4 multiplier architectures, are designed to reduce the complexity and to improve the speed of operation of multiplier used in multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter. Both the architectures accepts residues of given binary input in which the 3n-bit binary input is converted into three residues using binary to Residue Number System (RNS converter, and then processed in three FIR sub filters constructed in direct form. The reconfigurable structure is achieved by combining Power of Two (PoT FIR sub modules and altering the filter taps based on select signals. The proposed designs can be realized up to 20-taps and has been tested for 4, 8, 16 and 20 taps. The architectures have been realized in Verilog HDL and synthesized using Altera FPGA device Stratix II EP2S15F672C5. The performance comparison of two architectures shows that dual port memory based LUT multiplier architecture significantly reduces the area by 20% and accumulator based Radix-4 multiplier increases the speed by 90% regardless of the number of taps.

  9. Radix entomolaris and paramolaris in children: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Nagaveni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry in the current scenario is not just about teeth and gums that are easily visible in children′s mouth anymore. It is all about those structures that are hidden, difficult to identify, and often remain undiagnosed. Dentist can come across various anomalies pertaining to the crown structure during the clinical practice. Although supernumerary tooth is the most commonly seen anomaly, the presence of extra roots in molars is an interesting example of anatomic root variation. It is well known that both primary and permanent mandibular first molars usually have roots, one mesial, and the other distal root. Very rarely an additional third root (supernumerary root is seen and when it is located distolingually to the main distal root is called "radix entomolaris (RE" and when it is placed mesiobuccaly to the mesial root is called "radix paramolaris (RP." The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence, morphology, classification, clinical diagnosis, and significance of supernumerary roots in contemporary clinical pediatric dentistry.

  10. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  11. A Novel Methodology for Designing Radix-2n Serial-Serial Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurazzag S. Almiladi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fast growth and increase in complexity of digital and image processing systems necessitate the migration from ad hoc design methods to methodological ones. Methodologies will certainly ease the trade off selection for those systems and shortens the design time. To increase those gained values and expand the searching space more appropriate methodologies need to be developed. Approach: A new methodology (table methodology to design radix-2n serial-serial multipliers was presented. Unlike other methodologies, the table methodology was used for the full design cycle, from the algorithm to the detailed fine control. Results: The methodology was used to identify the drawbacks in existing radix-2n serial-serial multipliers as well as deriving new efficient ones. Conclusion/Recommendations: To the author's knowledge this is the first time tables are used in this novel way in tackling the complete solution space of serial-serial multipliers. One important merit of the new methodology is that it made it clear that there is no need of parallel loading in serial-parallel architectures and hence they can be transferred to serial-serial ones and a as a consequence a huge saving of bus width, I/O pins, area and energy will be achieved.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Powdered Chinese Herbal Medicines-An Exemplification of Isatidis Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Han; Ming-quan Wu; Zhi-rui Yang; Ding-kun Zhang; Yi Mao; Jin Han; Yin-qiu Huang; Yong-feng Zhou; Yan-ling Zhao; Jia-bo Wang; Xiao-he Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Currently, powdered Chinese herbal medicines(CHMs) were mainly evaluated through physical property, chemical dissolution, and bioactivity independently. It could not reflect the quality comprehensively. This paper was to explore and establish a comprehensive evaluation method for powdered CHMs. Methods Isatidis Radix was chosen as an exemple. Firstly, powdered Isatidis Radix in different particle size was prepared. Then, their physical properties were characterized. The dissolution of index component epigoitrin was determined, and their antiviral activities were evaluated by neuraminidase-based bioassay. Results As the particle size decreased, powder distribution tended to be uniform, and the dissolution of epigoitrin increased, antiviral activity enhanced. According to cluster analysis of above results, the sequence of evaluation consequence was ultrafine powder S2(D90: 32.80 ± 0.29) > ultrafine powder S1(D90: 52.08 ± 0.53) > fine powder S0(D90: 118.16 ± 0.76)(from the superior to the inferior). Conclusion Overall, the comprehensive evaluation for powdered CHMs based on the physical characterization, chemical dissolution, and bioassay could not only be used to evaluate powdered herbs, but also guide the screening and optimization of the particle size of powder.

  13. 醋柴胡的质量研究%Study on Quality of Processed Radix Bupleuri with Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁娜; 郭楠

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨柴胡醋炙前后主要有效成分的变化。方法:采用HPLC方法,测定柴胡及其醋炙柴胡中柴胡皂苷a和d的含量。结果:4种柴胡与其醋炙柴胡中柴胡皂苷a含量的变化率为-59.57%~-25.08%,柴胡皂苷d含量的变化率为-63.59%~-18.43%。结论:柴胡醋炙后,其中柴胡皂苷a、d含量显著降低。%  Objective:To investigate the changes of main active compositions of Radix Bupleuri before and after being processed with vinegar. Methods:The comparative analyses the saikosaponin a and d of Radix Bupleuri before and after being processed with vinegar by HPLC. Results:After being processed with vinegar of 4 kind of Radix Bupleuri,the rate of change of the content of the saikosaponin a is-59.57%to-25.08%,the rate of change of the content of the saikosaponin d is-63.59%to-18.43%. Conclusion:Radix Bupleuri after being processed with vinegar,the content of the saikosaponin a and d significantly decreased.

  14. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  15. Effect of Radix Isatidis on the Expression of Moesin mRNA Induced by LPS in the Tissues of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LIU Yunhai; FANG Jianguo; CHEN Xin; XIE Wei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the anti-endotoxic part of Radix lsatidis on the expression of moesin mRNA in murine tissues induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the sample solution of F022 part from Radix lsatidis was intraperitoneally administered to experimental mice, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were injected into the tail vein, and then the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen were colleted and cut into slices. The mRNA was detected by moesin mRNA hybridization in situ. The staining results were observed under microscope. It was found that moesin mRNA expression was increased in the tissues of liver, kidndy and spleen in mice treated with LPS, while in the mice pre-treated with F022 part from Radix Isatidis, the LPS-induced moesin mRNA expressions in these tissues were inhibited in a dose-dependant manner. Our study showed that F022 part from Radix Isatidis can inhibit the LPS-induced expression of moesin mRNA in the tissues of liver, kidney and spleen in mice.

  16. Positive selection in development and growth rate regulation genes involved in species divergence of the genus Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Greshake, Bastian; Funke, Elisabeth; Ebersberger, Ingo; Pfenninger, Markus

    2015-08-19

    Life history traits like developmental time, age and size at maturity are directly related to fitness in all organisms and play a major role in adaptive evolution and speciation processes. Comparative genomic or transcriptomic approaches to identify positively selected genes involved in species divergence can help to generate hypotheses on the driving forces behind speciation. Here we use a bottom-up approach to investigate this hypothesis by comparative analysis of orthologous transcripts of four closely related European Radix species. Snails of the genus Radix occupy species specific distribution ranges with distinct climatic niches, indicating a potential for natural selection driven speciation based on ecological niche differentiation. We then inferred phylogenetic relationships among the four Radix species based on whole mt-genomes plus 23 nuclear loci. Three different tests to infer selection and changes in amino acid properties yielded a total of 134 genes with signatures of positive selection. The majority of these genes belonged to the functional gene ontology categories "reproduction" and "genitalia" with an overrepresentation of the functions "development" and "growth rate". We show here that Radix species divergence may be primarily enforced by selection on life history traits such as (larval-) development and growth rate. We thus hypothesise that life history differences may confer advantages under the according climate regimes, e.g., species occupying warmer and dryer habitats might have a fitness advantage with fast developing susceptible life stages, which are more tolerant to habitat desiccation.

  17. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variability in the European freshwater snail Radix labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schniebs, K.; Glöer, P.; Vinarski, M.V.; Hundsdoerfer, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radix labiata is a widely distributed Palaearctic freshwater snail. This work aims to improve the knowledge of the intraspecific variability in the most important characters used for its determination. To find out which characters are really suitable to distinguish this species from other similar Ra

  18. Rapid and simple identification of Glycyrrhiza Inflata%胀果甘草的简便快速鉴定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木合布力·阿布力孜; 王永波; 施翔弋; 热娜; 卡斯木

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the rapid and simple identification method of the licorice specieGlycyrrhiza inflata Bat.Methods The total flavonoid extracts of two licorice species Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat (GIB) and Glycyrrhiza glabra L (GGL)were prepared by ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction;the thin layer chromatographic (TLC)method was used for analyzing the spectra characteristics of these extracts;the special TLC spot was isolated and structurally analyzed.Results The TLC characteristics of two species of licorice indicated that the GIB extract showed,at the mobile phase of acetic acetate/methyl acetate/water (8∶3∶1),a special spot and was identified as Licochalcone A (LicoA),which was different form other species of licorice.Conclusion The silica gel chromatographic method with LicoA as the reference sub-stance was simple and suitable for the rapid identification of glycyrrhiza inflata from other licorice spe-cies,as well as for the licorice resource study and licorice quality control.%目的:研究胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat)的快速鉴定方法。方法利用超声辅助的乙醇提取法制备新疆胀果甘草和光果甘草的总黄酮类提取物;利用硅胶薄层色谱法分析2种甘草总黄酮提取物的斑点特征;利用制备薄层法分离薄层板上的特殊斑点并对所分离的单体成分进行结构分析。结果胀果甘草乙醇提取物在展开剂为乙酸乙酯∶甲酸∶水(8∶3∶1)的薄层色谱条件下所显示的一种特殊亮黄色斑点被鉴定为甘草查尔酮 A,色谱特征不同于其他甘草品种。结论以甘草查尔酮 A 为对照品的硅胶搏层色谱法是快速鉴别胀果甘草的简便方法,适合于甘草品种的快速鉴定及资源考察研究。

  19. QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF FRUCTUS PHYLLANTHI RADIX GLYCYRRHIZAE AND RADIX AUCKLANDIAE OF TIBETAN COUGH-RELIEVING MEDICINAL SYRUP WITH THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY%藏药复方中余甘子和甘草及木香的薄层定性鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圆; 白志川; 于杰

    2004-01-01

    采用薄层色谱法对藏药复方中的甘草、余甘子、木香3味药材的有效成分进行了定性鉴别.结果表明:文中所选用的方法专属性强、灵敏度高、准确可靠,适用于藏药复方的质量控制.

  20. Effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch polysaccharide on growth performance and immunologic function in mice in Ural City, Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Meng-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Liang, Ke-Xun; Gu, Xin-Li

    2016-11-01

    To discuss the effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) Fisch polysaccharide on growth performance and immunologic function in mice in Ural City, Xinjiang and to provide important data supporting the application of Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. A total of 100 Kunming mice aged 3 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups with 20 mice in each group (10 were females and 10 were males). About 0.5 mL normal saline was given to the mice of control group every day and 0.5 mL G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide was given to the mice of other groups at the concentration of 1, 20, 50 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. The growth performance (average body weight, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency), immune organ indexes (spleen index and thymus index) and immunologic function (serum IL-2, CD4(+)/CD8(+) and the activity of NK cells) of mice in each group were detected continuously. The average body weight, feed efficiency, serum IL-2, CD4(+)/CD8(+) and the activity of NK cells of mice were increased with the increase of administrated time after administrating G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide and were reached up the largest level on Day 28. At the same time, each index was proportional to the given dose and was significantly higher than those of control group and reached up the largest level at the administrated dose of 100 mg/mL. After administrating G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide, the spleen index and thymus index of mice were increased with the increase of administrated dose and the spleen index and thymus index of mice administrated with the dose of 100 mg/mL were maximum which was more than 1.51 times and 1.43 times of that in control group, respectively and the comparative differences showed statistical significance (P  0.05). G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide can significantly improve the growth performance and immunologic function of mice and laid a research basis for the clinical application of G. uralensis Fisch polysaccharide. Copyright

  1. A Novel Method HPLC-DAD Analysis of the Contentsof Moutan Cortexand Paeoniae Radix Alba with Similar Constituents-Monoterpene Glycosides in Guizhi Fuling Wan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of traditional Chinese medical formulations contain two or more herbs from the same genus or family. Although these herbs may have a similar appearance and constituents, they usually have different pharmacodynamic actions. A series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are developed to determine one or more compounds for quality control of medicine. As far as we know, no method has been found to determine the real ratio of the two herbs along with the prescription. In this study, we used HPLC-DAD as a way to determine the content of Moutan cortex (M and Paeoniae radix alba (P in GuizhiFuling Wan (GZFLW. An effective, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was developed for detecting the content of M and P in GZFLW through the analysis of four monoterpeneglycosides, namely, galloylpaeoniflorin (1, paeoniflorin (2, mudanpioside C (3 and benzoylpaeoniflorin (4. Due to the different UV characteristics of the compounds, the detection wavelength was 270 nm for 1 and 2, while 3 and 4 were monitored at 254 nm and 230 nm, respectively. Four equations were put forward to describe the relationship between content of M as well as P and the four monoterpene glycosides in GZFLW. After validation, all the accuracies of the M and P contents in GZFLW were within 10%. The result showed that the method could be successfully applied to analyze the contents of M and P in GZFLW. Moreover, our method may be more widely used to control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicines, especially for those containing the same genus or family herbs, in industrial GMP production.

  2. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides and furfural derivatives in Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a sensitive and selective method for simultaneously quantifying eight major components (four iridoid glycosides, three phenethylalcohol glycosides and one furfural derivative) of Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass...

  3. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  4. Sensing with the Motor Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development.

  5. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  6. Proposed radix- and word-length-independent standard for floating-point arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.; Coonen, J.T.; Gay, D.M.; Hanson, K.; Hough, D.; Kahan, W.; Karpinski, R.; Palmer, J.; Ris, F.N.; Stevenson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The Microprocessor Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society sponsors two groups drafting proposed standards for floating-point arithmetic. The first, Task P754, reported Draft 10.0 of a Proposed Standard for Binary Floating-point Arithmetic out of committee in December, 1982. The document is now a de facto standard and is progressing slowly through the approval process within the IEEE Computer Society. In August 1983, the second group, Task P854, completed Draft 1.0 of a Proposed Radix- and Word-length independent Standard for Floating-point Arithmetic that generalizes and is upward compatible with the IEEE Proposed Standard for Binary Floating-point Arithmetic. This article places their contents before the public for the first time. 10 references, 3 tables.

  7. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  8. Radix entomolaris: A case report with cone-beam computed tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafia Sarfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to draw the correlation between the morphology of the right and left radix entomoralis (RE in a bilateral case using CBCT. In this report a case involving root canal treatment of both the mandibular molars (36 & 46 is presented. A correlation between the morphology of the two is drawn using CBCT. During root canal treatment of 46 the presence of RE was identified clinically and then radiographically. Following which, 36 was treated and similar morphologic variation was seen. A CBCT was performed after obturation of both the teeth was completed in order to analyse and compare the morphologic variation and similarity. The morphology of both the radices was found to be similar. Anatomic variations can occur in any tooth, therefore careful clinical and radiographic examination is compulsory for successful outcome. This report describes the similarity of tooth root anatomy in a patient with bilateral RE and hence its clinical implication.

  9. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Attam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1 It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2 Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology.

  10. An Experimental Research into the Anti-aging Effects of Radix Arctii Lappae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To delve into the anti-aging effects and mechanism of Niubanggen (牛蒡根Radix Arctii Lappae). Method: The activity of SOD and the content of MDA and lipofuscin in the tissues of the liver,brain and blood serum of the lab rats were observed 30 days after they had been fed with the Niubanggen decoction. Result: The activity of SOD in the liver tissue and blood serum of the decoction-fed lab rats was improved dramatically (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the content of MDA in the brain tissue and blood serum lowered obviously (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the content of lipofuscin dropped distinctly (P<0.01). Conclusion: The mechanism of the anti-aging effects of the Niubanggen is mainly obtained by raising the activity of SOD and reducing the contents of MDA and lipofuscin.

  11. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  12. Extraction optimization of coumarins from radix angelicae pubescentis by HPLC-DAD coupled with uniform design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang; ZHOU Huo-fei; JIANG Qiu-ju

    2006-01-01

    Uniform design was used to optimize extraction condition of direct refluence extraction of coumarins from the Chinese traditional medicine of radix angelicae pubescentis(Duhuo); the sum peak area of coumarins separated with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) at detection wavelength of 320 nm was considered as detection index, two factors of solvent concentration and extraction time were mainly studied at extraction temperature of 85 ℃ and a volume ratio of solvent to sample of 10: 1. Optimal subclass, quadric polynomial step by step aggression and neural network method were applied to process the experimental results. The results show that the first and second methods give the same factors combination (concentration of ethanol: 95 %, extraction time: 3.6 h) and the second method is much better than the first one. The extraction model is consequently developed.

  13. A Mixed-Mode Signal Processing Architecture for Radix-2 DHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam A. Shah,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mixed-mode signal processing architecture for radix-2 DHT. In the known algorithms, the stage structures perform all the additions and multiplications. The proposed algorithm introduces multiplying structures which perform all the multiplications with the cosine coefficients and their related additions. This leads to i simplification of the stage structures which now perform only the additions, and ii a reduction in the number of multiplications without affecting the number of additions. A mixed-mode signal processing architecture to implement the algorithm utilizing an N-bit ring counter, sample-and-hold array and analog block structure is proposed. The validity of this design has been tested by simulating it with the help of Orcad PSpice.

  14. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  15. Determination of Five Organic Acids in Radix Isatidis by Column Partition Chromatography and Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAIYi-fen; JISong-gang; ZHANGGuo-qing; LIUChang-hai

    2003-01-01

    Aim To determine five organic acids in Radix lsatidis. Method The extraction method and the column partition chromatographic conditiom were studied. Then a capillary zone dectrophorefic method was set up for the determina-tion. Results The linear ranges of quinazolinone acid, n-anthranilic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and syringic acid were 5.52 - 92.0μg·mL-1 , 5.12 - 102μg·mL-1 , 2.28 - 84.4μg·mL-1, 4.78 - 159 μg·mL-1, and 1.74- 87.0μg·mL-1 respectively. Conclusion The established method is accurate and simple.

  16. Protective Effect of Salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been confirmed that diabetes mellitus (DM carries increased oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effects of salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on diabetes-induced oxidative stress in mice. After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were administered daily doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg salidroside for 28 days. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured. Results showed that salidroside possessed hypoglycemic activity and protective effects against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, which could significantly reduce FBG, TC, TG and MDA levels, and at same time increase serum insulin levels, SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Therefore, salidroside should be considered as a candidate for future studies on diabetes.

  17. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots enhances plant biomass, phosphorus uptake and concentration of root secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongLing LIU; Yong TAN; Monika NELL; Karin ZITTER-EGLSEER; Chris WAWSCRAH; Brigitte KOPP; ShaoMing WANG; Johannes NOVAK

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi penetrate the cortical cells of the roots of vascular plants, and are widely distributed in soil. The formation of these symbiotic bodies accelerates the absorption and utilization of min-eral elements, enhances plant resistance to stress, boosts the growth of plants, and increases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. We studied the effects of various arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on the growth and devel-opment of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Several species of AM, such as Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and a mixture of fungi (G. mosseae, G. intraradices, G. cladoideum, G. microagregatum, G. caledonium and G. etunica-tum) were used in our study. Licorice growth rates were determined by measuring the colonization rate of the plants by the fungi, plant dry biomass, phosphorus concentration and concentration of secondary metabolites. We estab-lished two cloned strains of licorice, clone 3 (C3) and clone 6 (C6) to exclude the effect of genotypic variations. Our results showed that the AM fungi could in fact increase the leaf and root biomass, as well as the phosphorus con-centration in each clone. Furthermore, AM fungi significantly increased the yield of certain secondary metabolites in clone 3. Our study clearly demonstrated that AM fungi play an important role in the enhancement of growth and development of licorice plants. There was also a significant improvement in the secondary metabolite content and yield of medicinal compounds from the roots.

  19. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  20. Glabridin as a major active isoflavan from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) reverses learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in diabetes mellitus. Glabridin as a major active flavonoids in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) improves learning and memory in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with glabridin (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) on cognitive function in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Animals were divided into untreated control, glabridin-treated control (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg), untreated diabetic and glabridin treated diabetic (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) groups. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory was assessed 30 days later. Diabetes caused cognition deficits in the PAL and memory paradigm. While oral glabridin administration (25 and 50 mg/kg) improved learning and memory in non-diabetic rats, it reversed learning and memory deficits of diabetic rats. Low dose glabridin (5 mg/kg) did not alter cognitive function in non-diabetic and diabetic groups. Glabridin treatment partially improved the reduced body weight and hyperglycemia of diabetic rats although the differences were not significant. The combination of antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticholinesterase properties of glabridin may all be responsible for the observed effects. These results show that glabridin prevented the deleterious effects of diabetes on learning and memory in rats. Further studies are warranted for clinical use of glabridin in the management of demented diabetic patients.

  1. Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyyüp Karaoğul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract.

  2. Qualitative identification of dibenzoylmethane in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Marisela D; Reid, Michelle E; DuBose, Evan S; Campbell, James A; Jackson, Kimberly M

    2014-01-01

    Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), an herbal Chinese medicine, has shown medicinal uses in therapeutics and cancer prevention. Dibenzoylmethane (DBM; 1, 3-diphenyl-1, 3-propadinedione), a small beta-diketone, has been reported to be a minor constituent of licorice and a known deregulator of the human prostate cancer cell cycle. Characterization of the phytochemical profiles of licorice root forms including commercially available DBM will advance our search in identifying novel reagents for prostate cancer therapeutics. Gas chromatography- triple quadrupole-mass spectrometric analysis was used for detecting DBM in licorice root extracts. DBM and all licorice forms exhibited a component with a retention time of 14.5 minutes. The major fragment ions detected were at m/z 77, 105, 147, 223 and 224 at the identified retention time by selected reaction monitoring/SRM. These data confirm the presence of DBM from its natural source (G. glabra), and the GC-MS/SRM method helps in the identification of this minor component in a complex biological matrix.

  3. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Shiba, Mao; Nakamura, Rie; Morota, Takashi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.

  4. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.

  5. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  6. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  7. Up-regulation of licochalcone A biosynthesis and secretion by Tween 80 in hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Chao; Liu, Jing-Mei; Chen, Hai-Min; Gao, Chun-Chun; Lu, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Hua; Li, Yi; Gao, Shan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Tween 80 as elicitor on licochalcone A from hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. After a 15-days treatment with 2% Tween 80, hairy roots still grew well and produced higher levels of licochalcone A and total flavonoids than the control (without treatment). Licochalcone A content and total flavonoid content were 3.103 and 127.095 mg per flask (9- and 11-fold higher), respectively, compared with controls. Secretion of licochalcone A and total flavonoids into the culture medium was remarkably high, up to 98 and 94% of the total production, respectively. The enhanced flavonoid production was associated with elevated mRNA levels and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). These results clearly demonstrated that Tween 80 treatment permeabilized the roots to enhance secretion, but also acted as an efficient elicitor of licochalcone A and total flavonoid production in hairy roots of G. uralensis Fisch.

  8. Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract enhances dendritic cell maturation and antitumor efficacy of HPV dendritic cell-based vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipire, Adila; Li, Jinyu; Yuan, Pengfei; He, Jiang; Hu, Yelang; Liu, Lu; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Jinyao

    2017-01-01

    Licorice has been used as herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Here, we prepared Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract (GUWE) and investigated the effect of GUWE on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect on DC-based vaccine. We observed that GUWE dose-dependently promoted DC maturation and cytokine secretion through TLR4 signaling pathway. The capacity of DC to stimulate allogenic splenocyte proliferation was also enhanced by GUWE treatment. Compared with control group, GUWE treated DCs pulsed with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 peptides significantly inhibited the tumor growth in both early and late therapeutic groups. In early therapeutic group, the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4+CD25−Fopx3+) and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. HPV-16-specific CD8+ T cell responses were significantly induced and negatively correlated with iTreg frequencies and tumor weight. These results indicated the immunoregulatory activities of licorice. PMID:28272545

  9. Correlation analysis between the rate of respiration in the root and the active components in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peijun; Sun, Zhirong; Liu, Wenlan; Chen, Long; DU, Yuan; Wei, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between root respiration and the percentage of active components in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), in order to provide a foundation for the regulation and modulation of the quality of G. uralensis. Respiration efflux of annual and biennial G. uralensis was determined using a Li-7000 CO2/H2O analyzer. The root systems were scanned at a resolution of 3,000 dpi using an Epson Expression 10000XL scanner. Root growth was determined by analyzing the scanned images using WinRHIZO version Pro2007d software and the rate of respiration in the root was subsequently calculated. In addition, the percentages of the five major active components in licorice, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin, were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The correlation between the root respiration and the percentage of the active components was investigated. Significant seasonal changes were observed in the rates of respiration of first and zero-class roots. In annual and biennial G. uralensis, the maximum and minimum values for rate of respiration were present in July (Pactive components and the rate of respiration were -0.304 (glycyrrhizin), -0.129 (liquiritigenin), -0.441 (glycyrrhizic acid; Pactive components in G. uralensis may be beneficial to ensuring the quality of cultivated G. uralensis.

  10. [Effect of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on growth, physiological characteristics and content of active constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wan, Chunyang; Wang, Wenquan; Gu, Bin; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Wenjie; Hou, Songnian; Han, Zhongwen

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on the various growth indicators, physiological indicators, and the contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in one-year old Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The plants of G. uralensis growing in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and medicinal garden of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were fertilized for two times, respectively. The photosynthetic physiological indicators were measured by LI-6400 photosynthetic instrument. The pigments and antioxidase activities of the leaves were determined. Then contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in the plants were determined by HPLC. The application of this trace element nutrient balance agent could significantly improve the height, chla and chlb, and the photosynthetic physiology indicator such as P(n), C(i), and G(s). Similarly, it could significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots and dry weight of the roots. Compared with control block (CK), the fertilizer which was diluted by 300 times (T(1)) and 600 times (T(2)) significantly increased the content of glycyrrhizic acid by 24.72% and 20. 23%. There was significant difference between different treatments (P elements nutrient balance agent could promote growth, physiology and the content of active constituents of G. uralensis, especially the effect of T(1) was superior to T(2).

  11. Studies on the regulatory effect of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction on prolactin hyperactivity and underlying mechanism in hyperprolactinemia rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yulin; Wang, Juan; Jia, Dongxu; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-10-08

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) in schizophrenic patients. In previous experiment, PGD suppressed prolactin (PRL) level in MMQ cells, involving modulating the expression of D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT). In the present study, hyperPRL female rat model induced by dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP) was applied to further confirm the anti-hyperpPRL activity of PGD and underlying mechanism. In MCP-induced hyperPRL rats, the elevated serum PRL level was significantly suppressed by either PGD (2.5-10 g/kg) or bromocriptine (BMT) (0.6 mg/kg) administration for 14 days. However, in MCP-induced rats, only PGD restored the under-expressed serum progesterone (P) to control level. Both PGD and BMT administration restore the under-expression of DRD2, DAT and TH resulted from MCP in pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Compared to untreated group, hyperPRL animals had a marked reduction on DRD2 and DAT expression in the arcuate nucleus. PGD (10 g/kg) and BMT (0.6 mg/kg) treatment significant reversed the expression of DRD2 and DAT. Collectively, the anti-hyperPRL activity of PGD associates with the modulation of dopaminergic neuronal system and the restoration of serum progesterone level. Our finding supports PGD as an effective agent against hyperPRL.

  12. Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract enhances dendritic cell maturation and antitumor efficacy of HPV dendritic cell-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipire, Adila; Li, Jinyu; Yuan, Pengfei; He, Jiang; Hu, Yelang; Liu, Lu; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Jinyao

    2017-03-08

    Licorice has been used as herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Here, we prepared Glycyrrhiza uralensis water extract (GUWE) and investigated the effect of GUWE on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs) and its adjuvant effect on DC-based vaccine. We observed that GUWE dose-dependently promoted DC maturation and cytokine secretion through TLR4 signaling pathway. The capacity of DC to stimulate allogenic splenocyte proliferation was also enhanced by GUWE treatment. Compared with control group, GUWE treated DCs pulsed with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 peptides significantly inhibited the tumor growth in both early and late therapeutic groups. In early therapeutic group, the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4(+)CD25(-)Fopx3(+)) and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively. HPV-16-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly induced and negatively correlated with iTreg frequencies and tumor weight. These results indicated the immunoregulatory activities of licorice.

  13. UJI AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK AIR LIDAH BUAYA ( Aloe vera L. DAN AKAR MANIS (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. SEBAGAI PENYUBUR RAMBUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiorini Indriaty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera L. contains amino acids, vitamins, folic acid, and liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L containing glisirizin, and flavonoids, which have properties as fertilizer hair. This study aims to obtain a combination of extracts with activity most optimal fertilizer hair, made 3 combination with a combination of 1 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 2.5% and 7.5% aloe vera, a combination of 2 (the water extract of liquorice concentrations of 2, 5% and 2.5% aloe vera, and combinations of 3 (the water extract of liquorice concentration of 5% and 7.5% aloe vera. Testing the activity of hair growth is done by measuring the rate of hair growth, hair growth acceleration and weight of rabbit hair for 28 days. Rabbit hair growth results showed the combination 1 has an average length of the largest hair with hair growth rate value of 2.97 cm, accelerated hair growth amounted to 0.15 cm / day on day 7 and weighing 0.13 gram hair.

  14. Radix Astragali and Radix Rehmanniae, the principal components of two antidiabetic foot ulcer herbal formulae, elicit viability-promoting effects on primary fibroblasts cultured from diabetic foot ulcer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, T W; Chan, Y W; Lau, C P; Lau, K M; Lau, C B S; Fung, K P; Leung, P C; Ho, Y Y

    2009-06-01

    Over 194 million people suffer from diabetes worldwide. The improper control of diabetes may result in diabetic foot ulcer or even amputation. Herbal medicine provides a means for treating diabetic foot ulcers for a large population in developing countries. The wound healing-enhancing activities of the principal herbs, Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Rehmanniae (RR) in two clinically efficacious Chinese herbal formulae were studied in primary fibroblasts from diabetic foot ulcer patients. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that RA and RR significantly enhanced the viability of fibroblasts isolated from foot ulcers of diabetic patients, even from those with no response to insulin treatment. The results in this study indicate that fibroblast viability enhancement effects of RA and RR likely underlie the healing effects of F1 and F2 in diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  16. Identification of glabridin as a bioactive compound in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extract that activates human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, John F; Glynn, Kelly M; Missler, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Licorice, the root and stolons of the Glycyrrhiza plant (Fabaceae), has been used for centuries as a food additive (sweetener), in cosmetics, and in traditional medicine. In this research, we provide evidence that licorice extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and, as identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy, one of the activating phytochemicals is glabridin. Glabridin was shown to bind to and activate PPARγ. It was also shown to activate PPARγ-regulated gene expression in human hepatoma cells similar to known PPARγ ligands and that the expression was blocked by a PPARγ specific antagonist.

  17. 甘草属2种植物的核型研究%A study on karyotypes of 2 species in Glycyrrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔红; 陈荃; 焦成谨; 温凤萍; 马骥

    2003-01-01

    用光学显微镜观察了豆科(Leguminosae)甘草属(Glycyrrhiza)2种荒漠植物的染色体,研究结果表明,黄甘草(G.eurycarpa P.C.Li)、腺荚甘草(G.korshinskii G.Grig)的体细胞染色体数目均为2n=16,核型公式2n=2x=16=16m,属于Stebbins核型的"1A"型.

  18. Effect of Ar Ion Beam Implantation on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Under Short-Term Artificial Drought Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangsheng; WU Lijun; YU Lixiang; WEI Shenglin; LIU Jingnan; YU Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    Ar+ ion beam with low energy of 30 keV was implanted into liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) seeds at the doses of 0,600,900 and 1200 × (2.6×1013) ions/cm2,respectively.The seeds were sowed in pots and after one month the plants were subjected to different drought conditions for two months.Then the plants'morphological and physiological characteristics,antioxidation enzymes and levels of endogenous hormones were investigated.The results showed that ion implantation at a proper dose can greatly enhance the liquorice seedlings'resistance against drought stress.

  19. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...... to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue...

  20. Efficient Implementation of 16-Bit Multiplier-Accumulator Using Radix-2 Modified Booth Algorithm and SPST Adder Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki Purna Ramesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new multiplier-and-accumulator (MAC architecture for low power and high speed arithmetic. High speed and low power MAC units are required for applications of digital signal processing like Fast Fourier Transform, Finite Impulse Response filters, convolution etc. For improving the speed and reducing the dynamic power, there is a need to reduce the glitches (1 to 0 transition and spikes (0 to 1 transition. Adder designed using spurious power suppression technique (SPST avoids the unwanted glitches and spikes, thus minimizing the switching power dissipation and hence the dynamic power. Radix -2 modified booth algorithm reduces the number of partial products to half by grouping of bits from the multiplier term, which improves the speed. The proposed radix-2 modified Booth algorithm MAC with SPST gives a factor of 5 less delay and 7% less power consumption as compared to array MAC.

  1. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  2. Microwave Processing Technology of Radix Aconiti%川乌微波炮制工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区炳雄; 龚又明; 林华; 邓广海

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study on microwave processing technology of Radix Aconite. Method: The content of six kinds of alkaloids and total alkaloids from different microwave processed products of Radix Aconite were determined by HPLC, and used them as index to compare with traditional processing technology, comprehensive evaluated microwave processing technology of Radix Aconite. Result: Optimum microwave process technology was as follows; after treated by moistening, processed 18-20 min under microwave heating with 60% , and the content of total alkaloids was higher than processed with traditional technology, the content of six kinds of single and double type alkaloids met requirements of 2010 "China Pharmacopoeia". Conclusion: This method was simple, feasible and easy to control, it could be used instead of traditional processing technology of Radix Aconiti as a new method.%目的:研究川乌的微波炮制工艺.方法:采用HPLC测定川乌不同微波炮制品中6种生物碱和总生物碱的含量,并以其为指标与传统炮制工艺进行比较,全面评价川乌微波炮制工艺.结果:最佳的微波炮制工艺为川乌经润透法处理后,于60%微波火力下炮制18 ~ 20 min,与传统炮制法比较,其总生物碱含量较高,且6种单、双型生物碱的含量均符合2010年版《中国药典》的要求.结论:该方法简单、可行而且易于控制,可作为川乌炮制的新方法.

  3. 3种甘草种子苗和根茎苗在同一生境下的生长差异%Growth differences of seed seedlings and rootstock seedlings for 3 kinds of Glycyrrhiza L. in the same habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳芬; 潘伯荣; 童莉; 王瑛; 田村幸吉

    2013-01-01

    在同一生境下用种子苗、根茎苗繁殖光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)、胀果甘草(Glycyrrhiza inlfata Bat.)、乌拉尔甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.),并对其地上部分(株高)和地下部分(根数、根粗、根茎数和根茎粗)进行比较研究。结果表明:(1)3种甘草地上部分、地下部分生长特征大部分种子苗优于根茎苗。(2)3种甘草生长特性表现不一致。在株高方面,种子苗和根茎苗均为胀果甘草表现最优;在根数方面,种子苗和根茎苗均为乌拉尔甘草最优;在根茎数和根粗方面,种子苗为乌拉尔甘草最优,根茎苗为胀果甘草最优;在根茎粗方面,种子苗为乌拉尔甘草最优,根茎苗为胀果甘草最优。(3)3种甘草种子苗、根茎苗根粗和根茎粗均与株高呈相关关系。%Under the same habitat Glycyrrhiza glabra l., Glycyrrhiza inlfata Bat., and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were propagated by seed seedlings and rootstock seedling. Their aerial part (plant height) and underground part (root number, root diameter, rootstock number and rootstock diameter) were compared. The results showed that:(1) the growth features of aerial part and underground part of most seed seedling of three kinds of licorice were better than that of root seedlings. (2) the growth characteristic of three kinds of licorice were different. In terms of plant height, seed seedling and rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza inlfata were optimal;In terms of root number, seed seedling and rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal;In terms of rootstock number and root diameter, seed seedling of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal, rootstock seedlings of Glycyrrhiza inlfata were optimal;In terms of rootstock diameter, seed seedling of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were optimal, rootstock seedling of Glycyrrhiza inflata were optimal. (3) the root diameter, rootstock diameter of seed seedlings and rootstock seedlings of three kinds of licorice

  4. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) disrupting effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract in mice: a possible role of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Haidy E; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-06-07

    Liquorice extract was reported to have nootropic and/or antiamnestic effects. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a multimodal, cross-species phenomenon used as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous studies indicated that liquorice/its constituents augmented mouse brain monoamine levels. Increased brain monoamines' transmission was suggested to underlie PPI disruption. However, the effect of antiamnestic dose(s) of the extract on PPI has not been investigated despite the coexistence of impaired memory and PPI deficit in some neurological disorders. The effect of administration of the antiamnestic dose of the extract (150 mg/kg for 7 days) was tested on PPI of acoustic startle response in mice. It resulted in PPI disruption and therefore its effect on monoamines' levels was investigated in a number of mouse brain areas involved in PPI response mediation. Results demonstrated that the extract antiamnestic dose augmented cortical, hippocampal and striatal monoamine levels. It was therefore concluded that liquorice extract (150 mg/kg)-induced PPI deficit was mediated through augmenting monoaminergic transmission in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. These findings can be further investigated in experimental models for autism, psychosis and Huntington's disease to decide the safety of using liquorice extract in ameliorating memory disturbance in disorders manifesting PPI deficit.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of glucosinolates and nucleosides in Radix Isatidis by HPLC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

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    Xiuming Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component fingerprinting and quantitation of the glucosinolates and nucleosides in samples of Radix Isatidis have been carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS. Five nucleosides together with one glucosinolate were identified by comparing retention times, ultraviolet spectra, mass spectra and/or empirical molecular formulae of reference compounds. Quantitation of these six compounds was carried out simultaneously by HPLC on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and water and detection at 254 nm. All calibration curves were linear (r>0.9994 within test ranges. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.33 ng and 2.50 ng on column, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation for all analytes was <2.19% with recoveries in the range 99.6%–101.8% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to fingerprinting and assay of 25 batches of Radix Isatidis sourced from different geographical regions of China. The method is simple and reliable and has potential value in the quality control of Radix Isatidis.

  6. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  7. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  8. Simultaneous chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae from different locations in China by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Cao, Gang; Ji, Jinyu; Cong, Xiaodong; Wang, Shengbo; Cai, Baochang

    2011-06-01

    A validated liquid chromatography method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae extracts through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five bioactive compounds, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acteoside, angroside C, harpagoside and cinnamic acid. The chromatographic were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by diode array detector (DAD). Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.03%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) ≥0.9996) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.12-103.38%, with RSD values ranging from 0.6 to 2.8%. In addition, the contents of those five bioactive compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae prepared by different locations of China were determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Scrophulariae.

  9. Efficient FPGA Implementation of High-Throughput Mixed Radix Multipath Delay Commutator FFT Processor for MIMO-OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALI, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and evaluates pipelined architecture designs for an improved high-frequency Fast Fourier Transform (FFT processor implemented on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA for Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM. The architecture presented is a Mixed-Radix Multipath Delay Commutator. The presented parallel architecture utilizes fewer hardware resources compared to Radix-2 architecture, while maintaining simple control and butterfly structures inherent to Radix-2 implementations. The high-frequency design presented allows enhancing system throughput without requiring additional parallel data paths common in other current approaches, the presented design can process two and four independent data streams in parallel and is suitable for scaling to any power of two FFT size N. FPGA implementation of the architecture demonstrated significant resource efficiency and high-throughput in comparison to relevant current approaches within literature. The proposed architecture designs were realized with Xilinx System Generator (XSG and evaluated on both Virtex-5 and Virtex-7 FPGA devices. Post place and route results demonstrated maximum frequency values over 400 MHz and 470 MHz for Virtex-5 and Virtex-7 FPGA devices respectively.

  10. Recognition and identification of active components from Radix Bupleuri using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xu, Tanghui; Quan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jianguo; Dai, Zunxiao; Wu, Bin; Wu, Qiangju

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to screen active components of Radix Bupleuri (a traditional Chinese herb) and discover novel anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the cell membrane chromatography model. Retention components by the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were collected and then analyzed by GC/MS under the optimized conditions in offline conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y/CMC method using amisulpride and haloperidol as standard compounds, this method was applied to screening active components from the extracts of Radix Bupleuri. Retention components of SH-SY5Y/CMC model were saikosaponin A, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin C and saikosaponin D, which were identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials-MTT, saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C could protect SY5Y cells. The protective effects of saikosaponin B1 and saikosaponin C were concentration dependent. Saikosaponin A and saikosaponin D inhibited cell viability at concentrations >30 µg/mL (p components from Radix Bupleuri, accurately identified them and determined their different effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Saikosaponin B1, saikosaponin B2 and saikosaponin C may be anti-schizophrenic candidate drugs.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Oral Administration of Radix Inulae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0–12h in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in rats after oral administration of Radix Inulae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjie; Zhou, Guisheng; Peng, Ying; Wang, Mengyue; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard) were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0-12h) in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  13. Influence of Radix scutellariae on Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in RU486-induced abortion in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiuhui; SHI Wanyu; MA Aituan; WANG Xiaodan; ZHANG Jianlou; LI Xuezhong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the significance of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in the uterus in the early embryo loss(or resorption),and to elucidate immunological modulation at the maternal-fetal interface with Chinese herbal medicine Radix scutellariae(Huang Qin)and its constituents(Baicalin and Baicalein).Mifepristone(RU486)was given via subcutaneous injection in the scapular area to induce abortion in mice at day 7 of gestation.The levels of uterine Thl cytokines(IFN-β,IL-2)and Th2 cytokines(IL-4,IL-10)were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),respectively.The mean values of Thl cytokines in the uterus of RU486-treated abortion mice were significantly higher(P<0.05)than that of the control mice,but no significant difference was observed regarding to the contents of Th2 cytokines of different groups(P>0.05).However,when the Radix scutellariae and its constituents were used to prevent RU486-induced abortion,the levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 decreased while that of IL-4 and IL-10 increased.The embryo loss induced by RU486 was closely related to the Th1/Th2 immune balance at the maternal-fetal interface.Radix scutellariae and its constituents have an anti-abortive effect through restoring the Th1/Th2 balance at the maternal-fetal interface.

  14. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-07-01

    Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined.

  15. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. Materials and Methods: The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. Results: The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. Conclusion: In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined. PMID:25210323

  16. Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The entorhinal cortex is thought to support rapid encoding of new associations by serving as an interface between the hippocampus and neocortical regions. Although the entorhinal-hippocampal interaction is undoubtedly essential for initial memory acquisition, the entorhinal cortex contributes to memory retrieval even after the hippocampus is no longer necessary. This suggests that during memory consolidation additional synaptic reinforcement may take place within the cortical network, which may change the connectivity of entorhinal cortex with cortical regions other than the hippocampus. Here, I outline behavioral and physiological findings which collectively suggest that memory consolidation involves the gradual strengthening of connection between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/ACC), a region that may permanently store the learned association. This newly formed connection allows for close interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the mPFC/ACC, through which the mPFC/ACC gains access to neocortical regions that store the content of memory. Thus, the entorhinal cortex may serve as a gatekeeper of cortical memory network by selectively interacting either with the hippocampus or mPFC/ACC depending on the age of memory. This model provides a new framework for a modification of cortical memory network during systems consolidation, thereby adding a fresh dimension to future studies on its biological mechanism.

  17. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  18. Protective effects of melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on ochratoxin A--induced damages on testes in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Razi, Mazdak; Cheraghi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Arash; Dardmeh, Fereshteh

    2011-02-01

    The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) as a natural antioxidant and melatonin (MEL) on ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced histopathological damages on the testes and oxidative stress was evaluated in male rats. The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. The rats in control group received saline and the animals in the test groups received (200 µg/kg) of OTA, (15 mg/kg) of MEL + (200 µg/kg) OTA and (100 mg/kg) of GgE + (200 µg/kg) OTA, respectively, during 28 consecutive days. The serum total antioxidant power (TAOP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) production were assessed. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical studies were also performed. The results showed that the TAOP and TTM were decreased in OTA-exposed rats, while the animals that received MEL + OTA or GgE + OTA showed an enhancement in the serum TAOP and TTM levels. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that in OTA-exposed rats, the testicular degeneration, seminiferous tubule atrophy, dissociation of germinative epithelium, vasodilatation with vascular thrombosis, perivascular immune cell infiltration, hypertrophied leydic cells, giant cell formation, and negative tubular differentiation index (TDI) were observed. Surprisingly, both the biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that MEL and GgE, albeit with some differences, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages. In conclusion, this data suggest that OTA contamination in animal feeds and human foods could cause reproductive abnormalities. Our data also indicate that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerts its toxic effects on testes whereas MEL and GgE with antioxidant properties could fairly protect rats against OTA toxic effects.

  19. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  20. Screening and bioconversion of glycyrrhizin of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid by different microbial strains

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    Makhmur Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to perform screening of different microorganisms (7 bacteria and 14 fungi for conversion of glycyrrhizin (GL to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. Penicillium chrysogenum produced the highest concentration of β-glucuronidase enzyme (61 U/mL and produced GA of 52 μg/mL while E. coli produced the highest β-glucuronidase of 376 U/mL with GA concentration of 2.1 μg/mL. Materials and Methods: Submerged and solid state biotransformation of GL was carried out. To 9.0 mL of bacterial supernatant, 1.0 mL 0.2% w/v of aqueous Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract was added and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. β-glucuronidase activity was measured and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out. Results and Discussion: Induced-Escherichia coli produces 2.1 μg/mL of GA with an enzyme activity of 376 U/mL which shows that the enzyme has a potential biotransformation capability. Rhizopus oryzae and P. chrysogenum have the potential ability to biotransform GL to GA with 2.6 μg/mL and 61 μg/mL of GA with enzyme activity of 569 U/mL and 61 U/mL, respectively. Conclusions: G. glabra roots containing GL can be hydrolyzed by microbial β-glucuronidase enzyme under sub-merged fermentation (SmF. β-glucuronidase, an enzyme of E. coli, was found to be the best microbial source of enzyme which biocatalyzed the reaction than fungal strain under SmF.

  1. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  2. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity.

  3. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S K; Chandola, H M

    2011-04-01

    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  4. Discovery of anti-microbial and anti-tubercular molecules from Fusarium solani: an endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Rather, M A; Hassan, Q P; Aga, M A; Mushtaq, S; Shah, A M; Hussain, A; Baba, S A; Ahmad, Z

    2017-05-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is a high-value medicinal plant thriving in biodiversity rich Kashmir Himalaya. The present study was designed to explore the fungal endophytes from G. glabra as a source of bioactive molecules. The extracts prepared from the isolated endophytes were evaluated for anti-microbial activities using broth micro-dilution assay. The endophytic strain coded as A2 exhibiting promising anti-bacterial as well as anti-tuberculosis activity was identified as Fusarium solani by ITS-5.8S ribosomal gene sequencing technique. This strain was subjected to large-scale fermentation followed by isolation of its bioactive compounds using column chromatography. From the results of spectral data analysis and comparison with literature, the molecules were identified as 3,6,9-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo[g]isochromene-5,10-dione (1), fusarubin (2), 3-O-methylfusarubin (3) and javanicin (4). Compound 1 is reported for the first time from this strain. All the four compounds inhibited the growth of various tested bacterial strains with MIC values in the range of solani evaluated against the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis. This study sets background towards their synthetic intervention for activity enhancement experiments in anti-microbial drug discovery programme. Due to the chemoprofile variation of same endophyte with respect to source plant and ecoregions, further studies are required to explore endophytes of medicinal plants of all unusual biodiversity rich ecoregions for important and or novel bioactive molecules. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  6. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  7. Protective effect of Radix Astragali injection on immune organs of rats with obstructive jaundice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ping Zhang; Xi-Ping Zhang; Yue-Fang Ruan; Shu-Yun Ye; Hong-Chan Zhao; Qi-Hui Cheng; Di-Jiong Wu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the protective effect of Radix Astragali injection on immune organs (lymph nodes, spleen and thymus) of rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ) and its mechanism. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model control group and Radix Astragali treatment group. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after operation, mortality rate of rats, pathological changes in immune organs, expression levels of Bax and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 proteins, apoptosis indexes and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level in spleen and thymus were observed, respectively. spleen and thymus were observed, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to model control group, the number of dead OJ rats in Radix Astragali treatment group decreased ( P > 0.05). The TNF-α level (27.62 ± 12.61 vs 29.55 ± 18.02, 24.61 ± 9.09 vs 31.52 ± 10.95) on days 7 and 21, the pathological severity score for spleen [0.0 (0.0) vs 0.0 (2.0) on days 7 and 14 and for lymph nodes [0.0 (1.0) vs 1.0 (2.0), 1.0 (0.0) vs 2.0 (1.0)] on days 21 and 28, the product staining intensity and positive rate of Bax protein in spleen [0.0 (0.0) vs 1.0 (2.0), 0.0 (1.0) vs 2.0 (1.5) and thymus [0.0 (0.0) vs 1.0 (2.0), 0.0 (1.0) vs 2.0 (1.5)] on days 14 and 28, the apoptotic indexes [0.0 (0.0) vs 0.0 (0.01)] in spleen and thymus [0.0 (0.0) vs 0.0 (0.01) on days 14 and 21 were significantly lower in Radix Astragali treatment group than in model control group ( P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Radix Astragali has protective effects on immune organs of OJ rats by relieving the pathological changes in immune organs, reducing TNF-α level and inhibiting Bax expression and apoptosis in spleen and thymus.

  8. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  9. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  10. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  11. Radix astragali inhibits the down-regulation of connexin 26 in the stria vascularis of the guinea pig cochlea after acoustic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Min; Zhu, Yazhen; Lai, Huangwen; Fu, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wenting; Yang, Chuanhong; He, Qinglian; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2015-09-01

    Connexin 26 (cx26) plays an important role in the intercellular signaling and is related to K(+) metabolism in stria vascularis (SV). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are negative regulators of cx26, reducing intercellular coupling in cochlea. ROS plays an important role in acoustic trauma. Radix astragali is a natural antioxidant that decreases impulse noise-induced hearing loss through its ability to inhibit ROS. The purpose of this study was to investigate if radix astragali has the potential to reduce the change of cx26 in SV from impulse noise. Guinea pigs in the experimental group were administered radix astragali intraperitoneally. Auditory thresholds were assessed by sound-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) at click and tone bursts of 8, 16 and 32 kHz, 24 h before and 72 h after exposure to impulse noise. 4-Hydroxynonenal, cx26 and KCNQ1 were determined immunohistochemically in SV. SV was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Radix astragali significantly reduced the ABR deficits and the SV damage, and decreased the shifts of the expression of cx26 and KCNQ1 in the SV. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of radix astragali on impulse noise-induced hearing loss may be also due to its ability to reduce the change of cx26 in SV.

  12. Study on the Metabolic Characteristics of Aconite Alkaloids in the Extract of Radix aconiti under Intestinal Bacteria of Rat by UPLC/MSn Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛杨; 皮子凤; 宋凤瑞; 刘志强; 刘淑莹

    2012-01-01

    The extract of Radix aconiti was incubated with rat intestinal bacteria in vitro. Further, aconitine and hypaconitine standard were incubated at the same condition as the extract of Radix aconiti, respectively. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Multi-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/MSn) was used for detecting and identifying all the aco- nite alkaloids. Results showed that there were four metabolites which were identified as 8-butyryl-14-benzoylmesa- conine (m/z 660), 8-propionyl-14-benzoylaconine (m/z 660), 8-butyryl-14-benzoylaconine (m/z 674) and 8-valeryl-14-benzoylmesaconine (m/z 674) in the metabolized sample of the extract of Radix aconiti. The relative area ratio of them presented increasing trend during 6 d. On the basis of all results, we could concluded that substi- tution at N atom mainly influenced the metabolizing rate of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids (DDAs), C-8 substitute was active metabolized site, intestinal bacterial metabolites of the aconite alkaloids in the extract of Radix aconiti were mainly the substitute with propionyl group, butyl group or valeryl group at C-8. This paper illustrated holistic metabolizing profile of the extract of Radix aconiti in vitro and possible metabolizing reaction type of main DDAs, which could provide reference for finding out potential bioactive components in the extract and the prescription of Chinese Medicine.

  13. Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Effect against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via NF-κB Signaling

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    Yu Ock Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to examine whether heat-processed Scutellariae Radix has an ameliorative effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury in mice. The effects of Scutellariae Radix heat-processed at 160°C (HSR were compared with those of nonheat-processed Scutellariae Radix (NSR. The LPS-treated group displayed a markedly decreased body weight and significantly increased lung weight; however, the administration of NSR or HSR improved both the body and lung weights. The increased oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarker levels in the serum and lung were reduced significantly with HSR. The reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly by both NSR and HSR. Also, the dysregulated oxidative stress and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by NSR and HSR. The expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B activation was modulated through inhibition of a nuclear factor kappa Bα degradation. Also, lung histological change was markedly suppressed by HSR rather than NSR. Overall, the ameliorative effects of HSR were superior to those when being nonheat-processed. The representative flavonoid contents of Scutellariae Radix that include baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin were greater by heat process. These data reveal heat-processed Scutellariae Radix may be a critical factor involved in the improvement of lung disorders caused by LPS.

  14. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

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    Edmund eRolls

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory-taste and visual-taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavour. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavour reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual / olfactory / taste / input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations with the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety are implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention.

  15. Polysaccharide enhances Radix Saposhnikoviae efficacy through inhibiting chromones decomposition in intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Ming; Jiang, Hua; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wang, Zi-Wei; Jia, Gui-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Vegetative but not reproductive stage of Saposhnikovia divaricate (Turxz.) schischk possesses pharmacological activities. However, our recent study showed that reproductive S. divaricate supplemented with polysaccharide showed evidently elevated pharmacological activities and increased cimifugin content in rat serum. The aims of present study were to assess the influence of polysaccharides on the chromones pharmacological activities in Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS), the dried root of vegetative stage of S. divaricate, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Only cimifugin was detected in the plasma of chromone treated animals and RS polysaccharide significantly increased the plasma content of cimifugin. It was shown that neither cimifugin absorption nor glycoside components transformation in simulated digestive fluid was affected by RS polysaccharide. However, a significant promotion of transformation of cimifugin to more stable prime-O-glucosylcimifugin (PGCN) by RS polysaccharide, and a protective effect of polysaccharide on chromone components were observed in small intestine solutions. Meanwhile, RS polysaccharide produced a significant elevation of cimifugin and PGCN concentration in vivo. Based on these findings, we concluded that RS polysaccharide could greatly increase the content of cimifugin, which might be related to its degradation-proof effect on cimifugin, via transforming cimifugin to comparatively more stable PGCN and spatial structure protection. PMID:27595868

  16. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

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    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  17. Systems Pharmacological Approach of Pulsatillae Radix on Treating Crohn’s Disease

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    Su Yeon Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Asian traditional medicine, Pulsatillae Radix (PR is widely used to treat amoebic dysentery and renowned for its anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to confirm evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effect of PR on Crohn’s disease using a system network level based in silico approach. Study results showed that the compounds in PR are highly connected to Crohn’s disease related pathways, biological processes, and organs, and these findings were confirmed by compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis. Most compounds in PR have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant effects, and we found that these compounds interact with multiple targets in a synergetic way. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of genes targeted by PR are elevated significantly in immunity-related organ tissues, small intestine, and colon. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and repair and immune system enhancing effects of PR might have therapeutic impact on Crohn’s disease.

  18. Intestinal absorbability of three Radix Puerariae isoflavones including daidzein, daidzin and puerarin

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    Zhang Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae (Gegen contains abundant isoflavones in the forms of glycosides and aglycones, such as daidzein, daidzin and puerarin. This study aims to investigate the intestinal absorbability and mechanism of these three structurally related isoflavones. Methods The bi-directional transport of these three isoflavones in Caco-2 monolayer model was performed to evaluate their absorbability and involvement of transporters in Transwell. In vitro incubation of daidzin and puerarin with rat intestinal microvilli preparation was conducted to estimate their potential form of absorption in vivo. Results Daidzein demonstrated passive diffusion transport while puerarin did not. Daidzin showed basolateral-to-apical transport and the absorption extent could be reduced by 50% in the presence of MK571, a multidrug resistance-associated protein inhibitor (MRP. The in vitro incubation study of daidzin and puerarin indicated that daidzin was hydrolyzed to daidzein whereas puerarin remained unchanged. Conclusion While daidzein was transported more efficiently, puerarin was resistant to intestinal hydrolysis and inefficiently transported across intestinal epithelium. Daidzin demonstrated a low intestinal absorbability due to a significant efflux transport mediated by MRPs. Daidzin was likely to be hydrolyzed by intestinal microvilli and subsequently released daidzein for intestinal absorption.

  19. Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.

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    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

  20. Radix Astragali Stimulates p38 MARK Phosphorylation in Pediatric Patients with β-Thalassemia

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    Zhuoming Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study conducted by our group demonstrated that Radix Astragali compounded with Codonopsis pilosula and Plastrum testudinis was effective in treating pediatric β-thalassemia in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. However, the mechanism of action that underpins this treatment remains to be elucidated. Blood was collected from patients participating in this clinical trial and nucleated red blood cell-enriched mononuclear cells were isolated to facilitate the extraction of RNA and protein. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of globin genes and p38 MAPK, and total and phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression was assessed using Western blot analysis. Expression of α-, β-, and Aγ-globin mRNAs was not significantly affected following treatment with R. Astragali or the compounded formulation. However, Gγ-globin mRNA levels increased significantly in both treatment groups (when compared with pretreatment levels following 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, posttreatment Gγ-globin expression was significantly higher in both treatment groups compared with the control group. Although neither p38 MAPK mRNA nor protein levels were affected by the treatments, posttreatment phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly increased in the R. Astragali and compounded formulation groups compared with the control group. These data suggest that the molecular mechanisms that underpin the efficacious use of R. Astragali (and its compounded formulation in pediatric β-thalassemia treatment facilitate the induction of Gγ-globin expression following activation of p38 MAPK.

  1. Effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae in Treatment of Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Mice

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    Yan-qiong SHI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae in the treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice.Methods: Fifty mice performed with bilateral ovariectomy for establishing models of osteoporosis were randomly divided into model group, estradiol group, and high-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 mice with sham operation were selected as control group. High-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups were treated with different doses of Gegen, estradiol group with 17β-estradiol, model group and control group with distilled water for continuous lavage from postoperative 1 month for totally 3 months. The changes of body mass, the uterus mass, fine structure of bone, thighbone density and calcium content of groups were observed.Results: Compared with control group, the different indicators of mice improved in a dose-dependent manner after lavage of Gegen. The above indicators in high- and middle-dose groups were similar to those in control group, and the therapeutic effect in high- and middle-dose groups was as good as or superior to that in estradiol group. However, uterus mass in Gegen-treated groups didn’t increase.Conclusion: Gegen, which has anti-osteoporosis effect like estradiol and doesn’t stimulate uterus, is applicable for the prevention and treatment of climacteric osteoporosis.

  2. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection.

  3. Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluorobenzene in Mice

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    Kim Han-Na

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Lithospermi Radix, LR is a kind of heat clearing and blood cooling medicinal herbs. It can clear away heat and cool the blood, reduce toxins and disperse maculae. LR has long been used as efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we investigate anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of LR by using the 1-fluoro-2, 4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis mouse model. Results: Topical application of 10 mg/mL of LR effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. Topical application of LR also inhibited hyperplasia, edema, spongiosis and infiltrations of mononuclear cells. In addition, production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG1 in serum were decreased by using LR in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that LR acts as an antiinflammatory agent, improving skin lesions in CD mice.

  4. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  5. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

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    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  6. Effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae) in Treatment of Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan-qiong; MA Cong; LI Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Gegen (Radix Puerariae) in the treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice. Methods: Fifty mice performed with bilateral ovariectomy for establishing models of osteoporosis were randomly divided into model group, estradiol group, and high-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 mice with sham operation were selected as control group. High-, middle- and low-dose Gegen groups were treated with different doses of Gegen, estradiol group with 17β-estradiol, model group and control group with distilled water for continuous lavage from postoperative 1 month for totally 3 months. The changes of body mass, uterus mass, ifne structure of bone, thighbone density and calcium content of groups were observed. Results: Compared with control group, the different indicators of mice improved in a dose-dependent manner after lavage of Gegen. The above indicators in high- and middle-dose groups were similar to those in control group, and the therapeutic effect in high- and middle-dose groups was as good as or superior to that in estradiol group. However, uterus mass in Gegen-treated groups didn’t increase. Conclusion: Gegen, which has anti-osteoporosis effect like estradiol and doesn’t stimulate the uterus, is applicable for the prevention and treatment of climacteric osteoporosis.

  7. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  8. Chromatographic analysis of Polygalae Radix by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Shi, Shepo; Guo, Liping; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    Practicing “green analytical chemistry” is of great importance when profiling the chemical composition of complex matrices. Herein, a novel hybrid analytical platform was developed for direct chemical analysis of complex matrices by online hyphenating pressurized warm water extraction followed by turbulent flow chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PWWE-TFC-LC-MS/MS). Two parallel hollow guard columns acted as extraction vessels connected to a long narrow polyether ether ketone tube, while warm water served as extraction solvent and was delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min to generate considerable back pressure at either vessel. A column oven heated both the solvent and crude materials. A TFC column, which is advantageous for the comprehensive trapping of small molecular substances from fluids under turbulent flow conditions, was employed to transfer analytes from the PWWE module to LC-MS/MS. Two electronic valves alternated each vessel between extraction and elution phases. As a proof-of-concept, a famous herbal medicine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, namely Polygalae Radix, was selected for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results suggest that the hybrid platform is advantageous in terms of decreasing time, material, and solvent consumption and in its automation, versatility, and environmental friendliness.

  9. Effects of astragali radix on the growth of different cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Lin; Hui-Fang Dong; JJ Oppenheim; OM Howard

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of a Chinese herb medicine Astragali radix (AR) on growth of different cancer cell lines.METHODS: To observe the in vitro effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation by trypan blue exclusion, MTS method and tritium thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected by DNA ladder method.RESULTS: The inhibition rates of AR on the cell respiration of AGS, KATOⅢ, HT29, MDA231, MEL7 and MEL14 were 68.25%, 62.36%, 22.8%, 27.69%, 2.85% and 5.14%respectively at the concentration of 100 ug/ml; it inhibited AGS DNA synthesis by 87.33% at the concentration of 50ug/ml. The inhibitory effect on AGS was time-and dosedependent. AR did not induce apoptosis in AGS cells.CONCLUSION: AR specifically inhibits gastric cancer cells growth in vitro and the mechanism is mainly cytostatic but not cytotoxic or inducing apoptosis.

  10. Effect of raw Radix Rehmanniae on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Jingwen; Yuan, Yuemei; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yao, Meicun

    2014-05-01

    Raw Radix Rehmanniae (RRR) is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus according to the statistics on all of the anti-diabetic formulas recorded in New National Traditional Chinese Medicine. Pioglitazone and RRR may be co-administrated for presumably enhanced therapeutic effects because of the common indications. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of RRR on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. The pharmacokinetic effect of RRR on pioglitazone was studied in healthy rats and type 2 diabetic rats. A validated UPLC-MS/MS method was used to analyze the concentration of pioglitazone in blood samples. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analyses by Winnonlin 5.0.1. In healthy group, the pre-treatment of RRR significantly (Ppioglitazone; whereas in T2DM group, significant increase of C(max) and decrease of V/F and T½ were found after the rats were pre-treated with RRR. However, AUC(0-t) and CL/F remained unchanged in both healthy group and T2DM group. In conclusion, co-administration with RRR could alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of pioglitazone to statistically significant levels.

  11. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  12. Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, a potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Egypt

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    Dar Y.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis with French miracidia of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if this snail might act as an intermediate host in the life cycle of this digenean in Egypt. Single exposures of R. natalensis to miracidia (2/snail and two successive exposures (a total of 4 miracidia/snail were performed using lymnaeids measuring 1 to 6 mm in height. Live larval forms of F. hepatica were noted in single- and double-exposed snails. In double exposures, a significant increase of snail survival on day 28 post-exposure (at 24 °C and an decrease in prevalence were noted when the height of snails at exposure was increasing. Cercariae of F. hepatica were shed by these snails (90.7/snail during a mean patent period of 24.3 days. All snails have released these cercariae during 2-13 waves of shedding. According to these results, R. natalensis can be considered a potential intermediate host of F. hepatica in Egypt.

  13. Effects of Radix Puerariae flavones on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Feng Wang; Yan-Xia Guo; Jan-Zhao Niu; Juan Liu; Ling-Qiao Wang; Pei-Heng Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Radix Puerariae flavones (RPF)on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.METHODS: Forty adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: OVX group; sham-OVX group;OVX+estrogen group and OVX+RPF group. One week after operation rats of the first two groups were treated with physiological saline, rats of OVX+estrogen group with estrogen (1 mg/kg.b.w.) and rats of OVX+RPF group with RPF (100 mg/kg.b.w.), respectively for 5 weeks. After the rats were killed, their body weight, the weight of the abdominal fat and uterus were measured, and the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in liver homogenate were determined.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-OVX group, the body mass of the rats in OVX group was found increased significantly;more abdominal fat in store; TC and TG in liver increased and uterine became further atrophy. As a result, the RPF was found to have an inhibitive action on those changes of various degrees.CONCLUSION: RPF has estrogen-like effect on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  14. Correlation between Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Contents of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui

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    Ling Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae Sinensisis (RAS is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, six RAS extracts (i.e., phenolic extract PE, petroleum ether extract PEE, ethyl acetate extract EAE, absolute ethanol extract AEE, 95% ethanol extract 95 EE, and water extract WE were prepared and their antioxidant activities measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt], Reducing power, •O2– and lipid peroxidation assays. In general, PE, PEE and EAE had relatively high antioxidant activity, followed by AEE with moderate activity, as compared with 95 EE and WE that had low activity. Their phenolic contents (including total phenolic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, same as below were then determined by HPLC or spectrophotometry. The sequence of phenolic contents was roughly identical with that of antioxidant activity. When the values of 1/IC50 of various antioxidant assays were used to evaluate the level of antioxidant of the RAS extracts, (plot between 1/IC50 values and phenolic contents, the correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.642 to 0.941, with an average value of 0.839. Significant positive correlations demonstrated that the antioxidant effects of RAS might generally be considered a result of the presence of the phenolic compounds, especially ferulic acid and caffeic acid.

  15. Effect of aquo-alchoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice Lung Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Srivastava, Pranay; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-03-26

    The prevalence of lung infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classified as multi-drug resistant has increased considerably and is mainly attributed to relative insufficiency of potent chemotherapeutic modalities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against the P. aeruginosa causing lung infection in Swiss albino mice. The study involves evaluation of lethal dose of P. aeruginosa in Swiss albino mice and analysis of disease manifestation that includes bacteremia, hypothermia, reduction in body weight and other parameters for 48h of infection. Physical manifestations of infected mice showed a significant decline in body temperature that is 29±0.57°C (at 48th h) from 38.81±0.33°C (0h) and 30% weight loss was observed at the end of the study. Further the efficacy of G. glabra extract against lung infection induced with the calculated lethal dose was evaluated by employing bacteremia, histopathology and radiological analysis. Bacterial burden showed that 2.30±0.02 Log10CFU/mL at day 7, a significant decline in the bacterial load as compared to day 1 when the bacterial burden was found to be 3.32±0.1 Log10CFU/mL. Histopathological results showed more diffuse and patchy accumulation of inflammatory cells within the alveolar space also the infiltrates were noted in all the lung section of infected mice. In treated animal group improved lung histology was seen with the exudates were less seen in D1 dose (20mg/kg) and disappeared in D2 dose (80mg/kg). The study clearly declares that the G. glabra extract is effective against lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa at dose of 80mg/kg. The LCMS results revealed that the extract contains Glycyrrhizin, Stigmasterol and Ergosterol, Licochalcone and Glabridin. The current study expected to further exploit the biomedical properties of this extract in the preparation of a potent regimen against such threatening pathogen.

  16. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines.

  17. Comparative study of related quality of Arnebiae Radix from different market%不同市场紫草相关质量的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征; 陈文明; 任卫琼; 李文莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究不同市场紫草的相关质量。方法收集10个市场紫草,采用Agilent ZORBAX Extend-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-水-甲酸(70:30:0.05)为流动相,检测波长275 nm,柱温25℃,1 ml/min,测定不同市场紫草β,β'-二甲基丙烯酰阿卡宁的含量;采用冷浸法,以95%乙醇为溶剂,测定不同市场紫草浸出物的含量。结果10个不同市场紫草β,β'-二甲基丙烯酰阿卡宁和浸出物含量差异明显,且只有两个市场紫草β,β'-二甲基丙烯酰阿卡宁的含量>0.30%。结论当前市售紫草质量不一,而且很多市场紫草质量令人担忧。%Objective To study the related quality of Arnebiae Radix from different market. Methods Arnebiae Radix from 10 markets were collected,Agilent ZORBAX Extend-C18 (4.6 mmí250 mm,5 μm) chromatographic column was used,acetonitrile-water-formic acid (70:30:0.05) was as the mobile phase,the detection wavelength was 275 nm,column temperature was 25℃,1 ml/min,the content of β,β-dimethylacrylalkannin in A rnebiae Radix from different market was determinated;cooling extracting method was used,95% ethanol was as solvent,the extraction content of Arnebiae Radix from different market was determinated. Results The β,β-dimethylacrylalkannin content and extraction content of A rnebiae Radix from 10 different markets had obvious differences,and there were only two markets β,β-dimethylacry-lalkannin content of Arnebiae Radix more than 0.30%. Conclusion The quality of commercially available Arnebiae Radix is different,and the quality of A rnebiae Radix in a lot of markets is worrying.

  18. 紫菀的电化学指纹图谱研究%Electrochemical fingerprints of radix asteris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程旺兴; 陈振华; 陈佳; 程铭恩; 彭华胜; 方成武

    2012-01-01

    通过别洛索夫-扎鲍京斯基(B-Z)振荡反应研究不同产地中药紫菀鉴别的鉴别,将紫菀粉末加入H2SO4-Ce(SO4)2-CH2(COOH) 2-KBrO3中,干扰化学振荡体系,用电化学工作站记录数据,并对温度、紫菀用量等反应条件进行了考察,确定体系的最佳实验条件为12 mL(3.0 mol/L)H2SO4溶液、3 mL(0.1 mol/L)Ce(SO4)2溶液、6 mL(1.0 mol/L)CH2(COOH)2和3 mL(0.2 mol/L)KBrO3溶液,温度310 K、加入0.4g紫菀粉末,获得了不同产地紫菀的电化学指纹图谱.通过对不同产地中药材紫菀电化学指纹图谱的研究,发现不同产地的紫菀的指纹图谱主要参数有较大区别.该方法简便、准确、可靠,可方便的用于不同产地紫菀的鉴别.%The electrochemical fingerprints of radix asteris from different places have been studied by Belousov-Zhabotin-skii oscillation system. With adding power of Radix Asteris to chemical oscillation system of H2SO4-Ce ( SO4 )2-CH2-(COOH)2KBrO3 ,and the data of potential and time was recorded by the electrochemical workstation. The temperature of B-Z oscillation system,stirring speed,the added amount of radix asteris are studied also. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows; 12 mL 3.0 mol/L sulfuric acid,3 mL 0. 1 mol/L cerium( IV ) sulfate,6 mL 1. 0 mol/L malonic acid, 3 mL 0. 2 mol/L potassium bromate, reaction temperature 310 K,0. 4 g powder of radix asteris. The electrochemical fingerprints of radix asteris from different places showed significantly different characteristics, such as the maximum potential,induction time and oscillation lifetime,etc. So this method can be used to identify radix asteris from different origins and has the advantage of convenience, sensitivity and precision.

  19. 太子参近年研究概况%Recent Advances in Studies on Pseudostellariae Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文凯; 贾静; 丁仁伟; 刘红宁

    2011-01-01

    By consulting recent literature, this article summarized the advances in studies on chemical composition, pharmacologic action, processing and quality control of Pseudostellariae Radix. In recent years various kinds of compounds have been separated first time from Pseudostellariae Radix;related reports have been made about the fact that Pseudostellariae Radix can improve chronic heart failure or memory, lower blood sugar and resist oxidation, and also about the primary processing condition of Pseudostellariae Radix;the theoretical basis for us to remove fibrous roots has been proposed. The content of Pseudostellarin B, saponin, polysaccharide, heavy metal has been determined;amino acid and volatility composition have been analyzed;the research has been made on pesticide residue and fingerprint of Pseudostellariae Radix. The reference has been provided for the further research into Pseudostellariae Radix.%介绍太子参在化学成分、药理作用、加工炮制与质量控制方面的研究进展.查阅近5年的文献资料34篇.从太子参中不断首次分离得到各种化合物;在药理研究上,对改善大鼠急性心肌梗死后的慢性心衰从作用机制上进行了多方面探讨,并对改善记忆、降血糖、抗氧化作了相关报道;药材加工主要报道了太子参产地加工情况,以多糖、挥发油等考查多种干燥方法,并对去须根从重金属含量、多糖、组织化学定位和化学方法测定上提出理论依据.质量控制方面,2010年版加强了对太子参质量控制,增加对太子参环肽B含量检测方法并对水分、总灰分、浸出物都有一定的要求.另外,近年对不同产地太子参药材进行了系列研究,对太子参中皂苷、多糖、重金属含量进行了检测,对氨基酸、挥发性成分进行了分析,对农药残留进行研究,采用HPLC,HPLC-MS联用技术,GC,GC-MS联用技术构建太子参指纹图谱,为太子参药材质量控制提供依据.

  20. Stimulating effects of Bacillus subtilis natto-fermented Radix astragali on hyaluronic acid production in human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Fang; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2009-09-25

    Radix astragali, a well-known Chinese herb, which has been traditionally used for skincare, and microbial fermentation is one of the conventional methods for processing Chinese herbs. This research studied the effects of non-fermented (HQNB) and fermented preparations (HQB) of Radix astragali on hyaluronic acid (HA) production in primary human skin cells. HQB and HQNB were prepared and added to the cultures of primary human skin cells. Hyaluronic acid content was determined using ELISA. Real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate hyaluronan synthase gene expression. The bioactive compounds were analyzed by HPLC. The growth-stimulating effect of HQNB on both of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were significantly higher than that of HQB. Conversely, HQB, but not HQNB significantly stimulated HA production in both cultured primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts in dose-dependent manners. In addition, HQB markedly and dose-dependently increased the expression of hyaluronan synthase 3 and hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA in HaCaT cells and human fibroblasts, respectively. Therefore, HQB might be a promising candidate for preventing the age-dependent loss of HA content in aged human skin, and its effect on the enhancement of HA synthesis in skin cells is highly related to its effect on the expression of hyaluronan synthase genes. The three major active isoflavonoids in Radix astragali were identified as ononin, calycosin, and formononetin. After fermentation, all of these three compounds in HQB were significantly reduced. However, HQB still had significantly higher enhancement effect on the production of HA than HQNB. It appeared that isoflavonoid aglycones or other metabolites, converted from their primary isoflavones during fermentation, might be responsible for the skincare functions found in this study. This study demonstrated the low toxicity and the stimulating effects of HQB on HA synthesis, and suggests that HQB may play a promising role in anti

  1. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  2. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  3. Effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Yook, Tae-Han

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic and erythematous skin lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of anti-inflammatory and Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture on the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The AD was induced on the mice's back skin by using biostir AD. The experimental groups were divided into three groups, PPI (anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture), PPII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, hydrodistillation extraction) and PPIII (Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture, MeOH extraction). All mice were treated using a 1-mL syringe to inject 0.1 mL of pharmacopuncture at right and left acupoints (BL13) on alternate days. In the control group, normal saline was used instead of pharmacopuncture. The following factors were investigated: (1) optical observations made with a handscope and clinical skin scores were evaluated; (2) tissue (general/immune) mast cells and CCR3(+) eosinophils, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor immunoreactive changes were evaluated; (3) CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the spleen were immunohistochemically examined; and, (4) the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level and lymphokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4] were measured. In the PPI and the PPIII groups, the clinical skin score, total number of mast cells, CCR3(+) eosinophils immunoreaction, and total serum IgE, IL-2, and IL-4 levels were lower than the control group. The PPI and the PPIII groups also showed strong immunohistochemical reactions for vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. The PPI group particularly showed a very strong immunohistochemical reaction for epidermal growth factor. All groups showed strong immune activity for CD8(+). The PPIII group showed strong immunity for both CD4(+) and CD8(+). From the above results, Rehmanniae radix pharmacopuncture (MeOH extraction) and anti

  4. Effects of the aqueous extract solution of Radix Puerariae on tissues of brain, kidney, fat and pancreas in experimental diabetic rats%葛根水煎液对糖尿病大鼠脑、肾、脂肪、胰腺组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂星; 卢映; 唐洪梅; 房财富

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察葛根水煎液对糖尿病大鼠的脑、肾、脂肪和胰腺组织的影响.方法:设立正常对照组、模型对照组和给药模型组,采用高脂饮食加腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ)对2型糖尿病大鼠造模,运用石蜡包埋切片技术制作脑、肾、脂肪和胰腺的组织切片,并作光镜观察.结果:葛根水煎液能够较好地修复胰岛代偿性肥大,改善病理状态下的胰岛的体积和细胞形态;减小肾小球体积的病理性增大;改善糖尿病大鼠大脑皮层神经元细胞的变性以及脂肪细胞的变性、坏死和溶解等改变.结论:葛根水煎液能够修复和保护实验型糖尿病大鼠的脑、肾、脂肪和胰腺组织,改善其生理机能.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of the aqueous extract solution of Radix Puerariae on brain,kidney,fat and pancreas tissues.METHODS Three groups-the normal control group,model control group and experimental model group were set up.The type 2 diabetic model was established by feeding the Wistar rats with the high fat food firstly and intra-peritoneal injection with streptozotocin(STZ).The technology of paraffin wax slice was used to make the pathological section of brain,kidney,fat and pancreas tissue and then observed them under light microscope (LM).RESULTS The aqueous extract solution of Radix Puerariae was able to repair the compensatory hypertrophy of pancreatic islets and could ameliorate the volume and shape of the islet cell which was under pathological state.It could diminish the pathological dilatation of glomerulus,and ameliorate the degeneration of neuronal cells which located in cerebral cortex and the degeneration,lytic necrosis of the adipocyte.CONCLUSION The aqueous extract solution of Radix Puerariae was able to protect and repair the brain,kidney,fat and pancreatic tissue of the experimental diabetic rats,and to improve their physiological functions.

  5. Influence of different processing times on the quality of Polygoni Multiflora Radix by metabolomics based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xie-An; Ge, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Jin; An, Mingrui; Cao, Jun; He, Jun; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2017-03-20

    A metabolomics method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of processing times on the quality of raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to screen the potential maker metabolites that were contributed to the quality changes. Then these marker metabolites were selected as variables in Fisher's discriminant analysis to establish the models that were used to distinguish the raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix in the markets. Additionally, 36 compounds were identified. 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples and 23 processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were distinguished. The results showed that the 12 raw Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples belonged to the group of processing time of 0 h, and two processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix samples were part of the group of processing times of 4 h, 12 samples belonged to group of processing times of 8 to 16 h, and nine samples were the group of processing times of 24 to 48 h. The results demonstrated that the method could provide scientific support for the processing standardization of Polygoni Multiflora Radix. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

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    Gang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

  7. EFFECTS OF RADIX ANGELICAE SINENSIS AND SHUANGHUANGLIAN ON A RAT MODEL OF CHRONIC PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PNEUMONIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.K.Johansen; C.Moser; V.Faber; A.Khamzmi; J.Rygaard; N.Hφiby; Z.J.Song

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of two kinds of Chinese herbal medicine, Radix angelicae sinensis(RAS) (当归)and Shuanghuanglian(SHL)(双黄连) on chronic Pseudomortas aerug/nosa(PA)lung infection in a rat model mimicking cystic fibrosis(CF).Methods. Rats were divided into RAS, SIlL and control groups. All rats were challenged intratracheally with alginate embedded PA and the trealments with herbal medicine started on the same day of challenge. The drugs were administered subcutaneously once a day for ten days and the control group was treated with sterile saline. The rats were sacrificed two weeks after challenge. Results. Significantly improved lung bacterial clearance(P <0.05, P < 0.01) and milder macroecopic lung pathology (P<0.005) were found in the two treated groups compared to the control group. In tbe SHL treated group, the neutrophil percent in the peripheral blood leukocytes(P < 0.05), the anti-PA IgG level in serum (P < 0.05), the incidence of lung abscesses(P < 0.005) and the incidence of acnte lung inflammafion(P < 0.05) were signitlcanfly lower than in the control group. The RAS treatment reduced fever(P < 0.05), decreased the incidence of lung abscesses(P <0.005) and lung mast cell number (P< 0.05), and lowered anti-PA IgG1 level in serum(P< 0.05) when compared to the control group. The anti-PA bacterial activity test in SHL was weakly positive whereas in RAS it was negative. Conclusion. The treatment with both herbal medicines could increase the resistance of the rats against PA lung infection and they therefore might be potential premising drugs for stimulation of the immtme system in CF patients with chronic PA lung infection.

  8. Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1996-04-30

    The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP). EC50 values estimated from the graded dose-response curves for pure daidzin and RP extract daidzin are 23 and 2.3 mg per hamster per day, respectively. Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, six other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified--namely, puerarin (160 mg per g of extract), genistin (3.7 mg/g), daidzein (2.6 mg/g), daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g), genistein (0.2 mg/g), and formononetin (0.16 mg/g). None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract. Plasma daidzin concentration-time curves determined in hamsters administered various doses of pure daidzin or RP extract by i.p.injection indicate that the crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound. Reconstruction of the dose-response effects for pure and crude daidzin using bioavailable daidzin rather than administered dose gives a single curve. Synthetic daidzin added to the RP extract acquires the bioavailability of the endogenous daidzin that exists naturally in the extract. These results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

  9. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  10. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae Haemocytes.

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    Vladimír Skála

    Full Text Available Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e. to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  11. Long-circulating delivery of bioactive polysaccharide from radix ophiopogonis by PEGylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zhuo-Jun; Huang, Fang; Liang, Shuang; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi; Ruan, Ke-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP) has been found to be effective against myocardial ischemia. One of main problems with its use is its short in-vivo half-life, which makes the development of an effective delivery system necessary. To achieve better therapeutic effects and patient compliance by prolonging its retention in plasma and increasing its distribution in targets, ROP was PEGylated (PEG, polyethylene glycol) in this study. Methods Through a moderate coupling reaction between hydroxyl-activated ROP and amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (mPEG) (30 or 40 kDa), together with a greater than 1 molar ratio of ROP to mPEG in reaction, long-circulating and potentially bioactive PEGylated ROPs, with PEG grafting number of ~1.0, were prepared, characterized, and the pharmacokinetics evaluated. Results Relative to ROP, whose half-life was approximately 0.7 hours, the two conjugates prepared, following intravenous administration, showed markedly prolonged retention in systemic circulation with half-lives in blood of 78.4 and 88.3 hours, respectively. When given subcutaneously, their in-vivo mean residence times were further markedly prolonged by the slow absorption phase. They were found to be well absorbed after subcutaneous administration, with absolute bioavailability being 75.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Conclusion With apparent molecular masses not exceeding 43 kDa, the conjugates prepared have been and will be demonstrated to have prominent advantages for ROP delivery, such as: the good absorption following subcutaneous, intramuscular, or other ways of administration; the effective utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect caused by ischemia; and the rapid diffusion within target tissues. PMID:22131832

  12. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis.

  13. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination.

  14. Poly(ethylene glycol)-radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide conjugates: preparation, characterization, pharmacokinetics and in vitro bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhuo-Jun; Sun, Gui-Lan; Xu, De-Sheng; Feng, Yi; Shen, Lan

    2010-10-01

    Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural graminan-type fructan with Mw of ∼5kDa, had been found to have an excellent anti-myocardial ischemic activity. However, its rapid renal excretion following administration remarkably limits its efficacy and clinical use, which makes necessary the development of an effective delivery system. In this article, the feasibility of PEGylation to solve this problem was examined. A moderate coupling reaction between the hydroxyl-activated ROP and the amino-terminated mPEG was chosen to PEGylate ROP. Five different mPEG-ROP conjugates (with mPEG of molecular mass 2, 5 or 20kDa) were prepared, purified, characterized and evaluated in pharmacokinetics and in vitro bioactivity. Results showed that only when the apparent molecular weight of the conjugate approached to a certain value, would its plasma elimination reduce abruptly. In general, the conjugation caused the reduction in the bioactivity of ROP; however, well-preserved bioactivity was observed when the grafting degree of the conjugate was lower. Among the five conjugates studied, the one with an average 1.3 mPEG (20kDa) residues per single ROP was found to be satisfactory both in plasma retention and in bioactivity. It had a 47.4-fold increased elimination half-life and preserved approximately 74% of the bioactivity of ROP; moreover, the decrease in bioactivity is not significant. These findings demonstrate that PEGylation would be a promising approach for improving the clinical efficacy of ROP by prolonged retention in plasma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Combination of Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hye So

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber have been used to treat the inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine and anti-inflammatory effect of each herb has been shown partially in several articles. However, the combined extract of these medicinal herbs (SL has not been reported for its anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SL on the creation of several proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cell mouse macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS. SL inhibited significantly the increase of NO, the release of intracellular calcium, the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6, macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-2, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL, and SL inhibited significantly the increase of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF at the concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/mL, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. These results implicate that SL has anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the production of various inflammatory mediators in macrophages. But SL did not inhibit significantly the increase of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES; therefore, further study is demanded for the follow-up research to find out the possibility of SL as a preventive and therapeutic medicine for various inflammatory diseases.

  17. [Apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells induced by puerariae radix flavones and its molecular mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua-min; Tang, Yu-hong; Shen, Qun; Zhu, Hong-qing; Ji, Ou; Zhang, Ya-cheng; Ji, Jian-min; Jiang, Peng-jun; Si, Ye-jun; Li, Zhao-rong

    2012-01-01

    To explore the effects and the molecular mechanism of puerariae radix flavones (PRF) on acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 cells in vitro. Kasumi-1 cells treated by PRF for 48 hours were observed with Wright's and Hoechst 33258 dying. The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with AnnexinV/PI staining. The expression levels of bcl-2, Bim and Caspase-3/-8/-9 protein were assayed by Western blot and the AML1-ETO fusion gene was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. PRF could induce Kasumi-1 cells to apoptosis effectively. The proportion of apoptotic cells in 50, 200 and 500 µg/ml PRF treatment groups were (14.1 ± 0.8)%, (17.7 ± 1.3)% and (32.4 ± 1.4)%, respectively, and significantly higher than that of control \\[(7.8 ± 0.7)%\\]. The relative expression levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein were 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.43 ± 0.05; the apoptotic Bim protein were 0.21 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.04 and 0.75 ± 0.05; the caspase-3 and caspase-9 were 0.92 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.07, 1.33 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.05, 0.53 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.07, respectively. Compared to the blank control group, all these changes were significant (P Kasumi-1 cells induced by PRF might correlate to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein in the cells. It seemed that all these effects had no relationship with the AML1-ETO fusion gene.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S.; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Rai, Ashok Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn). Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions) with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR) analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3) showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively. PMID:26870679

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of cetrimide and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm grown on dentin discs in comparison with NaOCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldas, Hilmi Egemen; Kececi, Ayse Diljin; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Ozturk, Tuba; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl, cetrimide, and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on dentine discs. Broth microdilution method was used to determine minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the agents. A biofilm susceptibility assay was performed using E. faecalis biofilms grown on dentine discs. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of NaOCl (0.5%), cetrimide (0.015%), and G. glabra L. extract (0.25%) were applied for 1, 3, and 5 min, and the mean viable cell counts were recorded and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between cetrimide and NaOCl at 1 min (p>0.05). NaOCl was the most effective agent at 3 and 5 min (pglabra L. extract was the least (pglabra that eliminated the planktonic E. faecalis did not eradicate the biofilms grown on dentin discs.

  20. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi

    2014-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  1. Phytocomplexes from liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) leaves--chemical characterization and evaluation of their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Cristani, Mariateresa; Cimino, Francesco; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Trombetta, Domenico; Rao, Felice; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Three extracts of different polarities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaves were characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity. In total, thirty components have been identified and quantified through the use of liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet-visible diode-array-detector (UV-vis-DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). The main components belong to the polyphenols family, being flavonoid and dihydrostilbene derivatives. The extracts have been investigated for their antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities, which are fundamental requirements of efficacious chemo-preventive agents. The ethyl acetate extract proved to be the most valuable, evidently for the conspicuous presence of several polyphenols, namely flavonoids and dihydrostilbenes.

  2. Rapid Propagation of Medicinal Glycyrrhiza In Vitro%药用甘草离体快速繁殖体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷呈

    2012-01-01

    筛选合适的甘草快速繁殖技术体系,为甘草的大规模生产生物活性物质、基因工程和人工制种奠定基础.以乌拉尔甘草、黄甘草和光果甘草为供试材料,以其子叶茎段和侧芽茎段作外植体,对影响甘草快速繁殖形成和发生的因素进行研究.结果显示乌拉尔甘草诱导的丛生苗数较多,是3个供试材料中最好的;甘草适宜的外植体是子叶茎段.利用甘草子叶茎段和侧芽茎段作外植体进行快速繁殖,具有生长周期短,再生频率高,适于规模化工厂生产.%To screen an appropriate system for rapid propagation of Glycyrrhiza, which is a basis for large-scale production of bioactive substances, genetic engineering and artificial seed. Using Glycyrrihiza uralensis, G. Korshinskyi and G. Glabra for test materials, with cotyledon stem and bud stem as explants, studying the influence factors for rapid propagation of Glycyrrhiza. The results showed that Glycyrrihiza uralensis -induced clusters seedlings are the best of three test materials, and the suitable explants are cotyledon stem. With cotyledon stem and bud stem as explants for rapid propagation,it has a short growth cycle,and high frequency of regeneration, and is suitable for large-scale production.

  3. Comparison of quality and yield of different genotype Glycyrrhiza uralensis%不同基因型甘草品质及产量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴娜; 张颖; 王景安

    2011-01-01

    A culture experiment was conducted to compare the quality and yield of different genotype Glycyrrhiza uralensis for selecting the fine licorice lines of G. uralensis by measuring the biomass, glycyrrhizic acid contents, flavoniods, polysaccharide, soluble sugars, amino acid and protein. This study showed that the yield and the glycyrrhizic acid content of the strains with good quality and high yield were 3 and 1.6 times that of the strains with poor quality and low yield, respectively. The comprehensive analysis showed that the plant height was not correlative relationship with the quality and stem color, while the yields of high-green plants were higher than that of low-purple ones.%以甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis)为试验材料,用营养液培养的方法,研究了不同基因型甘草生物量、甘草酸等药用成分及可溶性糖、氨基酸、蛋白质等含量的差异,为筛选优良甘草株系提供材料和科学依据。试验结果显示,选出的品质好、产量高的株系,其甘草酸含量是含量最低者的1.6倍,产量是最低产量株系的近3倍。综合分析认为,高大绿茎植株的产量高于矮小紫茎植株,但甘草品质的优劣与植株高矮及茎秆颜色没有必然联系。

  4. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  5. The anti-inflammatory secoiridoid glycosides from gentianae scabrae radix: the root and rhizome of Gentiana scabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Min; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; Kazuma, Kohei; Zou, Kun; Cai, Shao-Qing; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2015-07-01

    Gentianae Scabrae Radix is a well-known traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis and inflammatory diseases. It consists mainly of secoiridoid glycosides, with representatives of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarin. In the present study, a chemical investigation of the CHCl3 extract of Gentianae Scabrae Radix derived from Gentiana scabra Bunge yielded seven new (1-7) and ten known (8-17) secoiridoid glycosides. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. All 17 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against NO, IL-6 and TNF-α productions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264 cells. Among them, 8-epi-kingiside derivatives 1-3; kingiside derivatives 4, 5 and 10; and a sweroside derivative 6 showed inhibition activity against IL-6 production with IC50 values of 51.70-61.10 μM, whereas sweroside derivatives 12 and 15-17 and a swertiamarin derivative 13 showed inhibition effects on both NO and IL-6 productions with IC50 values of 64.74-94.95 and 48.91-75.45 μM, respectively. All the compounds exhibited weak inhibitory activity (IC50 > 100 μM) in a TNF-α bioassay. Finally, a primary structure-activity relationship of these secoiridoid glycosides is discussed.

  6. [Determination of 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Ling; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Guoxiang

    2015-08-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 99 pesticide residues with combination of solid-phase extraction technique ( SPE) and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS). The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The extract was determined by GC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and matrix-matched internal standard method was applied to quantify the pesticides. The results of all the 99 pesticides showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-0.25 mg/L, with correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.99. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.001-0.050 mg/kg. The recoveries were between 66.7% and 128.0% with RSD values typically lower than 18.3% at three spiked levels of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg. This method has been applied to determine thirteen batches of commercially available samples, chlorpyriphos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were detected in four batches of Paeoniae Radix Alba. The method is highly accurate, reliable and sensitive for monitoring the 99 pesticide residues in Paeoniae Radix Alba.

  7. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy.

  8. Field application of a set of cellular biomarkers in the digestive gland of the freshwater snail Radix peregra (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlet, Edwige [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ledy, Karine [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Giamberini, Laure [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: giamb@sciences.univ-metz.fr

    2006-04-20

    An active biomonitoring study was performed in the vicinity of two pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) released in two different streams in northeastern France. Freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (=Lymnaea peregra or Lymnaea pereger), were transplanted for 0, 3, 14 and 21 days at two to three sites located upstream and downstream from the mill discharge points in both rivers. Lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, as well as lipofuscin and neutral lipids, were tested using histochemical methods on cryostat sections of digestive gland tissues, and stereological data were obtained by image analysis. Evidence of structural changes in the lysosomal system was found in animals exposed to both effluents, comprising general stress responses such as enlarged and more numerous lysosomes; and also possible specific pluri-phasic effects. Modifications of the lysosomal and cytoplasmic contents of lipid-related materials were also described, namely enhanced lipofuscin deposit and neutral lipid depletion. The peroxisomal proliferation in exposed snails seems to show its implication in oxidative stress detoxication, without preventing higher lipoperoxidation, as indicated by the increased amounts of digestive lipofuscin. Structural changes of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, digestive lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents have potential for use as early cellular biomarkers in Radix peregra exposed to environmental stressors, which deserve further investigations.

  9. [LC-LTQ-Orbitrap analysis on chemical constituents in Scrophulariae Radix extract and their metabolites in rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duo-Duo; Pang, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Mei-Fang; Jian, Wei-Jie; Wang, Qin-Hui; Sun, Lu; Dong, Zi-Yi; Huang, Jian-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Chemical constituents in extract of Scrophulariae Radix and their metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration were identified by HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Samples were separated by a Venusil MP C₁₈ column using a binary gradient elution. The information on the total ion chromatogram, the extraction chromatogram and the mass spectrogram in a negative mode were synthetically analyzed by comparing the retention time, MS and MS/MS spectra with literature data and some of reference standards to conduct a qualitative study on constituents of Radix Scrophulariae extract in vivo and in vitro. Totally 37 compounds from Scrophularia ningpoensis extract were detected including 12 iridoid glycosides, 20 phenylpropanoids and 5 unknown compounds. In vivo, harpagide, harpagoside and angoroside C were confirmed to enter into the blood in prototype forms. Besides, another 2 prototype compounds and 2 metabolites were detected in rat plasma after oral administration of S. ningpoensis extract. The results are beneficial for the determination of bioactive substances of S. ningpoensis and significant for further studies on S. ningpoensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  11. Comparing the efficacy of morphologic and DNA-based taxonomy in the freshwater gastropod genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Bruno

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable taxonomic identification at the species level is the basis for many biological disciplines. In order to distinguish species, it is necessary that taxonomic characters allow for the separation of individuals into recognisable, homogeneous groups that differ from other such groups in a consistent way. We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditionally used shell morphology and DNA-based methods to distinguish among species of the freshwater snail genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata. Results Morphometric analysis showed that shell shape was unsuitable to define homogeneous, recognisable entities, because the variation was continuous. On the other hand, the Molecularly defined Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTU, inferred from mitochondrial COI sequence variation, proved to be congruent with biological species, inferred from geographic distribution patterns, congruence with nuclear markers and crossing experiments. Moreover, it could be shown that the phenotypically plastic shell variation is mostly determined by the environmental conditions experienced. Conclusion Contrary to DNA-taxonomy, shell morphology was not suitable for delimiting and recognising species in Radix. As the situation encountered here seems to be widespread in invertebrates, we propose DNA-taxonomy as a reliable, comparable, and objective means for species identification in biological research.

  12. 甘草对大鼠小肠运动功能影响的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Effect of Glycyrrhiza on Small Intestine Mitility in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻庆英; 周怀君; 窦国祥; 杨德治; 魏义全

    2000-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to observe the effect of glycyrrhiza. on migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in small intestine in rats and to investigate the mechanism through which the effect oecours. Methods Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into bethanoechol group and glycyrrhiza group. MMC in small intestine in rats was measured be fore and after drug administration. Another 20 rats were randomly divided into normal control group and glycyrrhiza group. The content of 5-hydroxyptamine(5-HT) in enteroehromaffin cell(EC) and enteric nervous system(ENS) was measured by immunohistoehemical method in the two groups and the immunoreactivity in EC and ENS was determined quantatatively by microspectrophotometry. Results G lycyrrhiza inhibited and guarded against the contration of duodenum and jejunum induced by bethanechol. The content of 5-HT in EC and ENS in glycyrrhiza group was significantly lower than that of normal control group ( P < 0.05) .The inhibition of MMC in small intestine in the rat was caused by the glycyrrhiza which inhibits the 5-HT secretion by phenoehromoeytes and the level of 5-HT in ENS. Conclusion One of the mechanisms of glycyrrhiza inhibiting MMC in duodenum and jejunum in the rats may be involved in postsynaptic inhibition induced by M-receptor. The another mechanism of glycyrrhiza inhibition MMC in small intestine was that the secretion of 5-HT in EC and the content of 5-HT in ENS were decrcased by glycyrrhiza. Thus the inhibition of the MMC in small intestine occurs.%目的:观察甘草对大鼠小肠移行性综合肌电(MMC)的影响,并探讨其作用机制。方法:20只SD大鼠平分为氨甲酰甲胆碱组和甘草组,用药前后检测小肠的电活动,以MMC活动周期、Ⅲ相持续时间为指标分析小肠电活动状态。另20只SD大鼠平分为正常组和甘草组,用免疫组织化学法检测小肠嗜铬细胞及小肠神经系统(ENS)中5-HT的含量,用显微分光光度计对免疫染

  13. 甘草多糖超声辅助提取工艺优化及分子表征%Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction Optimization of Glycyrrhiza Polysaccharide and Its Molecular Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培新; 吴双双; 林莉; 闵玉涛; 许春平

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the ultrasonic assisted extraction conditions of glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were opti-mized and its molecular weight and structure were investigated. The single-factor experiment was used to deter mine the optimum conditions:ultrasonic power 500 W, liquid/solid ratio 20∶1 (mL/g), ultrasonic time 60 min, temperature 60℃. The monosaccharide composition of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide was analyzed by GC/MS. The result showed that the artificial and wild glycyrrhiza monosaccharide components was primarily contained man-nose and glucose, also including arabinose, ribose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, indicating that artificial and wild glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were acidic polysaccharides. Finally, the gly-cyrrhiza polysaccharides were purified and two fractions was obtained. The relative molecular weight of artificial glycyrrhiza polysaccharides were 212 ku and 25.1 ku, respectively, while relative molecular weight of wild gly-cyrrhiza polysaccharides were 34.1 ku and 0.1 ku, respectively. This study provides a theoretical basis for the bioactivity investigation and application of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide.%优化超声辅助提取甘草多糖的条件,并对甘草多糖的分子量和结构进行了研究。单因素实验确定最佳提取条件为:设定超声功率500 W时,液料比为20∶1(mL/g),超声时间60 min,温度60℃。应用GC/MS对甘草多糖进行单糖组分分析,得出人工与野生甘草多糖的单糖组分主要是甘露糖和葡萄糖,另外还含有阿拉伯糖、核糖、木糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,说明人工与野生甘草多糖均为酸性多糖。最后利用Sepharose CL-6B层析柱对甘草多糖进行分离纯化,测得人工甘草两个多糖组分相对分子量分别为212 ku和25.1 ku,野生甘草多糖两个组分的相对分子量分别为34.1 ku和0.1 ku。本研究为甘草多糖的生物活性研究和应用提供了理论基础。

  14. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  15. 广西产郁金的薄层色谱鉴别%Identification of Different Varieties of Radix Curcumae by TLC/Yang Shilian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世联

    2012-01-01

      建立郁金药材薄层鉴别方法。采用薄层色谱法鉴别郁金类药材中姜黄素、去甲氧基姜黄素、双去甲氧基姜黄素。采用薄层色谱法鉴别3种成分斑点清晰,专属性强。该方法专属性强,可用于郁金的质量控制。%  Objective:To establish a way for the identification of different varieties of Radix Curcumae by TLC. Methods:TLC was applied to the identification of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin of Radix Curcuma. Results:The spots in the pictures of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were fairly clear. Conclusion:TLC is a very helpful way to the identification of Radix Curcumae. It can be used in the quality control of Radix Curcumae1.

  16. Palaeartic gastropod gains a foothold in the dominion of endemics: range expansion and morphological change of Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia in Lake Baikal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stift, M.; Michel, E.; Sitnikova, N.L.; Mamonova, Y.; Sherbakov, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In and around the endemic-dominated Lake Baikal, palaearctic species are generally restricted to shallow, sheltered bays and in- and out-flowing river floodplains. However, we observed populations of the palaearctic snail Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia on the steep, rocky littoral of Lake Baikal

  17. Palaeartic gastropod gains a foothold in the dominion of endemics: range expansion and morphological change of Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia in Lake Baikal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stift; E. Michel; N.L. Sitnikova; Y. Mamonova; D.Y. Sherbakov

    2004-01-01

    In and around the endemic-dominated Lake Baikal, palaearctic species are generally restricted to shallow, sheltered bays and in- and out-flowing river floodplains. However, we observed populations of the palaearctic snail Lymnaea (Radix) auricularia on the steep, rocky littoral of Lake Baikal proper

  18. A B rief Analysis of Miu Xi-yong's Using Radix Paeoniae Alba to Pacify Liver%缪希雍白芍平肝法浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓寅; 陆海峰; 俞欣玮

    2014-01-01

    明代医家缪希雍善用白芍,其白芍平肝法更是独具特色,该方法被广泛运用并贯穿其整个医学理论体系,对后世关于白芍的应用研究产生了极大影响。本文通过其临证用药组进行分析,探讨了其白芍平肝法的具体运用。%Ming dynasty Medical scientist Miu Xi -yong was skillful in using radix paeoniae alba ,and his theory of using radix paeoniae alba to pacify liver was distinctive.Radix paeoniae alba's efficacy of pacifying liver had been widely used and run through his complete medical theory system .It had an enormous impact for later generations .By means of analyzing his art of constructing prescriptions ,this article discussed Miu Xi-yong using radix paeoniae alba to pacify liver .

  19. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  20. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription.

  1. 防风挥发油的气相色谱指纹图谱研究%Study on GC Fingerprint of Essential Oil from Radix Saposhnikoviae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴静波; 张雅娟; 周俊慧

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立防风挥发油指纹图谱的研究方法.方法 用水蒸气蒸馏法提取,采用程序升温对11 批防风油的气相色谱进行分析,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术鉴定其指纹特征峰,并用聚类分析法比较.结果 11 批防风饮片的挥发油相似度较高.结论 本方法准确可靠,较为简便,所建立的指纹图谱特征明显,可作为防风药材的质量控制方法之一.%Objective To study and establish the GC fingerprint of essential oil from Radix Saposhnikoviae. Methods Eleven batches of essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, then separated by capillary gas chromatography. GC of the essential oil in eleven batches of Radix Saposhnikoviae was analyzed by adopting temperature programmer, the fingerprint peaks were identified by GC-MS method and compared by cluster analysis. Results The similarity of eleven batches of Radix Saposhnikoviae was high. Conclusion The method is simple, precise and reliable. The established fingerprints can be used as one of the quality control index for Radix Saposhnikoviae.

  2. 正交试验优选紫草凝胶提取工艺%Optimization of the Extraction Technology of Radix Arnebiae Gel by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万华; 刘洁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize the extraction technology of Radix Arnebiae gel.METHODS: Orthogonal design was carried out to optimize the extraction technology of Radix Arnebiae gel using the concentration and amount of ethanol and extraction time as factors and using the content of shikonin as index.RESULTS: The optimal extracting technology was as follows: 16-folds 95% alcohol for 3 hours.The content of L-shikonin was 5.672 mg·g-1.CONCLUSION: The extraction of L-shikonin is stable and feasible for the extraction of Radix Arnebiae from Radix Arnebiae gel.%目的:优选紫草凝胶中紫草的提取工艺.方法:以乙醇浓度、乙醇用量、浸出时问为考察因素,以左旋紫草素含量为评价指标,采用正交试验优选紫草凝胶中紫草的提取工艺.结果:优选的工艺为用16倍药材量的95%乙醇提取3h,左旋紫草素含量为5.672 mg·g-1药材.结论:该工艺稳定、可行,可用于紫草凝胶中紫草的提取.

  3. 甘草%Licorice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Alcacua, Alcazuz, Chinese Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glycyrrhiza, Lakritze, Licorice Root, Liquiritiae radix, Liquirizia, Liquorice, Orozuz, Phytoestrogen,Reglisse, Regliz, Russian Licorice, Spanish Licorice,Subholz, Sweet Root.

  4. 中药百部的主要药效学观察%PHARMACODYNAMIC OBSERVATION ON RADIX STEMONAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琳; 冯启荣; 苏静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索百部的药理作用,评价其有效性,为临床应用提供依据。方法分别采用小鼠氨水引咳法观察百部的止咳作用,在体豚鼠喷雾致喘法观察百部的平喘作用,大鼠毛细管排痰实验观察百部的祛痰作用,小鼠耳壳肿胀法观察百部的抗炎作用,小鼠常压耐缺氧实验观察百部的抗应激作用。结果百部能延长小鼠浓氨水引咳的潜伏期,减少咳嗽次数;增加大鼠毛细管排痰量;对乙酰胆碱和组胺所致豚鼠呼吸困难无显著缓解,不能有效延长引喘潜伏期;对二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓炎症有一定抑制作用;对小鼠常压缺氧耐受力无明显影响。结论百部具有良好的止咳、化痰作用和较弱的抗炎作用。%Objective To observe the pharmacological actions of radix stemonae ,evaluate its effective-ness and to provide the basis for its clinical application .Methods Coughing mice induced by ammonia water was used to study the antitussive effect of radix stemonae .The asthma model in vivo guinea pig was used to observe the antiasthmatic effect of radix stemonae .The effect of eliminating phlegm on rat capillary was observed .The anti-inflammatory effect on external ear swelling model was also observed .The hypoxia tol-erance experiment on mouse was used to observe anti-stress effect of radix stemonae .Results s Stemona could prolong the incubation period of cough induced by ammonia ,decrease the frequency of cough ,in-crease the amount of the rat dispelling phlegm .No significant response to breathing difficulties occurred in guinea pigs induced by histamine and acetylcholine ,but could not effectively prolong the incubation period of asthma .It had certain inhibition effect on the ear inflammation induced by Xylene ,but no obvious effect on the hypoxic stress tolerance in mice .Conclusion Radix stemonae has antitussive effect ,the phlegm re-duction effect and weak anti-inflammatory effect .

  5. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  6. Evolutionary specializations of human association cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, R.B.; Passingham, R.E.; Neubert, F.X.; Verhagen, L.; Sallet, J.

    2017-01-01

    Is the human brain a big ape brain? We argue that the human association cortex is larger than would be expected for an equivalent ape brain, suggesting human association cortex is a unique adaptation. The internal organization of the human association cortex shows modifications of the ape plan in

  7. Study Development on Cognitive Benefits of Radix Polygalae%中药远志改善记忆障碍研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫微; 林志宏

    2012-01-01

    远志是临床上最为常用的益志中草药之一,可单用于轻度记忆障碍患者的饮食治疗.近20年来,国内外学者在分子、细胞、组织与整体4个药理学层次及提取物、部位与成分3个化学水平,对远志改善学习记忆障碍的药效作用、物质基础及其作用机制进行了系统而深入的探讨,初步揭示出远志改善学习记忆的临床应用,源于其多成分、多途径、多机制的整合效应.%Radix polygalae is the root Polygala tenuifolia Willd. or P. sibirica L. (Fam. Polygalaceae). In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Radix polygalae is one of vital ingredients most frequently used for mental health during the past 1800 years. Based on the history of human using, there is a hypothesis that Radix polygalae can improve memory. Recently, BT-11, the extract of dried root of Radix polygalae, was developed in Korea as a functional diet with cognition enhancing activity. Over the past decades, a number of animal studies also sustained that Radix polygalae extracts are able to improve learning and memory in innate aging and Alzheimer's disease laboratory models. Its nootropic effects were attributed to AChE inhibitory, anti-oxidant and neuro-genetic activities. Phytochemically, tenuigenin, a principal fraction, is probably responsible for the cognitive benefits delivered by Radix polygalae. A variety of mechanisms of action (MOA) were underlied hereof including cholinergic, antiox-idant, neurogenetic, and anti-A?activities. Furthermore, tenuifolin, sinapic acid, and onjisaponins have been isolated and identified as active components behind. To sum up, it is concluded that Radix polygalae is likely to exert a holistic memory-improving effect due to multiple MOA and actives.

  8. Study on Hard Seed Treatment Method of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides%光果甘草和苦豆子硬实种子处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提; 卡德尔·阿布都热西提

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, different treatment conditions on Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides seed and treatment effect were studied.The results showed that: the seeds soaked in water 5 days imbibition rate was very low,the hard rate was very high.With sulfuric acid to soak 1 to 1.5 hours could reduce the rate of hard seed,and the germination rate was the highest,the seed germination rate was 98% and 100% of Glycyrrhiza glabra ,Sophora alopecuroides respectively,followed by GA treatment, and the wear treatment was the third.%在不同处理条件下,对光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.和苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)硬实种子处理效果进行了研究.结果表明:用水浸泡5 d的种子吸胀率很低,硬实率很高,用硫酸处理1~1.5 h减少硬实率、提高发芽率的效果最好,光果甘草和苦豆子种子发芽率分别可以提高到98%和100%,其次是赤霉素处理,磨损种皮处理效果为第三.

  9. 葛根饮片及提取物质量评价研究进展%Progress of quality evaluation of Radix Pueraria herbal medicine and extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘亮亮; 钟凌云

    2013-01-01

    葛根为豆科葛属多年生落叶藤本植物野葛Pueraria lobata (willd.) Ohwi的干燥根,其化学成分含有葛根素、大豆苷、黄豆苷等.葛根具有解肌退热、透发麻疹、生津止渴、升阳止泻、通经活络、解酒毒等功效.由于当前市场流通的葛根药材品种繁多,并且评价葛根药材质量的标准过于局限,为了更好地评价葛根的质量,保证药材及其产品的疗效,本文从葛根饮片及其提取物两个方面,对葛根质量控制及评价方法的研究进展作一综述.%Radix Puerariae as leguminous plant is a kind of perennial deciduous vines Pueraria Lobata (willd.) Ohwi dry root, whose chemical ingredient contains pue, daidzin and so on. Radix Puerariae has the functions of calming rednessand banishing blotchiness, promoting eruption, helping produce saliva and slake thirst, antidiarrhealing, activating collaterals, anti-inebriation, and so on. For pueraria medicinal materials use a great variety of ingredients in the current market, and evaluation of puerarin medicine quality standard is too limited. However, to evaluate the quality of Radix Puerariae better and ensure the effect of product and medicine, this paper should be done in two aspects. One is Radix Puerariae decoction pieces, and another is its extract, which studies about controlling the quality of Radix Puerariae and method of evaluation.

  10. Comparison of protocatechuic aldchyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Lv; Xi-Xian Yao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of protocatechuic aldchyde on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Then normal and fibrotic drug sera were extracted from rats. The effects of protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza on HSC growth were determined by CCK-8. The protocatechuic aldchyde was separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a Alltima C18 column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-4% glacial acetic acid solution (gradient elution) at the wavelength of 281 nm.RESULTS: Protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza were found to have inhibitory effects on proliferation of rat HSCs. Raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza had a stronger inhibitory effect than the drug sera. The fibrotic drug sera showed a higher suppressive effect than the normal drug sera (P < 0.05). Protocatechuic aldchyde was found in crude materials of both Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its corresponding drug sera. The average recovery (n = 6)was 110.5% for raw Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, 102% for normal drug sera and 105.2% for fibrotic drug sera.The relative standard devitation (RSD) was 0.37%,1.96% and 1.51%, respectively (n=6). The contents of protocatechuic aldchyde were 0.22%, 0.15% and 0.19%,respectively (n=6) (P<0.05). The RSD was 0.33%,0.75% and 1.24% (n =6) for raw material of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, normal drug sera and fibrotic drug sera,respectively. The samples were stable for 6 d.CONCLUSION: Protocatechuic aldchyde can inhibit the growth of HSCs. HPLC is suitable for the determination of virtual bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicines in vitro.

  11. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  12. Cardiovascular actions of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae: a comparison with its main component, tetrandrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tak-Ming WONG; Song WU; Song WU; Xiao-Chun YU; Xiao-Chun YU; Hong-Yu LI

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of the cardiovascular actions of the extract of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae (RST), the root of a Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S Moore, in rots with those of tetrandrine (Tet), the best known active component of RST was reviewed. The RST extract in hibits Ca2 + influx into the myocyte and reduces protein release during reperfusion with a Ca2 + containing solution following perfusion with a Ca2 + free solution (Ca2 + paradox), and arrhythmia during reperfusion in the isolated perfused heart. It also reduces the infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the RST extxact suppresses elevation of arterial blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. It does not further reduce the heart rate and coronary flow significantly during myocardial ischemia. The effects are similar to those of Tet. When compared with the same doses of Tet alone, the RST extract, of which 9 % is Tet, produces equally potent effects on infarction, arrhythmias, coronary flow and heart rate, and has a greater inhibitory effect on protein release during Ca2 + paradox. The combination at 1:1 ratio of Tet and fangchinoline (Fan), another main component, which constitutes 6 % of the RST extract and has no significant effects on the heart, produces comparable effects on protein release during Ca2 + paradox as Tet alone. The observations suggest that the efficacy of the RST extract cannot be accounted for by Tet alone. Some of the effects may be due to an interaction between the components of the extract. The RST extract also produces similar effects as verapamil, a prototype Ca2 + channel antagonist widely used in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases and hypertension, except that verapamil, at 1 μmol/L, a concentration that produces similar cardiac effects as the RST extract, further reduces heart rate significantly during ischemia. So the RST extract may be a therapeutically better agent in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases and

  13. Effects and its possible mechanism of Radix Saposhnikoviae on rat colonic smooth muscle in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenqing Liu; Tao Lü; Ping Hu; Muxin Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of different concentrations of Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS) on the contraction of smooth muscle strips and the Ca2. mobilization of cultured smooth muscle cells of rat colon and its possible mechanism of action. Methods: Strips of rat colon longitudinal muscle were prepared and smooth muscle cells from rat colon were isolated and cultured. In the experiments, in vitro muscle strips were suspended in an organ bath and the contraction of the strips was recorded. In the cell-experiments, intracellular Ca2+ was assessed using fluorescent intensity (FI) of smooth muscle cells loaded with Fluo-4/AM, measured with a laser scanning confocal microscope and related software. Results: In the in vitro experiment, RS (0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L) inhibited contraction of muscle strips in a concentration-dependent manner, and this inhibition was significant for the three higher RS concentrations (P < 0.01) for both Peak (the maximal contraction amplitude) and Area (the area under curves), Similarly, RS inhibited Ach-induced contraction. In these experiments the inhibition of the Peak values in the RS 2 and 20 g/L groups was significant (P < 0.01), as was the inhibition of the Area values in all RS groups (P < 0.05). Naloxone and propranolol did not significantly affect the inhibitory effect of RS on smooth muscle contractility, while phentolamine significantly reduced the inhibitory effect (P < 0.01). In experiments using primary smooth muscle cell cultures in Ca2+-containing buffer, the post-treatment fluorescence of cells in the RS 0.2, 2 and 20 g/L groups differed significantly from pre-treatment values (P < 0.05), and the percent inhibition of fluorescence in the RS 2 g/L and 20 g/L groups was significant (P < 0.01). However, in Ca2+-free buffer, FS had no significant effect on cell fluorescence. Conclusion: RS inhibited both the spontaneous and Ach-stimulated contraction of rat colonic smooth muscle strips. This RS effect appeared to involve a

  14. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  15. Simultaneous separation and determination of four main isoflavonoids in Astragali Radix by an isocratic LC/ESI-MS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉林; 梁逸曾; 张洁; 冯晓亮; 葛承胜; 黄兰芳

    2016-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid isocratic liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometric detection (MS) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) method for simultaneous separation and determination of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formonometin in Astragali Radix was developed. After the samples were extracted with ethanol, the optimum separation conditions for these analytes were achieved using water and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) containing 0.2% (v/v) acetic acid as a mobile phase and a 2.0 mm×150 mm Hypersil-Keystone C18 column. Selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and [M+H]+ ions atm/z 447, 431, 285 and 269 were used for quantitative analysis of four main active components above mentioned. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4−175.0μg/mL for calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, 0.2−146.0μg/mL for ononin, 0.4−210.0μg/mL for calycosin and 0.5−217.0μg/mL for formonetion, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were 0.4μg/mLand 0.08μg/mL for calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, 0.2 μg/mLand 0.06 μg/mL for ononin, 0.4μg/mL and 0.1μg/mL for calycosin, 0.5μg/mL and 0.1μg/mL formonetion, respectively. The standard recoveries were in the range of 96.5%−104.7%. The developed method has successfully been used for the determination of four main flavonoids in Astragali Radix from various sources and can be used for identification, differentiation and quality evaluation of Astragali Radix.

  16. Comparative metabolism of Radix scutellariae extract by intestinal bacteria from normal and type 2 diabetic mice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhao, Min; Qian, Dawei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-ao; Du, Leyue

    2014-04-28

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for several thousand years. TCM has played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of disease, especially the complicated and chronic ones. In TCMs, many ingredients which are known to have biological effects just pass through the gut, they do not get into the bloodstream. Study on interactions of these active ingredients with the intestinal bacteria is very helpful to unravel how TCM works. Radix scutellariae was widely used alone or in combination with other medicinal herbs to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus for a long time in China even in Asia. Additionally, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is closely related to the changes of intestinal flora. In this paper, the metabolism of baicalin in Radix scutellariae extract by normal and type 2 diabetic mice intestinal bacteria were firstly investigated. Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) technique combined with Metabolynx(TM) software was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of baicalin in Radix scutellariae extracts by the intestinal bacteria from normal and type 2 diabetic mice. The amount of baicalin׳s aglycone (baicalein) in type 2 diabetic mice samples were remarkably more than that in normal mice samples and oroxylin A only existed in type 2 diabetic mice samples. Intestinal bacteria produced not only a small amount of baicalein, but also some conjugates such as hydrogenated baicalin and methylated baicalin. We proposed that β-d-glucuronidases contributed to the deglycosylation prior to absorption. Intestinal bacteria from pathological state mice produced more baicalein, which was well absorbed contributing to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the pharmacological effects of oroxylin A were associated with type 2 diabetes. Hence, the production of metabolites of baicalin might influence the effects of traditional medicines. Thus the

  17. Comparative analysis of essential oils found in Rhizomes Curcumae and Radix Curcumae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di-Ya Lu; Yan Cao; Ling Li; Zhen-Yu Zhu; Xin Dong; Hai Zhang; Yi-Feng Chai; Zi-Yang Lou

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the volatile compounds in Rhizomes Curcumae (Ezhu) and Radix Curcumae (Yujin) was undertaken using gas chromatography mass spectrometi-y (GC-MS). Ultrasonic extraction and GC-MS methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes, namely, α-pinene, β-elemene, curcumol, germacrone and curdione, in Ezhu and Yunjin. Good linearity (r〉0.999) and high inter-day precision were observed over the investigated concentration ranges. The validated method was successfully used for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes in Ezhu and Yujin. The quantitative method can be effectively used to evaluate and monitor the quality of Chinese curcuma in clinical use.

  18. Comparative Observation on the Effects of Radix Tripterygium Hypoglaucum Tablet and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet in Treating Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Li-mei; QI Xiang-min

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effects of Radix Tripterygium hypoglaucum tablet (THT) and Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) in treating erosive oral lichen planus( EOLP). Methods: The patients were randomized into two groups, and they were treated with THT ( n = 47) or TGT ( n = 47), respectively. The therapeutic effects were evaluated after 3 months treatment. Results: For the patients of grade 1, the total efficacy in TGT group was 85.71%, compared with 52.38% in THT group, the efficacy was statistically greater in the group receiving TGT (P = 0. 043). However, for the patients of grade 2, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0. 173). Conclusion: TGT is more effective in treating EOLP than THT for grade 1 patients. However, TGT is. not suitable for patients of child bearing age.

  19. Analysis of Fast Radix-10 Digit Recurrence Algorithms for Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Dividers on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Baesler

    2013-01-01

    and decimal formats, for instance, commercial, financial, and insurance applications. In this paper we present five different radix-10 digit recurrence dividers for FPGA architectures. The first one implements a simple restoring shift-and-subtract algorithm, whereas each of the other four implementations performs a nonrestoring digit recurrence algorithm with signed-digit redundant quotient calculation and carry-save representation of the residuals. More precisely, the quotient digit selection function of the second divider is implemented fully by means of a ROM, the quotient digit selection function of the third and fourth dividers are based on carry-propagate adders, and the fifth divider decomposes each digit into three components and requires neither a ROM nor a multiplexer. Furthermore, the fixed-point divider is extended to support IEEE 754-2008 compliant decimal floating-point division for decimal64 data format. Finally, the algorithms have been synthesized on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, and implementation results are given.

  20. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liu, Xin; Fan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS), has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE) alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling. PMID:28507819

  1. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS, has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling.

  2. 三叶青多糖抗肝损伤作用的研究%Anti - liver Damage Activity Analysis of Polysaccharide in Radix Tetrastigmatis Hemsleyani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丹丹; 李伟平; 马哲龙; 何良艳; 蒋福升; 丁志山

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定三叶青中多糖的含量,并研究三叶青多糖抗四氯化碳(CCl4)致急性肝损伤的作用.方法 采用硫酸-苯酚法测定三叶青多糖的含量,然后将ICR小鼠随机分为5组,即空白组、模型对照组、阳性对照组,三叶青多糖高、低剂量组,分别灌胃等容积的生理盐水、联苯双酯和三叶青多糖,给药一段时间后给小鼠腹腔注射四氯化碳致其肝损伤,检测其血清中谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、丙二醛(MDA)及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)水平.结果 三叶青中多糖的含量为8.69%;与模型组比较,三叶青多糖治疗组ALT、AST及MDA含量均明显降低(P<0.01),而SOD水平显著提高(P<0.01).结论 三叶青多糖对CCl4造成的小鼠急性肝损伤具有阻抗作用.%Objective To determine the content of polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyani, then to observe the effects of polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyan on acute liver injury in mice. Methods The content of polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyani was determined by phenol - sulfuric acid method. Then 40 mice of ICR species into were randomly divided 5 groups; blank control group, model group, positive control group, lowdose group and highdose group. These mice were given physiological saline, bifendate and polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyani by intragastric administration every day. After a week,carbon tetrachloride was injected to cause liver injury in mice. Then serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ,aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , malondialde-hyde( MDA) and uperoxide dismutase( SOD) levels was determined. Results The content of polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyani was 8. 69% . Compared with model group, ALT, AST and MDA levels were significantly reduced(P<0.01) ,while SOD levels were significantly increased in treatment group of polysaccharide(P<0.01). Conclusion Polysaccharide in radix tetrastigmatis hemsleyani has good

  3. Pharmacokinetic characterization of oxymatrine and matrine in rats after oral administration of radix Sophorae tonkinensis extract and oxymatrine by sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lan; Dong, Ling-Na; Peng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Ye; Shi, Jian; Zhou, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of radix Sophorae tonkinensis (S. tonkinensis) using oxymatrine (OMT) and matrine (MT) as the target markers (2 mg/kg OMT and 1.3 mg/kg MT, oral administration). The PK characteristics in radix S. tonkinensis extracts were also compared with those of pure OMT. A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed. OMT absorption was very fast, and no significant differences were observed (p>0.05) in tmax, CL, and t1/2 for both pure OMT and extracts. Cmax and AUC0→∞ of pure OMT were significantly higher than those of S. tonkinensis extracts (Cmax, 61.64±6.65 vs. 43.24±10.14 ng/mL; AUC, 9894.48±2234.99 vs. 4730.30±3503.8 min ng/mL) (pOMT bioavailability of pure OMT was higher than that of the compound in radix S. tonkinensis extracts (6.79±2.52% vs. 1.87±2.66%). By contrast, the bioavailability of total alkaloids (OMT+MT) after pure OMT administration was 81.14±8.83%, similar to that of radix S. tonkinensis extracts (69.36±17.37%) (p>0.05). It was presumed that OMT absorption has no effect on the bioavailability of the two alkaloids. Other constituents in radix S. tonkinensis extracts can influence the transformation of OMT to MT, which directly leads to variations in the PK behavior of OMT. In addition, the protein binding of OMT and MT in plasma was very low (4.80%-8.95% for OMT, 5.10-10.55% for MT). In conclusion, OMT in radix S. tonkinensis extracts exhibits different PK behaviors with pure OMT through the transformation of OMT to MT due to other complex ingredients.

  4. 地榆中鞣质含量的测定%Determination of Tannins in RADIX SANGUISORBAE by UV Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斯玮

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To establish a method for the determination of tannins in RADIX SANGUISOKBAE, so as to further control the quality of semi-finished tannin products. [Method] With gallic acid as reference substance, the UV spectrophotometry was adopted to determine the content of tannins, and inspect the methodology. [ Result] With gallic acid as standard to calculate, tannins presented good linearity with ab- sorbance at the concentration range of 1. 02 - 10. 14 礸/ml. The precision, reproducibility and recovery all met the requirements, and the ab- sorbance was stable within the 40 minutes after the color reaction. [ Conclusion ] This method is simple, rapid and accurate, thus it can be used to measure the content of tannins in RADIX SANGUIDORBAE.%[目的]建立地榆鞣质的含量测定方法,为进一步控制地榆鞣质半成品质量提供保证.[方法]以没食子酸为对照品,采用UV法测定地榆鞣质的含量,并进行方法学考察.[结果]以没食子酸计,地榆鞣质浓度在1.02 ~ 10.14 μg/ml范围内与吸光度成良好的线性关系;精密度、重现性和回收率均符合要求,显色后40 min内吸光度值稳定.[结论]该方法简便快速准确,可用于地榆鞣质的含量测定.

  5. Triterpenoid saponins from Cortex Albiziae

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Kun; Zhao, Yuying

    2004-01-01

    Cortex Albiziae, the dried stem bark of a leguminous plant, Albizia julibrissin Durazz, was specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edit.) as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used.to relieve melancholia and uneasiness of body and mind, to invigorate the circulation of blood and subside a swelling. In a course of our quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines, the n-BuOH soluble part of 95% EtOH extracts from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin was subjected to a series of sol...

  6. Protective effect of Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi capsule on colon of rat depression model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-Hua Wang; Hai-Yan Dong; Wei-Guo Dong; Xiao-Ping Wang; He-Sheng Luo; Jie-Ping Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the abnormity of rat colon caused by depression and the ameliorative effects of Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi (RAS) capsule on colon and their mechanisms in rat depression model.METHODS: Chronic stress-induced model of depression of Wistar rats was produced. The experimental animals were randomly divided into model control, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy group and three RAS capsule therapy groups. These five groups were intracolonically treated daily (8:00 a.m.) for 2 wk with normal saline, 5-ASA(100 mg/ kg) and RAS capsule at the doses of 300, 600and 900 mg/kg, respectively. A normal control group of rats was also included in the study. Colonic activities of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and indudble nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colonic tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Enhanced colon inflammatory response and oxidative stress were observed in the chronic stressinduced rat depression model, which manifested as the significant increase of MDA, iNOS and NO levels, as well as the expressions of COX-2 in the colon tissue, but the colonic SOD activity was significantly decreased compared with the normal control (MDA: 10.34±2.77 vs 2.55±0.70;iNOS: 1.11±0.44 vs0.25±0.16; COX2:53.26±8.16 vs4.87±1.65; NO: 11.28±5.66 vs 4.76±1.55; SOD: 53.39±11.15vs 84.45±22.31; P<0.01). However, these parameters were significantly ameliorated in rats treated locally with RAS capsule at the doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg(iNOS: 0.65±0.31, 0.58±0.22 and 0.64±0.33; NO: 5.99±2.73,6.87±1.96 and 6.50±1.58; MDA: 2.92±0.75, 3.19±1.08and 3.26±1.24; SOD: 70.81±12.36, 73.30±15.30 and69.09±11.03, respectively). The expressions of COX-2 in the colon were significantly ameliorated (28.83±9.48 and27.04±9.56, respectively) when RAS capsule was administered at the doses of 600 and 900 mg

  7. KIOM-79, an Inhibitor of AGEs–Protein Cross-linking, Prevents Progression of Nephropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs have been implicated in the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. KIOM-79, an 80% ethanolic extract obtained from parched Puerariae Radix, gingered Magnolia Cortex, Glycyrrhiza Radix and Euphorbia Radix, was investigated for its effects on the development of renal disease in Zucker diabetic fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. In vitro inhibitory effect of KIOM-79 on AGEs cross-linking was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg/day was given to Zucker diabetic fatty rats for 13 weeks. Body and kidney weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, urinary albumin and creatinine excretions were monitored. Kidney histopathology, collagen accumulation, fibrinogen and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 expression were also examined. KIOM-79 reduced blood glucose, kidney weight, histologic renal damage and albuminuria in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. KIOM-79 prevented glomerulosclerosis, tubular degeneration, collagen deposition and podocyte apoptosis. In the renal cortex, TGF-β1, fibronectin mRNA and protein were significantly reduced by KIOM-79 treatment. KIOM-79 reduces AGEs accumulation in vivo, AGE–protein cross-linking and protein oxidation. KIOM-79 could be beneficial in preventing the progression of diabetic glomerularsclerosis in type 2 diabetic rats by attenuating AGEs deposition in the glomeruli.

  8. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  9. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  10. Licocalchone-C extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits lipopolysaccharide-interferon-γ inflammation by improving antioxidant conditions and regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Sara; Pesce, Mirko; Vinciguerra, Isabella; Ferrone, Alessio; Riccioni, Graziano; Patruno, Antonia; Grilli, Alfredo; Felaco, Mario; Speranza, Lorenza

    2011-07-06

    The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia) cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B), by influencing extracellular O₂⁻ production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  11. 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone from Glycyrrhiza glabra as a new specific BACE1 inhibitor efficiently ameliorates memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Li, Chenjing; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chen, Jing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterizes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, while AD patients are afflicted with irreversible loss of neurons and further the intellectual abilities including memory and reasoning. One of the typical hallmarks of AD is the deposition of senile plaque that is contributed mainly by amyloid-beta (Abeta), whose production is initiated by beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Inhibition of BACE1 is thereby regarded as an attractive strategy for anti-AD drug discovery. Here, we reported that the natural product 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone (TDC) from Glycyrrhiza glabra functioned as a specific non-competitive inhibitor against BACE1 enzyme, and potently repressed beta-cleavage of APP and production of Abeta in human embryo kidney cells-APPswe cells. Moreover, the amelioration ability of this compound against the in vivo memory impairment was further evaluated by APP-PS1 double transgenic mice model. It is discovered that treatment of 9 mg/kg/day of TDC could obviously decrease Abeta production and Abeta plaque formation, while efficiently improve the memory impairment based on Morris water maze test. Our findings thus demonstrated that the natural product TDC as a new BACE1 inhibitor could ameliorate memory impairment in mice, and is expected to be potentially used as a lead compound for further anti-AD reagent development.

  12. Effects of ethanol extracts in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Eidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae is a well-known herb that it used in traditional medicine due to pharmacological activities. Licorice in herbal medicine is used as a tonic, expectorant and demulcent factor. This plant has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-allergenic and anti-ulcer activities. The aim of present study was to, comparisons of effect of ethanol extracts licorice root with glibenclamide on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral administration of licorice extract (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg per body wt. and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg were performed as the standard antidiabetic medicine, during 30 days. Then, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in normal and diabetic rats were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-10 software and the ANOVA test was used. Results: Oral administrations of licorice extract significantly decreased activity of AST and ALT in serum of diabetic rats but not in normal rats. The licorice extract as same as glibenclamide significantly decreased activity of liver enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded that the licorice can be considered as a suitable candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  13. Licocalchone-C Extracted from Glycyrrhiza Glabra Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Interferon-γ Inflammation by Improving Antioxidant Conditions and Regulating Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Felaco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Glycyrrhiza consists of about 30 species, amoung these, G. glabra is the source of several phenolic compounds, known as flavonoids, such as licoagrodin, licoagrochalcones, licoagroaurone and licochalcone C, kanzonol Y, glyinflanin B and glycyrdione A, which have shown various pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, anti-ulcer and antioxidative effects. Among these compounds, licochalcone C was isolated but its biology has not been fully examined. In our study we reproduced an inflammatory state by treating THP-1 (human myelomonocytic leukaemia cells with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-γ and we investigated the possible antioxidant activity of licochalcone C at a concentration of 50 μM. Our results show that treatment with licochalcone C attenuates the LPS-IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response by significantly decreasing the expression and activity of iNOS via NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-B, by influencing extracellular O2− production, and by modulating the antioxidant network activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase, CAT (catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase activity. Based on these results we hypothesize that Licochalcone C has antioxidant properties since it reduces the production of superoxide radicals and consequently reduces the activity of iNOS.

  14. Microwave - assisted Extraction of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.%光果甘草中光甘草定的微波辅助提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞丽; 李雪琴; 张晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新疆光果甘草Glycyrrhiza glabra L.根中光甘草定(Glabridin,GB)的检测条件和提取工艺.方法 采用反相高效液相色谱( RP - HPLC)对光甘草定和光果甘草根提取物进行分析测定,考察提取溶剂、提取方法及提取工艺条件对光甘草定得率的影响.结果 微波提取法适用于光甘草定的提取,在提取溶剂为70%乙醇水溶液,料液比为1:15(g/ml),温度为65℃,单次提取40 min的条件下,光甘草定得率为0.256%.结论 由RP - HPLC定量分析光甘草定含量.微波法提取光果甘草中光甘草定工艺简单、易操作,比传统的超声提取法和热回流提取法节约时间、效率高.

  15. Simultaneous determination of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra root by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Ambika Chamoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present research work is to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA and 18β-GA (18β-GA of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and Methods: About 20 μL aliquots of each 18α-GA and 18β-GA were analyzed using reversed-phase C-18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran:water (10:80:10, v/v/v. The run time was 10 min at flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 254 nm. Results: 18α-GA and 18β-GA were well resolved in reversed phase C-18 column using mobile phase acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran: water (10:80:10, v/v/v, pH 7.9. The Rtof 18α-GA and 18β-GA was detected at 2.091 and 2.377 min, respectively. Conclusion: The developed chromatography method could be extended for potential quantification or simultaneous determination of these markers in plant as well as in herbal formulation.

  16. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

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    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  17. Metabolite profiling of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different locations using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Rastrelli, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2016-03-24

    Profiling of the main metabolites from several licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) samples collected at different locations is carried out in this work by using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. The optimized method was based on the application of a HILIC-based separation in the first dimension combined with fast RP-based second dimension separation. This set-up was shown to possess powerful separation capabilities allowing separating as much as 89 different metabolites in a single sample. Identification and grouping of metabolites according to their chemical class were achieved using the DAD, MS and MS/MS data. Triterpene saponins were the most abundant metabolites followed by glycosylated flavanones and chalcones, whereas glycyrrhizic acid, as expected, was confirmed as the main component in all the studied samples. LC × LC-DAD-MS/MS was able to resolve these complex licorice samples providing with specific metabolite profiles to the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin. Namely, from 19 to 50 specific compounds were exclusively determined in the 2D-chromatograms from the different licorice samples depending on their geographical origin, which can be used as a typical pattern that could potentially be related to their geographical location and authentication.

  18. Phenetic relationships among natural population accessions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae in central Zagros region of Iran, based on quantitative morphology, flavonoids and glycyrrhizin contents data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenetic relationships among thirty five accessions from natural populations of two varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra in central Zagros region of Iran were studied. Twenty one quantitative morphological characters were measured for twenty seven accessions. PCO, clustering, K-means and MDS analyses were performed on morphological dataset. Polar flavonoid constituents of twenty four accessions were extracted, purified using TLC and characterized at the skeleton class level. Glycyrrhizin contents of rhizomes in twenty four accessions were quantified using image processing methods. Results of multivariate analysis of both morphological and flavonoid spot profile data showed that accessions could be partitioned into two main groups based on geographical locality of the populations. The most variable morphological trait based on CV values, was seed area and the least variable one was Legume width in the widest portion. Accessions of both varieties produced various flavonoids of class flavones and flavonols. Seven flavonoid constituents from the two varieties were separated based on different Rf values. The results revealed that there were moderate (not prominent levels of variation between the studied accessions. Separation of the varieties based on the single qualitative character in the available literature, was confirmed. Rhizomes of both varieties showed similar amounts of glycyrrhizin and almost similar types of flavonoids in their TLC profiles, suggesting that both were equivalent as herbal drugs in folk medicine.

  19. Consumer acceptability of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) as an alternative sweetener and correlation with its bioactive content and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Jurić, Slaven; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Durgo, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Consumer acceptability and sensory properties of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) were evaluated. Quantitation of total polyphenolics and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), as well as the antioxidant capacity of liquorice extracts, was conducted and their biological effects (cytotoxic, antioxidative/pro-oxidative activity, lipid peroxidation on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line) compared to the ones of their predominant bioactive compound - GA. Conducted consumer survey revealed poor familiarity with liquorice (12.37% of correspondents), but willingness towards its use as an alternative sweetener (77.32% of consumers). Polyphenolic content of evaluated extracts ranged from 1018.18 to 1277.27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/l while GA content varied between 2179.53 and 2944.13 mg/l. The most pronounced cytotoxic effect (60%) and lipid peroxidation were exerted by treatment with the highest applied extract concentrations (10 mg/ml). Pure GA exhibited cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects at concentrations of 0.12-0.6 mg/ml. Due to high GA content, coupled with its pronounced cytotoxic activity, the intake of liquorice root should be limited.

  20. In vitro studies on protective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts against cadmium-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Ebubekir; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a modern environmental contaminant that is toxic and carcinogenic. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a traditional medicinal herb which grows in the various parts of the World. Recent studies demonstrated that G. glabra has antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and powerful antiinflammatory features. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic safety of extracts from G. glabra and its effects on cadmium (as CdCl2) induced genotoxicity. Therefore we evaluated the capability of G. glabra extract to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by CdCl2. Moreover, to assess the effects of G. glabra on cell viability and oxidative status, we performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. Our results showed that there were significant increases (P glabra extract (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and CdCl2 resulted in decreases of MN and SCE rates as compared to the group treated with CdCl2 alone. Again, the results of MTT and TAC assays clearly indicated dose dependent ameliorative effects of G. glabra extracts against CdCl2 toxicity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. glabra extracts provided increased resistance of DNA against CdCl2 induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. So, the risk on target tissues of CdCl2 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  1. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  2. Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aisong; Moritani, Toshio

    2008-06-01

    Stress reduces physical and mental tolerances (immune potential) of humans and it induces progression of existing illness or causes latent disorders to become active. Thus, the control and suppression of stress plays an important role in the improvement of quality of life and prevention of diseases. Ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza have been used for Kampo (herbal treatment) for thousand years and a number of pharmacological and clinical studies have reported their effects. However, it has not been previously described how the combination of these most commonly used herbs affect mental stress. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment to examine the effectiveness of reducing stress response by taking Kampo. Ten healthy males (mean age 27+/-1) participated in the study. The effectiveness of stress reduction was assessed by measuring ECG, salivary chromogranin A (CgA), blood glucose, WBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, NK cell activity, etc. Salivary and blood measurement values of pre- and post-mental arithmetic stress were compared. In addition, ECG measurement values of pre- and mid-mental arithmetic stress were compared. we observed a higher HF power and a lower SNS index, HR, CgA, WBC and granulocytes in the Kampo trial than those in the placebo trial. The HR, HF power and SNS index were changed significantly (presult suggests that the Kampo should be useful in reducing mental stress.

  3. Licoricidin, an Active Compound in the Hexane/Ethanol Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Inhibits Lung Metastasis of 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

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    So Young Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Licorice extracts containing glycyrrhizin exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. Because glycyrrhizin induces severe hypokalemia and hypertension, we prepared a hexane/ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU that lacks glycyrrhizin, and showed that HEGU induces apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits migration of DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Our previous in vitro studies identified two active components in HEGU: isoangustone A, which induces apoptosis and G1 cycle arrest, and licoricidin, which inhibits metastasis. This study examined whether HEGU and licoricidin inhibit metastasis using the 4T1 mammary cancer model. Both HEGU and licoricidin treatment reduced pulmonary metastasis and the expression of CD45, CD31, HIF-1α, iNOS, COX-2, and VEGF-A in tumor tissues. Additionally, a decrease in protein expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-C, VEGF-R3, and LYVE-1 was noted in tumor tissues of licoricidin-treated mice. Furthermore, the blood concentrations of MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGF-A were decreased in HEGU-treated mice. In vitro 4T1 cell culture results showed that both HEGU and licoricidin inhibited cell migration, MMP-9 secretion, and VCAM expression. The present study demonstrates that the licoricidin in HEGU inhibits lung metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, which may be mediated via inhibition of cancer cell migration, tumor angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.

  4. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  5. Effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a dryland riparian phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a facultative floodplain phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, in a 2-×-2 factorial greenhouse experiment. We grew plants in mesocosms subirrigated with water low in dissolved oxygen, mimicking natural systems, and set depth of ground water at 63 or 100 cm and soil temperature at cold (ambient) or warm (≤2.7°C above ambient). We hypothesized the moister (63 cm) and warmer soil would be most favorable and predicted faster growth of shoots and roots and greater nitrogen-fixation (thus, less uptake of mineral nitrogen) under those conditions. Growth in height was significantly faster in the moister treatment but was not affected by soil temperature. Final biomass of shoots and of roots, total biomass of plants, and root:shoot ratio indicated a significant effect only from depth of ground water. Final levels of soil mineral-nitrogen were as predicted, with level of nitrate in the moister treatment more than twice that in the drier treatment. No effect from soil temperature on level of soil-mineral nitrogen was detected. Our results suggest that establishment of G. lepidotarequires strict conditions of soil moisture, which may explain the patchy distribution of the species along southwestern dryland rivers.

  6. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology. PMID:28050515

  7. Conversion of salvianolic acid B into salvianolic acid A in tissues of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using high temperature, high pressure and high humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Hongrui; Sun, Longru; Lou, Hongxiang; Rahman, M. Mukhlesur

    2014-01-01

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), an important constituent of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), is effective for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease due to its potential in the improvement of acute myocardial ischemia. However, its content is very low in RSM. So it is obvious to find a rich source of Sal A or to improve its content by conversion of other related components into Sal A modifying reaction conditions. In this research we focused on the conversion of ...

  8. 郁金化学成分及其质量控制研究进展%Advances in Chemical Compositions and Quality Control of CURCUMAE RADIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 朱华; 陈旭; 曾建红; 蒋小军; 刘笑甫

    2012-01-01

    通过对近年来有关郁金( CURCUMAE RADIX)化学成分和质量控制方面文献的检索,综述了郁金的主要化学成分及控制郁金质量的一些方法和指标,以期为郁金类药材的质量控制提供参考.指出郁金的主要化学成分为姜黄素类、挥发油、多糖、微量元素、淀粉、脂肪油、黄色染料、β-谷甾醇、生物碱、6-Methyl-7-( 3-oxobutyl )-bicyclo[ 4.1.0 ] heptan-3-one、阿魏酸和阿魏酸乙醇等;GC和HPLC可以用于郁金类药材的质量控制,且进行质量评价时多以挥发油得率、姜黄素含量、吉马酮和莪术二酮双成分含量为考察指标.%Through searching a lot of articles about chemical compositions and quality control of CURCUMAE RADIX in recent years, some methods and indexes for it were summarized, to provide reference for the quality control. It also pointed out that the main chemical compositions of CURCUMAE RADIX are curcumin, volatile oil, polysaccharide, trace elements, starch, fatty oil, yellow dyes, β-sitosterol, natural base, 6-Methyl-7-(3-oxobutyl)-bicyclo[4.1.0] heptan-3-one,ferulic acid and ferulic acidethyl ester, etc. ; GC and HPLC can be used to control the quality of CURCUMAE RADIX, moreover, when evaluating the quality, we mostly take the yield of volatile oil, curcumin content, germacrone and curdione contents as indexes.

  9. The Inhibition of Mast Cell Activation of Radix Paeoniae alba Extraction Identified by TCRP Based and Conventional Cell Function Assay Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huiying Fu; Hongqiang Cheng; Gang Cao; Xingde Zhang; Jue Tu; Mingjiao Sun; Xiaozhou Mou; Qiyang Shou; Yuehai Ke

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbs have long been used to treat allergic disease, but recently the development was greatly impeded by the lack of good methods to explore the mechanism of action. Here, we showed the effects of Chinese herb Radix Paeoniae alba were identified and characterized by a mast cell activation assay that involves electronic impedance readouts for dynamic monitoring of cellular responses to produce time-dependent cell responding profiles (TCRPs), and the anti-allergic activities were furthe...

  10. EGFR/cell membrane chromatography-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening EGFR antagonists from Radix Angelicae Pubescentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular kinase domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) in some tumor cells are significant targets for drug discovery.We have developed a new EGFR cell membrane chromatography(EGFR/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry(HPLC/MS) method for screening anti-EGFR antagonists from medicinal herbs such as Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.In this study,the HEK293 EGFR cells with high expression of EGFR were used to prepare cell membrane stationary phase(CMSP) in the EGFR/CMC model.The retention fractions on the EGFR/CMC model were directly analyzed by combining a 10 port columns switcher with a HPLC/MS system online.As a result,osthole from Radix Angelicae Pubescentis was found to be the active component acting on EGFR like dasatinib as the control drug.There was a good relationship between their inhibiting effects on EGFR secretion and HEK293 EGFR cell growth in vitro.This new EGFR/CMC-online-HPLC/MS method can be applied for screening anti-EGFR antagonists from TCMs,for instance,Radix Angelicae Pubescentis.It will be a useful method for drug discovery with natural medicinal herbs as a leading compound resource.

  11. 白芍有效成分的研究进展%Research Progerss on Effective Constituents of Radix Paeonia Alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆

    2015-01-01

    白芍是毛茛科植物芍药的干燥根,作为常用中药材应用广泛。白芍味苦,归肝、脾经,具有止痛平肝,平抑肝阳等作用,此外现代医学研究表明白芍还具有抗氧化活性,调节免疫系统,保护心血管系统等生理活性。本文通过资料搜集、文献查阅,对白芍中有效成分的研究、方法及作用进行归纳总结,希望对进一步研究白芍提供参考,为白芍的深入研究提供基础。%The dry root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and Radix Paeonia Alba is used commonly as traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Radix Paeonia Alba is bitter by the liver and spleen, has good effect for the liver. In addition, the modern medical research showed that it still had antioxidant activity, regulated the immune system, protected cardiovascular system and other biological activities. Referring to related literature, the advances on Radix Paeonia Alba, effective constituents, research methods were summarized, as reference for further study and develpoment.

  12. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

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    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  13. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Yuan; Teng, Ru-Hsiou; Wang, Meilin; Chen, Pei-Lain; Lin, Mien-Chun; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chao, Chun-Nun; Chiang, Ming-Ko; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chang, Deching

    2017-01-01

    The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  14. Rapid Screening and Identification of BSA Bound Ligands from Radix astragali Using BSA Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles Coupled with HPLC-MS

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    Liangliang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix astragali is widely used either as a single herb or as a collection of herbs in a complex prescription in China. In this study, bovine serum albumin functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BSA-MN coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS were used to screen and identify bound ligands from the n-butanol part of a Radix astragali extract. The prepared BSA-MN showed sufficient magnetic response for the separation with an ordinary magnet and satisfied reusability. Fundamental parameters affecting the preparation of BSA-MN and the screening efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, four bound ligands were screened out from the n-butanol part of a Radix astragali extract and identified as genistin (1, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (2, ononin (3 and formononetin (4. This effective method could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of active compounds from complex mixtures without the need for preparative isolation.

  15. Investigation of the Effect of the Degree of Processing of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuang on Shu Dihuangtan Carbonization Preparation Technology

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    Xianglong Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuangtan via stir-frying could increase its homeostasis maintaining and antidiarrheal effects. To ensure these pharmacological functions, the quality of the raw material (processed Rehmanniae Radix must be well controlled. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different degrees of processing and adjuvants on processed Rehmanniae Radix (Shu Dihuang by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC chromatographic fingerprints, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Based on the results from HPLC fingerprints combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA the optimum processing method for Shu Dihuang was five cycles of steaming and polishing, which follows the ancient processing theory. The intensity of thermal weight loss rate peaked near 210.33 ± 4.32 °C or 211.33 ± 2.62 °C, which was an important indicator for the degree of processing of Shu Dihuang. A temperature near 290.89 ± 2.51 °C was the upper limit for carbonizing Shu Dihuangtan. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that the overall chemical composition of Shu Dihuangtan was affected by both the degree of processing and adjuvant, which are very important for its quality.

  16. Quality evaluation of Radix Stemonae through simultaneous quantification of bioactive alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Lin; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hon, Po-Ming; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi; Greger, Harald; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2007-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to simultaneously quantify six major bioactive alkaloids belonging to different structure types in Radix Stemonae, Bai-Bu in Chinese, a traditionally used antitussive and insecticidal medicinal material in China and other countries of Southeast Asia. Diode array detector (DAD) with the wavelengths at 307 and 260 nm was used to monitor the conjugated system of protostemonine (2) and maistemonine (4), respectively, whereas evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was employed to detect croomine (1), stemoninine (3), neotuberostemonine (5) and tuberostemonine (6), the other four analytes with no or poor chromophores. The assay was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate, with a detection limit of 3.64-0.04 microg/mL depending on the individual analytes. The overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 9.3%, and the overall recoveries higher than 91.2%, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were better than 0.996 for all analytes. The newly established method was successfully utilized to determine six major components in the genuine sources of Radix Stemonae: Stemona japonica, S. sessilifolia and S. tuberosa. Significant variations of contents of these components were demonstrated in samples of these three species. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable method is suitable for the routine quality control of herbal medicines containing bioactive components with different structure types such as Radix Stemonae.

  17. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *Pcomponents in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  18. Habitat and Cognitive usage Survey for Dolichosae Radix of Yunnan Province%云南省大麻药生境及认知使用状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施婷; 马超; 李爽; 田汪; 黄蕴; 李建烨; 兰洲; 陈旅翼

    2015-01-01

    Investigations,including the habitat,distribution,current application and recognition condition,of Dolichosae Radix in Yunnan Province were carried out.The adopted investigation methods were literature survey,interview and questionnaire investiga-tion.Dolichosae Radix mainly distributes in the western area of Yunnan Province and is little known in local residents.Dolichosae Ra-dix has a good effect on the treatments of bruises,rheumatism and gout.According to the traditional usage,Dolichosae Radix was pro-cessed with ginger juice or bran to attenuate its toxicity.Recently,with the rising market demand of Dolichosae Radix,Dolichosae Ra-dix has been excessively and immoderately collected by farmers and herdsmen in the producing area.Our investigations and related re-search provide the valuable references for Dolichosae Radix on further artificial cultivation and clinical rational use.%采用文献、走访、问卷调查对云南省大麻药生境、分布状况及当地民众对大麻药认知状况、使用现状开展调查。发现大麻药主要分布于云南中部偏西,在跌打损伤及风湿痹痛等方面具有较好的疗效,民间用“姜制”、“麸制”来达到减毒的效果。通过此次调研旨在为大麻药进一步的后续开展人工种植及临床的合理用药提供重要参考。

  19. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  20. Addiction and the adrenal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumption of drug intake. The possible interactions between brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products and the systemic HPA, and additionally with the local CRH–POMC system in the adrenal gland itself, are complex. Nevertheless, the evidence increasingly suggests that all may be interlinked and that CRH in the brain and brain POMC products interact with the blood-borne HPA directly or indirectly. Corticosteroids themselves are known to affect mood profoundly and may themselves be addictive. Additionally, there is a heightened susceptibility for addicted subjects to relapse in conditions that are associated with change in HPA activity, such as in stress, or at different times of the day. Recent studies give compelling evidence that a significant part of the array of addictive symptoms is directly attributable to the secretory activity of the adrenal cortex and the actions of corticosteroids. Additionally, sex differences in addiction may also be attributable to adrenocortical function: in humans, males may be protected through higher secretion of DHEA (and DHEAS), and in rats, females may be more susceptible because of higher corticosterone secretion. PMID:23825159

  1. Optimization of microwave-assistant extraction technology for codecoction of Aconiti Radix Cocta coupled with Paeoniae Radix Alba%制川乌白芍合煎微波提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟伟; 郑琴; 朱根华; 陆浩伟; 王粟莙; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the microwave extraction (ME) technology for extraction of total aconitum alkaloids and paeoniflorin in co-decoction of Aconiti Radix Cocta coupled with Paeoniae Radix Alba.. Methods Orthogonal test with single factor,as well as ME method was used, 65% ethanol was optimized as extraction solvent, the effects of four factors, such as the microwave power, the radiation time, the solvent consumption, and ethanol concentration in microwave extraction process were investigated. The contents of total aconitum alkaloids were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry and the paeoniflorin by HPLC by taking the contents and extract yield as evaluation indexes. Results The optimum conditions of extraction were as follows: 65% ethanol as extracting solvent, the microwave power was 800 W, the radiation time was 0.5 h, the proportion of raw material to solvent was 1: 10.In the condition, the highest extracting content and lowest extract yield of total aconitum alkaloids and paeoniflorin could be obtained.Conclusion The optimized microwave extraction technology could be a potential way with the shorter time and higher extract yield and ME methods is better than the conventional extraction methods.%目的 优选微波法提取制川乌配伍白芍中有效成分乌头总生物碱和芍药苷的工艺条件.方法 采用单因素结合正交设计法,优选出65%乙醇为提取溶媒,进一步考察了微波功率、微波辐射时间、乙醇体积分数及料液比4个因素,用紫外可见分光光度法测定乌头总生物碱,采用HPLC法测定芍药苷,并以其量及浸膏得率作为评价指标.结果 以65%乙醇为提取溶媒,在微波功率800 W,微波辐射时间为0.5 h,固液比为1:10时乌头总生物碱和芍药苷的提取量最高且浸膏得率最低.结论 微波提取时间短,有效成分提取率高,此方法是一种有发展潜力的工艺.

  2. 甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂及不同品种甘草对腹水模型大鼠肝脏CYP450mRNA的影响%Comparing the effect of Gansui Banxia decoction plus or reduce kansui and varieties of glycyrrhiza on the CYP450 mRNA of liver of ascites model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许皖; 柳海艳; 钟赣生; 于雪; 张建美; 郭岩松; 王思睿; 修琳琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察含不同品种甘草的甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂甘草反药组合对腹水模型大鼠肝脏CYP450 mRNA的影响。方法采用Walker-256细胞制造癌性腹水模型,将Wistar大鼠按体质量随机分为空白组、模型组、阳性对照组、全方炙甘草组、全方炙光果甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草组、去遂炙甘草组、去遂炙光果甘草组、去遂炙胀果甘草组、去炙甘草组、去炙甘草醋甘遂组,共计11组。空白组和模型组灌胃蒸馏水,其余各给药组灌胃相应药物。给药11天后,摘取肝脏,液氮保存,进行PCR实验。结果在CYP2E1 mRNA表达方面,全方炙甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草表达下调,且优于全方去掉一味或两味反药。三个甘草品种的甘遂半夏汤的CYP3A1 mRNA、CYP3A2 mRNA表达上调,且优于全方去掉一味或两味反药。结论(1)全方炙甘草组、全方炙胀果甘草组在CYP450表达方面表现出一定的药效作用,其中全方炙甘草组优于全方炙胀果甘草,且均优于全方去掉一味或两味反药组。(2)全方炙光果甘草组则未表现出一定的药效作用,但也未表现出毒性作用,弱于去掉一味或两味反药。%Objective To observe the effect of different varieties of glycyrrhiza and kansui incompatible herbs in Gansui Banxia decoction on liver CYP450 mRNA ascites model rat. Methods The Walker-256 cell was used to manufacture carcinomatous ascites model. The Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, positive control group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza glabra L. group, complete formula with Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. group, the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Without kansui group , the Glycyrrhiza glabra L. without kansui group, the Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. without kansui group, prescription without glycyrrhiza group, prescription without glycyrrhiza and kansui group, a total of 11

  3. Comparing the effect of Gansui Banxia decoction plus or reduce kansui and varieties of glycyrrhiza on heart, liver and kidney function of ascites model rat%甘遂半夏汤加减甘遂及不同品种甘草对腹水模型大鼠心肝肾功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭岩松; 柳海艳; 钟赣生; 许皖; 张建美; 刘珍清; 修琳琳; 王思睿

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过分析含不同品种甘草的甘遂半夏汤加减反药组合对腹水模型大鼠的心肝肾脏功能指标的变化,探讨甘草品种对甘遂甘草配伍“反”或“不反”的影响。方法 Wistar大鼠220只随机分成11组,空白组、模型组、阳性药组、全方炙甘草组、全方胀果组、全方光果组、去遂炙甘草组、去遂胀果组、去遂光果组、去草组、去草遂组,除空白组和模型组外连续给药10天,然后腹主动脉取血,离心,检测心肝肾功能相关指标。分析方法选择方差分析,方差齐采用LSD方法,方差不齐采用Dunnet T3分析方法。结果(1)在肝功能中TP和ALB合成方面,全方(炙胀果甘草)组的药效相对优于全方(炙光果甘草)组和全方(炙甘草)组,且三个全方组去掉一味反药或两味反药组在促进由于Walker-256细胞造成的大鼠肝脏ALB和TP合成降低方面的疗效优于三个全方组。(2)含甘遂与不同品种甘草反药组合的甘遂半夏汤全方在对Walker-256细胞造成的大鼠心功能、肾功能和肝功能中AST的含量、ALT的含量、AST/ALT比值和ALP含量变化方面无明显影响。结论甘草、光果甘草和胀果甘草这三个不同品种的甘草对甘遂甘草反药组合在心功能、肾功能和肝功能中AST的含量、ALT的含量、AST/ALT比值和ALP含量方面无明显影响,但在改善由于Walker-256细胞造成的大鼠肝脏蛋白合成异常方面,胀果甘草优于光果甘草和甘草。%Objective To analyze the changes of varieties glycyrrhiza in modified Gansui Banxia decoction on heart liver and kidney function of malignant ascites rat model , and to explore the effects of glycyrrhiza varieties on the incompatible herb. Methods 220 Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, positive group, the complete formula with Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. group, the complete formula with Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. group, the

  4. Induction and in Vitro Culture of Hairy Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch%乌拉尔甘草毛状根的诱导及离体培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭生虎; 王敬东; 马洪爱

    2014-01-01

    To obtain medicinal components and protect the wild resource of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, two Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 and A4 were used to induce the hairy root from cotyledons, hypocotyls and seedlings of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Hairy root was obtained successfully and the system of hairy root induction was established. There were about 248 bp-rolA gene and 490 bp-rolC detected from the hairy-root by PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis which indicated that the gene segments of Agrobacterium rhizogenes had been integrated and expressed in hairy root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. The hairy root induction rate was 79.5%by needle stabbing. The hairy roots grew faster and with much more branches in 1/2MS medium. When cultured for 25 days, the average fresh weight growth rate was 19.13 times. Establishment of hairy root culture system of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch provided a foundation for the industrial production of active drug component in bioreactors.%为获得甘草的药用成分和保护甘草野生资源,利用发根农杆菌ATCC15834、A4侵染乌拉尔甘草幼苗、子叶、下胚轴,获得毛状根,建立了乌拉尔甘草毛状根培养系统,经PCR和毛细管凝胶电泳检测,在248 bp有rolA基因,在490 bp有rolC基因,证实发根农杆菌基因片段在甘草毛状根的基因组中整合并得到表达,其中无菌实生苗毛状根诱导率达79.5%,毛状根分枝较多,生长速度快,在不添加激素的1/2MS液体培养基中生长明显,培养25天后,鲜重平均增殖达19.13倍,乌拉尔甘草毛状根培养体系的建立为进一步利用生物反应器规模化培养甘草药用活性成分提供了参考。

  5. 微量量热法研究甘草多糖对细菌代谢作用的影响%Investigation on Metabolic Action of Glycyrrhiza Polysaccharide on Bacteria by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莲; 林贵梅; 邵伟; 娄红祥

    2011-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide is an important active material. The effect of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide on the metabolism of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microcalorimetric method was investigated. The power-time curves were plotted with a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter. According to the mathematical growth model, the parameters such as the growth rate constant μ, inhibitory ratio I, the peak-power Pm and the peak-time Tp were calculated The effect of glycyrrhiza polysaccharide on the metabolism of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were studied from the viewpoint of thermokinetics. The results showed that glycyrrhiza polysaccharide had inhibitory effect on the bacteria and had stronger inhibitory effect on E. coli than on S. aureus. Microcalorimetry is an ideal method to investigate the effect of drug on microorganism%甘草多糖是甘草中一种重要的活性物质,用微量量热法研究了甘草多糖对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌生长代谢作用的影响.微量量热仪绘制了37℃时大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌在不同浓度的甘草多糖作用下的热谱曲线,根据热动力学模型,分别得到了生长速率常数μ、抑制率Ⅰ、最大产热功率Pm以及最大产热功率所对应的时间Tp等热动力学参数,从热动力学的角度探讨了甘草多糖对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌代谢作用的影响.实验证明,甘草多糖对这两种细菌均有抑制作用,并且对大肠杆菌的抑制作用比金黄色葡萄球菌更强.

  6. 板蓝根油的提取及其微胶囊化的研究%Distillation and Microencapsulation of the Essential Oil from Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁泽; 胡洋; 梁根泉; 陈文珊; 李颖; 郑丽华; 杨卓鸿

    2011-01-01

    本文采用水蒸气蒸馏法和溶剂提取法提取扳蓝根油,并对提取物进行抗菌测试.通过明胶,阿拉伯胶复凝聚法制备板蓝根挥发油微胶囊,并对影响微胶囊形貌的因素进行初步探讨.结果表明,两种方法所提取的板蓝根挥发油的抗茵效果达到高敏程度;板蓝根挥发油微胶囊制备条件在壁材系统浓度为1.0%、复凝与固化搅拌速度为400 r/min时,所得微胶囊分数性良好、球形规则,且微胶囊的最高载药量与最高包封率分别为23.68%、60.85%.本文制得的板蓝根挥发油微胶囊,为深度挖掘板蓝根的利用价值提供了一种新的途径和方法.%In this study, essential oil extracted from Radix was obtained by steam distillation and solvent extraction, and its antimicrobial testing was carried out. Microcapsules of essential oil from Radix were prepared by coaeervation of gelatin-acacia complex and the factors that affect the morphology of microcapsules were discussed. The results showed that the essential oil extracted fi'om Radix by both techniques has excellent antibacterial ability. The conditions of preparation microcapsules of essential oil from radix were: the concentration of wall material 1.0%and complex coacervafion and solidify stirring speed of 400 r/min. Under these conditions, the microcapsules of essential oil were well dispersed.The highest microencapsulated drag loading and highest encapsulation efficiency were 23.68% and 60.85% respectively. The research provided a new method to use Radix.

  7. 太子参保健酒促消化功能的研究%Experimental Studies of Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine on Improving Digestion Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文绮; 吴仲; 李煌; 徐伟; 陈晨; 王瑞国

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过小鼠小肠墨汁推进率和大鼠的消化酶活性试验,观察太子参保健酒对实验动物消化功能的影响。方法动物经口灌胃不同剂量的太子参保健酒,用药数天后测定小肠墨汁推进率、胃液量、胃蛋白酶排出量、胃蛋白酶活性、胃液游离酸度和总酸度等指标的情况。结果发现3个剂量组的小鼠小肠墨汁推进率明显高于复方地芬诺酯模型对照组(P<0.05),大鼠高剂量组游离酸的酸度和总酸度均明显高于空白组(P<0.05),大鼠中、低剂量组胃蛋白酶排出量明显多于空白组(P<0.05)。结论提示太子参保健酒具有一定的促进消化功能方面的作用。%OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine the digestion func-tion.METHODS The mice were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,and the treatment group was fed with high dosage,middle dosage,low dosage.The secretion of gastric juice and gastric acid,pepsin,pepsin activity ,the distance of ink moving were used to evaluate the effect.RESULTS Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine increase the rate of ink promoting, which was all dosage group to that in the Difenoxin model control group ( P<0.05),Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine also could promote the secretion amount of gastric aicid,which was supe-rior to that in the control group ( P<0.05).Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine also could promote the secretion a-mount of pepsin, which was middle dosage and low dosage group to that in the control group ( P <0.05 ).CONCLUSION Radix Pseudostellariae Health Wine has the function of promoting the digestion function.

  8. 寻常型银屑病进行期血热证与方药的相关性研究%Correlation of Blood Heat Syndrome and Herbs in Advancing Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 李斌; 李福伦; 周敏; 顾荻青; 李建伟; 王洁; 李峰; 徐蓉

    2012-01-01

    prospective clinical study. The correlation was analyzed with the single correlation coefficient, Logistic regression model and SPA. Results The single correlation coefficient showed 15 herbs were the positive correlation factors with blood heat syndrome of advancing psoriasis vulgaris, such as Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis), Jinyinhua (.Flos Lonicerae Japonicae), Chonglou (RhizomaParidis), Shemei (Her-ba Duchesnea Indica), Tufuling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Baixianpi (Cortex Dictam-ni), Jingjie (Herba Schizonepetae), Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae Recens), Shuiniujiao (Cornu Bubali), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Wugong (Scolopendra Subspinipes), Quanxie (Scorpio) and Lingxiaohua (Flos Campsis). Logistic regression analysis showed 12 herbs were the influencing factors on the therapeutic effect of advancing psoriasis vulgaris, such as Gancao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Cishi (Magnetitum), Muli (Concha Ostreae), Zheshi (Haematitum), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Baqia (Rhizoma Smilacis Chinae), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhe-nae), Shengdihuang (RadixRehmanniae Recens), Shandougen (Radix et Rhizoma Suphorae Tonkinensis), Quanxie (Scorpi-o), Wugong (Scolopendra Subspinipes) and Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis). SPA showed 14 herbs had the best synergitic effect for advancing psoriasis vulgaris, such as Jingjie (Herba Schizonepetae), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Baixianpi (.Cortex Dictamni), Wugong (Scolopendra Subspinipes), Quanxie (Scorpio), Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis), Jinyinhua (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) , Tufuling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae), Shemei (Herba Duchesnea Indica ), Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae Recens), Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra) and Difuzi (Fructus Kochiae). Conclusion Twenty-two herbs were the correlation factors and effective for advancing psoriasis vulgaris with blood heat syndrome, such as Jingjie (Herba Schizonepetae), Chishao

  9. 光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草开花与传粉方式对生殖及种间关系的影响%Effect of Flowering Mode and Pollination on Reproductive Success and the Relationship between Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润炜; 陆嘉惠; 谢良碧; 秦忠立; 李学禹

    2012-01-01

    通过对光果甘草和乌拉尔甘草花期物候和访花昆虫行为的观察及人工授粉实验,探讨开花模式及传粉方式对生殖成功及种间关系的影响.结果表明:(1)两种甘草的种群水平花期重叠时间长达21 d,均表现出“集中大量开花”模式,但乌拉尔甘草呈现分批渐次开花趋势,这对提高生殖成功率,避免近交衰退,维持物种的稳定具有重要意义.(2)两种甘草的访花昆虫在种类和数量上有所不同,但具有共同传粉者——宽板尖腹蜂、意大利蜂和紫木蜂.(3)以乌拉尔甘草为母本、光果甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为48.3%;以光果甘草为母本、乌拉尔甘草为父本的种间杂交结实率为39.4%,说明种间杂交亲和,不存在生殖障碍.研究认为,花期重叠、共有传粉昆虫及种间杂交亲和使光果甘草与乌拉尔甘草自然种群杂交种的形成成为可能.%Effect of flowering mode and pollination on reproductive success and interspecific relationship of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were studied by flowering phenology observation, pollinator observation, hand-pollination experiments. (1) Their overlapping time of the florescence was 21 days, both G. glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch demonstrated "concentrate a large number of flowering mode", but G. uralensis Fisch. was batches gradually flowering. And that'have great significance for improve the reproductive success rate, avoid inbreeding depression and maintain the stability of the species. (2)Their pollination insects are different in numbers and varieties, but Coelixys afra Lepeletier,Apis mel-lifera Linnaeus and Xylocopa valga Gerstaecker pollinate for both of them. (3) The rate of fruitage in crossing combination of "♀G, uralensis×♂G. glabra" was 48. 3% , the "♀G. glabra× ♂G. uralensis" was 39. 4%. This means that hybridization between G, glabra L. and G. uralensis Fisch. are compatible and nd reproductive

  10. Chemical constituents of triterpenoid saponins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis%乌拉尔甘草皂苷类成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶伟伟; 段金廒; 杨念云; 李建萍; 唐于平; 严辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究乌拉尔甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis根及根茎的化学成分.方法 应用溶剂法和色谱法进行分离纯化,利用波谱技术鉴定化合物结构;并测试化合物的细胞毒活性.结果 从乌拉尔甘草50%乙醇提取物中分离得到14个皂苷类化合物,分别鉴定为uralsaponin C(1)、uralsaponin D(2)、licorice-saponin A3 (3)、uralsaponin F (4)、22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrizin (5)、24-hydroxyl-licorice-saponin E2 (6)、licorice-saponin E2 (7)、licorice-saponin G2 (8)、22β-acetoxyl-glyrrhaldehyde (9)、3β-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-glycyrretol (10)、araboglycyrrhizin(11)、licorice-saponin J2 (12)、甘草酸(13)、单葡糖醛酸基甘草次酸(14).化合物1~14对3种人源肿瘤细胞MGC-803、SW620、SMMC-7721的半数抑制率(IC50)均大于100 μmol/L,化合物2、6~8、13的水解后苷元对3种人源肿瘤细胞的抑制率为18.3~41.6 μmol/L.结论 化合物14是一个新的天然产物,化合物11为首次从该植物中分离得到;化合物1~14对3种人源肿瘤细胞MGC-803、SW620、SMMC-7721均无显著的细胞毒活性,化合物2、6~8、13水解后苷元细胞毒活性增强.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.Methods The compounds were separated and purified by solvent and chromatographic methods.Their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques.Results Fourteen triterpenoid saponins isolated from 50% ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of G uralensis were identified as uralsaponin C (1),uralsaponin D (2),licorice-saponin A3 (3),uralsaponin F (4),22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrizin (5),24-hydroxyl-licorice-saponin E2 (6),licorice-saponin E2 (7),licorice-saponin G2 (8),22β-acetoxyl-glyrrhaldehyde (9),3β-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-glycyrretol (10),araboglycyrrhizin (11),licorice-saponin J2 (12),glycyrrhizin (13),and glycyrrhetic acid monoglucuronide (14

  11. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi, Vida; Mirzaie-asl, Asghar; Piri, Khosro; Nazeri, Sonbol; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2014-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an important medicinal plant throughout the world. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid that is among the most important secondary metabolites produced by liquorice. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the levels of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of drought stress on the expression of important genes involved in the glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was examined. Drought stress at the seedling stage was applied to 8-day-old plants using polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, the samples were collected 0, 4, 8 or 24 h post-treatment. At the adult plant stage, 10-month-old plants were subjected to drought stress by discontinuing irrigation. Subsequently, samples were collected at 2, 16 and 28 days after drought imposition (S(2d), S(16d) and S(28d), respectively). We performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays to evaluate the gene expression levels of sequalene synthase (SQS), β-amyrin synthase (bAS), lupeol synthase (LUS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) during stress. Finally, the glycyrrhizin content of stolons was determined via HPLC. The results revealed that due to osmotic stress, the gene expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased, whereas those of CAS were relatively unchanged at the seedling stage. At the adult plant stage, the expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased under drought stress conditions, whereas the gene expression level of CAS remained relatively constant. The glycyrrhizin content in stolons was increased only under severe drought stress conditions (S(28d)). Our results indicate that application of controlled drought stress up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhances the production of secondary metabolites, including glycyrrhizin, in liquorice plants.

  13. Colchicine effect on the DNA content and stomata size of Glycyrrhiza glabra var.glandulifera and Carthamus tinctorius L. cultured in vitro

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    Nahid Moghbel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro induction of polyploids using colchicine causes an increase in DNA content in plants. This is of high importance especially for plants that have medicinal and commercial values. Seeds of two medicinal plants, licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var.glandulifera and safflower Carthamus tinctorius were treated with different concentrations of colchicine, 0%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.08%, 0.1% (W/V in vitro for 24 and 48 h. Treated seeds then were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS media under controlled conditions. After a month, the length of the stomata was measured to study the effect of colchicine on stomata size. Cellular DNA content of the regenerated plants was measured by spectrophotometry. Flow cytometry was used for confirming the results obtained from stomata size measurement and spectrophotometry. Results suggested that treated plants have a fair amount of larger stomata, significantly in licorice plantlets that were treated with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and safflower plantlets that were treated with 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.1% colchicine. Safflower DNA content in all treatments enhanced significantly, but in licorice only DNA content of plantlets that were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h and 0.1%, 0.03% colchicine for 48 h found to be increased significantly. The morphological features of treated plantlets such as shoot and leaf thickness were found to be increased. Flow cytometry confirmed the previously mentioned results and suggested tetraploids in all treated safflower plantlets and licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.08% of colchicine and mixoploids in licorice plantlets obtained from treatment with 0.1% of colchicine.

  14. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to obtain high-resolution imaging in mass and space. Sections of the rhizome were imaged with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the positive ion mode, and a large number of secondary metabolites were localized and identified based on their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Major tissue-specific metabolites, including free flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides and saponins, were successfully detected and visualized in images, showing their distributions at the cellular level. The analytical power of the technique was tested in the imaging of two isobaric licorice saponins with a mass difference of only 0.02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent MS/MS imaging experiment, thereby confirming their identities and excluding possible analyte interference. The use of high spatial resolution, high mass resolution and tandem mass spectrometry in imaging experiments provides significant information about the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues.

  15. Genetic Structure and Diversity Analysis Revealed by AFLP Markers on Different Glycyrrhiza glabra L. an Endangered Medicinal Species from South of Iran and Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Atieh; Zolfaghari, Maryam; Sorkheh, Karim

    2016-09-28

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an endangered and national-protected medicinal plant species distributed in semi-arid and arid areas of South of Iran. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship between populations in different habitats by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The plant materials consisted of 90 individuals from nine different populating areas of Dezful, Ramhormoz, Ahvaz, Abadan, Khorramshahr, Behbahan, Haft-tapeh, Andimeshk, and Shushtar. Twenty-three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 1019 bands with 94.80 % polymorphism. Unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis was performed on Jaccard's similarity coefficient matrix. According to results, the genetic resources and diversity in wild populations of G. glabra were rich. The number of polymorphic fragments per primer combination detected ranged from 18 to 65 bands with an average of 41.95 bands. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.81 in overall primer combinations. M-GTC+P-AGC primer combination showed the highest PIC (0.94) which can be a good candidate primer combination to verify genetic diversity in G. glabra. The UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis showed a clear distinction among the genotypes and the genotypes divided into three clusters in the dendrogram results. A model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of three groups. The study showed that genetic variation and population structure are determined among the accessions of G. glabra collected from different locations. High level of genetic variation in both intra- and inter-species was detected. Conservational efforts have to be strengthened for all populations of the plant species in different habitats.

  16. The effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Rhizome on the Mechanical Activity of the Colon of Male Rats and its Interaction with Adrenergic System

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    N Ghayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Back ground & aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice is a native medicinal plant of Iran which its rhizome has been traditionally used for treatment of bowel spasm and diarrhea. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice rhizome on mechanical activity of isolated colon of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, the colon tissue of 10 adult male rats were dissected and divided into two groups: experimental and control. Each group consisted of 10 strips of tissue. Then, the mechanical activity of tissue strips were recorded by power lab A-D instrument in basal condition, and after administration of phenylephrine and epinephrine and propranolol in the presence and absence of licorice rhizome extract (with effective dose 0.036 mg/ml. Moreover, the mechanical activity of control group strips were recorded at the same condition with extract solvent (ethanol %70. Data were analyzed statistically with using the SPSS software version 19 using Independent-Samples t-test. Result: The mechanical activity of tissue in presence of extract and epinephrine significantly decreased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. While the mechanical activity in the presence of extract and propranolol significantly increased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. However, no significant modification was observed in the mechanical activity of the tissue  in the presence of phenylephrine and extract compared to the control group.  Conclusion: According to the present study, it could be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice maybe has modifying effect on colon motility via synergist effect with beta adrenergic receptors and independent of the alpha adrenergic receptors.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05. No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.

  18. [De novo sequencing and analysis of root transcriptome to reveal regulation of gene expression by moderate drought stress in Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-rong; Sang, Xue-yu; Qu, Meng; Tang, Xiao-min; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Pan, Li-ming; Yang, Quan

    2015-12-01

    Moderate drought stress has been found to promote the accumulation of active ingredients in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root and hence improve the medicinal quality. In this study, the transcriptomes of 6-month-old moderate drought stressed and control G. uralensis root (the relative water content in soil was 40%-45% and 70%-75%, respectively) were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. A total of 80,490 490 and 82 588 278 clean reads, 94,828 and 305,100 unigenes with N50 sequence of 1,007 and 1,125 nt were obtained in drought treated and control transcriptome, respectively. Differentially expressed genes analysis revealed that the genes of some cell wall enzymes such as β-xylosidase, legumain and GDP-L-fucose synthase were down-regulated indicating that moderate drought stress might inhibit the primary cell wall degradation and programmed cell death in root cells. The genes of some key enzymes involved in terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated by moderate drought stress might be the reason for the enhancement for the active ingredients accumulation in G. uralensis root. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of auxin, ethylene and cytokinins by moderate drought stress might enhance the root formation and cell proliferation. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid by moderate drought stress might enhance the drought stress tolerance in G. uralensis. The inhibition of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of gibberellin and brassinolide by moderate drought stress might retard the shoot growth in G. uralensis.

  19. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  20. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  1. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

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    Chiung-Hung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR and Gardeniae fructus (GF showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes’ enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  2. Detection of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix in Complex Preparations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Song-Lin Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix (PAR in different complex preparations is challenging due to the relatively lower content of PAR and interference from more complicated components in complex preparations with different multiple constituent herbs. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography- triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for detecting sulfur-fumigated PAR in different complex preparations. Paeoniflorin, the major component of PAR, and paeoniflorin sulfonate, the characteristic artifact transformed from paeoniflorin during sulfur-fumigation of PAR, were used as chemical markers. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM scan was employed to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. Through optimizing full mass scan and daughter ion scan conditions, two mass transitions were selected and employed respectively for unequivocal identification of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate. The detection limits for paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate using MRM were much lower than those detected with UV 270 nm. Paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate could be simultaneously detected in different commercial PAR-containing complex preparations without interference of other components using the established method, indicating that the newly established method was selective and sensitive enough for screening sulfur-fumigated PAR in commercial complex preparations.

  3. Protective effects of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; ZHANG Fan; XIA Zhong-yuan; LIN Hui; MO An-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats and its protective mechanism.Methods:n lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and morphometry computer image analysis. Arterial blood gas analysis, lung permeability index, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents in lungs were measured. The histological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope.Results:The expression of HO-1 in RPR-pretreatment group and hemin group was obviously higher than that in sham-operation group and I/R group (P < 0.01). The level of MDA and lung permeability index in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group were significantly lower than those in I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the activity of SOD in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group was obviously higher than that in I/R group (P<0.01 ). Under light microscope, the pathologic changes induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by RPR.Conclusion : Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion may result in acute lung injury and pretreatment with RPR injection can attenuate the injury. The protective effect of RPR on the acute lung injury is related to its property of inducing HO-1 expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  4. Mixed phenolic acids mediated proliferation of pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmiao eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274 and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465, and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence.

  5. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  6. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA-) based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903.

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Four Organic Acids in Radix Isatidis on E. coli Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG,Wei-Jun; ZHAO,Yan-Ling; SHAN,Li-Mei; XIAO,Xiao-He; GUO,Wei-Ying

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of four organic acids (OAs) in Radix Isatidis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, on Escherichia coli (E.coli) growth were investigated by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves of E. coli growth with and without OAs were acquired, meanwhile the extent and duration of inhibitory effects on the metabolism were evaluated by growth rate constants (k1, k2), half inhibitory ratio (IC50), maximum heat output (Pmax) and peak time (tp). The values of k1 and k2 of E. coli growth in the presence of the four OAs decreased with the increasing concentrations of OAs. Moreover, Pmax was reduced and the value of tp increased with increasing concentrations of the four drugs. The sequence of anti-microbial activity of the four OAs was: syringic acid>2-amino-benzoic acid>salicylic acid>benzoic acid. IC50 of the four OAs was respectively 56 μg/mL for syringic acid, 75 μg/mL for 2-amino-benzoic acid, 86 μg/mL for salicylic acid and 224 μg/mL for benzoic acid. The existence of the functional groups on phenyl ring improves the anti-microbial activity compared to benzoic acid. The functional groups methoxyl at C(3) and C(5) improve anti-microbial activity more strongly than the other functional groups, and the functional group amino at C(2) improve anti-microbial activity more strongly than hydroxyl at C(2) on phenyl ring.

  8. Taspine isolated from Radix et Rhizoma Leonticis inhibits growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) by inducing its apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong; Zhou, Yali

    2008-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of taspine isolated from Radix et Rhizoma Leonticsi on the growth and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line by MTT and flow cytometer, respectively. At the same time, a series of changes were observed in HUVEC treated by taspine, including microstructure, protein expression of bax, bcl-2 and VEGF. The change of microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The protein expression of bax and bcl-2 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and VEGF protein secreted was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed taspine could inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was significantly stopped at the S phase. Under electronic microscope, the morphology of HUVEC treated with taspine showed nuclear karyopycnosis, chromatin agglutination and typical apoptotic body. Bcl-2 and VEGF expressions were decreased and bax expression was increased. All these results demonstrate that taspine has an inhibitory effect on growth of HUVEC and can induce its apoptosis.

  9. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yang; Jun-Fang Jia; Rui Wang; Fang Long; Ping Li; Hui-Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) using single reference standard. Methods:The four components including emodin-8-O-β-D-(EMG), physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin and physcion were separated on an ODS C18 column within 13 min and detected at 280 nm. Emodin was selected as the reference standard, and the response factor for each analyte with respect to emodin were calculated. Robustness were also tested including different columns, equipments, temperatures, detection wavelengths, and other chromatographic conditions which might influence stability of response factors. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9995), LOQs (0.820–3.05 ng/mL), LODs (0.180–0.920 ng/mL), precision, accuracy (95.8–103.6%, RSD Conclusion:This work provided a single standard to determine multi-components method for quantitation of four anthraquinones in PMR, which could be applied in the quality control of this herbal drug.

  11. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking. PMID:24986589

  12. 籽草SOD的分离纯化%Isolation and Purification of Superoxide Dismutase from Radix Lithospermi Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Namir I Haddad; 夏文超; 黄艺伟; 袁勤生

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) ( EC 1.15.1.1. ) was purified to homogeneity, from Radix Lithospermi seeds (RLS). Lipid and other pigments were removed by super critical fluid extraction (SCF). Stepwise isolation and purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatograpgy on diethyl amino ethyl-52 and gel filtration using Sephadex G-100. Pure RLS Superoxide dismutase had a specitic activity of about 1855 units per milligram protein and was purified 100-fold, with a yield of 22.6 %. The purifired product was confirmed as electrophoresis purity with SDSPAGE. The preliminary sensitivity experiments showed that RLS SOD was cyanide-and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive, similar to those reported for CuZn-SODs.%从籽草中分离纯化的SOD比活为1 855 U/mg,纯化倍数约为100倍,总活力回收率22.6%,经SDS-PAGE测定,纯化的SOD纯度达电泳纯,该酶对氰化物和过氧化氢敏感,可证明其为Cu/Zn-SOD.

  13. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  14. Effect of Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix and Its Ingredient Resveratrol on Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Suppressing Immune Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Liu; Xin-xin Zhang; Shan Zhuang; Chun-hong Li; Yan-bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix(PCRR) and its ingredient resveratrol(Res) on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis(EAMG). Methods EAMG was induced in Lewis rats by the immunization of a synthetic peptide corresponding to region 97–116 of the rat acetylcholine receptor(ACh R) α subunit(R97-116). EAMG rats were randomly divided into PCRR group, Res group, and control(C) group, and were ig administered respectively with PCRR(2 g/kg), Res(20 mg/kg), and DMSO(0.4 m L/kg) every day from day 5 after immunization to day 42. Clinical evaluation, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokines, and anti-97-116 antibodies were performed for examination of their therapeutic effects. Results Treatments with PCRR and Res significantly ameliorated clinical symptoms, down-regulated TNF-α and up-regulated IL-10 in serum and culture supernatants of lymphocytes stimulated with R97-116, and decreased levels of anti-R97-116 Ig G1 and Ig G2 a in serum compared with C group. Unexpectedly, PCRR but not Res inhibited lymphocyte proliferation compared with C group. Conclusion PCRR and Res ameliorating EAMG is associated with suppressing immune response, and indicates a therapeutic potential for EAMG and even human myasthenia gravis(MG). Res may be the main effective ingredient from PCRR ameliorating EAMG, but further experiments are necessary.

  15. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  16. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  17. EFFECT OF RADIX SALVIAE MILTIORRHIZAE ON THE PROCOAGULANT AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY ENDOTOXIN-TREATED BOVINE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈传陆; 张彩英; 王振义

    1992-01-01

    Effect of endotoxin, and endotoxin plus Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) for the production of tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator (PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activities as well as prostacyclin (PGI2) content were studied. Stimulation of BAECs with endotoxin (1 μg/ ml) increased the expression of cell surface TF activity, the secretions of PAI activity and PGI2 content. However, PA activity in endotoxin-treated groups didn’t change significantly in comparison with that of the control. RSM could stimulate the secretion of PA activity and prevent the increase in TF and PAI activities from endotoxin-treated BAECs. However, there was no significant difference in PGI2 production between endotoxin-and endotoxin+RSM-treated BAECs. These results indicated that increased procoagulant function and decreased fibrinolytic activity of endothelial cells (ECs) might be one of the mechanisms of DIC in gram-negative septicemia and RSM would be a very important thug in the prevention and the treatment of DIC in gram-negative sepsis.

  18. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Chun-har Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66 and higher values of Rp2 (0.55 when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract’s bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials.

  19. Study on resistance of egg inoculation with radix hedysari injection to Newcastle disease virus%红芪注射液鸡胚接种抗鸡新城疫病毒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广生; 周新民; 王涛; 王永娟

    2011-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of the traditional Chinese medicine-radix hedysari injection on Newcastle disease virus was evaluated by chick embryo culture and hemagglutination test.The results showed that the radix hedysari injection had no toxic effect on chick embryos, and egg inoculation with the mixture of both radix hedysari injection and virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chick embryos.%采用鸡胚培养法和红血球凝集(HA)试验,测定中药红芪注射液对鸡新城疫病毒的抑制作用.结果表明:中药红芪注射液对鸡胚无毒性作用,红芪注射液与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城病毒在鸡胚中增殖.

  20. 附子白及同方配伍规律与应用条件探析%Study on Applicable Conditions and Compatibility Rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma in Same Prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大猛; 瞿融; 杨杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study on applicable conditions and compatibility rules of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoraa in the same prescription. Method: There were 84464 herbal prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, among which twenty-seven herbal prescriptions contained aconite and salep. The author analyzed their functions and mechanisms and regularity of application. Result: By analyzing 27 prescriptions that contained Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata and Bletillae Rhizoma, we found that the pathogenesis of all the recipes were Yang deficiency, coagulated cold and blood stasis. Compatibility rules were as follows. Aconiti Lateralis Radix